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Sample records for bone healing process

  1. Rank Protein Immunolabeling during Bone-Implant Interface Healing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisley Ávila Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the expression of RANK protein during bone-healing process around machined surface implants. Twenty male Wistar rats, 90 days old, after having had a 2 mm diameter and 6 mm long implant inserted in their right tibias, were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days after healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were subjected to RANK immunostaining reaction. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Results. Immunolabeling analysis showed expressions of RANK in osteoclast and osteoblast lineage cells. The statistical analysis showed an increase in the expression of RANK in osteoblasts at 7 postoperative days and a gradual decrease during the chronology of the healing process demonstrated by mild cellular activity in the final stage (P<.05. Conclusion. RANK immunolabeling was observed especially in osteoclast and osteoblast cells in primary bone during the initial periods of bone-healing/implant interface.

  2. Rank Protein Immunolabeling during Bone-Implant Interface Healing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila Souza, Francisley; Pereira Queiroz, Thallita; Rodrigues Luvizuto, Eloá; Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; Garcia-JR, Idelmo Rangel; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Okamoto, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the expression of RANK protein during bone-healing process around machined surface implants. Twenty male Wistar rats, 90 days old, after having had a 2 mm diameter and 6 mm long implant inserted in their right tibias, were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days after healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were subjected to RANK immunostaining reaction. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Results. Immunolabeling analysis showed expressions of RANK in osteoclast and osteoblast lineage cells. The statistical analysis showed an increase in the expression of RANK in osteoblasts at 7 postoperative days and a gradual decrease during the chronology of the healing process demonstrated by mild cellular activity in the final stage (P < .05). Conclusion. RANK immunolabeling was observed especially in osteoclast and osteoblast cells in primary bone during the initial periods of bone-healing/implant interface. PMID:20706673

  3. Rank Protein Immunolabeling during Bone-Implant Interface Healing Process

    OpenAIRE

    ?vila Souza, Francisley; Pereira Queiroz, Thallita; Rodrigues Luvizuto, Elo?; Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; Garcia-JR, Idelmo Rangel; de Carvalho, Paulo S?rgio Perri; Okamoto, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the expression of RANK protein during bone-healing process around machined surface implants. Twenty male Wistar rats, 90 days old, after having had a 2?mm diameter and 6 mm long implant inserted in their right tibias, were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days after healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were subjected to RANK immunostaining reaction. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Results. Immunolabeling analysis showed expre...

  4. Bone graft healing in alveolar osteoplasty in patients with unilateral lip, alveolar process, and palate clefts.

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    Rychlik, Dariusz; Wójcicki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Secondary osteoplasty by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting is the most common procedure used in the reconstruction of the continuity of the maxillary alveolar process. The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively the effect of certain factors on the course of the bone graft healing process in patients with unilateral complete clefts of the lip, alveolar process, and palate. The investigations involved 62 children aged 8 to 14 years (mean age, 11 years) with unilateral complete cleft of the lip, alveolar process, and palate operated on at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój from November 2007 to April 2009. All the procedures consisted in the reconstruction of the maxillary alveolar process by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting from the iliac bone. The analysis was performed on the basis of computed tomography scans presenting maxillary alveolar processes in the horizontal cross-sectional planes performed on the second or third postoperative day and after 6 months. They were used as the basis for the measurement of the volume and density (condensation) of the bone graft, the surface of its adhesion to the maxillary alveolar bone, and the volume and density of the healed bone. The following correlation coefficients were determined: between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the volume of the healed bone, between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the density of the healed bone, and between the density of the graft and the volume of the healed bone. Increasing the surface of the graft adhesion to the bone ridges of the alveolar cleft contributes to increased volume of the healed bone and slows down the increase in its density (on 6-month follow-up). Crushing of the bone graft increases its resorption and reduces volume of the healed bone.

  5. Monitoring the healing process of rat bones using Raman spectroscopy

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    Gamulin, O.; Serec, K.; Bilić, V.; Balarin, M.; Kosović, M.; Drmić, D.; Brčić, L.; Seiwerth, S.; Sikirić, P.

    2013-07-01

    The healing effect of BPC 157 on rat femoral head osteonecrosis was monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Three groups of rats were defined: an injured group treated with BPC 157 (10 μg/kg/daily ip), an injured control group (treated with saline, 5 ml/kg/daily ip), and an uninjured healthy group. The spectra were recorded and the healing effect assessed on samples harvested from animals which were sacrificed 3 and 6 weeks after being injured. The statistical analysis of the recorded spectra showed statistical differences between the BPC 157-treated, control, and healthy groups of animals. In particular, after 6 weeks the spectral resemblance between the healthy and BPC 157 samples indicated a positive BPC 157 influence on the healing process of rat femoral head.

  6. Mimicking Bone Healing Process to Self Repair Concrete Structure Novel Approach Using Porous Network Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    To repair concrete cracks in difficult or dangerous conditions such as underground structures or hazardous liquid containers, self healing mechanism is a promising alternative method. This research aims to imitate the bone self healing process by putting porous concrete internally in the concrete

  7. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

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    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Alveolar bone healing process in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A radiographic densitometry study.

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    Manrique, Natalia; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Garcia, Lourdes Maria Gonzáles; Micaroni, Samuel; Carvalho, Antonio Augusto Ferreira de; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Okamoto, Roberta; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Antoniali, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. If undiagnosed or untreated, this pathology represents a systemic risk factor and offers unfavorable conditions for dental treatments, especially those requiring bone healing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate, by analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), that the alveolar bone healing process is altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar rats and SHRs were submitted to extraction of the upper right incisor and were euthanized 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after surgery. Right maxillae were collected, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. BMD was expressed as minimum (min), middle (med) and maximum (max) in the medium (MT) and apical (AT) thirds of the dental alveolus. The results were compared across days and groups. Wistar showed difference in med and max BMD in the MT between 7 and 28 and also between 14 and 28 days. The AT exhibited significant difference in med and min BMD between 7 and 28 days, as well as difference in min BMD between 28 and 42 days. SHRs showed lower med BMD in the MT at 28 days when compared to 21 and 42 days. Differences were observed across groups in med and min BMD at day 28 in the MT and AT; and in max BMD at 14, 21 and 42 days in the MT. These results suggest that the alveolar bone healing process is delayed in SHRs comparing with Wistar rats.

  9. Intramembranous bone healing process subsequent to tooth extraction in mice: micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular characterization.

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    Vieira, Andreia Espindola; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Junior, Samuel de Barros; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Assis, Gerson Francisco; Taga, Rumio; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After the initial clot dominance (0 h), the development of a provisional immature granulation tissue is evident (7 d), characterized by marked cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory cells infiltration; associated with peaks of growth factors (BMP-2-4-7,TGFβ1,VEGFa), cytokines (TNFα, IL-10), chemokines & receptors (CXCL12, CCL25, CCR5, CXCR4), matrix (Col1a1-2, ITGA4, VTN, MMP1a) and MSCs (CD105, CD106, OCT4, NANOG, CD34, CD146) markers expression. Granulation tissue is sequentially replaced by more mature connective tissue (14 d), characterized by inflammatory infiltrate reduction along the increased bone formation, marked expression of matrix remodeling enzymes (MMP-2-9), bone formation/maturation (RUNX2, ALP, DMP1, PHEX, SOST) markers, and chemokines & receptors associated with healing (CCL2, CCL17, CCR2). No evidences of cartilage cells or tissue were observed, strengthening the intramembranous nature of bone healing. Bone microarchitecture analysis supports the evolving healing, with total tissue and bone volumes as trabecular number and thickness showing a progressive increase over time. The extraction socket healing process is considered complete (21 d) when the dental socket is filled by trabeculae bone with well-defined medullary canals; it being the expression of mature bone markers prevalent at this period. Our data confirms the intramembranous bone healing nature of the model used, revealing parallels between the gene expression profile and the

  10. Intramembranous bone healing process subsequent to tooth extraction in mice: micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Espindola Vieira

    Full Text Available Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After the initial clot dominance (0 h, the development of a provisional immature granulation tissue is evident (7 d, characterized by marked cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory cells infiltration; associated with peaks of growth factors (BMP-2-4-7,TGFβ1,VEGFa, cytokines (TNFα, IL-10, chemokines & receptors (CXCL12, CCL25, CCR5, CXCR4, matrix (Col1a1-2, ITGA4, VTN, MMP1a and MSCs (CD105, CD106, OCT4, NANOG, CD34, CD146 markers expression. Granulation tissue is sequentially replaced by more mature connective tissue (14 d, characterized by inflammatory infiltrate reduction along the increased bone formation, marked expression of matrix remodeling enzymes (MMP-2-9, bone formation/maturation (RUNX2, ALP, DMP1, PHEX, SOST markers, and chemokines & receptors associated with healing (CCL2, CCL17, CCR2. No evidences of cartilage cells or tissue were observed, strengthening the intramembranous nature of bone healing. Bone microarchitecture analysis supports the evolving healing, with total tissue and bone volumes as trabecular number and thickness showing a progressive increase over time. The extraction socket healing process is considered complete (21 d when the dental socket is filled by trabeculae bone with well-defined medullary canals; it being the expression of mature bone markers prevalent at this period. Our data confirms the intramembranous bone healing nature of the model used, revealing parallels between the gene expression profile and the

  11. Experimental study on healing process of rat mandibular bone fracture examined by radiological procedures

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    Iuchi, Yukio; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The healing process of rat mandibular fractures was stereoscopically observed daily, using plain roentgenography in the lateral-oblique and tooth axis directions and bone scintigraphy using 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphoric acid (Tc-99m-MDP). The findings were compared with microradiograms of regional polished specimens. X-ray findings included the following. Up to 3 days after bone fracture, the fracture mesiodistally showed distinct radiolucency, with sharp and irregular fracture stump. Radiopacity of the fracture site gradually increased 7 days or later, and bone trabecular formation by callus and stump bridging started to occur at 14 days. Findings similar to those in the control group were observed 49 days or later. The inside was difficult to differentiate, irrespective of the observation time. Bone scans in the mesiodistal and buccolingual planes revealed tracer uptake in the areas of mandibular and soft tissue damage one day after bone fracture. Tracer uptake began to be seen in the fracture site 3 days later, and became marked at 14 days. Then Tc-99m DMP began to be localized and returned to the findings similar to those at 49 days. Bone scanning tended to show wider areas earlier than roentgenography. Microradiographic mesiodistal examination revealed distinct radiopacy of the fracture line for 3 days after bone fracture. Seven days later, bone resorption cavity occurred in the cortical bone around the fracture stump, along with neogenesis of callus. Neogenesis and calcification began to occur gradually, and 14 days later, the fracture osteoremodeling of the internal bone trabeculae was observed. Bone trabecular formation within the bone, however, occurred later. (N.K.).

  12. Fracture healing in osteoporotic bone.

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    Cheung, Wing Hoi; Miclau, Theodore; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Yang, Frank F; Alt, Volker

    2016-06-01

    As the world population rises, osteoporotic fracture is an emerging global threat to the well-being of elderly patients. The process of fracture healing by intramembranous ossification or/and endochondral ossification involve many well-orchestrated events including the signaling, recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the early phase; formation of a hard callus and extracellular matrix, angiogenesis and revascularization during the mid-phase; and finally callus remodeling at the late phase of fracture healing. Through clinical and animal research, many of these factors are shown to be impaired in osteoporotic bone. Animal studies related to post-menopausal estrogen deficient osteoporosis (type I) have shown healing to be prolonged with decreased levels of MSCs and decreased levels of angiogenesis. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) was shown to be delayed in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture. This might be related to the observed difference in mechanical sensitivity between normal and osteoporotic bones, which requires further experiments to elucidate. In mice fracture models related to senile osteoporosis (type II), it was observed that chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation were impaired; and that transplantation of juvenile bone marrow would result in enhanced callus formation. Other factors related to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis have also been noted to be impaired in aged models, affecting the degradation of cartilaginous matrixes and vascular invasion; the result is changes in matrix composition and growth factors concentrations that ultimately impairs healing during age-related osteoporosis. Most osteoporotic related fractures occur at metaphyseal sites clinically, and reports have indicated that differences exist between diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures. An animal model that satisfies three main criteria (metaphyseal region, plate fixation, osteoporosis) is suggested for future research for

  13. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment....... Interestingly, fractures occurring at both cancellous and cortical sites can be treated successfully, indicating that both osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fractures can be the target of PTH-induced healing. Finally, the data suggest that PTH partly prevents the delay in fracture healing caused by aging...

  14. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  15. Effects of Anadara granosa shell combined with Sardinella longiceps oil on oesteoblast proliferation in bone defect healing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Parwati Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone damage is the most common case in dentistry. One way to fix the bone damage is by using bone graft. Anadara granosa shell is a potential bone substitute since it is rich in calcium which can be processed into hydroxyapatite. The addition of Sardinella longiceps oil rich in omega-3 can modulate inflammation, thus accelerating the healing process. Purpose: This study aimed to determine effects of application of Anadara granosa shell combined with Sardinella longiceps oil on osteoblast proliferation in the healing process of bone defects. Method: The subjects were 32 male rats type Wistar divided into 4 groups (n = 8. Making defect was performed on the right bone of the femurs with a half of the diameter of round Mcisinger® Germany bur sized 18. The first group (K is a negative control group that was not given anything. The second group (AG was given Anadara granosa pasta. The third group (AM10 was given Anadara granosa pasta combined with 10% Sardinella longiceps oil. And, the fourth group (AM30 was given Anadara granosa pasta combined with 30% Sardinella longiceps oil. Next, preparations and animal euthanasia were performed on the 7th day after the treatment. The number of osteoblasts then was measured after making preparations for HPA with Hematoxylin eosin staining (HE. Afterward, tabulation of data followed by statistical analysis of Anova and HSD Tukey was carried out. Result: The average number of osteoblasts in Groups K, AG, AM10, and AM30 was 19.00, 34.63, 33.50, and 38.50. The results of Anova test showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Similarly, the results of Tukey-HSD test also showed significant differences (p<0.05 between Group K and all other groups (AG, AM10, and AM30. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between Group AG and Groups AM10 and AM30, as well as between Group AM10 and Group AM30. Conclusion: The application of the combination of Anadara granosa shell and Sardinella longiceps

  16. Histomorphometric study of trabecular bone remodeling during condylar process fracture healing in the growing period: experimental study.

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    Yasuoka, T; Oka, N

    1991-09-01

    Trabecular bone remodeling during condylar fracture healing in the growing period was analyzed by histomorphometry with a synchronous system. Data from the study showed displacement of the fractured condyle was compensated by the changes in remodeling ascribed to the pubertal spurt of growth, and that such remodeling still continued even after clinical healing. The regional acceleratory phenomenon, evolved to potentiate tissue healing, was observed 1 week after induction of the fracture. Mesenchymal cells were presumably modulated into chondroblasts that promoted endochondral ossification. It was concluded that trabecular bone remodeling plays an important role in healing of condylar fractures during the growth period.

  17. Ultrasound stimulation of maxillofacial bone healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Stegenga, B; Raghoebar, GM; de Bont, LGM

    A substantial part of the maxillofacial surgery practice deals with maxillofacial bone healing. In the past decades, low-intensity ultrasound treatment has been shown to reduce the healing time of fresh fractures of the extremities up to 38%, and to heal delayed and non-unions up to 90% and 83%,

  18. Dynamics of bone graft healing around implants

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    Narayan Venkataraman

    2015-01-01

    A few questions arise pertaining to the use of bone grafts along with implants are whether these are successful in approximation with implant. Do they accelerate bone regeneration? Are all defects ultimately regenerated with new viable bone? Is the bone graft completely resorbed or integrated in new bone? Does the implant surface characteristic positively affect osseointegration when used with a bone graft? What type of graft and implant surface can be used that will have a positive effect on the healing type and time? Finally, what are the dynamics of bone graft healing around an implant? This review discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone graft healing in general and in vicinity of another foreign, avascular body, namely the implant surface, and further, the role of bone grafts in osseointegration and/or clinical success of the implants.

  19. Comparative study of the osseous healing process following three different techniques of bone augmentation in the mandible: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlidayi, M E; Gaggl, A; Buerger, H; Kahraman, O E; Sencar, L; Brandtner, C; Kurkcu, M; Polat, S; Borumandi, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of three different bone grafting techniques. Forty-eight mature New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into three groups of 16 each. Horizontal augmentation was performed on the corpus of the mandible using three different techniques: free bone graft (FBG), free periosteal bone graft (PBG), pedicled bone flap (BF). The animals were sacrificed at postoperative weeks 1, 3, or 8. Specimens were decalcified for histological examination, and histomorphometric measurements were performed. The histological evaluation demonstrated bony fusion between the grafts and the augmented mandibular bone after 8 weeks in all groups. At week 8, the bone volume was significantly greater in the BF group than in the FBG (PPBG (P=0.001) groups, and also the trabecular thickness was significantly greater than in the FBG (P=0.015) and PBG (P=0.015) groups. Trabecular separation was significantly lower in the BF group than in the FBG group at week 8 (P=0.015). BF demonstrated greater osseous healing capacity compared to FBG and PBG. The preserved vascularization in BF improves the bone quality in mandibular bone augmentations. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone healing models in rat tibia after different injuries.

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    Hussar, P; Piirsoo, A; Märtson, A; Toom, A; Haviko, T; Hussar, U

    2001-01-01

    Gradual elaboration of an adequate and efficient multistage method for experimental remodelling of specific wound healing process--bone repair. Comparison of clinical characteristics with the results of microanatomy, histology, electronmicroscopy and computer morphometry. An investigation of posttraumatic bone repair after internal fracture, excision and cortical perforation was carried out on 142 young adult male Wistar rats. The repair was studied in normal and affected animals (exercises, immobilization, isolation of periost) at 1-42 days after operation. The posttraumatic bone callus development and the related soft tissue repair, likewise the continuous remodelling, is an ordinary process of osteohisto- and organogenese. In trained rats the blood supply and bone formation is increased, whereas in immobilized animals it is inhibited and destroyed (osteoporose, pseudoarthrosis). After the injury some characteristics of bone repair histogenese will be became evident (after the perforation the primary endosteal and secondary periosteal ossification, inhibition of endosteal bone repair after the isolation of periost etc.). The posttraumatic bone healing, like embryohistogenese, has similar repair stages in all models of the experiments as well as similar tissue and cell responses (callus formation, its replacement, bone remodelling, etc.). However, the repair process in general (order of chondrous and/or bone callus stages, etc.) is variable and dependent on the mode and degree of injury. The use of bone cortex perforation in wound healing study is more recommendable as compared to internal fracture and excision (possibility of in situ study the periost and callus tissue compartments in bone repair machinery separately).

  1. A study of the bone healing kinetics of plateau versus screw root design titanium dental implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Gary

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the bone healing process around plateau root from (PRF) and screw root from (SRF) titanium dental implants over the immediate 12 week healing period post implant placement.

  2. Standard bone healing stages occur during delayed bone healing, albeit with a different temporal onset and spatial distribution of callus tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anja; Schell, Hanna; Bail, Hermann J; Hannemann, Marion; Schumann, Tanja; Duda, Georg N; Lienau, Jasmin

    2010-09-01

    Bone healing is considered as a recapitulation of a developmental program initiated at the time of injury. This study tested the hypothesis that in delayed bone healing the regular cascade of healing events, including remodeling of woven to lamellar bone, would be similar compared to standard healing, although the temporal onset would be delayed. A tibial osteotomy was performed in sheep and stabilized with a rotationally unstable fixator leading to delayed healing. The sheep were sacrificed at 2, 3, 6, 9 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The temporal and spatial tissue distributions in the calluses and the bone microstructure were examined by histology. Although histological analysis demonstrated temporal and spatial callus tissue distribution differences, delayed healing exhibited the same characteristic stages as those seen during uneventful standard healing. The delayed healing process was characterized by a prolonged presence of hematoma, a different spatial distribution of new bone and delayed and prolonged endochondral bone formation. A change in the spatial distribution of callus formation was seen by week 6 leading to bone formation and resorption of the cortical bone fragments, dependent on the degree to which the cortical bone fragments were dislocated. At 6 months, only 5 out of 8 animals showed complete bony bridging with a continuous periosteum, although lamellar bone and newly formed woven bone were present in the other 3 animals. This study demonstrates that during delayed bone healing all stages of the healing cascade likely take place, even if bony consolidation does not occur. Furthermore, the healing outcome might be related to the periosteum's regenerative capacity leading to bony union or absence of bony bridging.

  3. investigating electromagnetic waves to enhance bone healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agayan, Ali.

    1996-09-01

    Bone formation of fractured tibia stimulated by pulsed electromagnetic fields were studied and results assessed by roentgenography. A total of 89 male New Zealand rabbits was osteotomized by creating a 1.5-2 mm gap at right and left tibia, one for control and another for treatment by PEMF. The radiography of bone imaging with X-ray (60 k vp) was performs to observe the course of fracture healing and to establish criteria for distinguishing PEMF from normal healing. This paper also gives a theoretical model to calculate the field produced in bone for simple geometry. The induced electrical field need not have complex wave forms to be osteogenic and frequency suggested to be very low frequency

  4. The systemic angiogenic response during bone healing.

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    Weiss, Stefan; Zimmermann, Gerald; Pufe, Thomas; Varoga, Deike; Henle, Philipp

    2009-07-01

    Angiogenesis is known to be a critical and closely regulated step during bone formation and fracture healing driven by a complex interaction of various cytokines. Delays in bone healing or even nonunion might therefore be associated with altered concentrations of specific angiogenic factors. These alterations might in turn be reflected by changes in serum concentrations. To determine physiological time courses of angiogenic cytokines during fracture healing as well as possible changes associated with failed consolidation, we prospectively collected serum samples from patients who had sustained surgical treatment for a long bone fracture. Fifteen patients without fracture healing 4 months after surgery (nonunion group) were matched to a collective of 15 patients with successful healing (union group). Serum concentrations of angiogenin (ANG), angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), pleiotrophin (PTN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays over a period of 24 weeks. Compared to reference values of healthy uninjured controls serum concentrations of VEGF, bFGF and PDGF were increased in both groups. Peak concentrations of these cytokines were reached during early fracture healing. Serum concentrations of bFGF and PDGF-AB were significantly higher in the union group at 2 and 4 weeks after the injury when compared to the nonunion group. Serum concentrations of ANG and Ang-2 declined steadily from the first measurement in normal healing fractures, while no significant changes over time could be detected for serum concentrations of these factures in nonunion patients. PTN serum levels increased asymptotically over the entire investigation in timely fracture healing while no such increase could be detected during delayed healing. We conclude that fracture healing in human subjects is accompanied by distinct changes in systemic levels of specific

  5. Role of whole bone marrow, whole bone marrow cultured cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Menocal, Luis; Shareef, Shahjahan; Salgado, Marcela; Shabbir, Arsalan; Van Badiavas, Evangelos

    2015-03-13

    Recent evidence has shown that bone marrow cells play critical roles during the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling phases of cutaneous wound healing. Among the bone marrow cells delivered to wounds are stem cells, which can differentiate into multiple tissue-forming cell lineages to effect, healing. Gaining insight into which lineages are most important in accelerating wound healing would be quite valuable in designing therapeutic approaches for difficult to heal wounds. In this report we compared the effect of different bone marrow preparations on established in vitro wound healing assays. The preparations examined were whole bone marrow (WBM), whole bone marrow (long term initiating/hematopoietic based) cultured cells (BMC), and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC). We also applied these bone marrow preparations in two murine models of radiation induced delayed wound healing to determine which had a greater effect on healing. Angiogenesis assays demonstrated that tube formation was stimulated by both WBM and BMC, with WBM having the greatest effect. Scratch wound assays showed higher fibroblast migration at 24, 48, and 72 hours in presence of WBM as compared to BM-MSC. WBM also appeared to stimulate a greater healing response than BMC and BM-MSC in a radiation induced delayed wound healing animal model. These studies promise to help elucidate the role of stem cells during repair of chronic wounds and reveal which cells present in bone marrow might contribute most to the wound healing process.

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activity and Bone healing Potency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDEMA

    proliferative physiological process in which the body facilitates the repair of bone fracture. The phases of fracture healing include; the reactive phase, reparative and remodeling. 1 . Cissus arguta a creeping plant found in the rain forest of southern Nigeria, is been extensively utilized locally in the treatment of certain.

  7. The Changes of Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BsALP)Associated With Callus Formation and Rate of Bone Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Muljačić, Ante; Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Turčić, Josip; Živković, Ognjen; Guberina, Marko; Klaić, Boris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the volume of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BsALP) as a biochemical parameter in the early posttraumatic phase may indicate the speed of fracture healing. The evaluation of the bone healing process has been based on the patient's subjective statement and radiographic findings. The activity of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase has been measured in the sera of 41 patients who have been diagnosed with fractures of long bones. All th...

  8. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  9. Sensitivities of biomechanical assessment methods for fracture healing of long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Wu, F Y; Zhang, J Q; Zhong, G Q; Liu, F

    2015-07-01

    There is a controversy as to whether the biomechanical methods are feasible to assess fracture healing of long bones. This paper investigated the sensitivities of two biomechanical methods, torsion and bending, for assessing fracture healing of long bones; both a simplified beam model and finite element model of an artificial femur were employed. The results demonstrated that, in the initial healing stage, the whole-bone stiffness of the fractured bone is extremely sensitive to the variation of the callus stiffness at the fracture site; when the shear (or Young's) modulus of the callus reaches 15% that of the intact bone, the whole-bone stiffness rises up to 90% that of the intact bone. After that, the whole-bone torsional (or bending) stiffness increases slowly; it becomes less sensitive to the variation of the callus stiffness. These results imply that the whole-bone stiffness is of limited reliability to assess the healing quality particular at late stages of the healing process. The simplified model in this paper provided a theoretical framework to explain why the whole-bone stiffness is insensitive to the healing process of fractured long bones in the late stage of healing. The conclusions obtained from the simplified model were verified with the finite element simulations of the artificial femur. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, J.P.; Lalani, Z.; Bossano, C.M.; Brey, E.M.; Demian, N.; Johnston, C.M.; Dean, D.; Jansen, J.A.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion.

  11. Comparison of the effect on bone healing process of different implants used in minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis: limited contact dynamic compression plate versus locking compression plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zichao; Xu, Haitao; Ding, Haoliang; Qin, Hui; An, Zhiquan

    2016-11-25

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has been widely accepted because of its satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, the implant construct that works best for MIPO remains controversial. Different plate designs result in different influence mechanisms to blood flow. In this study, we created ulnar fractures in 42 beagle dogs and fixed the fractures using MIPO. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups and were fixed with a limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) or a locking compression plate (LCP). Our study showed that with MIPO, there was no significant difference between the LCP and the LC-DCP in terms of fracture fixation, bone formation, or mineralization. Combined with the previous literature, we inferred that the healing process is affected by the quality of fracture reduction more than plate selection.

  12. An Update into the Application of Nanotechnology in Bone Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, K; Griffin, M

    2016-01-01

    Bone differs from other organs in that it can regenerate and remodel without scar formation. There are instances of trauma, congenital bone disorder, bone disease and bone cancer where this is not possible. Without bone grafts and implants, deformity and disability would result. Human bone grafts are limited in their management of large or non-union fractures. In response, synthetic bone grafts and implants are available to the Orthopaedic Surgeon. Unfortunately these also have their limitations and associated complications. Nanotechnology involves the research, design and manufacture of materials with a grain size less than 100nm. Nano-phase materials follow the laws of quantum physics, not classical mechanics, resulting in novel behavioural differences compared to conventional counterparts. Past, present and future nanotechnology in bone healing literature is reviewed and discussed. The article highlights concepts which are likely to be instrumental to the future of nanotechnology in bone healing. Nanotechnology in bone healing is an emerging field within Orthopaedic Surgery. There is a requirement for bone healing technologies which are biochemically and structurally similar to bone. Nanotechnology is a potential solution as the arrangement of bone includes nanoscopic collagen fibres and hydroxyapatite. This review centers on the novel field of nanotechnology in bone healing with discussion focusing on advances in bone grafts, implants, diagnostics and drug delivery. The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959. Current nanoproducts for bone healing include nano-HA-paste-ostim and nano-beta-tricalcium phosphate-Vitoss. Nanophase technologies are considered to be superior bone healing solutions. Limited safety data and issues regarding cost and mass scale production require further research into this exciting field.

  13. Vulnerary Factors to Improve Bone Healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2007-01-01

    The objective for the work was to process rabbit bone specimens from the Institute of Surgical Research, foliwed by sectioning and staining of the samples No patents application were filed The rabbit...

  14. Nanomedicine for safe healing of bone trauma: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Shahed; Luther, Gaurav A; Harris, Mitchel B; Farokhzad, Omid C; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    Historically, high-energy extremity injuries resulting in significant soft-tissue trauma and bone loss were often deemed unsalvageable and treated with primary amputation. With improved soft-tissue coverage and nerve repair techniques, these injuries now present new challenges in limb-salvage surgery. High-energy extremity trauma is pre-disposed to delayed or unpredictable bony healing and high rates of infection, depending on the integrity of the soft-tissue envelope. Furthermore, orthopedic trauma surgeons are often faced with the challenge of stabilizing and repairing large bony defects while promoting an optimal environment to prevent infection and aid bony healing. During the last decade, nanomedicine has demonstrated substantial potential in addressing the two major issues intrinsic to orthopedic traumas (i.e., high infection risk and low bony reconstruction) through combatting bacterial infection and accelerating/increasing the effectiveness of the bone-healing process. This review presents an overview and discusses recent challenges and opportunities to address major orthopedic trauma through nanomedical approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Secretory IgA, albumin, and bone-density level changes as markers of biostimulatory effects from laser radiation on the healing process after extraction of human molars on the lower jaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1999-05-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser radiation on the healing process after human lower molar extraction. Frequencies of 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz were used in this experiment. Monitoring the secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva and changes in bone density were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and six month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Wound closure was followed by healing of bone structure in extraction site. Changes of secretory IgA, albumin levels and bone density were compared in groups of patients with laser treatment and control group without any laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone was examined on five slices acquired from every digital radiography image. Histogram were evaluated wit a computer program for microscopic image analysis. Density differences were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  16. Bone composition and healing: open electromagnetic and biomechanical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Peter; Jackson, Xavier; Nazarian, Ara

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a review of some electromagnetic interactions in bone matter. Special attention is paid to pulsed electromagnetic therapy, which is potentially a promising therapeutic method for bone healing. We review and compare existing setups and their applications.

  17. Local drug delivery for enhancing fracture healing in osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllönen, Laura; D'Este, Matteo; Alini, Mauro; Eglin, David

    2015-01-01

    Fragility fractures can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with osteoporosis and inflict a considerable medical and socioeconomic burden. Moreover, treatment of an osteoporotic fracture is challenging due to the decreased strength of the surrounding bone and suboptimal healing capacity, predisposing both to fixation failure and non-union. Whereas a systemic osteoporosis treatment acts slowly, local release of osteogenic agents in osteoporotic fracture would act rapidly to increase bone strength and quality, as well as to reduce the bone healing period and prevent development of a problematic non-union. The identification of agents with potential to stimulate bone formation and improve implant fixation strength in osteoporotic bone has raised hope for the fast augmentation of osteoporotic fractures. Stimulation of bone formation by local delivery of growth factors is an approach already in clinical use for the treatment of non-unions, and could be utilized for osteoporotic fractures as well. Small molecules have also gained ground as stable and inexpensive compounds to enhance bone formation and tackle osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art on local drug delivery in osteoporotic fractures. Advantages, disadvantages and underlying molecular mechanisms of different active species for local bone healing in osteoporotic bone are discussed. This review also identifies promising new candidate molecules and innovative approaches for the local drug delivery in osteoporotic bone. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling the effects of inflammation in bone fracture healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojouharov, H. V.; Trejo, I.; Chen-Charpentier, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    A new mathematical model is presented to study the early inflammatory effects in bone healing. It consists of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the interactions among macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts. A qualitative analysis of the model is performed to determine the equilibria and their corresponding stability properties. A set of numerical simulations is performed to support the theoretical results. The model is also used to numerically monitor the evolution of a broken bone for different types of fractures and to explore possible treatments to accelerate bone healing by administrating anti-inflammatory drugs.

  19. Early mechanical stimulation only permits timely bone healing in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekci, Pelin; Tavakoli, Aramesh; Dlaska, Constantin; Neumann, Mirjam; Shanker, Mihir; Saifzadeh, Siamak; Steck, Roland; Schuetz, Michael; Epari, Devakar

    2017-11-21

    Bone fracture healing is sensitive to the fixation stability. However, it is unclear which phases of healing are mechano-sensitive and if mechanical stimulation is required throughout repair. In this study, a novel bone defect model, which isolates an experimental fracture from functional loading, was applied in sheep to investigate if stimulation limited to the early proliferative phase is sufficient for bone healing. An active fixator controlled motion in the fracture. Animals of the control group were unstimulated. In the physiological-like group, 1 mm axial compressive movements were applied between day 5 and 21, thereafter the movements were decreased in weekly increments and stopped after 6 weeks. In the early stimulatory group, the movements were stopped after 3 weeks. The experimental fractures were evaluated with mechanical and micro-computed tomography methods after 9 weeks healing. The callus strength of the stimulated fractures (physiological-like and early stimulatory) was greater than the unstimulated control group. The control group was characterized by minimal external callus formation and a lack of bone bridging at 9 weeks. In contrast, the stimulated groups exhibited advanced healing with solid bone formation across the defect. This was confirmed quantitatively by a lower bone volume in the control group compared to the stimulated groups.The novel experimental model permits the application of a well-defined load history to an experimental bone fracture. The poor healing observed in the control group is consistent with under-stimulation. This study has shown early mechanical stimulation only is sufficient for a timely healing outcome. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Low-level laser therapy induces an upregulation of collagen gene expression during the initial process of bone healing: a microarray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim, Carla Roberta; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Malavazi, Iran; von Zeska Kress, Marcia Regina; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Rennó, Ana Cláudia; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the histological modifications produced by low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the first day of bone repair, as well as evaluates the LLLT effects on collagen expression on the site of a fracture. Twenty Wistar rats were distributed into a control group (CG) and a laser group (LG). Laser irradiation of Ga-Al-As laser 830 nm, 30 mW, 94 s, 2.8 J was performed in five sessions. Animals were euthanized on day 5 postsurgery. Histopathological analysis showed that LLLT was able to increase deposition of granulation tissue and newly formed bone at the site of the injury. In addition, picrosirius analysis showed that collagen fiber organization in the LG was enhanced compared to CG. Microarray analysis demonstrated that LLLT produced an upregulation type I collagen (COL-I). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the subjects that were treated presented a higher immunoexpression of COL-I. Our findings indicated that LLLT improves bone healing by producing a significant increase in the expression of collagen genes.

  1. Fracture healing: Quantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy as a prognostic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Kasal, B.; Kragic-Pranic, A.; Predic, P.

    2002-01-01

    results indicate that the three-phase bone scintigraphy is a useful method when complications of fracture healing are expected. In these cases radiography gives only a partial insight into the state of bone union, but no information about the healing process. So, the increasing use of three-phase bone scintigraphy is quite understandable. Nevertheless, as most of the fractures heal regularly, we would not advise the three-phase bone scintigraphy as a routine procedure

  2. Platelet-rich plasma for bone healing and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh; Moshiri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Successful healing of large bone defects (LBDs) is a complicated phenomenon because the body's natural ability often fails to effectively repair the LBDs. New modalities should be utilized to increase the quality and accelerate bone healing. Platelet concentrates in different forms can be considered an attractive option for such purpose. Platelets as a natural source of growth factors, cytokines, and other micro and macromolecules are hypothesized to improve bone healing. This review has covered important concepts regarding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) including mechanisms of action, preparation protocols and their differences, and factors affecting the PRP efficacy during bone healing. In addition, the most recent studies in different levels which evaluated the role of PRP on bone repair has been reviewed and discussed to clarify the controversies and conflicts, and to illustrate a future prospective and directions for orthopedic surgeons to overcome current limitations and difficulties. As the efficacy of PRP is dependent on various factors, the outcome of PRP therapy is variable and unpredictable in orthopedic patients. Therefore, it is still too soon to suggest PRP as the first line treatment option in complicated bone injuries such as LBDs and nonunions. However, combination of PRP with natural and synthetic biomaterials can enhance the effectiveness of PRP.

  3. The Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Bone Fracture Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic metabolic disease known by the presence of elevated blood glucose levels. Nowadays, it is perceived as a worldwide epidemic, with a very high socioeconomic impact on public health. Many are the complications caused by this chronic disorder, including a negative impact on the cardiovascular system, kidneys, eyes, muscle, blood vessels, and nervous system. Recently, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that T2DM also adversely affects the skeletal system, causing detrimental bone effects such as bone quality deterioration, loss of bone strength, increased fracture risk, and impaired bone healing. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms by which T2DM causes detrimental effects on bone tissue are still elusive and remain poorly studied. The aim of this review was to synthesize current knowledge on the different factors influencing the impairment of bone fracture healing under T2DM conditions. Here, we discuss new approaches used in recent studies to unveil the mechanisms and fill the existing gaps in the scientific understanding of the relationship between T2DM, bone tissue, and bone fracture healing.

  4. Reaming debris as a novel source of autologous bone to enhance healing of bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.D.; Kroeze, R.J.; Korstjens, C.; Kleine, R.H.; Frolke, J.P.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2011-01-01

    Reaming debris is formed when bone defects are stabilized with an intramedullary nail, and contains viable osteoblast-like cells and growth factors, and might thus act as a natural osteoinductive scaffold. The advantage of using reaming debris over stem cells or autologous bone for healing bone

  5. Reaming debris as a novel source of autologous bone to enhance healing of bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Astrid D.; Kroeze, Robert Jan; Korstjens, Clara; de Kleine, Ruben H.; Frolke, Jan Paul M.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    Reaming debris is formed when bone defects are stabilized with an intramedullary nail, and contains viable osteoblast-like cells and growth factors, and might thus act as a natural osteoinductive scaffold. The advantage of using reaming debris over stem cells or autologous bone for healing bone

  6. The Effect of Orthognathic Surgery on Osteoprotegerin as Immunological Caliper of Bone Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sara; Ahmed, Mamdouh

    2016-12-15

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is considered to be the cytokine that plays an important role in the healing process. OPG regulates bone cell biology, osteoblast-osteoclast, bone-immune cross-talk and maintenance of bone mass. It plays an important role in the development, induction, and repair of bone. Orthognathic surgery as multiples segmental osteotomies has been taken as a model surgery to assess the changes in osteoprotegerin levels in the post-operative bone healing period. The aim of the study was to evaluate OPG as immunological caliper of bone healing. OPG was evaluated in nine patients seeking orthognathic surgery. Patients were examined and checked to be medically and immunologically free prior to surgery. Blood samples were collected immediate pre-operative as control group and for six weeks post-operative as study group. Data were collected from nine consecutive patients. The results showed higher levels of OPG. it showed significant increase in the immediate post-operative value (p = 0.001) which started to increase gradually during the six weeks (p caliper of bone healing.

  7. Phases of the wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Annemarie

    This is the first in a six-part series on wound management. It describes the stages of the wound healing process and explains how they relate to nursing practice. Nurses need to know how to recognise and understand the different phases so they can identify whether wounds are healing normally and apply the appropriate treatments to remove the barriers to healing. Part 2 (page 14) focuses on wound assessment.

  8. Effect of intraoperative bone quality testing on bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Palarie, Victor; Nacu, Viorel; Krafft, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A novel diagnostic device (BoneProbe) for evaluating alveolar bone quality during dental implant surgery has recently been developed. The underlying measurement principle is based on a compressive test of bone, which may subsequently affect bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants. Six implant sites each were created in the rear left tibia of four sheep and used for bone quality testing with the BoneProbe, while empty osteotomies and implants placed without testing served as controls. Maximum insertion torque and primary implant stability (Osstell) were determined additionally. After 5 and 20 weeks, the animals were sacrificed followed by histomorphometric and microradiographic analysis quantifying bone implant contact (BIC) and bone mineral density (BMD) as parameters. Statistical analysis was conducted applying one-sample t tests, two-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients (α = .05). Implants placed following application of the BoneProbe differed from the control treatments only in one case, where BIC was greater (P = .02) at the control implant after 20 weeks of healing. With the exception of the combinations of Osstell/BoneProbe measurement in trabecular bone (0.29) and Osstell/insertion torque (0.34), good correlations of all clinically conducted measurements were found. Based on the results obtained, it appears that intraoperative testing of bone quality applying the BoneProbe does not jeopardize bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants.

  9. The impact of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo...... was administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6...... and the control group. CONCLUSION: Nicotine exposure in a short period of time did not have a significant impact on bone healing or implant osseointegration in rabbits....

  10. The Ameloblastin extracellular matrix molecule enhances bone fracture resistance and promotes rapid bone fracture healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuanyu; Li, Wenjin; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural support, cell migration anchorage, cell differentiation cues, and fine-tuned cell proliferation signals during all stages of bone fracture healing, including cartilaginous callus formation, callus remodeling, and bony bridging of the fracture gap. In the present study we have defined the role of the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin (AMBN) in fracture resistance and fracture healing of mouse long bones. To this end, long bones from WT and AMBNΔ5-6 truncation model mice were subjected to biomechanical analysis, fracture healing assays, and stem cell colony formation comparisons. The effect of exogenous AMBN addition to fracture sites was also determined. Our data indicate that lack of a functional AMBN in the bone matrix resulted in 31% decreased femur bone mass and 40% reduced energy to failure. On a cellular level, AMBN function inhibition diminished the proliferative capacity of fracture repair callus cells, as evidenced by a 58% reduction in PCNA and a 40% reduction in Cyclin D1 gene expression, as well as PCNA immunohistochemistry. In terms of fracture healing, AMBN truncation was associated with an enhanced and prolonged chondrogenic phase, resulting in delayed mineralized tissue gene expression and delayed ossification of the fracture repair callus. Underscoring a role of AMBN in fracture healing, there was a 6.9-fold increase in AMBN expression at the fracture site one week after fracture, and distinct AMBN immunolabeling in the fracture gap. Finally, application of exogenous AMBN protein to bone fracture sites accelerated callus formation and bone fracture healing (33% increase in bone volume and 19% increase in bone mineral density), validating the findings of our AMBN loss of function studies. Together, these data demonstrate the functional importance of the AMBN extracellular matrix protein in bone fracture prevention and rapid fracture healing. PMID:26899203

  11. Muscle-bone Interactions During Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    fracture heal - ing. The rate of delayed union or non-union in tibial fractures with associated compartment syndrome was 55...complications of open tibial shaft fractures stratified as per the Gustilo–Ander- son classification. Injury 2011;42:1408-15. 121. Giannoudis PV, Harwood PJ...Kontakis G, et al. Long- term quality of life in trauma patients following the full spectrum of tibial injury (fasciotomy, closed fracture , grade

  12. Laser for bone healing after oral surgery: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noba, Claudio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Gimenez, Thais; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Moura-Netto, Cacio

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review on the use of lasers in oral surgery for bone healing. Selection of articles was carried out by two evaluators in Pubmed and Web of Science databases for published articles and OpenGray for gray literature. Search strategy was developed based on the PICO Question "Does the use of lasers after oral surgery improve bone healing?". Eligibility criteria were: being on laser; evaluate bone healing; involve oral surgery; do not be about implant, periodontics, orthodontics, osteonecrosis or radiotherapy, nor revisions, clinical cases, etc. Data were collected from each article in a structured spreadsheet and a descriptive analysis was performed. Risk assessment of bias of the articles was carried out through the tool elaborated by the Cochrane collaboration. A total of 827 potentially relevant references were identified. No articles were found in OpenGray. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Most of studies were in vivo and in jaw, being conducted with low-power lasers which were applied immediately after the surgical procedure of extraction. Neoformation and bone density were the outcomes of choice and there was a tendency of increase in bone density, neoformation, regeneration, mineralization, or bone condensation when laser was applied. Regarding the bias risk assessment, studies were not clear in reporting most of the parameters. Low-power laser therapy seems to reduce time of bone healing in oral surgery, although there are no defined protocols and the level of evidence is still considered weak.

  13. The role of impairment of mesenchymal stem cell function in osteoporotic bone fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihai; Miramini, Saeed; Richardson, Martin; Mendis, Priyan; Ebeling, Peter

    2017-09-01

    With demographic change and increasing life expectancy, osteoporotic fractures have become one of the most prevalent trauma conditions seen in daily clinical practice. A variety of factors are known to affect the rate of healing in osteoporotic conditions (e.g. both biochemical and biomechanical environment of callus cells). However, the influence of impairment of mesenchymal stem cell function in the osteoporotic condition on bone fracture healing has not been fully understood. In the present study, we develop a mathematical model that quantifies the change in biological processes within the fracture callus as a result of osteoporosis. The model includes special features of osteoporosis such as reduction in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) number in osteoporotic bone, impaired response of osteoporotic MSCs to their biomechanical microenvironment and the effects of configuration of locking compression plate (LCP) system on healing in this context. The results presented here suggest that mechanically-mediated MSCs differentiation at early stages of healing are significantly affected under osteoporotic conditions, while it is predicted that the flexible fixation achieved by increasing bone-plate distance of LCP could alleviate the negative effects of osteoporosis on healing. The outcomes of this study could potentially lead to patient specific surgical solutions, and thus achieve optimal healing outcomes in osteoporotic conditions.

  14. Uncoupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis in nicotine-compromised bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zheng, Li Wu; Sham, Mai Har; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2010-06-01

    Nicotine is the main chemical component responsible for tobacco addiction. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nicotine on angiogenesis and osteogenesis and the associated expression of angiogenic and osteogenic mediators during bone healing. Forty-eight adult New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to a nicotine group and a control group. Nicotine pellets (1.5 g, 60-day time release) or placebo pellets were implanted in the neck subcutaneous tissue. The nicotine or placebo exposure time for all the animals was 7 weeks. Unilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis was performed. Eight animals in each group were euthanized on day 5, day 11 of active distraction, and week 1 of consolidation, respectively. The mandibular samples were subjected to radiographic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction examinations. Nicotine exposure upregulated the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor and enhanced angiogenesis but inhibited the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and impaired bone healing. The results indicate that nicotine decouples angiogenesis and osteogenesis in this rabbit model of distraction osteogenesis, and the enhanced angiogenesis cannot compensate for the adverse effects of nicotine on bone healing. (c) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Histomorphometric evaluation of bone healing in rabbit fibular osteotomy model without fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paixão Fabio B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal models of fracture consolidation are fundamental for the understanding of the biological process of bone repair in humans, but histological studies are rare and provide only qualitative results. The objective of this article is to present the histomorphometric study of the bone healing process using an experimental model of osteotomy in rabbit fibula without interference of synthesis material. Methods Fifteen rabbits were submitted to fibular osteotomy without any fixation device. Groups of five animals were submitted to pharmacological euthanasia during a period of one (group A, two (group B and four weeks (group C after osteotomy. Histomorphometric evaluation was performed in the histological sections. Results During week one there was intense cellularity (67/field, a large amount of woven bone (75.7% and a small amount of lamellar bone (7.65%. At two weeks there was a decrease in woven bone (41.59% and an increase in lamellar bone (15.16%. At four weeks there was a decrease of cellularity (19.17/field and lamellar bone (55.56% exceeded the quantity of woven bone (31.68%. Conclusion Histomorphometric (quantitative evaluation of the present study was shown to be compatible with bone healing achieved in qualitative experimental models that have been commended in the literature.

  16. Ultrasound stimulation of mandibular bone defect healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of the experimental work presented in this thesis are: 1. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is not effective in stimulating bone growth into a rat mandibular defect, either with or without the use of osteoconductive membranes. 2. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound does not seem to have an

  17. Evolution of bone biomechanical properties at the micrometer scale around titanium implant as a function of healing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayron, Romain; Matsukawa, Mami; Tsubota, Ryo; Mathieu, Vincent; Barthel, Etienne; Haiat, Guillaume

    2014-03-21

    The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue around implants is important to understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of elastic properties of newly formed bone tissue as a function of healing time. To do so, nanoindentation and micro-Brillouin scattering techniques are coupled following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 µm from the cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity. Two rabbits were sacrificed after 7 and 13 weeks of healing time. The histological analyses allow us to distinguish mature and newly formed bone tissue. The bone mechanical properties were measured in mature and newly formed bone tissue. Analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer tests reveals a significant effect of healing time on the indentation modulus and ultrasonic velocities of bone tissue. The results show that bone mass density increases by 12.2% (2.2% respectively) between newly formed bone at 7 weeks (13 weeks respectively) and mature bone. The dependence of bone properties on healing time may be explained by the evolution of bone microstructure and mineralization.

  18. Evolution of bone biomechanical properties at the micrometer scale around titanium implant as a function of healing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayron, Romain; Mathieu, Vincent; Haiat, Guillaume; Matsukawa, Mami; Tsubota, Ryo; Barthel, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue around implants is important to understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of elastic properties of newly formed bone tissue as a function of healing time. To do so, nanoindentation and micro-Brillouin scattering techniques are coupled following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 µm from the cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity. Two rabbits were sacrificed after 7 and 13 weeks of healing time. The histological analyses allow us to distinguish mature and newly formed bone tissue. The bone mechanical properties were measured in mature and newly formed bone tissue. Analysis of variance and Tukey–Kramer tests reveals a significant effect of healing time on the indentation modulus and ultrasonic velocities of bone tissue. The results show that bone mass density increases by 12.2% (2.2% respectively) between newly formed bone at 7 weeks (13 weeks respectively) and mature bone. The dependence of bone properties on healing time may be explained by the evolution of bone microstructure and mineralization. (paper)

  19. In silico Mechano-Chemical Model of Bone Healing for the Regeneration of Critical Defects: The Effect of BMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico O Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The healing of bone defects is a challenge for both tissue engineering and modern orthopaedics. This problem has been addressed through the study of scaffold constructs combined with mechanoregulatory theories, disregarding the influence of chemical factors and their respective delivery devices. Of the chemical factors involved in the bone healing process, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 has been identified as one of the most powerful osteoinductive proteins. The aim of this work is to develop and validate a mechano-chemical regulatory model to study the effect of BMP-2 on the healing of large bone defects in silico. We first collected a range of quantitative experimental data from the literature concerning the effects of BMP-2 on cellular activity, specifically proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and extracellular matrix production. These data were then used to define a model governed by mechano-chemical stimuli to simulate the healing of large bone defects under the following conditions: natural healing, an empty hydrogel implanted in the defect and a hydrogel soaked with BMP-2 implanted in the defect. For the latter condition, successful defect healing was predicted, in agreement with previous in vivo experiments. Further in vivo comparisons showed the potential of the model, which accurately predicted bone tissue formation during healing, bone tissue distribution across the defect and the quantity of bone inside the defect. The proposed mechano-chemical model also estimated the effect of BMP-2 on cells and the evolution of healing in large bone defects. This novel in silico tool provides valuable insight for bone tissue regeneration strategies.

  20. Augmentation of bone healing in delayed and atrophic nonunion of fractures of long bones by partially decalcified bone allograft (decal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Jain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The partially decalcified bone allograft is an effective modality for augmentation of bone healing without complication associated with autograft like donor site morbidity, increased blood loss and increase in the surgical time.

  1. The effects of photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Costa Lino, Maíra D.; Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Ferreira Moraes, Michel; Augusto Cardoso, José; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Maria Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there are only a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder as Diabetes Melitus and LLLT. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LLLT (AsGaAl), 780nm, 70mW, CW, Ø~0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) on the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Albinus rats. Surgical bone defects were created in 60 animals divided into four groups of 15 animals each: Group C (non-diabetic - control); Group CL (non-diabetic + LLLT); Group CD (diabetic); Group CDL (diabetic + LLLT). The animals on the irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into four points around the defect, being the first irradiation immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The results of the present investigation showed histological evidence of improved amount of collagen fibers at early stages of the bone healing (15 days) and increased amount of well organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period (30 days) on irradiated animals, (diabetic and non-diabetic) compared to non irradiated ones. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process of bone defects, even when diabetes mellitus was present.

  2. Stimulation of bone healing with interferential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, J M

    1988-01-01

    Methods of electrical stimulation of bone are reviewed for a comparison with the use of interference currents and for a consideration of the possible merits of various methods. A summary is given of results of treatment of 38 patients with delayed or non-union and predisposition to non-union, and the technique used with Interferential Therapy is described in detail. Results are also given of a study of the effects of stimulation on 11 patients with acute fractures of the tibial shaft, compared with 11 closely matched patients with similar acute fractures who did not receive Interferential Therapy. The advantages of surgically non-invasive techniques are emphasised and recommendations are made for the use of interference currents prophylactically in specific cases. Copyright © 1988 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  3. An ultrasound wearable system for the monitoring and acceleration of fracture healing in long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopappas, Vasilios C; Baga, Dina A; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Likas, Aristidis C; Papachristos, Athanasios A; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2005-09-01

    An ultrasound wearable system for remote monitoring and acceleration of the healing process in fractured long bones is presented. The so-called USBone system consists of a pair of ultrasound transducers, implanted into the fracture region, a wearable device and a centralized unit. The wearable device is responsible to carry out ultrasound measurements using the axial-transmission technique and initiate therapy sessions of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. The acquired measurements and other data are wirelessly transferred from the patient-site to the centralized unit, which is located in a clinical setting. The evaluation of the system on an animal tibial osteotomy model is also presented. A dataset was constructed for monitoring purposes consisting of serial ultrasound measurements, follow-up radiographs, quantitative computed tomography-based densitometry and biomechanical data. The animal study demonstrated the ability of the system to collect ultrasound measurements in an effective and reliable fashion and participating orthopaedic surgeons accepted the system for future clinical application. Analysis of the acquired measurements showed that the pattern of evolution of the ultrasound velocity through healing bones over the postoperative period monitors a dynamic healing process. Furthermore, the ultrasound velocity of radiographically healed bones returns to 80% of the intact bone value, whereas the correlation coefficient of the velocity with the material and mechanical properties of the healing bone ranges from 0.699 to 0.814. The USBone system constitutes the first telemedicine system for the out-hospital management of patients sustained open fractures and treated with external fixation devices.

  4. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects grafted with bovine bone in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; da Costa Lino, Maíra Doria Martinez; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Cangussu, Maria Cristina; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there is a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder such as Diabetes Mellitus, a systemic disorder associated to impair of the repair of different tissues. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic rats treated or not with LLLT (λ780nm, 70mW, CW, o/˜0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) associated or not to the use of a biomaterial. Surgical tibial bone defects were created in 60 animals that were divided into 4 groups: Group B (non-diabetic + biomaterial); Group BL (non-diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT); Group BD (diabetic + biomaterial); Group BDL (diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT). The irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into 4 points around the defect, being the first irradiation carried out immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The specimens underwent a semi-quantitative analysis. The results showed inflammation more intense in the BD and BDL groups than in the B and BL groups in the period of 15 days (p = 0.02), however the cortical repair in the BDL group was below 25% in more than half of the specimens, while in the BD group, the repair was more than to 25% in all specimens. At 30 days, both osteoblastic activity and collagen deposition were significantly higher in the B group when compared to the BD group (p=0.04). Bone deposition was significantly higher in the BL group (p=0.023) than in BDL group. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect in the early stages of the healing process of bone defects grafted with biomaterial in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  5. Differences of bone healing in metaphyseal defect fractures between osteoporotic and physiological bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Ulrich; El Khawassna, Thaqif; Ray, Seemun; Duerselen, Lutz; Kampschulte, Marian; Lips, Katrin; von Dewitz, Helena; Heinemann, Sascha; Heiss, Christian; Szalay, Gabor; Langheinrich, Alexander C; Ignatius, Anita; Schnettler, Reinhard; Alt, Volker

    2014-03-01

    Discrepancies in bone healing between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic bone remain uncertain. The focus of the current work is to evaluate potential healing discrepancies in a metaphyseal defect model in rat femora. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX, n=14) and combined with a calcium-, phosphorus- and vitamin D3-, soy- and phytoestrogen-free diet or received SHAM operation with standard diet rat (SHAM, n=14). Three months post-ovariectomy, DEXA measurement showed a reduction of bone mineral density reflecting an osteoporotic bone status in OVX rats. Rats then underwent a 3 mm wedge-shaped osteotomy at the distal metaphyseal area of the left femur stabilized with a T-shaped mini-plate and allowed to heal for 6 weeks. Biomechanical competence by means of a non-destructive three-point bending test showed significant lower flexural rigidity in the OVX rats at 3 mm lever span compared to SHAM animals (p=0.048) but no differences at 10 mm lever span. Microcomputer tomography (μCT) showed bridging cortices and consolidation of the defect in both groups, however, no measurable differences were found in either total ossified tissue or vascular volume fraction. Furthermore, histology showed healing discrepancies that were characterized by cartilaginous remnant and more unmineralized tissue presence in the OVX rats compared to more mature consolidation appearance in the SHAM group. In summary, bone defect healing in metaphyseal bone slightly differs between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic bone in the current 3 mm defect model in both 3mm lever span biomechanical testing and histology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of trypsinization and mineralization on intrasynovial tendon allograft healing to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; van Alphen, Nick A; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Schmid, Thomas M; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a novel technology to enhance tendon-to-bone interface healing by trypsinizing and mineralizing (TM) an intrasynovial tendon allograft in a rabbit bone tunnel model. Eight rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were used to optimize the trypsinization process. An additional 24 FDP tendons were stratified into control and TM groups; in each group, 4 tendons were used for in vitro evaluation of TM and 8 were transplanted into proximal tibial bone tunnels in rabbits. The samples were evaluated histologically and with mechanical testing at postoperative week 8. Maximum failure strength and linear stiffness were not significantly different between the control and TM tendons. A thin fibrous band of scar tissue formed at the graft-to-bone interface in the control group. However, only the TM group showed obvious new bone formation inside the tendon graft and a visible fibrocartilage layer at the bone tunnel entrance. This study is the first to explore effects of TM on the intrasynovial allograft healing to a bone tunnel. TM showed beneficial effects on chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and integration of the intrasynovial tendon graft, but mechanical strength was the same as the control tendons in this short-term in vivo study. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Gingival Tissue and Alveolar Bone during Alveolar Bone Healing*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee-Young; Kwon, Joseph; Kook, Min-Suk; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun; Sohn, Sungoh; Jung, Seunggon; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is orchestrated by the surrounding supporting tissues and involves the build-up of osteogenic cells, which orchestrate remodeling/healing through the expression of numerous mediators and signaling molecules. Periodontal regeneration models have proven useful for studying the interaction and communication between alveolar bone and supporting soft tissue. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare proteins with altered expression in gingival sof...

  8. Comparison in bone turnover markers during early healing of femoral neck fracture and trochanteric fracture in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Ikegami

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Healing of fractures is different for each bone and bone turnover markers may reflect the fracture healing process. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic changes in bone turnover markers during the fracture healing process. The subjects were consecutive patients with femoral neck or trochanteric fracture who underwent surgery and achieved bone union. There were a total of 39 patients, including 33 women and 6 men. There were 18 patients (16 women and 2 men with femoral neck fracture and 21 patients (17 women and 4 men with trochanteric fracture. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP was measured as a bone formation marker. Urine and serum levels of N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX, as well as urine levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX and deoxypyridinoline (DPD, were measured as markers of bone resorption. All bone turnover markers showed similar changes in patients with either type of fracture, but significantly higher levels of both bone formation and resorption markers were observed in trochanteric fracture patients than in neck fracture patients. BAP showed similar levels at one week after surgery and then increased. Bone resorption markers were increased after surgery in patients with either fracture. The markers reached their peak values at three weeks (BAP and urinary NTX, five weeks (serum NTX and DPD, and 2-3 weeks (CTX after surgery. The increase in bone turnover markers after hip fracture surgery and the subsequent decrease may reflect increased bone formation and remodeling during the healing process. Both fractures had a similar bone turnover marker profile, but the extent of the changes differed between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.

  9. Comparison in bone turnover markers during early healing of femoral neck fracture and trochanteric fracture in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Shota; Kamimura, Mikio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takahara, Kenji; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2009-10-10

    Healing of fractures is different for each bone and bone turnover markers may reflect the fracture healing process. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic changes in bone turnover markers during the fracture healing process. The subjects were consecutive patients with femoral neck or trochanteric fracture who underwent surgery and achieved bone union. There were a total of 39 patients, including 33 women and 6 men. There were 18 patients (16 women and 2 men) with femoral neck fracture and 21 patients (17 women and 4 men) with trochanteric fracture. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was measured as a bone formation marker. Urine and serum levels of N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX), as well as urine levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), were measured as markers of bone resorption. All bone turnover markers showed similar changes in patients with either type of fracture, but significantly higher levels of both bone formation and resorption markers were observed in trochanteric fracture patients than in neck fracture patients. BAP showed similar levels at one week after surgery and then increased. Bone resorption markers were increased after surgery in patients with either fracture. The markers reached their peak values at three weeks (BAP and urinary NTX), five weeks (serum NTX and DPD), and 2-3 weeks (CTX) after surgery. The increase in bone turnover markers after hip fracture surgery and the subsequent decrease may reflect increased bone formation and remodeling during the healing process. Both fractures had a similar bone turnover marker profile, but the extent of the changes differed between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.

  10. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on new trabecular bone during bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model: a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone-tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone-tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone-tendon junction injury model at the patella-patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point. The patella-patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone-tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promote bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone-tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate

  11. Demineralized bone matrix and hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate mixture for bone healing in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, H.; Memis, L.; Cila, E.; Bolukbasi, S.; Gemalmaz, C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate (HA/TCP) mixture is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft substitute, and demineralised bone matrix (DBM) is an osteoinductive material. A combination of DBM and HA/TCP mixture would probably create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the combination of DBM and HA/TCP mixture on healing of rat radius segmental defects. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were used. Bilateral radial defects were created in each animal. Radial defects were implanted with DBM, HA/TCP mixture and a combination of both substances. Control defects were left unfilled. Ten weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed, and the radii were evaluated by radiograhic and histopathological studies. Results: The use of DBM alone demonstrated improved healing on radiographic and histological studies compared to other groups and the control group. There were no differences between the other two groups and the control group. Conclusion: The DBM group showed the best healing response. Combined use of DBM and HA/TCP mixture did not improve bone healing, and the osteoinductive properties of DBM were inhibited by HA/TCP mixture. PMID:16565837

  12. Biological methods to enhance bone healing and fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, René; Goubau, Yannick; Almqvist, Fredrik K; Verdonk, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This article looks into normal physiological fracture healing with special emphasis on the diamond concept. A precise definition of nonunion of long bones is described. Most often inadequate fixation (too rigid or too loose) is the reason for nonunion in long bone fractures. Because a critical bone defect cannot be bridged, it may lead directly or indirectly (lack of fixation) to nonunion. Individual inadequate local biological characteristics are also often found to be the cause; poor soft tissue coverage as well as a lack of periosteum and muscle or fascia or skin defects can lead to compromised vascularity in situ. Systemic factors are now much more recognized, e.g., smoking, diabetes, and cachexia, as well as the limited impact of some medications, e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids. Today's mode of treatment for nonunion is approached in this article, and suggestions for appropriate treatment of long bone nonunion is presented. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of different synthetic bone fillers on healing of extraction sockets: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji-Youn; Lee, Jung-Seok; Pang, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Ui-Won; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the socket healing process and biodegradation of incorporating synthetic bone fillers followed by grafting of the fresh extraction socket. Third premolars in four quadrants of eight beagle dogs were extracted and randomly treated with either one of hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), or no graft (C). Histologic observations and histomorphometric analysis at three zones (apical, middle, and coronal) of the socket were performed. Socket area (S) and the proportions of newly formed bone (%NB), residual biomaterials (%RB), and fibrovascular connective tissue (%FCT) at 2, 4, and 8 weeks were measured. The numbers of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (No.OC) were also determined at the three zones. %NB was significantly higher in control group compared with the grafted groups at all healing periods. %NB of HA and BCP increased with time, whereas %RB showed different patterns that decreased in BCP, unlike the minimal change observed in HA. %NB of β-TCP showed smallest portion compared with other grafted groups at 2 and 4 weeks, however, significantly increased at 8 weeks. %RB of β-TCP was less than HA and BCP at all healing periods. Numbers of multinucleated cells were greater in BCP and β-TCP, followed by HA and smallest in control group. Within the limit of this study, bone formation of the extraction socket was delayed in the sockets grafted with synthetic bone fillers and showed different healing process according to the biodegradation patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Electrospun hydroxyapatite-functionalized PLLA scaffold: potential applications in sternal bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Alberto; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Sedati, Pietro; De Marco, Federico; Carotti, Simone; Lusini, Mario; Vadalà, Gianluca; Di Martino, Alberto; Morini, Sergio; Chello, Massimo; Covino, Elvio; Denaro, Vincenzo; Trombetta, Marcella

    2011-07-01

    Sternal synthesis after median sternotomy, a conventional access practice in thoracic and cardiac surgery, is at the basis of severe complications, often impairing the clinical outcome of surgical interventions. In this work, we propose the use of an acellular biomaterial scaffold, to be interposed across the fracture rime during closure operations, directly exposing the biomaterial to bone marrow, in order to expedite healing process. A rabbit model of median sternotomy was performed and an electrospun scaffold composed of a hydroxyapatite-loaded absorbable biopolymer (poly-L: -lactide), shaped into a fibrillar structure, was used. CT follow-up confirmed a complete healing in the scaffold-treated group 1 week before the control. Histological evaluation demonstrated presence of newly formed bone trabeculae among scaffold fibers showing a higher degree of maturity with respect to the control untreated group. The proposed approach is able to both guide a more rapid healing and modulate inflammatory response across the wound site, resulting in improved healing and tissue remodeling with respect to conventional closure technique.

  15. Adipose Stem Cells as Alternatives for Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Oral Ulcer Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Aly, Lobna Abdel; Menoufy, Hala El-; Ragae, Alyaa; Rashed, Laila Ahmed; Sabry, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant, and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cells suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Methods and Results Oral ulcers were induced by topical application of formocresol in the oral cavity of dogs. Transplantation of undifferentiated GFP-labeled Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell (BMSCs), Adipose Derived Stem Cell (ADSCs) or vehicle (saline) was injected around the ulcer in each group. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected in MSCs by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of VEGF and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. Results: MSCs expressed mRNA for VEGF MSCs transplantation significantly accelerated oral ulcer healing compared with controls. There was increased expression of both collagen and VEGF genes in MSCs-treated ulcers compared to controls. Conclusions MSCs transplantation may help to accelerate oral ulcer healing, possibly through the induction of angiogenesis by VEGF together with increased intracellular matrix formation as detected by increased collagen gene expression. This body of work has provided evidence supporting clinical applications of adipose-derived cells in safety and efficacy trials as an alternative for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in oral ulcer healing. PMID:24298363

  16. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  17. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Sum Siu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing.

  18. [Bone healing and dynamic interferential current (DIC) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabs, W A; May, E; Richter, K D; Höhling, H J; Althoff, J; Quint, P; Hansjürgens, A

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to clarify the influence of dynamic interferential current (DIC). Two sinusoidal currents of medium frequency are superimposed within the body to determine the reactive changes of bone healing after osteotomy. An osteotomy was performed on the radius and ulna of the right foreleg of 34 'black-head breeding sheep'. The radius shaft was deperiostalized and unstably fixed with a four-hole AO-plate leaving a gap of at least 1 mm width. DIC of different mA-values were not treated 24 sheep 3 times per week for 10 mins. The other 10 animals were not treated with DIC but used as control animals. The different results of our clinical, radiological, histological and chemical analyses to date indicate that callus formation is accelerated by the application of DIC. The fracture callus of treated animals is strongly mineralized.

  19. Functional attachment of soft tissues to bone: development, healing, and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissues such as tendons or ligaments attach to bone across a multitissue interface with spatial gradients in composition, structure, and mechanical properties. These gradients minimize stress concentrations and mediate load transfer between the soft and hard tissues. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries and the lack of integrative solutions for their repair, interface regeneration remains a significant clinical challenge. This review begins with a description of the developmental processes and the resultant structure-function relationships that translate into the functional grading necessary for stress transfer between soft tissue and bone. It then discusses the interface healing response, with a focus on the influence of mechanical loading and the role of cell-cell interactions. The review continues with a description of current efforts in interface tissue engineering, highlighting key strategies for the regeneration of the soft tissue-to-bone interface, and concludes with a summary of challenges and future directions.

  20. The effect of cigarette smoking on radiographic bone healing after elective foot surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krannitz, Kristopher W; Fong, Hon W; Fallat, Lawrence M; Kish, John

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to compare radiographic healing rates of Austin bunionectomies in smokers, nonsmokers, and secondhand smokers. Delayed bone healing has been linked to cigarette smoking previously, but no study is known to have examined smoking in relation to elective foot surgery. We hypothesized that smoking will delay bone healing after elective foot surgery. Surgical patients were placed into 1 of 3 cigarette smoking-related groups. Nicotine dependence was measured by the standardized modified Fagerström est and a urine cotinine test. Bone healing was determined via examination of postsurgical radiographs. Outcomes were assessed with 1-way analyses of variance. Forty-six patients were prospectively evaluated. There were 17 smokers, 12 secondhand smokers, and 17 nonsmokers. Healing time after Austin bunionectomy was 69 days (SD = 26.0), 120 days (SD = 55.3), and 78 days (SD = 19.1) in nonsmokers, smokers, and secondhand smokers, respectively. It was noted that as urine cotinine number increased, the healing time also increased (Pearson correlation = -.314, P time with an increase in score (Pearson correlation = -.128, P times longer to reach radiographic bone consolidation than that of a nonsmoker. This equates to a 42% increase in time to bone healing in the smoking patient. Increased healing time was also correlated to increased urine cotinine and a higher Fagerström number. Smoking is shown to delay radiographic healing. 2.

  1. Knockdown of SVCT2 impairs in-vitro cell attachment, migration and wound healing in bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnikumar Sangani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC adhesion and migration are fundamental to a number of pathophysiologic processes, including fracture and wound healing. Vitamin C is beneficial for bone formation, fracture repair and wound healing. However, the role of the vitamin C transporter in BMSC adhesion, migration and wound healing is not known. In this study, we knocked-down the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter, SVCT2, the only known transporter of vitamin C in BMSCs, and performed cell adhesion, migration, in-vitro scratch wound healing and F-actin re-arrangement studies. We also investigated the role of oxidative stress on the above processes. Our results demonstrate that both oxidative stress and down-regulation of SVCT2 decreased cell attachment and spreading. A trans-well cell migration assay showed that vitamin C helped in BMSC migration and that knockdown of SVCT2 decreased cell migration. In the in-vitro scratch wound healing studies, we established that oxidative stress dose-dependently impairs wound healing. Furthermore, the supplementation of vitamin C significantly rescued the BMSCs from oxidative stress and increased wound closing. The knockdown of SVCT2 in BMSCs strikingly decreased wound healing, and supplementing with vitamin C failed to rescue cells efficiently. The knockdown of SVCT2 and induction of oxidative stress in cells produced an alteration in cytoskeletal dynamics. Signaling studies showed that oxidative stress phosphorylated members of the MAP kinase family (p38 and that vitamin C inhibited their phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that both the SVCT2 transporter and oxidative stress play a vital role in BMSC attachment, migration and cytoskeletal re-arrangement. BMSC-based cell therapy and modulation of SVCT2 could lead to a novel therapeutic approach that enhances bone remodeling, fracture repair and wound healing in chronic disease conditions.

  2. Controlled-release naringin nanoscaffold for osteoporotic bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Wang, Lu; Watts, David C; Qiu, Hongmei; You, Tao; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiaohong

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases in the world and results from an imbalance of bone cell functions. In the process of guided bone regeneration, osteoporosis weakens the bonding strength between scaffold and bone. Naringin is evidenced to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone resorption and the aim was to explore methods and benefits of its incorporation. In this study, naringin was incorporated in the electrospun nanoscaffold containing poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL). The nanoscaffold demonstrated unchanged chemical structure, improved hydrophilicity, thinner and more uniform nanofibers by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The nanoscaffold also showed faster degradation rate and controlled-release of naringin. Osteoblast-nanoscaffold interactions were studied by the evaluation of adhesion, proliferation, differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and mineralization of ECM on the nanoscaffolds. Meanwhile, the response of osteoclasts to nanoscaffolds was evaluated in a mouse calvarial critical size defect organ culture model. The osteoclasts around the bone defect were shown by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining. The results demonstrated that controlled-release naringin nanoscaffolds supported greater osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization and suppressed osteoclast formation. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel bone substitute material in alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Hild, Nora; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-07-01

    Electrospun cotton wool-like nanocomposite (ECWN) is a novel synthetic bone substitute that incorporates amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles into a biodegradable synthetic copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The objectives of this study were to develop a tooth extraction socket model in sheep for bone graft research and to compare ECWN and bovine-derived xenograft (BX) in this model. Sixteen cross-bred female sheep were used. Bilateral mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Second and third premolar sockets were filled (Latin-square allocation) with BX, ECWN or left unfilled. Resorbable collagen membranes were placed over BX and selected ECWN grafted sockets. Eight sheep per time period were sacrificed after 8 and 16 weeks. Resin-embedded undemineralised sections were analysed for descriptive histology and histomorphometric analyses. At 8 weeks, there were with no distinct differences in healing among the different sites. At 16 weeks, osseous healing followed a fine trabecular pattern in ECWN sites. Non-grafted sites showed thick trabeculae separated by large areas of fibrovascular connective tissue. In BX grafted sites, xenograft particles were surrounded by newly formed bone or fibrovascular connective tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in bone formation across the four groups. However, ECWN sites had significantly less residual graft material than BX sites at 16 weeks (P = 0.048). This first description of a tooth extraction socket model in sheep supports the utility of this model for bone graft research. The results of this study suggested that the novel material ECWN did not impede bone ingrowth into sockets and showed evidence of material resorption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Monitoring of Postoperative Bone Healing Using Smart Trauma-Fixation Device With Integrated Self-Powered Piezo-Floating-Gate Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchani, Wassim; Aono, Kenji; Lajnef, Nizar; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-07-01

    Achieving better surgical outcomes in cases of traumatic bone fractures requires postoperative monitoring of changes in the growth and mechanical properties of the tissue and bones during the healing process. While current in-vivo imaging techniques can provide a snapshot of the extent of bone growth, it is unable to provide a history of the healing process, which is important if any corrective surgery is required. Monitoring the time evolution of in-vivo mechanical loads using existing technology is a challenge due to the need for continuous power while maintaining patient mobility and comfort. This paper investigates the feasibility of self-powered monitoring of the bone-healing process using our previously reported piezo-floating-gate (PFG) sensors. The sensors are directly integrated with a fixation device and operate by harvesting energy from microscale strain variations in the fixation structure. We show that the sensors can record and store the statistics of the strain evolution during the healing process for offline retrieval and analysis. Additionally, we present measurement results using a biomechanical phantom comprising of a femur fracture fixation plate; bone healing is emulated by inserting different materials, with gradually increasing elastic moduli, inside a fracture gap. The PFG sensor can effectively sense, compute, and record continuously evolving statistics of mechanical loading over a typical healing period of a bone, and the statistics could be used to differentiate between different bone-healing conditions. The proposed sensor presents a reliable objective technique to assess bone-healing progress and help decide on the removal time of the fixation device.

  5. Radiographic monitoring of healing process of buccal bifurcation cysts after marsupialization: two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    This report is to show healing process of two cases of buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) developed from the mandibular deciduous second molars. Extracting the involved deciduous teeth led to marsupialization of the cysts and promoted eruption of the associated successors without orthodontic force. The cyst-associated premolars in the two cases erupted faster than the premolars on the contralateral noncyst side. The cysts were completely filled with normal bone. The monitoring radiographs showed bone healing, root formation, and path of eruption of the associated teeth after marsupialization of BBC.

  6. Impaired bone healing at tooth extraction sites in CD24-deficient mice: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Avivi, Doran; Perez, Marilena; Arber, Nadir; Shapira, Shiran

    2018-01-01

    To use a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to quantify bone healing at maxillary first molar extraction sites, and test the hypothesis that bone healing is impaired in CD24-knockout mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6J mice. Under ketamine-xylazine general anaesthesia, mice had either extraction of the right maxillary first molar tooth or sham operation. Mice were sacrificed 1 (n = 12/group), 2 (n = 6/group) or 4 (n = 6/group) weeks postoperatively. The right maxillae was disected. Micro-CT was used to quantify differences in bone microstructural features at extrction sites, between CD24-knockout mice and wild-type mice. CD24-Knockout mice displayed impaired bone healing at extraction sites that was manifested as decreased trabecular bone density, and decreased number and thickness of trabeculae. This pilot study suggests that CD24 plays an important role in extraction socket bone healing and may be used as a novel biomarker of bone quality and potential therapeutic target to improve bone healing and density following alveolar bone injury.

  7. Wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with emdogain gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Hikaru; Hamachi, Takafumi; Anan, Hisashi; Maeda, Katsumasa

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the wound healing process of injured pulp tissues with Emdogain gel (EMD). Pulpotomy was performed for the first molars of the mandibles in rats. EMD or Vitapex (VIT)-containing calcium hydroxide was applied to the exposed pulp tissues. The treated teeth were extracted after 7, 14, and 28 days and prepared for histologic examination. In the VIT-treated group, the number of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-expressing macrophages initially increased, followed by that of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-expressing macrophages. The number of cells expressing bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) gradually increased with reparative dentin formation. Meanwhile, in the EMD-treated group, cells expressing IL-1 beta or TGF-beta1 were few. However, the number of BMP-expressing cells, partly macrophages, increased in the early phase, and large amounts of reparative dentin were observed. This study demonstrated that different healing processes existed for EMD and VIT. BMP-expressing macrophages might play important roles in reparative dentin formation.

  8. Use of Radiographic Densitometry to Predict the Bone Healing Index in Distraction Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    A Saw; S Manimaran; S Faizal; AM Bulgiba

    2008-01-01

    Bone lengthening with distraction osteogenesis involves prolonged application of an external fixator frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of callus has been described using various imaging modalities but there is no simple reliable and readily available method. This study aims to investigate the use of a densitometer to analyze plain radiographic images and correlate them with the rate of new bone formation as represented by the bone healing index. A total of 34 bone lengthening pro...

  9. Influence of the Neo-Os® bone substitute powder on calvarial bone healing with and without membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namjoy Nik Sh.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, different materials have been used for regeneration of interosseous defects and Neo-Os is one of them. The objective of this study was to evaluate histologically the influence of Neo-Os® particles on bone regeneration using rabbit caivarias defects with and without protection of Gore-Tex® barrier membrane. A cutaneous- periosteal incision and flap was made on the forehead of 32 rabbits exposing the top o"" the skull. A standardized trans-osseous skull defect (8 mm diameter was made in each of the parietal bone with rotating round bur. In half of the rabbits, one defect was filled with the Neo-Os® particles without any type of the barrier membrane. The other defect was left empty. In the other half of the rabbits, one defect was filled with Neo-Os® and two flat expanded polytetrafiuoroethyiene (Gore-tex® membranes. For the other defect, only the Gore-tex membrane protected the defect. After 8 and 16 weeks, the specimens were processed using standard, decalcified, hard tissue histology techniques. Rabbit caivarias defects treated with Neo-Os® particles and polytetrafiuoroethyiene (Gore-tex® membrane, healed by in growth of woven bone from the defect margins and by formation of bony islands within the defect area. Finally, the defects were treated with woven and lamellar bone.

  10. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group......, the tibial defect was filled manually with Osteoset pellets, in the control group the defect was left empty. CTs of the defect were taken on the first day after the operation, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We found about the same amount of bone in the defect in the Osteoset and control groups...

  11. An interface finite element model can be used to predict healing outcome of bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alierta, J A; Pérez, M A; García-Aznar, J M

    2014-01-01

    After fractures, bone can experience different potential outcomes: successful bone consolidation, non-union and bone failure. Although, there are a lot of factors that influence fracture healing, experimental studies have shown that the interfragmentary movement (IFM) is one of the main regulators for the course of bone healing. In this sense, computational models may help to improve the development of mechanical-based treatments for bone fracture healing. Hence, based on this fact, we propose a combined repair-failure mechanistic computational model to describe bone fracture healing. Despite being a simple model, it is able to correctly estimate the time course evolution of the IFM compared to in vivo measurements under different mechanical conditions. Therefore, this mathematical approach is especially suitable for modeling the healing response of bone to fractures treated with different mechanical fixators, simulating realistic clinical conditions. This model will be a useful tool to identify factors and define targets for patient specific therapeutics interventions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Vitamin E and the Healing of Bone Fracture: The Current State of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boekhtiar Borhanuddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of vitamin E on health-related conditions has been extensively researched, with varied results. However, to date, there was no published review of the effect of vitamin E on bone fracture healing. Purpose. This paper systematically audited past studies of the effect of vitamin E on bone fracture healing. Methods. Related articles were identified from Medline, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. Screenings were performed based on the criteria that the study must be an original study that investigated the independent effect of vitamin E on bone fracture healing. Data were extracted using standardised forms, followed by evaluation of quality of reporting using ARRIVE Guidelines, plus recalculation procedure for the effect size and statistical power of the results. Results. Six animal studies fulfilled the selection criteria. The study methods were heterogeneous with mediocre reporting quality and focused on the antioxidant-related mechanism of vitamin E. The metasynthesis showed α-tocopherol may have a significant effect on bone formation during the normal bone remodeling phase of secondary bone healing. Conclusion. In general, the effect of vitamin E on bone fracture healing remained inconclusive due to the small number of heterogeneous and mediocre studies included in this paper.

  13. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of guided ultrasound wave propagation in intact and healing long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopappas, Vasilios C; Kourtis, Iraklis C; Kourtis, Lampros C; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Massalas, Christos V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2007-06-01

    The use of guided waves has recently drawn significant interest in the ultrasonic characterization of bone aiming at supplementing the information provided by traditional velocity measurements. This work presents a three-dimensional finite element study of guided wave propagation in intact and healing bones. A model of the fracture callus was constructed and the healing course was simulated as a three-stage process. The dispersion of guided modes generated by a broadband 1-MHz excitation was represented in the time-frequency domain. Wave propagation in the intact bone model was first investigated and comparisons were then made with a simplified geometry using analytical dispersion curves of the tube modes. Then, the effect of callus consolidation on the propagation characteristics was examined. It was shown that the dispersion of guided waves was significantly influenced by the irregularity and anisotropy of the bone. Also, guided waves were sensitive to material and geometrical changes that take place during healing. Conversely, when the first-arriving signal at the receiver corresponded to a nondispersive lateral wave, its propagation velocity was almost unaffected by the elastic symmetry and geometry of the bone and also could not characterize the callus tissue throughout its thickness. In conclusion, guided waves can enhance the capabilities of ultrasonic evaluation.

  14. Comparative maxillary bone-defect healing by calcium-sulphate or deproteinized bovine bone particles and extra cellular matrix membranes in a guided bone regeneration setting: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Alberto; Dahlin, Christer

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to histologically compare the dynamics of bone healing response between calcium sulphate (CaS) and deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) particles in guided bone regeneration utilizing an extracellular matrix membrane (ECM) as barrier. Eighteen rabbits were used in thisstudy. 5 × 5 mm defects were created in the edentulous space between the incisors and molars in the maxilla. The CaS and DBBM particles were placed in the defects, with or without the placement of a membrane by means of random selection. Healing was evaluated at 2, 4 and 8 weeks by histology. A total resorption of the CaS material was seen already at 2 weeks. Only minor resorption could be seen of the DBBM particles. The CaS group showed significantly more bone regeneration at all three healing periods compared to the DBBM group. The addition of an ECM membrane demonstrated significant additional effect on bone regeneration. The CaS group showed significant increased amounts of blood vessels compared to the DBBM group. Thisstudy showed that CaS in combination with an ECM membrane provided synergistic effects on bone regeneration, seemingly due to stimulating angiogenesis in the early healing process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The role of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell derivatives in skin wound healing in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mayo, Tomas; Conget, Paulette; Becerra-Bayona, Silvia; Sossa, Claudia L; Galvis, Virgilio; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown to be a promising tool in cell therapies to treat different conditions. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have proved that the transplantation of MSCs improves wound healing. Here, we compare the beneficial effects of mouse bone marrow-derived allogeneic MSCs (allo-mBM-MSCs) and their acelullar derivatives (allo-acd-mMSCs) on skin wound healing in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. One dose of allo-mBM-MSCs (1×106 cells) or one dose of allo-acd-mMSCs (1X) were intradermally injected around wounds in 8-10 week old female NOD mice. Wound healing was evaluated macroscopically (wound closure) every two days, and microscopically (reepithelialization, dermoepidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, leukocyte infiltration, vascularization, granulation tissue formation, and density of collagen fibers in the dermis) after 16 days of MSC injection. In addition, we measured growth factors and specific proteins that were present in the allo-acd-mMSCs. Results showed significant differences in the wound healing kinetics of lesions that received allo-acd-mMSCs compared to lesions that received vehicle or allo-mBM-MSCs. In particular, mice treated with allo-acd-mMSCs reached significantly higher percentages of wound closure at day 4, 6 and 8, relative to the allo-mBM-MSCs and vehicle groups (p healing process. Specifically, they caused a less pronounced inflammatory severe response (p hand, ELISA analyses indicated that the allo-acd-mMSCs contained growth factors and proteins relevant to wound healing such as IGF-1, KGF, HGF, VEGF, ANG-2, MMP-1, CoL-1 and PGE2. Compared to allo-acd-mMSCs, the administration of allo-mBM-MSCs is insufficient for wound healing in diabetic mice and delays the therapeutic effect, which maybe explained by the fact that trophic factors secreted by MSCs are critical for skin regeneration, and not the cells per se, suggesting that MSCs may require some time to secrete these factors after their

  16. Effect of synthetic cell-binding peptide on the healing of cortical segmental bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, G.; Bolukbasi, S.; Simsek, A.; Senkoylu, A.; Erdem, O.; Yilmaz, G.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of inorganic bone matric/Pepgen P-15 (ABM/P-15) on the healing of a critical sized segmental defect in a rat radius using a radiological and histological grading system. We carried out this study at the Research Laboratories, Gazi University School of Medicine in 2004. Critical sized segmental defects were created in the radius of 36 Wistar rats. Thirteen defects were filled with ABM/P-15 Flow (gel form), 12 defects were filled with ABM/P-15, and 11 defects were used as a control group. The rats were sacrified at the tenth week, and healing of the defects was evaluated radiographically and histologically. The usage of ABM/P-15 and ABM/P-15 Flow were demonstrated to improve healing of segmental bone defects compared with the control group. Statistical evaluation showed that there were significant differences between control sites, and the sites treated with P-15 and P-15 Flow (p=0.011). The highest radiological and histological grades were achieved by P-15. Segmental cortical bone defects may be treated with ABM/P-15 instead of bone allografts, and autografts. According to the radiological and histological parameters measured in this study, the implantation of ABM/P-15 resulted in optimum healing of the segmental cortical bone defects. Pepgen P-15 has a positive effect on bone healing, without any immunogenic features and disease transmission risk. Therefore, ABM/P-15 can also be used for orthopedic surgery. (author)

  17. Identification of genes differentially regulated in rat alveolar bone wound healing by subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, T; Myokai, F; Shiomi, N; Yamashiro, K; Yamamoto, T; Murayama, Y; Arai, H; Nishimura, F; Takashiba, S

    2004-07-01

    Periodontal healing requires the participation of regulatory molecules, cells, and scaffold or matrix. Here, we hypothesized that a certain set of genes is expressed in alveolar bone wound healing. Reciprocal subtraction gave 400 clones from the injured alveolar bone of Wistar rats. Identification of 34 genes and analysis of their expression in injured tissue revealed several clusters of unique gene regulation patterns, including the up-regulation at 1 wk of cytochrome c oxidase regulating electron transfer and energy metabolism, presumably occurring at the site of inflammation; up-regulation at 2.5 wks of pro-alpha-2 type I collagen involving the formation of a connective tissue structure; and up-regulation at 1 and 2 wks and down-regulation at 2.5 and 4 wks of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase l3 involving cell cycle, DNA repair, and stress response. The differential expression of genes may be associated with the processes of inflammation, wound contraction, and formation of a connective tissue structure.

  18. Effect of gelatin sponge with colloid silver on bone healing in infected cranial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuliang; Liu, Weiqing; Lei, Yiling; Wu, Tingxi; Zhang, Shiwen; Guo, Yuchen; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Demeng; Yuan, Quan; Wang, Yongyue

    2017-01-01

    Oral infectious diseases may lead to bone loss, which makes it difficult to achieve satisfactory restoration. The rise of multidrug resistant bacteria has put forward severe challenges to the use of antibiotics. Silver (Ag) has long been known as a strong antibacterial agent. In clinic, gelatin sponge with colloid silver is used to reduce tooth extraction complication. To investigate how this material affect infected bone defects, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infected 3-mm-diameter cranial defects were created in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. One week after infection, the defects were debrided of all nonviable tissue and then implanted with gelatin sponge with colloid silver (gelatin/Ag group) or gelatin alone (gelatin group). At 2 and 3days after debridement, significantly lower mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and lower plate colony count value were detected in gelatin/Ag group than control. Micro-CT analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in gelatin/Ag treated defects. The HE stained cranium sections also showed a faster rate of defect closure in gelatin/Ag group than control. These findings demonstrated that gelatin sponge with colloid silver can effectively reduce the infection caused by MRSA in cranial defects and accelerate bone healing process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The effect of three hemostatic agents on early bone healing in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dry Sarah M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resorbable bone hemostasis materials, oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC and microfibrillar collagen (MFC, remain at the site of application for up to 8 weeks and may impair osteogenesis. Our experimental study compared the effect of a water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymer (AOC to ORC and MFC versus no hemostatic material on early bone healing. Methods Two circular 2.7 mm non-critical defects were made in each tibia of 12 rabbits. Sufficient AOC, ORC or MFC was applied to achieve hemostasis, and effectiveness recorded. An autologous blood clot was applied to control defects. Rabbits were sacrificed at 17 days, tibiae excised and fixed. Bone healing was quantitatively measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT expressed as fractional bone volume, and qualitatively assessed by histological examination of decalcified sections. Results Hemostasis was immediate after application of MFC and AOC, after 1-2 minutes with ORC, and >5 minutes for control. At 17 days post-surgery, micro-CT analysis showed near-complete healing in control and AOC groups, partial healing in the ORC group and minimal healing in the MFC group. Fractional bone volume was 8 fold greater in the control and AOC groups than in the MFC group (0.42 ± 0.06, 0.40 ± 0.03 vs 0.05 ± 0.01, P P Conclusions Early healing appeared to be impaired by the presence of MFC and impeded by the presence of ORC. In contrast, AOC did not inhibit bone healing and suggest that AOC may be a better bone hemostatic material for procedures where bony fusion is critical and immediate hemostasis required.

  20. New treatment of periodontal diseases by using NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides via prevention of bone resorption and promotion of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideo; Nakagami, Hironori; Morita, Shosuke; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Futoshi; Shimosato, Takashi; Minobe, Noriko; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. Thus, the blockade of the NF-kappaB pathway might be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating bone metabolic diseases. Periodontitis is subgingival inflammation caused by bacterial infection; this disease also is thought to be a chronic focal point responsible for systemic diseases. In this study, NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were topically applied for experimental periodontitis in a debris-accumulation model and wound healing in a bone-defect model of beagle dogs to investigate the effect of decoy ODN on bone metabolism. Application of NF-kappaB decoy ODN significantly reduced interleukin-6 activity in crevicular fluid and improved alveolar bone loss in the analysis of dental radiographs and DEXA. Direct measurement of exposed root that lost alveolar bone support revealed that NF-kappaB decoy treatment dramatically protected bone from loss. In a bone-defect model, NF-kappaB decoy ODN promoted the healing process as compared with control scrambled decoy in micro-CT analysis. Overall, inhibition of NF-kappaB by decoy strategy prevented the progression of bone loss in periodontitis and promoted the wound healing in bone defects through the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. Targeting of NF-kappaB might be a potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  1. Comparison of xenogenic bone bioimplant and calcium phosphate granules on experimental femoral bone defect healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Mousavi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rebuilding and renovation of lost bone whether because of physiologic or pathologic factors was one of the surgeons’ motivations from the past. Osteogenesis of decalcified bone induced by growth factors contained in it. This study is to assay probability effect of decalcified bone and calcium phosphate granules on osteogenesis which is made in experimental flaw and it is as a laboratory pattern in rabbit femur.This experimental study is made on 15 male rabbits. Animals were divided randomly into 3 groups (control and treatments.After induction of general anesthesia, 2 holes in size of 2 mm in diameter was made using a dental bit in femur width to medullary channel. After surgery, the control group left untreated and decalcified bones was placed in group 2 and calcium phosphate granules were placed in group 3. Histopathological and histomorphometrical studies for evaluation of bone healing were carried out in experimental rats, which were euthanized after 45 days of the experiment using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining method.In control group, defect seemed to be filled with woven bone and bone marrow spaces and in spite of a poor osteogenic activity. In calcium phosphate group, young bone trabeculas increased in number and bone trabeculas more organized. Histomorphometric results, observed that calcium phosphate granules has significant effect on bone healing than decalcified and control groups.

  2. Ozone Treatment of Alveolar Bone in the Cape Chacma Baboon Does Not Enhance Healing Following Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kotze, Marthinus; Bütow, Kürt-W; Olorunju, Steve A.; Kotze, Harry F.

    2013-01-01

    In the international literature, the role of Ozone (O3) in the advancement in alveolar bone healing in the absence of bone pathology was not tested before. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone regeneration after a bone defect was created and treated with a single topical administration of O3. Alveolar bone defects were created on five healthy chacma baboons. One side of the maxilla and mandible was topically treated with a single treatment of an O3/O2 mixture (3,5–4 % O3), ...

  3. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  4. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  5. Macrophages in bone fracture healing: Their essential role in endochondral ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlundt, Claudia; El Khassawna, Thaqif; Serra, Alessandro; Dienelt, Anke; Wendler, Sebastian; Schell, Hanna; van Rooijen, Nico; Radbruch, Andreas; Lucius, Richard; Hartmann, Susanne; Duda, Georg N; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    In fracture healing, skeletal and immune system are closely interacting through common cell precursors and molecular mediators. It is thought that the initial inflammatory reaction, which involves migration of macrophages into the fracture area, has a major impact on the long term outcome of bone repair. Interestingly, macrophages reside during all stages of fracture healing. Thus, we hypothesized a critical role for macrophages in the subsequent phases of bone regeneration. This study examined the impact of in vivo induced macrophage reduction, using clodronate liposomes, on the different healing phases of bone repair in a murine model of a standard closed femoral fracture. A reduction in macrophages had no obvious effect on the early fracture healing phase, but resulted in a delayed hard callus formation, thus severely altering endochondral ossification. Clodronate treated animals clearly showed delayed bony consolidation of cartilage and enhanced periosteal bone formation. Therefore, we decided to backtrack macrophage distribution during fracture healing in non-treated mice, focusing on the identification of the M1 and M2 subsets. We observed that M2 macrophages were clearly prevalent during the ossification phase. Therefore enhancement of M2 phenotype in macrophages was investigated as a way to further bone healing. Induction of M2 macrophages through interleukin 4 and 13 significantly enhanced bone formation during the 3week investigation period. These cumulative data illustrate their so far unreported highly important role in endochondral ossification and the necessity of a fine balance in M1/M2 macrophage function, which appears mandatory to fracture healing and successful regeneration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Kinetics of gene expression of alkaline phosphatase during healing of alveolar bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Willian Caetano; Fabris, André Luís da Silva; Hassumi, Jaqueline Suemi; Gonçalves, Alaíde; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Okamoto, Roberta

    2016-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies and molecular biology have enabled us to identify numerous proteins that are involved in the metabolism of bone, and their encoding genes. Among these is alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme that is responsible for the initiation of mineralisation of the extracellular matrix during alveolar bone repair. To evaluate the gene expression of ALP during this process, we studied nine healthy adult male rats, which had their maxillary central incisors extracted from the right side and were randomly divided into three groups. During three experimental periods, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days, the alveoli were curetted, the rats killed, and samples analysed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The RNAm that encodes the gene for the synthesis of ALP was expressed during the three periods analysed, but its concentration was significantly increased at 14 and 28 days compared with at 7 days. There was no significant difference between 14 and 28 days (p=0.0005). We conclude that genes related to ALP are expressed throughout the healing process and more intensively during the later periods (14 and 28 days), which coincides with the increased formation of mineralised bone. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [In vivo assessment of bone union by means of monitoring bone healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, R

    2001-01-01

    Basing on personal clinical experiences and available literature I assumed that the more advanced bone union is, the less important the role of stabilizing instruments in load transfer. At the same time the importance of bone consolidation increases. Material consisted of 46 operated patients, who had been treated with an external Zespol fixator. To assess load inversion a special measuring instrument was constructed. It was found that both the type of osteosynthesis and kind of fracture influenced the load inversion process. Neutralizing stabilization (group C) gave the shortest bone union time i.e. 22.6 weeks Average bone union time in contact stabilization was 34.4 and 30.1 weeks, depending on fracture type.

  8. Use of Radiographic Densitometry to Predict the Bone Healing Index in Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saw

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone lengthening with distraction osteogenesis involves prolonged application of an external fixator frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of callus has been described using various imaging modalities but there is no simple reliable and readily available method. This study aims to investigate the use of a densitometer to analyze plain radiographic images and correlate them with the rate of new bone formation as represented by the bone healing index. A total of 34 bone lengthening procedures in 29 patients were retrospectively reviewed. We used an X-Rite 301 densitometer to measure densities of new callus on plain radiographs taken at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Patients aged below 16y had significantly lower BHIs indicating faster bone healing and shorter duration of treatment. The ratio of radiographic densities between centre and edge of the new bone measured from plain radiographs taken at 8 weeks correlated positively with the eventual BHI of the patient. This method provides a simple and easy way to predict the rate of bone healing at an early stage of treatment and may also allow remedial action to be taken for those with poor progress in bone formation.

  9. Do bisphosphonates affect bone healing? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Deting; Li, Fangcai; Chen, Gang; Yan, Shigui; Pan, Zhijun

    2014-06-05

    Whether bisphosphonates affect indirect bone healing is still unclear. We carried out a comprehensive search strategy. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological qualities and extracted outcome data. Analysis was performed with RevMan 5.2. Eight eligible randomized controlled trials with 2,508 patients were included. Meta-analysis results showed that no statistically significant differences were founded in indirect bone healing in short time (within 3 months) (relative risk (RR) 1.40, relative the control group; 95% CI 0.36 to 5.49) and in long-term (more than 12 months) postoperation (RR 1.0; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02) between bisphosphonates infusion groups and control groups. There were no statistically significant differences of indirect bone healing between early and delay bisphosphonates administration groups. Bisphosphonates infusion after lumbar infusion surgery could promote bone healing and shorten fusion time in 6 months postoperation (RR 1.35; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.66). There was no clinically detectable delay to fracture healing via external callus formation following bisphosphonates treatment. Considering the benefit aspects of bisphosphonates for osteoporosis treatment, we recommend bisphosphonates infusion after fracture fixation surgery and lumbar fusion surgery.

  10. Healing of bone in the rat following surgery with the erbium-YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Mark R.; Devlin, Hugh; El Montaser, Monsour A.; Sloan, Philip

    1996-12-01

    Background and objectives: the aim of this study was to examine the pattern of healing in rat calvarial defects prepared with the erbium-YAG laser, using the 'guided tissue regeneration' technique. Materials and method: PTFE membranes were placed over lased skull defects, and the skin wounds sutured. Rats were killed humanely at intervals after surgery, and the skulls processed for paraffin wax histology. A further group of mature rats were also killed humanely and the calvariae removed. Slots were prepared using the erbium-YAG laser and immediately examined under the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) in hydrated conditions, which avoided drying artifacts. Results: An amorphous, mineral-rich carbon layer surrounds the lased bone defect, which in the in vivo experiments was seen as a basophilic zone which was resistant to resorption.

  11. The interplay of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of migration of mesenchymal stem cells during early stages of bone fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C-H; Deng, Y-S; Yang, X-J; Liu, J; Liu, R; Hou, F-Y; Li, S-S; Zhen, P

    2017-12-01

    Bone fractures are a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken due to a fall or accident. The fracture may also be the result of medical conditions such as osteoporosis, cancers of bone or osteogenesis imperfect. During the bone fracture healing process, the mesenchymal stem cells (undifferentiated connective tissue cells) are recruited from local and systemic sources. The modulation of mesenchymal cell migration to the fractured site is the desired goal. Still, there are many processes that are still required to be studied and analyzed. We aimed to consolidate and review the available information on this topic.

  12. Potential Therapeutic Use of Relaxin in Healing Cranial Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    incorporation of bone marrow-derived angio- and osteogenic progenitor cells into the lesion. This hormone / growth factor has numerous biological...and bone marrow progenitor cells at the lesion site by immunofluorescence. In addition, we quantitate bone growth and blood vessel density by...contributing Co-Is and Staff; animal husbandry; transport of mice to the various laboratories for procedures; coordination with Veterinary Staff for

  13. Does longstanding nicotine exposure impair bone healing and osseointegration? An experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H; Berglundh, Tord

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of longstanding nicotine exposure on bone healing and osseointegration of titanium implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 female rabbits received either nicotine (n = 10) or saline (n = 10) administered subcutaneously via mini-osmotic pumps...... for 32 weeks. The pump delivered 6 microg/kg/min of nicotine for the animals in the test group. Blood samples were collected and plasma cotinine levels were measured monthly. Six months after the commencement of nicotine or saline administration three osteotomy preparations, one in right, femoral condyle...... increase in RMT between 2 and 4 weeks within each group. The histomorphometric analysis of bone-to-implant contact and bone density in the bone defects revealed no differences between the test and the control group after 2 or 4 weeks of healing. CONCLUSION: Longstanding (6 months) nicotine exposure did...

  14. Beneficial Therapeutic Effects of Sildenafil on Bone Healing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... sildenafil on mandibular fracture healing in animals treated with zoledronic acid by using histologic, histomorphometric ... such as Paget's disease, malignancy, postmenopausal osteoporosis, fibrous dysplasia ..... angina to erectile dysfunction to pulmonary hypertension and beyond. Nat Rev Drug Discov ...

  15. Bone marrow-derived cells in palatal wound healing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, J.; Katsaros, C.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Myofibroblasts are responsible for contraction and scarring after cleft palate repair. This leads to growth disturbances in the upper jaw. We hypothesized that cells from the bone marrow are recruited to palatal wounds and differentiate into myofibroblasts. METHODS: We transplanted bone

  16. Effect of platelet-rich plasma combined with demineralised bone matrix on bone healing in rabbit ulnar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, Vasilios; Fiska, Alice; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Kazakos, Konstantinos; Demetriou, Thespis

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with xenogeneic demineralised bone matrix (DBM) on bone healing of critical-size ulnar defects (2-2.5 times the ulnar diameter) in New Zealand White rabbits. Critical-size defects were created unilaterally in the ulna of 36 rabbits, while keeping the contralateral limb intact. They were divided into three groups. In Group A, the defect was filled with autologous PRP and in Group B, with autologous PRP combined with DBM; in Group C, the defect remained empty. The rabbits were euthanised 12 weeks postoperatively. Radiological, biomechanical and histological assessments were carried out and statistical analysis of the results was performed. Group B had significantly higher radiological and histological scores than Groups A and C. Defects in Group B showed significant new bone formation, whereas there was minimal or no new bone formation in Groups A and C. Only specimens in Group B showed macroscopic bone union. Biomechanical evaluation of the treated and intact contralateral limbs in Group B showed significant differences. In this study, statistically significant enhancement of bone healing was found in critical-size defects treated with PRP and DBM, as shown by radiological findings, gross assessment, and biomechanical and histopathological results. Defects in the two other groups remained unbridged. Therefore, PRP was effective only when it was used in combination with a bone graft. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  17. [Effects of autologous periosteum wrapping allogenic tendon graft on tendon-bone healing inside a bone tunnel in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xianbin; Chen, Zhiwei; Cao, Shengjun

    2008-10-01

    To explore the situation of tendon-bone healing when allogenic tendon graft is wrapped with autologous periosteum around the tendon in rabbits. Twenty healthy New Zealand white rabbits with the age of 4-5 months were used in the experiment, weighing 2.5-3.0 kg. One-side posterior limb was selected randomly as the test, and the contralateral limb was served as the control at the same time. The allogenic tendon graft was designed as a tendon-bone model in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits. The portion of tendon in the bone tunnel was wrapped with autologous periosteal graft in which the cambium layer was facing the bone tunnel in the experimental group, while the portion of tendon in the bone tunnel was not wrapped with autologous periosteal graft in the control group. The histologic examination of the tendon-bone interface (n = 2) and the biomechanical test for maximal pullout load (n = 8) were conducted 4 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. All specimens were observed with naked eyes 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. Many new bones around bone tunnel outlet were seen in the experimental group, while a few or few new bones were seen in the control group. Four weeks after operation, histological observation showed there were a lot of proliferative mesenchymal cells in the periosteal germinal layer in the experimental group and conspicuous membrane bone formation was obvious. The arrangement of massive osteoblasts around newborn bone trabecula was similar to palisade. The newborn bone trabecula was linked with the periosteum. Some loose connective tissues and few newborn bones between the tendon graft and the bone tunnel were seen in the control group, and the connection of them was loose. Eight weeks after operation, the connection between the tendon graft and the bone tunnel was tight and no gap existed in the experimental group. The number of newborn bones was large and their arrangement was relatively regular. The tidemark line was seen between the

  18. Effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on Early Bone Tissue Healing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) on early bone healing of extraction sockets in rats. Method: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The maxillary right first molar tooth of the rats was extracted under general anesthesia. Two groups (C-1, n = 6 and C-2, n = 6) received ...

  19. Morphological studies on the healing process of extraction wound in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the extraction wound in irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone formation and resorption. 282 Wistar rats of about 100g body weight were used. The region of the left upper molars of experimental rats was exposed to 1000 rad or 2000 rad of 60 Co. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of from 1 day to 28 days after extraction. Control rats were sacrificed at same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was examined histologically, histometrically, histochemically and ultrastructurally. In irradiated rats, the healing process of extraction wound was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue and periosteal new bone formation was interfered. Histochemical examination revealed that the osteoblasts of irradiated rats reduced enzymatic activity compared with control rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblasts of irradiated rats and osteoid formation was reduced. In irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were more numerous and increased more rapidly as compared with control rats, whereas, histometrically, there was no significant difference in the amount of bone loss between control and irradiated rats. Histochemically, there was no distinct difference in the enzymatic activity in osteoclasts between control and irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of irradiated rats. The findings suggest that irradiation induced cytological changes in not only oseoblasts but also osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author)

  20. Scintigraphic control of bone-fracture healing under ultrasonic stimulation: An animal experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, W.; Franke, W.G.; Knoch, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    In a model of closed lower-leg fracture in rabbits and of secondary bone-fracture healing, scintigraphic control until biological healing was performed. Biological fracture healing was assumed for a region of interest (ROI)-activity ratio close to 1.0. After application of sup(99m)Tc-HEDP, 151 examinations were performed. ROI activity increased significantly until day 14 p.i. and reached the maximum value (Q=6.44) on day 14 postfracture. Sixty-one lower leg fractures were treated by ultrasound from days 14-28 postfractures. These stimulated fractures were biologically healed on day 168 postfracture. The fractures that were not treated by ultrasound could not be detected by scanning after day 203 postfracture. (orig.)

  1. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  2. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  3. Polyhedral microcrystals encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Mizoguchi, Megumi; Kotani, Eiji; Oda, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Segami, Natsuki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-08-01

    Atelocollagen sponges incorporating polyhedra encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were implanted into lateral bone defects in the mandible. Half of the bone defects on the left side were treated with atelocollagen sponges containing 1.8 × 10(7) BMP-2 polyhedra, and half were treated with sponges containing 3.6 × 10(6) BMP-2 polyhedra. As controls, we treated the right-side bone defects in each animal with an atelocollagen sponge containing 5 µg of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) or 1.8 × 10(7) empty polyhedral. After a healing period of six months, whole mandibles were removed for micro-computed tomography (CT) and histological analyses. Micro-CT images showed that more bone had formed at all experimental sites than at control sites. However, the density of the new bone was not significantly higher at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing BMP-2 polyhedra than at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing rhBMP-2 or empty polyhedra. Histological examination confirmed that the BMP-2 polyhedra almost entirely replaced the atelocollagen sponges and connected the original bone with the regenerated bone. These results show that the BMP-2 delivery system facilitates the regeneration of new bone in the mandibular alveolar bone ridge and has an advance in the technology of bone regeneration for implant site development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. [The action of high-concentrated fibria on bone healing (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, P; Braun, F; Eschberger, J; Kovac, W; Spängler, H P

    1977-09-29

    The influence of a biological tissue glue--based on fibrinogen clotting--on bone healing has been investigated in animal experiments. Standardized cortical defects in the tibiae of rabbits were closed with a plug of homologous or heterologous fibrin. The course of restoration has been studied using histological techniques, x-ray examinations and isotopes (Ci 99 TC). Heterologous fibrin delays bone formation, due to a local immune response. Homologous fibrin on the other hand cubances and accelerates sprouting of capillary vessels and connective tissue cells which results in rapid new formation of bone.

  5. Quantitative assessment of bone defect healing by multidetector CT in a pig model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegger, Carolin; Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S.; Miese, Falk R.; Antoch, Gerald; Scherer, Axel; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael; Hakimi, Ahmad R.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate multidetector CT volumetry in the assessment of bone defect healing in comparison to histopathological findings in an animal model. In 16 mini-pigs, a circumscribed tibial bone defect was created. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the tibia was performed on a 64-row scanner 42 days after the operation. The extent of bone healing was estimated quantitatively by MDCT volumetry using a commercially available software programme (syngo Volume, Siemens, Germany).The volume of the entire defect (including all pixels from -100 to 3,000 HU), the nonconsolidated areas (-100 to 500 HU), and areas of osseous consolidation (500 to 3,000 HU) were assessed and the extent of consolidation was calculated. Histomorphometry served as the reference standard. The extent of osseous consolidation in MDCT volumetry ranged from 19 to 92% (mean 65.4 ± 18.5%). There was a significant correlation between histologically visible newly formed bone and the extent of osseous consolidation on MDCT volumetry (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). A significant negative correlation was detected between osseous consolidation on MDCT and histological areas of persisting defect (r = -0.9, P < 0.0001). MDCT volumetry is a promising tool for noninvasive monitoring of bone healing, showing excellent correlation with histomorphometry. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy With a Herbal Extract on Alveolar Bone Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Anıl; Elmas, Çiğdem; Seymen, Cemile Merve; Peker, Veysel Tuncay; Altunkaynak, Bülent; Güngör, Mehmet Nadir

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser used in low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with the application of Mecsina Hemostopper on mandibular alveolar bone healing. Standard semispherical bone defects were created in left mandibular diastema sites of 32 female Long-Evans rats. Experimental animals were allocated to 1 of 4 groups: control group (no treatment), laser group (GaAlAs LLLT), Mecsina group, and laser-Mecsina combination group. Liquid Mecsina 0.01 mL was applied to the bone defects. Laser treatment was performed for 7 days after surgery at an energy dose of 10 J/cm 2 . All animals were sacrificed to observe hard tissue healing histologically, immunohistochemically, and radiologically at 30 days after surgery. Histologic assessment showed significantly more calcified tissue areas and significantly more osteoblast cells in the laser and laser-Mecsina groups than in the other groups (P < .01). Qualitative morphologic assessment showed that more bone tissue was present in the laser-Mecsina group than in the other groups. This study showed that LLLT, Mecsina application, and combined treatments were effective in healing alveolar bone among all tested treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative assessment of bone defect healing by multidetector CT in a pig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, Carolin; Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S.; Miese, Falk R.; Antoch, Gerald; Scherer, Axel [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hakimi, Ahmad R. [Universtity Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Oral Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    To evaluate multidetector CT volumetry in the assessment of bone defect healing in comparison to histopathological findings in an animal model. In 16 mini-pigs, a circumscribed tibial bone defect was created. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the tibia was performed on a 64-row scanner 42 days after the operation. The extent of bone healing was estimated quantitatively by MDCT volumetry using a commercially available software programme (syngo Volume, Siemens, Germany).The volume of the entire defect (including all pixels from -100 to 3,000 HU), the nonconsolidated areas (-100 to 500 HU), and areas of osseous consolidation (500 to 3,000 HU) were assessed and the extent of consolidation was calculated. Histomorphometry served as the reference standard. The extent of osseous consolidation in MDCT volumetry ranged from 19 to 92% (mean 65.4 {+-} 18.5%). There was a significant correlation between histologically visible newly formed bone and the extent of osseous consolidation on MDCT volumetry (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). A significant negative correlation was detected between osseous consolidation on MDCT and histological areas of persisting defect (r = -0.9, P < 0.0001). MDCT volumetry is a promising tool for noninvasive monitoring of bone healing, showing excellent correlation with histomorphometry. (orig.)

  8. [Our first experiences with autologous transplantation of bone marrow stem cells to treat pseudarthrosis, delayed fracture healing and long bone defects fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sír, M; Procházka, V; Gumulec, J; Pleva, L

    2009-03-01

    Traumatology and orthopaedics have undergone substantial progress in the use of new, sophisticated techniques, implants and navigation methods. Nevertheless, these new methods continue to fail in some instances. Regenerative medicine using the growth potential of stem cells that posses the ability to regenerate damaged tissues represent one of the possible ways forward. There is a potential for more comprehensive utilization of bone marrow stem cells that had for many years been used in transplant medicine. Traumatology and orthopaedics could utilise stem cells in the treatment of bone defects, i.e. in the treatment of pseudarthrosis, delayed fracture healing, defect fractures and aseptic bone necroses. Bone formation and growth is a complex, predominantly anabolic, process with a range of feedbacks. Nevertheless, it is the bone marrow where the necessary progenitors of bone growth are located. These are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as thrombocytes containing a range of necessary growth factors. A number of studies showed positive results for stem cells treatment of pseudarthrosis, with only a fraction, however, being statistically significant in human medicine. This method was used in 11 patients of the Traumatology Centre of the Faculty Hospital in Ostrava, Czech Republic in 2008. The researched patients were treated for pseudarthrosis of long bones, delayed multifragmentary fracture haling and defect fractures of long bones. Autologous concentrate of bone marrow stem cells was applied in one session into the area of bone defect in a patient lightly anaesthetised with propofol. The results from this small sample of patients are not yet available. However, we are sharing our first experiences with this treatment option.

  9. Effect of Wnt3a delivery on early healing events during guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschouris, P; Retzepi, M; Petrie, A; Donos, N

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of recombinant Wnt3a delivery on the bone regeneration potential following application of the guided bone regeneration (GBR) principle. A critical-size calvarial defect was created on each parietal bone of 14 Wistar strain rats. One defect was used as the test side and was treated with a collagen sponge carrying 2.0 μg of recombinant Wnt3a protein, whereas the contralateral side served as sham-operated control. Both defects were covered at both the extracranial and intracranial aspects with ePTFE non-resorbable membranes, according to the GBR principle. Following healing periods of 4 and 7 days, qualitative histological and histomorphometric evaluation of undecalcified sections was performed in subgroups of seven animals. The primary outcome parameter was the mean percentage of defect closure in the test and control defects. At 4 days of healing, a network of coagulum and fibrin was observed and initial signs of granulation tissue formation were evident with no apparent differences between the test and control groups. At 7 days of healing, the test group presented newly formed woven bone, originating from the borders of the defect, as opposed to the control group, whereby woven bone formation was not observed in any of the specimens. The delivery of mouse recombinant Wnt-3a protein in combination with GBR may promote woven bone formation in critical-size calvarial defects at 7 days of healing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Influence of implants prepared by selective laser melting on early bone healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y; Chen, F; Ge, Y J; Wei, L; Pan, S X; Feng, H L

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the influence of the rough surface of dental implants prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) on early bone healing around titanium implants. A total of sixteen titanium implants were involved in our research, of which eight implants were prepared by SLM (TIXOS Cylindrical, Leader-Novaxa, Milan, Italy; 3.3 mm×10 mm, internal hex) and the other eight were sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) implants (IMPLUS Cylindrical, Leader-Novaxa, Milan, Italy; 3.3 mm×10 mm, internal hex). All of the dental implants were inserted into the healed extraction sockets of the mandible of two adult male Beagle dogs. Half of the dental implants were designed to be healed beneath the mucosa and the other half were intended to be healed transgingivally and were immediately loaded by acrylic resin bridge restoration. Three types of tetracycline fluorescent labels, namely calcein blue, alizarin complexone and calcein, were administered into the veins of the Beagle dogs 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implant placement respectively for fluorescent evaluation of newly formed bone peri-implant. Both Beagle dogs were euthanized 12 weeks after implant insertion and the mandible block specimens containing the titanium implants and surrounding bone and soft tissue of each dog were carefully sectioned and dissected. A total of 16 hard tissue slices were obtained and stained with toluidine blue for microscopic examination and histomorphometric measurements. Histological observation was made for each slice under light microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Comparison on new bone formation around titanium implants of each group was made and mineral apposition rate (MAR) was calculated for each group. Dental implants prepared by selective laser melting had achieved satisfying osseointegration to surrounding bone tissue after the healing period of 12 weeks. Newly formed bone tissue was observed creeping on the highly porous surface of the SLM implant and growing

  11. Histologic evaluation of bone healing capacity following application of inorganic bovine bone and a new allograft material in rabbit calvaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of bone augmentation prior to implant placement in order to obtain adequate bone quality and quantity, many studies have been conducted to evaluate different techniques and materials regarding new bone formation. In this study, we investigated the bone healing capacity of two different materials deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM with the trade name of Bio-Oss and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA with the trade name of DynaGraft.This randomized blinded prospective study was conducted on twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Three cranial defects with an equal diameter were created on their calvarium. Subsequently, they were distributed into three groups: 1. The control group without any treatment; 2. The Bio-Oss group; 3. The DynaGraft group. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed for histologic and histomorphometric analysis.Substantial new bone formation was observed in both groups. DynaGraft: 56/1 % ± 15/1 and Bio-Oss: 53/55 % ± 13/5 compared to the control group: 28/6 % ± 11/2. All groups showed slight inflammation and a small amount of residual biomaterial was observed.Considerable new bone formation was demonstrated in both DynaGraft and Bio-Oss groups in comparison with the control group. Both materials are considered biocompatible regarding the negligible foreign body reaction.

  12. Involvement of bone marrow stem cells in periodontal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li Li; Liu, Hong Wei; Wen, Xin Xin; Xie, Han

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis whether bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) could migrate into the periodontium as the precursor available for the repair of tissue injury. A chimeric mouse model was established by transplanting BMSCs derived from red fluorescent protein mouse into irradiated BALB/c mice. Subsequently, a periodontal defect was created beside the maxillary first molar and filled with ceramic bovine bone. Finally, the chimeric mice were divided into three groups and were observed 3, 14 and 28 days later respectively. The involvement of BMSCs in periodontal defects was analysed using an in vivo imaging system and immunohistochemical staining of CD45, CD105 and CD31. Cell surface marker expression in injured tissue was also compared with that in normal tissue. Increasing numbers of BMSCs migrated into the periodontal defect with time. The distribution was initially limited to ceramic bovine bone and then around blood vessels and near alveolar bone. Furthermore, expression of CD105 and CD31 was much higher in injured periodontal tissue than that in healthy periodontium, although CD45 was not expressed in either of these tissues. BMSCs, but not haemopoietic stem cells, were involved in periodontal defect; they entered the periodontium probably via blood vessels.

  13. Osteoimmune Mechanisms of Segmental Bone Fracture Healing and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    abrogating conventional routes of intracellular protein degradation can enhance the BMP precursor protein level...repair cascade. Growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), transforming growth factor (TGF...summarized in Table 1. The alterations are classified as persistent (observed at all-time points), local vs. systemic (occurring only in segmental defect

  14. A Versatile Protocol for Studying Calvarial Bone Defect Healing in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Dudakovic, Amel; Zan, Pengfei; Pichurin, Oksana; Cool, Simon M; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2017-11-01

    Animal models are vital tools for the preclinical development and testing of therapies aimed at providing solutions for several musculoskeletal disorders. For bone tissue engineering strategies addressing nonunion conditions, rodent models are particularly useful for studying bone healing in a controlled environment. The mouse calvarial defect model permits evaluation of drug, growth factor, or cell transplantation efficacy, together with offering the benefit of utilizing genetic models to study intramembranous bone formation within defect sites. In this study, we describe a detailed methodology for creating calvarial defects in mouse and present our results on bone morphogenetic protein-2-loaded fibrin scaffolds, thus advocating the utility of this functional orthotopic mouse model for the evaluation of therapeutic interventions (such as growth factors or cells) intended for successful bone regeneration therapies.

  15. Histologic Evaluation of Critical Size Defect Healing With Natural and Synthetic Bone Grafts in the Pigeon ( Columba livia ) Ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi

    2015-06-01

    Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons.

  16. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Bihua; Luo, Xueshi; Li, Zhiwen; Zhuang, Caiping; Li, Lihua; Lu, Lu; Ding, Shan; Tian, Jinhuan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    Collagen biomineralization is regulated by complicated interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. Here, the use of sodium tripolyphosphate to simulate the templating functional motif of the C-terminal fragment of non-collagenous proteins is reported, and a low molecular weight polyacrylic acid served as a sequestration agent to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate into nanoprecursors. Self-assembled collagen fibrils served as a fixed template for achieving rapid biomimetic mineralization in vitro. Results demonstrated that, during the mineralization process, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar hydroxyapatite mineral with collagen fibrils formed and did so via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallization approach in the presence of these dual biomimetic functional analogues. In vitro human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) culture found that the mineralized scaffolds have a better cytocompatibility in terms of cell viability, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts. A rabbit femoral condyle defect model was established to confirm the ability of the n-HA/collagen scaffolds to facilitate bone regeneration and repair. The images of gross anatomy, MRI, CT and histomorphology taken 6 and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the biomimetic mineralized collagen scaffolds with hUCMSCs can promote the healing speed of bone defects in vivo, and both of the scaffolds groups performing better than the bone defect control group. As new bone tissue formed, the scaffolds degraded and were gradually absorbed. All these results demonstrated that both of the scaffolds and cells have better histocompatibility. - Highlights: • A rapid and facile biomimetic mineralization approach is proposed. • Intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibrils was achieved. • HA/COL scaffolds promote hUCMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. • Feasibility of h

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells homing to improve bone healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy continues to attract growing interest as a promising approach to treat a variety of diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been one of the most intensely studied candidates for cell therapy. Since the homing capacity of MSCs is an important determinant of effective MSC-based therapy, the enhancement of homing efficiency is essential for optimizing the therapeutic outcome. Furthermore, trafficking of endogenous MSCs to damaged tissues, also referred to as endogenic stem cell homing, and the subsequent participation of MSCs in tissue regeneration are considered to be a natural self-healing response. Therefore, strategies to stimulate and reinforce the mobilisation and homing of MSCs have become a key point in regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on advances in the mechanisms and factors governing trafficking of MSCs, and the relationship between MSC mobilisation and skeletal diseases, providing insights into strategies for their potential translational implications.

  18. Quality of Bone Healing: Perspectives and Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    from nails and screws to dental prostheses and total joint replacements. Direct mechanical testing The true efficacy of bone regeneration can be...fractures. BMJ 1996; 312: 1254–9. 52. Clark DE, Danforth RA, Barnes RW, Burtch ML. Radiation absorbed from dental implant radiography: a comparison of... Dental Trauma Research Detachment, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, 3. Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio

  19. The effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on tendon-bone healing in a transosseous-equivalent sheep rotator cuff model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovric, Vedran; Ledger, Michael; Goldberg, Jerome; Harper, Wade; Bertollo, Nicky; Pelletier, Matthew H; Oliver, Rema A; Yu, Yan; Walsh, William R

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound has on initial tendon-bone healing in a clinically relevant extra-articular transosseous-equivalent ovine rotator cuff model. Eight skeletally mature wethers, randomly allocated to either control group (n = 4) or treatment group (n = 4), underwent rotator cuff surgery following injury to the infraspinatus tendon. All animals were killed 28 days post surgery to allow examination of early effects of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment. General improvement in histological appearance of tendon-bone integration was noted in the treatment group. Newly formed woven bone with increased osteoblast activity along the bone surface was evident. A continuum was observed between the tendon and bone in an interdigitated fashion with Sharpey's fibres noted in the treatment group. Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment also increased bone mineral density at the tendon-bone interface (p < 0.01), while immunohistochemistry results revealed an increase in the protein expression patterns of VEGF (p = 0.038), RUNX2 (p = 0.02) and Smad4 (p = 0.05). The results of this study indicate that Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound may aid in the initial phase of tendon-bone healing process in patients who have undergone rotator cuff repair. This treatment may also be beneficial following other types of reconstructive surgeries involving the tendon-bone interface.

  20. The healing of critical-sized bone defect of rat zygomatic arch with particulate bone graft and bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Good; Shin, Dong Min; Lee, Sang Woo

    2010-03-01

    For some critical-sized bony defects in the facial bones, it is necessary that the defect be reconstructed using an autologous bone graft from another donor site, not only to ensure stability, but also to derive aesthetic contouring. However, because of the easy gain and easy moulding of particulate bone, it would be easier to reconstruct the defect by using particulate bone graft (PBG) rather than block bone graft (BBG). This study was designed to confirm the usefulness of PBG with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) instead of BBG and to observe its long-term outcome in critical-sized zygomatic arch defects in a rat model. A sample of 18 Sprague-Dawley rats was divided into three groups; a 5-mm critical-sized bone defect was made in both zygomatic arches of all subjects. Each group was treated with different combinations of BMP-2 and PBG. At 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment, each defect was compared radiologically. Histological evaluation was performed after 12 weeks. In the first group, the defects with PBG decreased more than in those with no bone graft (PPBG and BMP-2 decreased more than in those with PBG alone (PPBG and BMP-2 and that with in situ bone graft (instead of BBG). In conclusion, PBG with BMP-2 showed satisfactory bone healing without any additional bone graft in the animal model. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of conventional and biological treatment in healing of bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Zhe; Di, Hui; Chu, Guo-Hua; Lu, Lu

    2018-01-01

    The healing of Bone tissue consists of a complex process. Hence, we designed our study to evaluate chondrial diseases, which are as they have a very low healing capacity. Seventy two elderly osteoarthritis (OA) and 54-paediatric juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients were included. The group was divided as 24 OA patients and 18 JIA patients in each group. Group I received Hyualuronic acid and glucocorticoides. Group II received platelet rich plasma and fibrin glue. Group III received PRP, fibrin glue, and MSC. 40 control patients received only PRP treatment. Out of 72 OA patients 35 (48.6%) male and 37 (51.4%) female with mean age of 48 ± 6.5 years. 64 (88.9%) Patients had pain and swelling. 52 (72.2%) lacked flexibility. 42 (58.3%) had hypertrophy. 28 (38.9%) had less cartilage thickness. 34 (47.2%) were in grade 3, grade 2 has 28 (38.9%) and grade 1 has 10 (13.9%) patients respectively. Among 54 JIA patients 28 (51.9%) male and 26 (48.1%) female patients with mean, age 4.6 ± 3.8 years. 39 (72.2%) had pain and swelling. 32 (59.3%) lacked flexibility. 29 (53.7%) children's had functional disability. Group I patients showed 30% improvement with no statistical significance (P < 0.21). Group II showed 45% improvement with statistical significance (P < 0.01). In Group III 80%, improvement was observed with statistical significance (P < 0.001). In 40 control patients, 60% improvement was observed. In conclusion, use of these MSC, PRP, and PPP are safe and less cost effective for treating OA and JIA.

  2. Comparative analysis of conventional and biological treatment in healing of bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-zhe Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing of Bone tissue consists of a complex process. Hence, we designed our study to evaluate chondrial diseases, which are as they have a very low healing capacity. Seventy two elderly osteoarthritis (OA and 54-paediatric juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA patients were included. The group was divided as 24 OA patients and 18 JIA patients in each group. Group I received Hyualuronic acid and glucocorticoides. Group II received platelet rich plasma and fibrin glue. Group III received PRP, fibrin glue, and MSC. 40 control patients received only PRP treatment. Out of 72 OA patients 35 (48.6% male and 37 (51.4% female with mean age of 48 ± 6.5 years. 64 (88.9% Patients had pain and swelling. 52 (72.2% lacked flexibility. 42 (58.3% had hypertrophy. 28 (38.9% had less cartilage thickness. 34 (47.2% were in grade 3, grade 2 has 28 (38.9% and grade 1 has 10 (13.9% patients respectively. Among 54 JIA patients 28 (51.9% male and 26 (48.1% female patients with mean, age 4.6 ± 3.8 years. 39 (72.2% had pain and swelling. 32 (59.3% lacked flexibility. 29 (53.7% children’s had functional disability. Group I patients showed 30% improvement with no statistical significance (P < 0.21. Group II showed 45% improvement with statistical significance (P < 0.01. In Group III 80%, improvement was observed with statistical significance (P < 0.001. In 40 control patients, 60% improvement was observed. In conclusion, use of these MSC, PRP, and PPP are safe and less cost effective for treating OA and JIA.

  3. Radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical effects of recombinant canine somatotropin in an unstable ostectomy gap model of bone healing in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millis, D.L.; Wilkens, B.E.; Daniel, G.B.; Hubner, K.; Mathews, A.; Buonomo, F.C.; Patell, K.R.; Weigel, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of recombinant canine somatotropin (STH) on radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing using an unstable ostectomy gap model. Study Design: After an ostectomy of the midshaft radius, bone healing was evaluated over an 8-week period in control dogs (n = 4) and dogs receiving recombinant canine STH (n = 4). Animals Or Sample Population: Eight sexually intact female Beagle dogs, 4 to 5 years old. Methods: Bone healing was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation of serial radiographs every 2 weeks. Terminal dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending biomechanical testing were also performed. Results: Dogs receiving STH had more advanced radiographic healing of ostectomy sites. Bone area, bone mineral content, and bone density were two to five times greater at the ostectomy sites of treated dogs. Ultimate load at failure and stiffness were three and five times greater in dogs receiving STH. Conclusions: Using the ostectomy gap model, recombinant canine STH enhanced the radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing in dogs. Clinical Relevance: Dogs at risk for delayed healing of fractures may benefit from treatment with recombinant canine STH

  4. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-04-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing.

  5. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing

  6. Time-dependent changes in bone healing capacity of scaphoid fractures and non-unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Gernot; Ebner, Hannes Leonhard; Klima, Günter; Pfaller, Kristian; Fritz, Josef; Hoermann, Romed; Gabl, Markus

    2018-02-27

    The scaphoid is the most frequently fractured carpal bone and prone to non-union due to mechanical and biological factors. Whereas the importance of stability is well documented, the evaluation of biological activity is mostly limited to the assessment of vascularity. The purpose of this study was to select histological and immunocytochemical parameters that could be used to assess healing potential after scaphoid fractures and to correlate these findings with time intervals after fracture for the three parts of the scaphoid (distal, gap and proximal). Samples were taken during operative intervention in 33 patients with delayed or non-union of the scaphoid. Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE), Azan, Toluidine, von Kossa and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were used to characterise the samples histologically. We determined distribution of collagen 1 and 2 by immunocytochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the ultrastructure. To analyse the samples, parameters for biological healing status were defined and grouped according to healing capacity in parameters with high, partial and little biological activity. These findings allowed scoring of biological healing capacity, and the ensuing results were correlated with different time intervals after fracture. The results showed reduced healing capacity over time, but not all parts of the scaphoid were affected in the same way. For the distal fragment, regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between summarised healing activity scores and time from initial fracture (r = -0.427, P = 0.026) and decreasing healing activity for the gap region (r = -0.339, P = 0.090). In contrast, the analyses of the proximal parts for all patients did not show a correlation (r = 0.008, P = 0.969) or a decrease in healing capacity, with reduced healing capacity already at early stages. The histological and immunocytochemical characterisation of scaphoid non

  7. Teriparatide treatment of femoral fracture nonunion that autogenous bone grafting failed to heal: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Management of fracture nonunion is challenging as another surgical intervention for the patient is often a necessity, which has a huge impact on both quality of life and economic burden of the patient. Thus, a less aggressive and better accepted treatment for nonunion is required. We gave teriparatide to a 45-year-old man with femoral fracture nonunion 1 year after he underwent surgery with autogenous bone grafting that failed to heal his initial nonunion. Successful union was obtained after once-daily administration of teriparatide for 9 months. Our case showed teriparatide could successfully treat a femoral fracture nonunion that autogenous bone grafting failed to heal. Teriparatide may provide an alternative treatment for fracture nonunion.

  8. Does Periosteal Graft Combined With Platelet-Rich Plasma Enhance the Healing of Bone Defect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkseven, Arzu; Özçelik, Derya; Çaliş, Mert; Celik, Hakan Hamdi; Yilmaz, Fahri; Önbaş, Ömer; Vatansever, Alper; Toplu, Gaye

    2018-02-12

    This study investigated the effect of periosteal graft + platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combination on facial bone defect healing. Five-millimeter critical sized defects in zygomatic arches of 12 adult New Zealand rabbits were created. Rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: First group (control group): bone defects of left zygomatic arches of 6 rabbits were wrapped with a silicone tube. Second group (periosteal graft group): bone defects of left zygomatic arches of 6 rabbits were wrapped with periosteal graft. Third group (experimental group): bone defects of right zygomatic arches of 12 rabbits were wrapped with periosteal graft-PRP combination. New bone formation was evaluated at 8th and 16th weeks. One rabbit was sacrificed at 8th week. Remaining 11 rabbits were imaged with 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) at 16th week; then, zygomatic arches were removed for micro-CT and histologic examinations. Three-dimensional CT analysis at 16th week revealed no significant difference between groups regarding new bone formation (P = 0.232). Micro-CT analysis of new regenerated bone at 16th week displayed significant differences between groups 1 and 3 regarding mean bone volume (BV, mm) (P = 0.028) and mean bone mineral density (BMD, mm) (P = 0.001). There was no difference between groups 2 and 3 or between groups 1 and 2, regarding BV or BMD. Histological Bone Regeneration Scorings at 16th week displayed significant difference between groups (P = 0.015). Negative correlation between 3-dimensional CT and histologic results (r = 0.120); positive correlations between BV/BMD values in micro-CT and histologic results (r = 0.524 and r = 0.456) were found. By enhancing bone formation capacity of periosteal grafts, periosteal graft-PRP combination provided bone formation having more volume and density comparing with silicone tube application.

  9. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex increased bone healing: histologic and histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ferhan; Acikan, Izzet; Dundar, Serkan; Simsek, Sercan; Gul, Mehmet; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Komorowski, James; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; arginine 49.5%, silicon 8.2%, and inositol 25%) is a novel material that is a bioavailable source of silicon and arginine. ASI offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of ASI complex on bone healing of critical-sized defects in rats. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups of 21 rats each. The control group was fed a standard diet for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The ASI group was fed a diet containing 1.81 g/kg of ASI for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The calvarial bones of all the rats were then harvested for evaluation. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the control group at days 7, 14, and 28 of the calvarial defect (P0.05). ASI supplementation significantly improved bone tissue healing in rats with critical-sized defects. This study demonstrated that ASI can enhance bone repair and has potential as a therapeutic regimen in humans.

  10. Ultrasound to stimulate mandibular bone defect healing : A placebo-controlled single-blind study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Ruben, JL; Raghoebar, GM; Stegenga, B

    Purpose: Because of the limitations of the body to heal large maxillofacial bone defects, an attempt was made to stimulate mandibular defect healing with low intensity pulsed ultrasound in rats. This ultrasound consists of a 1.5-MHz pressure wave administered in pulses of 200 musec, with an average

  11. The progress of early phase bone healing using porous granules produced from calcium phosphate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Bone grafting is a vital component in many surgical procedures to facilitate the repair of bone defects or fusions. Autologous bone has been the gold standard to date in spite of associated donor-site morbidity and the limited amount of available donor bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the progress of bone regeneration and material degradation of calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder compared to the use of autologous bone grafting in the treatment of "critical size defects" on load-bearing long bones of minipigs. Methods A critical size defect in the tibial metaphysis of 16 mini-pigs was filled either with autologous cancellous graft or with micro- and macroporous carbonated, apatic calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder. After 6 weeks, the specimens were assessed by X-ray and histological evaluation. The amount of new bone formation was analysed histomorphometrically. Results The semi-quantitative analysis of the radiological results showed a complete osseous bridging of the defect in three cases for the autograft group. In the same group five animals showed a beginning, but still incomplete bridging of the defect, whereas in the CPG group just two animals developed this. All other animals of the CPG group showed only a still discontinuous new bone formation. Altogether, radiologically a better osseous bridging was observed in the autograft group compared to the CPG group. Histomorphometrical analysis after six weeks of healing revealed that the area of new bone was significantly greater in the autograft group concerning the central area of the defect zone (p Conclusions Within the limits of the present study it could be demonstrated that autologous cancellous grafts lead to a significantly better bone regeneration compared to the application of calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium

  12. Local Application of Isogenic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Restores Bone Healing Capacity in a Type 2 Diabetes Model.

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    Wallner, Christoph; Abraham, Stephanie; Wagner, Johannes Maximilian; Harati, Kamran; Ismer, Britta; Kessler, Lukas; Zöllner, Hannah; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Behr, Björn

    2016-06-01

    Bone regeneration is typically a reliable process without scar formation. The endocrine disease type 2 diabetes prolongs and impairs this healing process. In a previous work, we showed that angiogenesis and osteogenesis-essential steps of bone regeneration-are deteriorated, accompanied by reduced proliferation in type 2 diabetic bone regeneration. The aim of the study was to improve these mechanisms by local application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and facilitate bone regeneration in impaired diabetic bone regeneration. The availability of ASCs in great numbers and the relative ease of harvest offers unique advantages over other mesenchymal stem cell entities. A previously described unicortical tibial defect model was utilized in diabetic mice (Lepr(db-/-)). Isogenic mouse adipose-derived stem cells (mASCs)(db-/db-) were harvested, transfected with a green fluorescent protein vector, and isografted into tibial defects (150,000 living cells per defect). Alternatively, control groups were treated with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium or mASCs(WT). In addition, wild-type mice were identically treated. By means of immunohistochemistry, proteins specific for angiogenesis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and bone formation were analyzed at early (3 days) and late (7 days) stages of bone regeneration. Additionally, histomorphometry was performed to examine bone formation rate and remodeling. Histomorphometry revealed significantly increased bone formation in mASC(db-/db-)-treated diabetic mice as compared with the respective control groups. Furthermore, locally applied mASCs(db-/db-) significantly enhanced neovascularization and osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, bone remodeling was upregulated in stem cell treatment groups. Local application of mACSs can restore impaired diabetic bone regeneration and may represent a therapeutic option for the future. This study showed that stem cells obtained from fat pads of type 2 diabetic mice are capable of

  13. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type II on Long Bones Fractures Healing

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    Ali Sadighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fracture healing is a complex process where synthesis and activation of a cascade of cells and molecules collaborate and participate in regeneration of the fractured bones. There are several factors involved in nonunion of fractured bones. Endocrine and metabolic diseases are regarded as factors causing nonunion of fractured bones. The present study aims at evaluating effect of diabetes type II, as an important and prevalent metabolic disease, on results of surgical treatment of long bones fractures. Method: This case-control study was conducted on 74 patients with isolated fracture of tibia and femur shafts resulting from low-energy trauma. In this study, 50 patients with definite diagnosis of diabetes were compared with 24 metabolically health persons considering age, gender, type of fracture, and treatment method. The diabetic patients were classified in two groups considering their insulin or oral agent. Level of hs-CRP inflammatory marker was also determined in these patients. Union rate and duration as well as relation between inflammatory marker and union rate were studied. Results: Prevalence of nonunion and delayed union were seen in 8 (32% and 2 (8% patients with orally-treated diabetes, respectively. It was 3 (12% in diabetes patients treated with insulin. However, there was not any case of nonunion in the health group. There was a statistically significant difference between these groups. According to the regression model, hs-CRP level played a significant role considering nonunion prediction (P=0.001, Odd’s Ratio=3.4, CI95%:1.4-4.8. Also, type of diabetes treatment had a significant role in predicting nonunion (P=0.04, Odd’s Ratio=0.6, CI95%:0.3-1.4. Duration of being affected by diabetes did not play any important role in nonunion prediction. Conclusion: Prevalence of nonunion in patients with diabetes suffering from fracture and undergoing orthopedic surgery is higher than healthy people. It seems that increase

  14. Extended fatigue life of a catalyst-free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Alice B.W.; Matthys, Oriane B.; Craig, Stephen L.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, and fatigue lifetime were investigated in accordance with ASTM and ISO standards for the testing of PMMA bone cement. The bending strength of bone cement specimens decreased with increasing wt% capsules content for capsules without or with OCA, with specimens of formulation. PMID:24825796

  15. Enhancement of Tendon–Bone Healing for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL Reconstruction Using Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Infected with BMP-2

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    Shiyi Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon–bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 on tendon–bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control, and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon–bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively. In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3 was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4 or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0 (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively. Based on the

  16. Forces associated with launch into space do not impact bone fracture healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Paul; Brinker, Alexander; Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Harris, Jonathan; Olivos, David J.; Rytlewski, Jeffrey D.; Scofield, David C.; Choi, Sungshin Y.; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; McKinley, Todd O.; Chu, Tien-Min G.; Conley, Carolynn L.; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Hammamieh, Rasha; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2018-02-01

    Segmental bone defects (SBDs) secondary to trauma invariably result in a prolonged recovery with an extended period of limited weight bearing on the affected limb. Soldiers sustaining blast injuries and civilians sustaining high energy trauma typify such a clinical scenario. These patients frequently sustain composite injuries with SBDs in concert with extensive soft tissue damage. For soft tissue injury resolution and skeletal reconstruction a patient may experience limited weight bearing for upwards of 6 months. Many small animal investigations have evaluated interventions for SBDs. While providing foundational information regarding the treatment of bone defects, these models do not simulate limited weight bearing conditions after injury. For example, mice ambulate immediately following anesthetic recovery, and in most cases are normally ambulating within 1-3 days post-surgery. Thus, investigations that combine disuse with bone healing may better test novel bone healing strategies. To remove weight bearing, we have designed a SBD rodent healing study in microgravity (μG) on the International Space Station (ISS) for the Rodent Research-4 (RR-4) Mission, which launched February 19, 2017 on SpaceX CRS-10 (Commercial Resupply Services). In preparation for this mission, we conducted an end-to-end mission simulation consisting of surgical infliction of SBD followed by launch simulation and hindlimb unloading (HLU) studies. In brief, a 2 mm defect was created in the femur of 10 week-old C57BL6/J male mice (n = 9-10/group). Three days after surgery, 6 groups of mice were treated as follows: 1) Vivarium Control (maintained continuously in standard cages); 2) Launch Negative Control (placed in the same spaceflight-like hardware as the Launch Positive Control group but were not subjected to launch simulation conditions); 3) Launch Positive Control (placed in spaceflight-like hardware and also subjected to vibration followed by centrifugation); 4) Launch Positive

  17. Primary arthroplasty in healed osteoarticular allograft in patients with history of primary femoral bone tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Bianca M; Kaiser, Courtney L; Paulino Pereira, Nuno Rui; Hornicek, Francis J; Raskin, Kevin A; Schwab, Joseph H; LozanoCalderón, Santiago A

    2017-12-01

    Roughly 25-35% of patients who are treated with osteoarticular allograft for primary bone sarcomas or aggressive benign bone tumors require surgery in the long-term due to degenerative changes of the articular surface of the allograft. There are three established methods of reconstruction for this complication; a total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the retained osteoarticular allograft, a proximal or distal endoprosthesis after removal of the allograft, and an allograft-prosthesis composite (APC). The aims of this study are 1) to determine the rate of complication and failure of THA/TKA in healed femoral allograft; 2) to compare the methods of revision for allograft degeneration; and 3) to compare the use of arthroplasty in healed allograft to that of arthroplasty in native bone. We included all patients with primary bone sarcomas and locally aggressive primary benign bone tumors treated between 1984 and 2014 with an osteoarticular allograft followed by any subsequent arthroplasty technique as described above. Complications and reasons for failure are described following the classification of Henderson et al. Failure was defined as any complication leading to removal of the initial treatment construct. Failure rates of these groups were compared to primary arthroplasty in a live host bone (Control Group). Complications happened in 25 (61.0%) of the patients with a THA/TKA in the retained allograft, of these, 24 (58.5%) experienced failure, the most common being structural failure/type III (14, 58.3%). Thirteen patients (81.3%) with an endoprosthesis after removal of the allograft experienced complications, all of whom failed. The most common failure modes were aseptic loosening/type II (4, 30.8%) and infection/type IV (5, 38.5%). Complications in patients with an APC were experienced by 12 (85.7%) patients, 11 (78.6%) of whom failed. The most common failure mode was infection/type IV (4, 36.4%). Significantly (p < 0.001) fewer

  18. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhonghua [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Wang, Haiqin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fifth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Huo, Ran, E-mail: rhuo12@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing.

  19. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Haiqin; Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing

  20. Biomaterial-Stabilized Soft Tissue Healing for Healing of Critical-Sized Bone Defects: the Masquelet Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchala, Magdalena; Harvey, Edward J; Barralet, Jake

    2016-03-01

    Critical-sized bone defects present a significant burden to the medical community due to their challenging treatment. However, a successful limb-salvaging technique, the Masquelet Technique (MT), has significantly improved the prognosis of many segmental bone defects in helping to restore form and function. Although the Masquelet Technique has proven to be clinically effective, the physiology of the healing it induces is not well understood. Multiple modifiable factors have been implicated by various surgical and research teams, but no single factor has been proven to be critical to the success of the Masquelet Technique. In this review the most recent clinical and experimental evidence that supports and helps to decipher the traditional Masquelet, as well as the modifiable factors and their effect on the success of the technique are discussed. In addition, future developments for the integration of the traditional Masquelet Technique with the use of alternative biomaterials to increase the effectiveness and expand the clinical applicability of the Masquelet Technique are reviewed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Knee loading protects against osteonecrosis of the femoral head by enhancing vessel remodeling and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daquan; Li, Xinle; Li, Jie; Yang, Jing; Yokota, Hiroki; Zhang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a serious orthopedic problem. Moderate loads with knee loading promote bone formation, but their effects on osteonecrosis have not been investigated. Using a rat model, we examined a hypothesis that knee loading enhances vessel remodeling and bone healing through the modulation of the fate of bone marrow-derived cells. In this study, osteonecrosis was induced by transecting the ligamentum teres followed by a tight ligature around the femoral neck. For knee loading, 5 N loads were laterally applied to the knee at 15 Hz for 5 min/day for 5 weeks. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the femur were measured by pDEXA, and ink infusion was performed to evaluate vessel remodeling. Femoral heads were harvested for histomorphometry, and bone marrow-derived cells were isolated to examine osteoclast development and osteoblast differentiation. The results showed that osteonecrosis significantly induced bone loss, and knee loading stimulated both vessel remodeling and bone healing. The osteonecrosis group exhibited the lowest trabecular BV/TV (p b 0.001) in the femoral head, and lowest femoral BMD and BMC (both p b 0.01). However, knee loading increased trabecular BV/TV (p b 0.05) as well as BMD (pb 0.05) and BMC (p b 0.01). Osteonecrosis decreased the vessel volume (pb 0.001), vessel number (pb 0.001) and VEGF expression (p b 0.01), and knee loading increased them (pb 0.001, pb 0.001 and p b 0.01). Osteonecrosis activated osteoclast development, and knee loading reduced its formation, migration, adhesion and the level of “pit” formation (pb 0.001, pb 0.01, pb 0.001 and pb 0.001). Furthermore, knee loading significantly increased osteoblast differentiation and CFU-F (both p b 0.001). A significantly positive correlation was observed between vessel remodeling and bone healing (both p b 0.01). These results indicate that knee loading could be effective in repair osteonecrosis of the femoral head in a rat

  2. Histometric study of alveolar bone healing in rats treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Giovanini, Gabriela Salgueiro; Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Lamano, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    There is extensive experimental and clinical evidence in the orthopedic area that prolonged use of nonselective (inhibitor of both cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can hinder long bone fracture healing, spinal fusion rate, and new bone formation around implants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether nimesulide (Nimesulida, Medley S.A., Campinas, SP, Brazil), a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, can hinder alveolar bone healing, in rats. Treated rats received oral doses (5 mg/kg/rat/day) of nimesulide from the day of tooth extraction until euthanasia 2 weeks later and control rats received tap water (n = 5 per group). The volume of neoformed bone inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semiserial longitudinal histological sections by a differential point-counting method, and the significance of the difference between groups was analyzed by Student t test (P alveolar bone healing in rats.

  3. Effect of antiresorptive drugs in the alveolar bone healing. A histometric and immunohistochemical study in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Momesso, Gustavo Antonio Correa; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; de Oliveira Puttini, Igor; Okamoto, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the alendronate and raloxifene influence in the alveolar healing process of osteoporotic rats. Sixty-four female rats were divided in four groups: sham rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats and no medical treatment (OVX NT), ovariectomized rats and submitted to alendronate treatment (OVX ALE), and ovariectomized and submitted to raloxifene treatment (OVX RAL). The histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The quantitative data were analyzed through Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). In the longest period, SHAM and OVX RAL groups showed the better bone formation responses (P alveolar healing process in osteoporotic rats, but not enough to achieve the histometrical and protein expression values that were observed in the SHAM group. Alendronate is largely used as a potent antiresorptive agent. Otherwise, considering the undesirable effects in relation to the alveolar healing, other antiosteoporosis medications should be studied. Raloxifene seems to be a good candidate once its action mechanism involves the activation of osteoblasts.

  4. Evaluation of simvastatin in the process of fracture healing in tibiae of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wanderley Vasconcelos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of simvastatin in the process of fracture healing in rat tibia. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were subjected to diaphyseal fracture of the leg bones and divided in the statin group (GE and control group (GC, being subdivided into three subgroups according to days post-fracture (7th, 14th and 28th day to assess bone healing. In GE was administered by gavage a solution of simvastatin to the sacrifice. In the control group was administered saline by the same route of SG. Immobilization was not used. After the sacrifice was made to limb amputation in the distal femur and conducted the clinical, radiological and histological analysis. Clinical evaluation was made as to the mobility of the fracture. Then the samples were radiographed and evaluated for callus diameter. Histological examination was performed with cuts of 5 micrometers and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and Alcian blue pH 2.5. The level of significance to exclude the null hypothesis was 5%. RESULTS: All GE animals showed greater stability of the fracture and higher callus area. There were no significant changes in the histological study. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin accelerates the consolidation process by increasing the callus, but does not alter the histology of the newly formed bone.

  5. Histologic Evaluation of Bone Healing Following Application of Anorganic Bovine Bone and β-tricalcium Phosphate in Rabbit Calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both anorganic bovine bone (ABB and β-tricalcium phosphate (β- TCP are used in clinical practice as bone substitute materials, but there is limited data comparing these two materials in standardized defects.The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effectiveness of ABB and β-TCP in the healing of experimentally induced bone defects.Materials and Methods: Eighteen bone defects were created on the calvaria of six rabbits. In each animal, one defect was left untreated and the other two werefilled with ABB and β-TCP. After one month, histological sections were prepared.Type and vitality of newly formed bone, percentage of new bone formation and residual material, thickness of trabeculae, inflammation and foreign body reaction were assessed.Results: The newly formed osseous tissue was vital in all defects and consisted of woven and lamellar bone. Mean percentages of new bone formation were 30.83±14.29%, 16.83±11.07% and 14.00±8.17% in β-TCP, ABB and control groups, respectively and the mean percentages of residual biomaterial were 24.17±14.01% and 36.50±8.43% in β-TCP and ABB groups, respectively. However,the differences were not statistically significant (all ps>0.05. Inflammatoryinfiltration was statistically higher in β-TCP compared to the control group (p=0.025, but the difference was not significant between β-TCP and ABB groups (p=0.083. Trabeculation thickness and foreign body reaction were not statistically different between β-TCP and ABB groups.Conclusion: β-TCP and ABB were not different with regard to the quantity and quality of newly formed osseous tissue. However, inflammatory infiltration washigher in sites filled with β-TCP.

  6. Time course of 25(OHD3 vitamin D3 as well as PTH (parathyroid hormone during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density (BMD

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    Wöfl Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now the exact biochemical processes during healing of metaphyseal fractures of healthy and osteoporotic bone remain unclear. Especially the physiological time courses of 25(OHD3 (Vitamin D as well as PTH (Parathyroid Hormone the most important modulators of calcium and bone homeostasis are not yet examined sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to focus on the time course of these parameters during fracture healing. Methods In the presented study, we analyse the time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of low BMD level fractures versus normal BMD level fractures in a matched pair analysis. Between March 2007 and February 2009 30 patients older than 50 years of age who had suffered a metaphyseal fracture of the proximal humerus, the distal radius or the proximal femur were included in our study. Osteoporosis was verified by DEXA measuring. The time courses of 25(OHD3 and PTH were examined over an eight week period. Friedmann test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Mann-Withney U test were used as post-hoc tests. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Serum levels of 25(OHD3 showed no differences in both groups. In the first phase of fracture healing PTH levels in the low BMD level group remained below those of the normal BMD group in absolute figures. Over all no significant differences between low BMD level bone and normal BMD level bone could be detected in our study. Conclusions The time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density were examined for the first time in humans in this setting and allowing molecular biological insights into fracture healing in metaphyseal bones on a molecural level. There were no significant differences between patients with normal and low BMD levels. Hence further studies will be necessary to obtain more detailed insight into fracture healing in order to provide reliable decision criteria for

  7. Comparative study on the role of gelatin, chitosan and their combination as tissue engineered scaffolds on healing and regeneration of critical sized bone defects: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh; Bigham-Sadegh, Amin; Moshiri, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Gelatin and chitosan are natural polymers that have extensively been used in tissue engineering applications. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan and gelatin or combination of the two biopolymers (chitosan-gelatin) as bone scaffold on bone regeneration process in an experimentally induced critical sized radial bone defect model in rats. Fifty radial bone defects were bilaterally created in 25 Wistar rats. The defects were randomly filled with chitosan, gelatin and chitosan-gelatin and autograft or left empty without any treatment (n = 10 in each group). The animals were examined by radiology and clinical evaluation before euthanasia. After 8 weeks, the rats were euthanized and their harvested healing bone samples were evaluated by radiology, CT-scan, biomechanical testing, gross pathology, histopathology, histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy. Gelatin was biocompatible and biodegradable in vivo and showed superior biodegradation and biocompatibility when compared with chitosan and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds. Implantation of both the gelatin and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds in bone defects significantly increased new bone formation and mechanical properties compared with the untreated defects (P gelatin and chitosan considerably increased structural and functional properties of the healing bones when compared to chitosan scaffold (P gelatin and gelatin-chitosan groups in these regards (P > 0.05). In conclusion, application of the gelatin alone or its combination with chitosan had beneficial effects on bone regeneration and could be considered as good options for bone tissue engineering strategies. However, chitosan alone was not able to promote considerable new bone formation in the experimentally induced critical-size radial bone defects.

  8. The Effects of Nigella Sativa Seed Extract on Bone Healing in an Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezirganli, Seref; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Ozdemir, Hakan; Inan, Deniz Sahin; Tek, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to histologically evaluate the effects on bone healing of nigella sativa seed extract applied on calvarial defects in an ovariectomized rat model. The study included 32 female rats weighing 280 to 310 g with an average age of 3 months. A defect was created with a trephine burr on each rat calvarium. The rats were divided into 2 groups (control and study) of 8 animals each. All the defects were grafted with a gelatin sponge mixed with normal saline. In the study group, nigella sativa seed extract was applied systemically using an oro-gastric tube. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed after 2 weeks, and the others after 4 weeks. In the control groups, the defects were not completely filled with regenerated bone. Osteoblast cells were observed more in the study groups. A higher rate of osteoclasts was determined in the control groups. In addition, the nigella sativa group had a statistically greater amount of bone formation than the others group at both 2 weeks and 4 weeks (P nigella sativa seed extract demonstrated incredibly positive effects on enhanced bone healing in this experimental osteoporotic model.

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-7: Review of signalling and efficacy in fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Cecchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are a group of signalling molecules that belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily of proteins. Initially identified for their ability to induce bone formation, recent advances in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms regarding BMPs have led to the use of the growth factor to accelerate bone healing. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that BMPs, BMP-7 in particular, may present an alternative line of treatment other than the gold standard, autogenous bone grafting, in the treatment of fracture nonunion. We performed a literature search in September 2014 of PubMed and Embase using search terms, including “bone morphogenetic proteins”, “BMP-7”, “non-union”, “fracture healing” and “cost-effectiveness”, reviewing the efficacy, safety, and cost of treatment of nonunions with BMP-7. The authors further canvassed the reference lists of selected articles and used online search tools, such as Google Scholar. BMP-7 uses both the canonical and noncanonical signalling pathways. The treatment of fracture nonunion with recombinant human BMP-7 (rhBMP-7 has a comparable efficacy with that of autogenous bone grafting with an average union rate of 87% compared with 93% for bone grafting. Furthermore, fewer complications have been described with the use of rhBMP-7 compared with traditional bone grafting. We describe the signalling pathways that BMP-7 uses to exert its effect on bone. In nonunions, rhBMP-7 has been shown to have a similar efficacy to bone grafting with fewer complications.

  10. Influence of sensory neuropeptides on human cutaneous wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéret, J; Lebonvallet, N; Buhé, V; Carre, J L; Misery, L; Le Gall-Ianotto, C

    2014-06-01

    Close interactions exist between primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and skin cells. The PNS may be implicated in the modulation of different skin functions as wound healing. Study the influence of sensory neurons in human cutaneous wound healing. We incubated injured human skin explants either with rat primary sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or different neuropeptides (vasoactive intestinal peptide or VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide or CGRP, substance P or SP) at various concentrations. Then we evaluated their effects on the proliferative and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling phases, dermal fibroblasts adhesion and differentiation into myofibroblasts. Thus, DRG and all studied neuromediators increased fibroblasts and keratinocytes proliferation and act on the expression ratio between collagen type I and type III in favor of collagen I, particularly between the 3rd and 7th day of culture. Furthermore, the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloprotesases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were increased in the first days of wound healing process. Finally, the adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts and their differentiation into myofibroblasts were promoted after incubation with neuromediators. Interestingly, the most potent concentrations for each tested molecules, were the lowest concentrations, corresponding to physiological concentrations. Sensory neurons and their derived-neuropeptides are able to promote skin wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex increased bone healing: histologic and histomorphometric study

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    Yaman F

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferhan Yaman,1 Izzet Acikan,1 Serkan Dundar,2 Sercan Simsek,3 Mehmet Gul,4 İbrahim Hanifi Ozercan,3 James Komorowski,5 Kazim Sahin6 1Department of Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey; 2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey; 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey; 4Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey; 5Nutrition 21, LLC, Purchase, NY, USA; 6Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Background: Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; arginine 49.5%, silicon 8.2%, and inositol 25% is a novel material that is a bioavailable source of silicon and arginine. ASI offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of ASI complex on bone healing of critical-sized defects in rats. Methods: The rats were randomly assigned to two groups of 21 rats each. The control group was fed a standard diet for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The ASI group was fed a diet containing 1.81 g/kg of ASI for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The calvarial bones of all the rats were then harvested for evaluation. Results: Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the control group at days 7, 14, and 28 of the calvarial defect (P<0.05. New bone formation was detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the controls at day 28 (P<0.05. However, new bone formation was not detected at days 7 and 14 in both the groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: ASI supplementation significantly improved bone tissue

  12. Evaluation of Guided Bone Regeneration around Oral Implants over Different Healing Times Using Two Different Bovine Bone Materials: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical and Histological Investigation.

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    Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Straub, Lisa Marie; Wolkewitz, Martin; Bächle, Maria; Patzelt, Sebastian Berthold Maximilian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of two bone substitute materials and the influence of different healing periods in guided bone regeneration therapy of osseous defects around implants. Twenty-four edentulous patients received implants in the region of the lost lower incisors. Around two standardized osseous defects were created, treated either with a 50:50 mixture of PepGen P-15® and OsteoGraf®/N-700 (test group) or with BioOss® (control group), and covered with titanium membranes. After healing periods of 2, 4, 6, or 9 months, the implants were removed together with the surrounding bone and subsequently prepared for histological evaluations. Defect depths in both groups showed a clinical reduction after intervention. The histologically measured distance from the implant shoulder to the first point of bone-implant contact (BIC) after treatment did not differ between the two groups. The healing time influenced the level of the first point of BIC, with a longer healing period producing a more coronal first point of BIC. A greater percentage BIC and a higher fraction of mineralized bone were found in the pristine bone area compared with the augmented defect area. It can be concluded that in the treatment of osseous defects around oral implants, both materials were equally effective bone substitute materials when used in combination with guided bone regeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Composite transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq data in a sheep model for delayed bone healing

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    Mundlos Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sheep is an important model organism for many types of medically relevant research, but molecular genetic experiments in the sheep have been limited by the lack of knowledge about ovine gene sequences. Results Prior to our study, mRNA sequences for only 1,556 partial or complete ovine genes were publicly available. Therefore, we developed a composite de novo transcriptome assembly method for next-generation sequence data to combine known ovine mRNA and EST sequences, mRNA sequences from mouse and cow, and sequences assembled de novo from short read RNA-Seq data into a composite reference transcriptome, and identified transcripts from over 12 thousand previously undescribed ovine genes. Gene expression analysis based on these data revealed substantially different expression profiles in standard versus delayed bone healing in an ovine tibial osteotomy model. Hundreds of transcripts were differentially expressed between standard and delayed healing and between the time points of the standard and delayed healing groups. We used the sheep sequences to design quantitative RT-PCR assays with which we validated the differential expression of 26 genes that had been identified by RNA-seq analysis. A number of clusters of characteristic expression profiles could be identified, some of which showed striking differences between the standard and delayed healing groups. Gene Ontology (GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched in terms including extracellular matrix, cartilage development, contractile fiber, and chemokine activity. Conclusions Our results provide a first atlas of gene expression profiles and differentially expressed genes in standard and delayed bone healing in a large-animal model and provide a number of clues as to the shifts in gene expression that underlie delayed bone healing. In the course of our study, we identified transcripts of 13,987 ovine genes, including 12,431 genes for which

  14. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing.

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    Montevecchi, Marco; Parrilli, Annapaola; Fini, Milena; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Muttini, Aurelio; Checchi, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit.

  15. Effect of Simvastatin collagen graft on wound healing of defective bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jun Ho; Kim, Gyu Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To observe and evaluate the effects of Simvastatin-induced osteogenesis on the wound healing of defective bone. 64 defective bones were created in the parietal bone of 32 New Zealand White rabbits. The defects were grafted with collagen matrix carriers mixed with Simvastatin solution in the experimental group of 16 rabbits and with collagen matrix carriers mixed with water in the controlled group. The rabbits were terminated at an interval of 3, 5, 7, and 9 days, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after the formation of defective bone. The wound healing was evaluated by soft X-ray radiography. The tissues within defective bones were evaluated through the analysis of flow cytometry for the manifestation of Runx2 and Osteocalcin, and observed histopathologically by using H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain. Results : 1. In the experimental group, flow cytometry revealed more manifestation of Runx2 at 5, 7, and 9 days and Osteocalcin at 2 weeks than in the controlled groups, but there was few difference in comparison with the controlled group. 2. In the experimental group, flow cytometry revealed considerably more cells and erythrocytes at 5, 7, and 9 days in comparison with the controlled group. 3. In the experimental group, soft x-ray radiography revealed the extended formation of trabeculation at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. 4. Histopathological features of the experimental group showed more fibroblasts and newly formed vessels at 5 and 7 days, and the formation of osteoid tissues at 9 days, and the newly formed trabeculations at 4 and 6 weeks. As the induced osteogenesis by Simvastatin, there was few contrast of the manifestation between Runx2 and Osteocalcin based on the differentiation of osteoblasts. But it was considered that the more formation of cells and erythrocytes depending on newly formed vessels in the experimental group obviously had an effect on the bone regeneration.

  16. The clinical study of the early soft tissue healing and marginal bone resorption after non-submerged implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Anchen; Yang Desheng; Hu Bei; Leng Bin; Zhang Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first three months after non-submerged implants and to explore the relationship between the amount of early marginal bone resorption and the soft tissue healing in the first month. Method: ITI with non-submerged implants were implanted in 33 patients. Digital panoramic radiographs were taken during the operation, one month and three months later. The amount of marginal bone resorption was measured in the first, second and the third month after implant operation. The soft tissue healing was observed after 10 days. Results: There was significant difference (P<0.01) in the amount of early marginal bone resorption between one month and three months later. The early marginal bone resorption in the first month after implantation kept correlation with the soft tissue healing on 10th day(r=0.794, P<0.01). Conclusion: The amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month exceeds that in the second and the third months after implant operation, and the soft tissue healing affects the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month. Biological seal is the critical factor influencing the early marginal bone resorption. (authors)

  17. Hedgehog signaling mediates woven bone formation and vascularization during stress fracture healing.

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    Kazmers, Nikolas H; McKenzie, Jennifer A; Shen, Tony S; Long, Fanxin; Silva, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical in developmental osteogenesis, and recent studies suggest it may also play a role in regulating osteogenic gene expression in the post-natal setting. However, there is a void of studies directly assessing the effect of Hh inhibition on post-natal osteogenesis. This study utilized a cyclic loading-induced ulnar stress fracture model to evaluate the hypothesis that Hh signaling contributes to osteogenesis and angiogenesis during stress fracture healing. Immediately prior to loading, adult rats were given GDC-0449 (Vismodegib - a selective Hh pathway inhibitor; 50mg/kg orally twice daily), or vehicle. Hh signaling was upregulated in response to stress fracture at 3 days (Ptch1, Gli1 expression), and was markedly inhibited by GDC-0449 at 1 day and 3 days in the loaded and non-loaded ulnae. GDC-0449 did not affect Hh ligand expression (Shh, Ihh, Dhh) at 1 day, but decreased Shh expression by 37% at 3 days. GDC-0449 decreased woven bone volume (-37%) and mineral density (-17%) at 7 days. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed that the 7 day callus was composed predominantly of woven bone in both groups. The observed reduction in woven bone occurred concomitantly with decreased expression of Alpl and Ibsp, but was not associated with differences in early cellular proliferation (as determined by callus PCNA staining at 3 days), osteoblastic differentiation (Osx expression at 1 day and 3 days), chondrogenic gene expression (Acan, Sox9, and Col2α1 expression at 1 day and 3 days), or bone resorption metrics (callus TRAP staining at 3 days, Rankl and Opg expression at 1 day and 3 days). To evaluate angiogenesis, vWF immunohistochemistry showed that GDC-0449 reduced fracture callus blood vessel density by 55% at 3 days, which was associated with increased Hif1α gene expression (+30%). Dynamic histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that GDC-0449 also inhibited lamellar bone formation. Lamellar bone analysis of the loaded limb (directly adjacent

  18. Expression of bone matrix proteins during the osseus healing of topical conditioned implants: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Thorwarth, Michael; Plesinac, Alexandra; Wiltfang, Joerg; Rupprecht, Stephan

    2006-12-01

    Osseointegration of implants depends on time and local bone conditions regarding quality and quantity. This led to the bone classification by Lekholm et al. The aim of the present study was to follow the expression of bone matrix proteins during the phase of osseointegration after conditioning of the bone bed by means of immunohistochemistry. In the porcine frontal skull, implant beds of identical size were created. Before placement of the implants (Ankylos 4 x 3.5 mm), the implant beds were conditioned using bone condensation (cond), an osteoinductive collagen (Co) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). These conditioning methods were compared with standard procedure. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The specimens were then analyzed by light microcopy and immunohistochemistry for expression of bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)2, procollagen I and osteocalcin (OC). Light microscopy revealed an initial effect of condensation and the bovine collagen at 2 weeks in comparison with the standard group. The PRP did not achieve a significant effect. At 8 weeks, the results of the standard, bone condensation and the bovine collagen group had aligned. The PRP group showed a significantly lower bone-implant contact (BIC) (P=0.003) compared with the standard group. BMP2 expression was significantly higher in all evaluated test groups at 4 and 8 weeks, as well as at 2 weeks in the condensation group. The procollagen I expression at 2 weeks was significantly increased for PRP and lower in the collagen and condensation group compared with standard procedure. Values for 4 and 8 weeks were slightly higher than in the standard group. No significant differences were obvious in the OC group at any time. During the initial healing phase, an effect of the evaluated methods of topical bone conditioning can be demonstrated by differences in the expression of BMP2 and procollagen I. These findings had leveled at 8 weeks and were, in contrast, not detectable in the expression of

  19. Impaired bone healing in multitrauma patients is associated with altered leukocyte kinetics after major trauma

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    Bastian OW

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Okan W Bastian,1 Anne Kuijer,1 Leo Koenderman,2 Rebecca K Stellato,3 Wouter W van Solinge,4 Luke PH Leenen,1 Taco J Blokhuis1 1Department of Traumatology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics and Research Support, Julius Center, 4Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Abstract: Animal studies have shown that the systemic inflammatory response to major injury impairs bone regeneration. It remains unclear whether the systemic immune response contributes to impairment of fracture healing in multitrauma patients. It is well known that systemic inflammatory changes after major trauma affect leukocyte kinetics. We therefore retrospectively compared the cellular composition of peripheral blood during the first 2 weeks after injury between multitrauma patients with normal (n=48 and impaired (n=32 fracture healing of the tibia. The peripheral blood-count curves of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and thrombocytes differed significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after trauma (P-values were 0.0122, 0.0083, 0.0204, and <0.0001, respectively. Mean myeloid cell counts were above reference values during the second week after injury. Our data indicate that leukocyte kinetics differ significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after major injury. This finding suggests that the systemic immune response to major trauma can disturb tissue regeneration. Keywords: SIRS, inflammation, neutrophils, myelopoiesis, regeneration

  20. The effects of amlodipine and platelet rich plasma on bone healing in rats

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    Atalay Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yusuf Atalay,1 Mehmet Fatih Bozkurt,2 Yucel Gonul,3 Omer Cakmak,4 Kamil Serkan Agacayak,5 Ibrahim Köse,6 Omer Hazman,7 Hikmet Keles,2 Ozan Turamanlar,3 Mehmet Eroglu8 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 4Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 5Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey; 6Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, Turkey; 7Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 8Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium channel blocker (CCB amlodipine (AML, platelet rich plasma (PRP, and a mixture of both materials on bone healing.Materials and methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: group A, tibia defect model with no treatment; group B, tibia defect model treated with AML, 0.04 mg daily by oral gavage; group C, tibia defect model treated with local PRP; group D, tibia defect model treated with local PRP and AML, 0.04 mg daily by oral gavage.Results: At day 21, bone healing was significantly better in groups C and D compared to group A (P<0.05, but comparisons showed no statistically significant difference in group B (P>0.05. At day 30, groups B and C showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 compared to group A, but bone healing in group D was significantly better than in group A (P<0.05. Statistically, AML did not affect alkaline

  1. Chitosan nanofiber scaffold improves bone healing via stimulating trabecular bone production due to upregulation of the Runx2/osteocalcin/alkaline phosphatase signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Hua; Yao, Chih-Jung; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Pei-I; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblasts play critical roles in bone formation. Our previous study showed that chitosan nanofibers can stimulate osteoblast proliferation and maturation. This translational study used an animal model of bone defects to evaluate the effects of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds on bone healing and the possible mechanisms. In this study, we produced uniform chitosan nanofibers with fiber diameters of approximately 200 nm. A bone defect was surgically created in the proximal femurs of male C57LB/6 mice, and then the left femur was implanted with chitosan nanofiber scaffolds for 21 days and compared with the right femur, which served as a control. Histological analyses revealed that implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds did not lead to hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Instead, imaging analyses by X-ray transmission and microcomputed tomography showed that implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds improved bone healing compared with the control group. In parallel, microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometric assays further demonstrated augmentation of the production of new trabecular bone in the chitosan nanofiber-treated group. Furthermore, implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds led to a significant increase in the trabecular bone thickness but a reduction in the trabecular parameter factor. As to the mechanisms, analysis by confocal microscopy showed that implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds increased levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a key transcription factor that regulates osteogenesis, in the bone defect sites. Successively, amounts of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, two typical biomarkers that can simulate bone maturation, were augmented following implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds. Taken together, this translational study showed a beneficial effect of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds on bone healing through stimulating trabecular bone production due to upregulation of Runx2-mediated alkaline

  2. Do Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Affect Bone Healing? A Critical Analysis

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    Ippokratis Pountos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs play an essential part in our approach to control pain in the posttraumatic setting. Over the last decades, several studies suggested that NSAIDs interfere with bone healing while others contradict these findings. Although their analgesic potency is well proven, clinicians remain puzzled over the potential safety issues. We have systematically reviewed the available literature, analyzing and presenting the available in vitro animal and clinical studies on this field. Our comprehensive review reveals the great diversity of the presented data in all groups of studies. Animal and in vitro studies present so conflicting data that even studies with identical parameters have opposing results. Basic science research defining the exact mechanism with which NSAIDs could interfere with bone cells and also the conduction of well-randomized prospective clinical trials are warranted. In the absence of robust clinical or scientific evidence, clinicians should treat NSAIDs as a risk factor for bone healing impairment, and their administration should be avoided in high-risk patients.

  3. The influence of three endodontic sealers on bone healing: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnoiu, R; Moldovan, M; Păstrav, O; Delean, A; Chisnoiu, A M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to assess the bone healing phenomenon produced in the presence of 3 dental materials used for the root canal obturation. The biocompatibility of 3 endodontic sealers (a self-curing epoxy resin - AH Plus, a dual cure urethane dimethacrylate resin - RealSeal and a new dual cure endodontic hydroxyapatite based filling material) was investigated after intra-osseous implantation of the materials in rats' calvaria. Tissue reaction was studied at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after implantation using calibrated image retrieval by Olympus. We took into consideration the presence of inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and giant cells) and classified the aspects of the histological samples according to the following scale: 0 - no inflammation, 1 - mild, isolated inflammation, 2 - moderate, localised inflammatory reaction, 3 - severe, diffuse and intense inflammatory reaction. The inflammatory reaction was present at the 6 intervals for all the tested materials, but a decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate, statistically significant, until extinction for all tested materials was observed at the end of the experimental period. The reaction of bone tissue recovery was most intense in the case of the control area. Lower intensity osteogenesis phenomenon was observed in case of all 3 tested sealers at the end of the experimental period. Biocompatibility and bone healing induction of the new hydroxyapatite based endodontic filling material is comparable to other commercial materials, AH Plus and RealSeal.

  4. Experimental examination of the healing process of telescopic esophageal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Tóth, I; Barna, T; Bráth, E; Gyáni, K; Mikó, I

    2003-01-01

    The basis of telescopic anastomosis is old, only the practical details of it have changed and improved. The telescopic anastomosis technique is successfully applied in our practice for reconstruction of gastrectomy and esophageal resection. The reason for this study was that data about the healing process of telescopic anastomosis had not been found in the literature. We used four groups of mongrel dogs for our experiments: Group A (n = 3) received 20 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 7 days; Group B (n = 3) received 10 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 21 days; Group C (n = 3) received 20 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 21 days; Group D (n = 3) received 30 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 21 days. At the end of the above survival times we removed the anastomosing area, measured the bursting pressures and performed morphological and histological examinations. In each case we also performed an anastomosis exactly the same as a completely healed anastomosis and its pressure tolerance was measured (0 day). The pressure tolerance within the anastomosis rises gradually and independently of the length of the invaginated esophageal part. Anastomosis leakage did not occur. The invaginated esophageal part did not suffer any damage. The muscular wall of the intragastric part of the esophagus became covered by the mucosa of the stomach during the healing process and it joined with the esophageal mucosa at the edge of the free end of the esophagus.

  5. Wound healing after irradiation of bone tissues by Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Aoki, Akira; Ishikawa, Isao

    1997-05-01

    Clinical applications of Er:YAG laser are now developing in periodontics and restorative dentistry. To date, there have been few studies indicating safety criteria for intraoral usage of the Er:YAG laser. The present study examined the effects of the Er:YAG laser on bone tissues, supposing mis- irradiation in the oral cavity during dental application, especially periodontal surgery. The experiments were performed using the newly-developed Er:YAG laser apparatus equipped with a contact probe. In experiment 1, 10 pulses of laser irradiation were administered to the parietal bone of a rat at 50, 150 and 300 mJ/pulse with and without water irrigation, changing the irradiation distance to 0, 5, 10 and 20 mm, respectively. As a control, electric knife was employed. Macroscopic and SEM observations of the wound surface were performed. In experiment 2, laser irradiation in a straight line was performed at 150 mJ/pulse, 1- pps and 0,5, 10 mm irradiation distance without water irrigation. Wound healing was observed histologically at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after laser irradiation and compared with that of the control. Non-contact irradiation by Er:YAG laser did not cause severe damage to the parietal bone tissue under water irrigation. Contact irradiation induced a limited wound, however, new bone formation was observed 28 days after laser irradiation, while osseous defect with thermal degenerative tissue remained at the control site. In conclusion, irradiation with an Er:YAG laser would not cause severe damage to surrounding bone tissues in the oral cavity when used within the usual power settings for dental treatment. Furthermore, this laser may be applicable for osseous surgery because of its high ablation efficiency and good wound healing after irradiation.

  6. Bioactive cell-derived matrices combined with polymer mesh scaffold for osteogenesis and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gul; Hwang, Mintai P; Du, Ping; Ko, Jaehoon; Ha, Chul-won; Do, Sun Hee; Park, Kwideok

    2015-05-01

    Successful bone tissue engineering generally requires an osteoconductive scaffold that consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic the natural environment. In this study, we developed a PLGA/PLA-based mesh scaffold coated with cell-derived extracellular matrix (CDM) for the delivery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), and assessed the capacity of this system to provide an osteogenic microenvironment. Decellularized ECM from human lung fibroblasts (hFDM) was coated onto the surface of the polymer mesh scaffolds, upon which heparin was then conjugated onto hFDM via EDC chemistry. BMP-2 was subsequently immobilized onto the mesh scaffolds via heparin, and released at a controlled rate. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) were cultured in such scaffolds and subjected to osteogenic differentiation for 28 days in vitro. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and osteogenic marker expression were significantly improved with hPMSCs cultured in the hFDM-coated mesh scaffolds compared to the control and fibronectin-coated ones. In addition, a mouse ectopic and rat calvarial bone defect model was used to examine the feasibility of current platform to induce osteogenesis as well as bone regeneration. All hFDM-coated mesh groups exhibited a significant increase of newly formed bone and in particular, hFDM-coated mesh scaffold loaded with a high dose of BMP-2 exhibited a nearly complete bone defect healing as confirmed via micro-CT and histological observation. This work proposes a great potency of using hFDM (biophysical) coupled with BMP-2 (biochemical) as a promising osteogenic microenvironment for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of mechanical loading on cortical defect repair using a novel mechanobiological model of bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Carrera, Robert; Flamini, Vittoria; Kenny, Lena; Cabahug-Zuckerman, Pamela; George, Benson M; Hunter, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Singh, Gurpreet; Leucht, Philipp; Mann, Kenneth A; Helms, Jill A; Castillo, Alesha B

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical loading is an important aspect of post-surgical fracture care. The timing of load application relative to the injury event may differentially regulate repair depending on the stage of healing. Here, we used a novel mechanobiological model of cortical defect repair that offers several advantages including its technical simplicity and spatially confined repair program, making effects of both physical and biological interventions more easily assessed. Using this model, we showed that daily loading (5N peak load, 2Hz, 60 cycles, 4 consecutive days) during hematoma consolidation and inflammation disrupted the injury site and activated cartilage formation on the periosteal surface adjacent to the defect. We also showed that daily loading during the matrix deposition phase enhanced both bone and cartilage formation at the defect site, while loading during the remodeling phase resulted in an enlarged woven bone regenerate. All loading regimens resulted in abundant cellular proliferation throughout the regenerate and fibrous tissue formation directly above the defect demonstrating that all phases of cortical defect healing are sensitive to physical stimulation. Stress was concentrated at the edges of the defect during exogenous loading, and finite element (FE)-modeled longitudinal strain (ε zz ) values along the anterior and posterior borders of the defect (~2200με) was an order of magnitude larger than strain values on the proximal and distal borders (~50-100με). It is concluded that loading during the early stages of repair may impede stabilization of the injury site important for early bone matrix deposition, whereas loading while matrix deposition and remodeling are ongoing may enhance stabilization through the formation of additional cartilage and bone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Canine investigation of rhBMP-2, autogenous bone graft, and rhBMP-2 with autogenous bone graft for the healing of a large segmental tibial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Andrew S; Reveal, Greg; Scheid, D Kevin; Kaehr, David M; Maar, Dean; Watts, Melanie; Stone, Marcus B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bone morphogenetic protein, bone morphogenetic protein with autogenous bone graft (ABG), and ABG alone on the healing of a large bone defect in the canine tibia. Fifteen 45- to 55-lb canines were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups, 3 per group. The groups included (1) recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2, 0.43 mg/mL)/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) + collagen/ceramic matrix (CCM), (2) rhBMP-2 (0.22 mg/mL) ACS + CCM, (3) rhBMP-2 (0.43 mg/mL) ACS + ABG, (4) rhBMP-2 (0.22 mg/mL) ACS + ABG, and (5) ABG alone. A 5-mL defect was created in the right tibia and fixed with a 4.5 mm locking plate and 1 of the grafts described above implanted. X-rays were taken biweekly for 12 weeks and evaluated for radiographic union. Representative histology was also examined. All defects treated with rhBMP-2 (any combination) healed at 6.0 +/- 0.9 weeks. None of the ABG alone-treated defects were healed at 12 weeks. Dogs receiving rhBMP-2/ACS + CCM healed at 5.7 +/- 0.8 weeks, whereas rhBMP-2/ACS + ABG defects healed at 6.3 +/- 0.8 weeks. Histology showed healing consistent with 12-week radiologic results. Large segmental defects in canine tibiae can be effectively healed with stable fixation and rhBMP-2/ACS + ABG or CCM. These conclusions may offer insight into the clinical treatment of segmental defect nonunions in the human.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Regeneration and Application to Bone Healing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crha, M.; Nečas, A.; Srnec, R.; Janovec, J.; Raušer, P.; Urbanová, L.; Plánka, L.; Jančář, J.; Amler, Evžen

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2009), s. 635-642 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130; GA AV ČR IAA500390702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : tissue engineering * biomaterials * segmental bone lesion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  10. Amorphous Silica: A New Antioxidant Role for Rapid Critical-Sized Bone Defect Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Azhar; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Shah, Ami; Monte, Felipe; Kim, Harry K W; Kramer, Philip; Aswath, Pranesh B; Varanasi, Venu G

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic fractures cause structurally unstable sites due to severe bone loss. Such fractures generate a high yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidative stress. Excessive and prolonged ROS activity impedes osteoblast differentiation and instigates long healing times. Stimulation of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD1), are crucial to reduce ROS, stimulate osteogenesis, and strengthen collagen and mineral formation. Yet, no current fixative devices have shown an ability to enhance collagen matrix formation through antioxidant expression. This study reports plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition based amorphous silicon oxynitride (Si(ON)x) as a potential new fracture healing biomaterial that adheres well to the implant surface, releases Si(+4) to enhance osteogenesis, and forms a surface hydroxyapatite for collagen mineral attachment. These materials provide a sustained release of Si(+4) in physiological environment for extended times. The dissolution rate partially depends on the film chemistry and can be controlled by varying O/N ratio. The presence of Si(+4) enhances SOD1, which stimulates other osteogenic markers downstream and leads to rapid mineral formation. In vivo testing using a rat critical-sized calvarial defect model shows a more rapid bone-regeneration for these biomaterials as compared to control groups, that implies the clinical significance of the presented biomaterial. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Operation technique and healing process of telescopic ileocolostomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, G; Tóth, I; Barna, T; Bráth, E; Gyáni, K; Mikó, Irén

    2003-01-01

    The healing process of telescopic anastomoses was found in an animal experiment with 12 mongrel dogs. After the division of vessels an ileal segment of different length was invaginated into the lumen of the colon using single-layer interrupted sutures. The following four groups were used: Group A (n = 3): end-to-side ileocolostomy, single-layer interrupted suture (invagination length: 0 mm), survival time: 21 days. Group B (n = 3): invagination length: 20 mm, survival time: 7 days. Group C (n = 3): invagination length: 10 mm, survival time: 21 days. Group D (n = 3): invagination length: 20 mm, survival time: 21 days. At the end of the above survival times the anastomosis area was removed. The bursting pressure was measured and morphological as well as histological examinations were performed. In each case the 0-day look-alikes of anastomoses were performed using the remnant bowels, and bursting pressure measurements were done on these models as well. Anastomosis leakage did not occur. The serosal layer of the intracolonic part of the ileum disappeared during the healing process. The free surface of the intracolonic ileal segment became covered by the sliding mucosa of the colon and the prolapsing mucosa of the ileum. The following could be concluded after the experiments: The inner pressure tolerance of a telescopic ileocolostomy promptly after preparation is better than in case of another single-layer anastomosis. This fact results in increased safety against leakage on the first postoperative days. The inner pressure tolerance of the telescopic ileocolostomy increases during the healing process and it does not depend on the length of the invaginated part (0 day-20 mm: 56 mmHg +/- 6, Group A: 252 +/- 39, Group B: 154 +/- 19, Group C: 249 +/- 20, Group D: 298 +/- 2). There is no difference in pressure tolerance between the telescopic and the end-to-side single-layer interrupted anastomoses after the healing process. The invaginated section within the lumen of the

  12. Proactive detection of bones in poultry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, W. D. R.; Stewart, John

    2009-05-01

    Bones continue to be a problem of concern for the poultry industry. Most further processed products begin with the requirement for raw material with minimal bones. The current process for generating deboned product requires systems for monitoring and inspecting the output product. The current detection systems are either people palpitating the product or X-ray systems. The current performance of these inspection techniques are below the desired levels of accuracies and are costly. We propose a technique for monitoring bones that conduct the inspection operation in the deboning the process so as to have enough time to take action to reduce the probability that bones will end up in the final product. This is accomplished by developing active cones with built in illumination to backlight the cage (skeleton) on the deboning line. If the bones of interest are still on the cage then the bones are not in the associated meat. This approach also allows for the ability to practice process control on the deboning operation to keep the process under control as opposed to the current system where the detection is done post production and does not easily present the opportunity to adjust the process. The proposed approach shows overall accuracies of about 94% for the detection of the clavicle bones.

  13. Effect of Combined Calcium Hydroxide and Accelerated Portland Cement on Bone Formation and Soft Tissue Healing in Dog Bone Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recent literatures show that accelerated Portland cement (APC and calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2 may have the potential to promote the bone regeneration. However, certain clinical studies reveal consistency of Ca (OH2, as one of the practical drawbacks of the material when used alone. To overcome such inconvenience, the combination of the Ca (OH2 with a bone replacement material could offer a convenient solution. Objectives: To evaluate the soft tissue healing and bone regeneration in the periodontal intrabony osseous defects using accelerated Portland cement (APC in combination with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2, as a filling material. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adult mongrel dogs aged 2-3 years old (approximately 20 kg in weight with intact dentition and healthy periodontium were selected for this study. Two one-wall defects in both mesial and distal aspects of the 3rd premolars of both sides of the mandible were created. Therefore, four defects were prepared in each dog. Three defects in each dog were randomly filled with one of the following materials: APC alone, APC mixed with Ca (OH2, and Ca (OH2 alone. The fourth defect was left empty (control. Upon clinical examination of the sutured sites, the amount of dehiscence from the adjacent tooth was measured after two and eight weeks, using a periodontal probe mesiodistally. For histometric analysis, the degree of new bone formation was estimated at the end of the eighth postoperative week, by a differential point-counting method. The percentage of the defect volume occupied by new osteoid or trabecular bone was recorded. Results: Measurement of wound dehiscence during the second week revealed that all five APCs had an exposure of 1-2 mm and at the end of the study all samples showed 3-4 mm exposure across the surface of the graft material, whereas the Ca (OH2, control, and APC + Ca (OH2 groups did not show any exposure at the end of the eighth week of the study. The most

  14. Chemistry of Bone Remodeling Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, František; Mařík, I.; Klika, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, 1+2 (2005), s. 51-61 ISSN 1212-4575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/03/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : bone remodelling * RANKL/RANK/OPG chain * mechanical stimuli Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  15. Extended fatigue life of a catalyst free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Alice B W; Matthys, Oriane B; Craig, Stephen L; Reichert, William M

    2015-02-01

    The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, and fatigue lifetime were investigated in accordance with ASTM and ISO standards for the testing of PMMA bone cement. The bending strength of bone cement specimens decreased with increasing wt % capsules content for capsules without or with OCA, with specimens of formulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Below the Callus Surface: Applying Paleohistological Techniques to Understand the Biology of Bone Healing in Skeletonized Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Sandra; Keenleyside, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bone trauma is a common occurrence in human skeletal remains. Macroscopic and imaging scrutiny is the approach most currently used to analyze and describe trauma. Nevertheless, this line of inquiry may not be sufficient to accurately identify the type of traumatic lesion and the associated degree of bone healing. To test the usefulness of histology in the examination of bone healing biology, we used an integrative approach that combines gross inspection and microscopy. Six bone samples belonging to 5 adult individuals with signs of bone trauma were collected from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection from the Museu Bocage (Lisbon, Portugal). Previous to sampling, the lesions were described according to their location, morphology, and healing status. After sampling, the bone specimens were prepared for plane light and polarized light analysis. The histological analysis was pivotal: (1) to differentiate between types of traumatic lesions; (2) to ascertain the posttraumatic interval, and (3) to diagnose other associated pathological conditions. The outer surface of a bone lesion may not give a complete picture of the biology of the tissue's response. Accordingly, microscopic analysis is essential to differentiate, characterize, and classify trauma signs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Influence of Interleukin-1 Beta on Platelet-Poor Plasma Clot Formation: A Potential Impact on Early Bone Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Hematoma quality (especially the fibrin matrix plays an important role in the bone healing process. Here, we investigated the effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β on fibrin clot formation from platelet-poor plasma (PPP.Five-milliliter of rat whole-blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein. All blood samples were firstly standardized via a thrombelastograph (TEG, blood cell count, and the measurement of fibrinogen concentration. PPP was prepared by collecting the top two-fifths of the plasma after centrifugation under 400 × g for 10 min at 20°C. The effects of IL-1β cytokines on artificial fibrin clot formation from PPP solutions were determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, confocal microscopy (CM, turbidity, and clot lysis assays.The lag time for protofibril formation was markedly shortened in the IL-1β treatment groups (243.8 ± 76.85 in the 50 pg/mL of IL-1β and 97.5 ± 19.36 in the 500 pg/mL of IL-1β compared to the control group without IL-1β (543.8 ± 205.8. Maximal turbidity was observed in the control group. IL-1β (500 pg/mL treatment significantly decreased fiber diameters resulting in smaller pore sizes and increased density of the fibrin clot structure formed from PPP (P < 0.05. The clot lysis assay revealed that 500 pg/mL IL-1β induced a lower susceptibility to dissolution due to the formation of thinner and denser fibers.IL-1β can significantly influence PPP fibrin clot structure, which may affect the early bone healing process.

  18. Protective effect of ellagic acid on healing alveolar bone after tooth extraction in rat--a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Al Batran, Rami; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2014-09-01

    This study has attempted to evaluate the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats (200-250g) were selected and were anaesthetised for the extraction of upper left incisor. Then, the rats were divided into two groups, comprising 12 rats each; the first group has been considered as a control group and was given only normal saline, whereas, the second group (treated group) was intragastrically administrated with EA daily once, for 28 days. Then three rats from each group had been selected on 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days to dissect their maxilla tissue either for histological observation and homogenisation purposes. The tissues fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5μm thickness were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for the histological study. Similar sections were taken for immunohistochemical analysis to assess osteocalcin (OSC) and osteopontin (OPN). Furthermore, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in homogenated gingival maxilla tissue of rat by commercial kit. Based on the histological analysis we have identified that, EA treatment has induced earlier trabecular bone deposition in the treated group, resulting in more organised bone matrix on the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after tooth extraction, as against the control group. In comparison to control group, the positive labelling of OSC and OPN of the treated group have been highly expressed in the alveolar socket on 14th, and 21st days, which has indicated a the possibility of formation of new bone trabeculae at the beginning of the mineralisation process, after tooth extraction. In the EA treatment group, lipid per-oxidation (MDA) was significantly decreased (Phealing process in teeth socket of rats. Furthermore, the EA treated group showed a stronger positive immunolabelling for OSC and OPN, when compared with the control group. Copyright © 2014

  19. Bone healing at implants with different surface configurations: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beolchini, Marco; Lang, Niklaus P; Gómez Moreno, Gerardo; Iezzi, Giovanna; Botticelli, Daniele; Calvo Guirado, José Luis

    2016-02-01

    To study osseointegration of implants with surface modifications by the use of fluoroboric acid and/or H2 O2 installed in conventional sites or sites with circumferential marginal defects. Four implants with different surfaces were used. One basic surface (ZirTi(®)) was sandblasted with zirconium microspheres and acid etched additionally with hydrofluoric acid. A second surface was treated with fluoroboric acid instead of hydrofluoric acid. The remainder of the other two surfaces was additionally treated with H2O2. The edentulous mandibles of 6 foxhound dogs were used to randomly install 8.5-mm-long implants with the different surfaces and to study the histological healing after 1 and 3 months. To study osteoconductivity, additional four recipient sites were prepared with the coronal region being widened so that a 4 mm deep and 0.85 mm wide marginal defect resulted after the placement of the four implants with different surfaces. No filler material or membranes were used, and a fully submerged healing was allowed for 3 months. At the conventional sites, new bone formation ranged between 68.5% and 74.9% after 1 month. After 3 months, bone-to-implant contact ranged from 72.6% at the ZirTi(®) surface to 84.1% at the fluoroboric acid-treated implants, the difference being statistically significant. At the sites with marginal defects, bone formation ranged from 0.77 mm at the surface treated with fluoroboric acid and H2O2 , to 1.93 mm at the surface treated with fluoroboric acid alone. Fluoroboric acid treatment alone of titanium implant surfaces resulted in improved osseointegration and osteoconductivity after 3 months. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Successful Bone Healing of Nonunion After Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Smokers Treated With Teriparatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takuya; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Yokoi, Takuya; Shintani, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2015-08-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is widely performed as the standard surgical treatment for ulnar impaction syndrome and has a high percentage of success for pain relief. However, delayed union and nonunion of the osteotomy site remain the most concerning complications. In particular, smokers have a higher incidence of nonunion, which amounts to 30% of cases. For the treatment of nonunion, secondary surgical interventions such as bone grafting will be necessary but are extremely challenging. Recently, teriparatide (recombinant human parathyroid hormone [PTH 1-34]) administration has been reported in several clinical studies as a noninvasive pharmacological systemic treatment for fracture healing or nonunion. The authors present 2 cases of smokers, a 62-year-old man and a 42-year-old woman, with nonunion after ulnar shortening osteotomy and fixation with 6-hole non-locking plate for ulnar impaction syndrome. For treatment of nonunion, noninvasive therapy with teriparatide (20-µg, subcutaneous injection) in addition to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound was underwent. In both cases, partial bone union began to be observed on radiographs after the first 4 weeks of teriparatide administration and successful bone healing without additional surgical interventions was achieved after 10 and 6 months of treatment with teriparatide, respectively. The current case reports showed that non-invasive combination therapy of teriparatide and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound were a possible alternative to surgical intervention. In the future, teriparatide therapy might be applied actively to patients who have risk factors for delayed union, such a heavy smoking habit, and are expected to experience nonunion after ulnar shortening osteotomy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Review of techniques for monitoring the healing fracture of bones for implementation in an internally fixated pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lydia Chwang Yuh; Chiu, Wing Kong; Russ, Matthias; Liew, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Sacral fractures from high-impact trauma often cause instability in the pelvic ring structure. Treatment is by internal fixation which clamps the fractured edges together to promote healing. Healing could take up to 12 weeks whereby patients are bedridden to avoid hindrances to the fracture from movement or weight bearing activities. Immobility can lead to muscle degradation and longer periods of rehabilitation. The ability to determine the time at which the fracture is stable enough to allow partial weight-bearing is important to reduce hospitalisation time. This review looks into different techniques used for monitoring the fracture healing of bones which could lead to possible methods for in situ and non-invasive assessment of healing fracture in a fixated pelvis. Traditional techniques being used include radiology and CT scans but were found to be unreliable at times and very subjective in addition to being non in situ. Strain gauges have proven to be very effective for accurate assessment of fracture healing as well as stability for long bones with external fixators but may not be suitable for an internally fixated pelvis. Ultrasound provides in situ monitoring of stiffness recovery but only assesses local fracture sites close to the skin surface and has only been tested on long bones. Vibration analysis can detect non-uniform healing due to its assessment of the overall structure but may suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio due to damping. Impedance techniques have been used to assess properties of non-long bones but recent studies have only been conducted on non-biological materials and more research needs to be done before it can be applicable for monitoring healing in the fixated pelvis. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dejan; Jokanović, Vukoman; Petrović, Bojan; Perić, Tamara; Vukomanović, Biserka

    2014-05-01

    Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material's particles took place after 25 weeks. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects.

  3. Early healing of the alveolar process after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discepoli, Nicola; Vignoletti, Fabio; Laino, Luigi; de Sanctis, Massimo; Muñoz, Fernando; Sanz, Mariano

    2013-06-01

    To describe the early healing events in the alveolar socket during the first 8 weeks of spontaneous healing after tooth extraction. 16 adult beagle dogs were selected and five healing periods were analysed (4 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks). Mandibular premolars were extracted and each socket corresponding to the mesial root was left to heal undisturbed. In each healing period, three animals were euthanatized, each providing four study sites. Healing was assessed by descriptive histology and by histometric analysis using as landmarks: the vertical distance between buccal and lingual crest (B'L') and the width of buccal and lingual walls at three different levels. Differences between means for each variable for each healing period were compared (ANOVA; p healing period to a final value of 0.18 (0.08) mm. The lingual width (Lw) remains almost unchanged while the buccal width (Bw) at 1 (Bw1) and 2 (Bw2) mm was reduced in about 40% of its initial value. Minor vertical bone reduction in both the buccal and lingual socket walls were observed. A marked horizontal reduction of the buccal bone wall was observed mostly in its coronal aspect. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Alveolar wound healing after implantation with a pool of commercially available bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Romeu Felipe Elias; Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lamano-Carvalho, Teresa Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of a commercially available pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to stimulate osteogenesis in the rat alveolar healing was investigated by histometric analysis. Male rats were anesthetized and had their upper incisor extracted. A pool of purified bovine BMPs adsorbed to microgranular resorbable hydroxyapatite was agglutinated with bovine collagen and saline before implantation into the alveolar socket. The implanted and control rats (n=30 per group) were sacrificed 1 to 9 weeks postoperatively, the hemi-maxillae were decalcified, processed for paraffin embedding and semi-serial longitudinal sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume fraction of alveolar healing components was estimated by a differential point-counting method in histologic images. The results showed that in both, control and implanted rats, the alveolar healing followed the histologic pattern usually described in the literature. Quantitative data confirmed that the BMPs mixture did not stimulate new bone formation in the alveolar socket of implanted rats. These results suggest that the pool of BMPs adsorbed to hydroxyapatite and agglutinated with bovine collagen did not warrant incorporation of the osteoinductive proteins to a slow-absorption system that would allow a BMPs release rate compatible to that of new bone formation, and thus more adequate to osteoinduction.

  5. Effect of Healing Time on Bone-Implant Contact of Orthodontic Micro-Implants: A Histologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazanzadeh, Barat Ali; Fatemi, Kazem; Dehghani, Mahboobe; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed loading of orthodontic micro-implants on bone-implant contact. Materials and Methods. Sixty four micro-implants were implanted in dog's jaw bone. The micro-implants were divided into loaded and unloaded (control) groups. The control group had two subgroups: four and eight weeks being implanted. The loaded group had two subgroups of immediate loading and delayed (after four weeks healing) loading. Loaded samples were ...

  6. Histomorphometric analysis and immunolocalization of RANKL and OPG during the alveolar healing process in female ovariectomized rats treated with oestrogen or raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Dias, Sheila Mônica Damásio; Okamoto, Tetuo; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel; Okamoto, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of bone-resorption inhibitors (oestrogen and raloxifene) on the RANKL/OPG balance during the chronology of the alveolar healing process in ovariectomized (OVX) rats by means of immunocolocalization and histomorphometric analysis. One hundred sixty female Wistar rats at 70 days of age were either OVX or sham-operated and divided into four groups: sham, OVX/Oil, OVX with E(2) replacement (17beta-estradiol, 400 microg/month), OVX with RLX treatment (1mg/kg bw/day). The 60-day treatment started 8 days after ovariectomy. The incisors were extracted to allow analysis of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of wound healing. After obtaining the histological samples, slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or subjected to immunocolocalization reaction for RANKL and OPG. Results were quantitatively evaluated. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the sham group presented the highest and OVX/Oil group the lowest mean bone formation value in the post-extraction period. The immunocolocalization analysis showed a larger increase in bone turnover at 7 postoperative days in OVX/Oil and sham groups and decreasing bone turnover in the other periods. The OVX/Oil group showed a large decrease in bone turnover at 14 postoperative days, a period demonstrated by mild cellular activity. OVX/E(2) and sham groups showed a decreased bone turnover at 28 postoperative days while OVX/RLX group showed a decreased bone turnover at 21 postoperative days. On the 42nd postoperative day, sham and OVX/RLX groups showed an established alveolar bone healing process. Ovariectomy delays the alveolar healing process and interferes with bone turnover through the balance between RANKL and OPG. Oestrogen replacement or raloxifene treatment did not totally recover the oestrogen-deficient state. However raloxifene treatment showed more satisfactory results than oestrogen replacement. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on wound healing of alveolar bone socket after extraction of rat maxillary molars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Yosue, Takashi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Nasu, Masanori

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of radiation on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds. X-ray doses of 10 Gy or 20 Gy were delivered, once, to the maxillofacial area of Wistar-strain rats. Then, 24 hours after irradiation, the maxillary first molars were extracted bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 42, and 84 days after tooth extraction, and the maxilla were sliced, to make thin sections. These specimens were then double stained with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The ratio of bone area to socket area (bone formation ratio), the ratio of bone length to ALP positive area length (ALP positive ratio), and the number of TRAP-positive cells, were evaluated. The results showed: The bone formation ratios at days 3 and 7 after tooth extraction were significantly low in both irradiation groups, compared with those for the non-irradiation group. The ALP positive reaction ratio peaked 7 days after in the non-irradiation group. In both irradiation groups, the ratios that were worked out at 3 days and 7 days after were significantly lower than those in the non-irradiation group. There was no significant difference in the number of TRAP-positive cells between the non-irradiation group and the 10 Gy irradiation group. In the 20 Gy irradiation group, the TRAP-positive cell count plummeted to a significantly low level at 3 days after tooth extraction, compared with that in the non-irradiation group. (author)

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation on wound healing of alveolar bone socket after extraction of rat maxillary molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Yosue, Takashi; Nasu, Masanori

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of radiation on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds. X-ray doses of 10 Gy or 20 Gy were delivered, once, to the maxillofacial area of Wistar-strain rats. Then, 24 hours after irradiation, the maxillary first molars were extracted bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 42, and 84 days after tooth extraction, and the maxilla were sliced, to make thin sections. These specimens were then double stained with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The ratio of bone area to socket area (bone formation ratio), the ratio of bone length to ALP positive area length (ALP positive ratio), and the number of TRAP-positive cells, were evaluated. The results showed: The bone formation ratios at days 3 and 7 after tooth extraction were significantly low in both irradiation groups, compared with those for the non-irradiation group. The ALP positive reaction ratio peaked 7 days after in the non-irradiation group. In both irradiation groups, the ratios that were worked out at 3 days and 7 days after were significantly lower than those in the non-irradiation group. There was no significant difference in the number of TRAP-positive cells between the non-irradiation group and the 10 Gy irradiation group. In the 20 Gy irradiation group, the TRAP-positive cell count plummeted to a significantly low level at 3 days after tooth extraction, compared with that in the non-irradiation group. (author)

  10. Healing compared between bone to tendon and cartilage to tendon in a partial inferior patellectomy model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongbin; Qin, Ling; Lee, Kwongman; Wong, Wannar; Chan, Kaiming; Leung, Kwoksui

    2008-01-01

    Sports injuries around bone-tendon junctions are not uncommon. This study was designed to perform a quantitative evaluation on healing characteristics at the cartilage-to-tendon (C-T) and the bone-to-tendon (B-T) healing junction in a temporal and spatial manner. Basic science study. University medical school. Thirty-two 18-week-old New Zealand white rabbits. All rabbits underwent partial inferior patellectomy. The operated patella-patellar tendon (PPT) complex was harvested at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks postoperatively (n = 8 for each time point). The fusion ratio (ie, the ratio of tissue integration calculated along the length of the healing junction interface at both C-T and B-T junction of sagittal plane of PPT complex). The fusion ratio at the C-T interface was 69.5% and 85.9%, which was significantly greater as compared with 45.9% and 60.1% at the B-T interface at week 2 and week 4, respectively (P 0.05). These findings demonstrated that the C-T junction might have an earlier and faster healing potential as compared with that of the B-T repair. The earlier fusion of the C-T junction might provide earlier stability along the entire PPT healing interface that would form a basis for improved postoperative prognosis of PPT healing complex.

  11. Healing of Large Segmental Bone Defect after Implantation of Autogenous Cancellous Bone Graft in Comparison to Hydroxyapatite and 0.5% Collagen Scaffold Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečas, A.; Proks, P.; Urbanová, L.; Srnec, R.; Stehlík, L.; Crha, M.; Raušer, P.; Plánka, L.; Janovec, J.; Dvořák, M.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jančář, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2010), s. 607-612 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : fracture fixation * bone healing * comminuted fracture Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  12. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on the bone healing around calcium phosphate-coated and non-coated oral implants in trabecular bone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolidakis, D.; Dolder, J. van den; Wolke, J.G.C.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of local application of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone healing in combination with the use of titanium implants with 2 different surface configurations was investigated. PRP fractions were obtained from venous blood sample of 6 goats and applied via gel preparation and

  13. Follow-up study of dental implants with bioactive oxide films on bone tissue healing and osseointegration: clinical radiography and bone quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Cheng, Han-Yi; Ou, Keng-Liang; Sinrang, Andi Wardihan; Huang, Mao-Suan; Lin, Li Hsiang

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate osseointegration and bone stress resulted during the first 3 months after the installation of functional implants modified with bioactive oxide. Several studies have investigated finite element models for dental implants; however, only a few have examined a model for the implants during different stages of osseointegration. In this study, mandible models were reconstructed using computer tomographic data, and bone qualities and stress distributions were investigated as well. Bone quality increased rapidly within the 3-month bone healing time. Data analysis indicated that the bone stresses increased with the progress of osseointegration, and the maximum stresses were obtained at the position around the first screw. The results confirmed that functional films could improve the biomechanical properties of the implants and promote the initial bone stability. Furthermore, potential clinical benefit can be obtained due to the inducing superior biomechanical behavior in dental implants.

  14. Bixin action in the healing process of rats mouth wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Renata Machado; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Costa, Camila Kocler; Miguel, Obdulio Gomez; Rosa, Edvaldo Ribeiro; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Ignacio, Sergio Aparecido; Bettega, Patrícia Vida Cassi; Gregio, Ana Maria Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Oral lesions that manifest as ulcer lesions are quite common and can cause discomfort to the patient. Searching for drugs to accelerate the healing of these lesions is nonstop process. Bixin is a molecule found in annatto (urucum) seeds and is considered a viable therapeutic option to treat such lesions due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and healing properties. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the bixin solution in the ulcer healing process in the oral mucosa of rats. Ulcers were induced with punches of 0.5 cm in the middle of the dorsum of the tongue of 64 Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups, in which 4 groups were treated with saline solution, while the other 4 were treated with the bixin solution. The animals were sacrificed in the periods 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after the beginning of the treatment. The species were histologically processed and stained with hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius. Fibroblasts, reepithelialization, and wound contraction could be observed, as could the quantification of neutrophils, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and mature and immature collagen. On the seventh day, the experimental group, when compared to the control group, presented a higher proliferation of fibroblasts, more advanced reepithelialization, and a higher contraction in the wounds. A reduction in the average number of neutrophils in the experimental group, when compared to the control group, could be observed in all periods (p=0.000). Up to two days, the total collagen area was higher (p=0.044) in the experimental group (4139.60±3047.51t han in the control group (1564.81±918.47). The deposition of mature collagen, on the 14(th) day, was higher (p=0.048) in the experimental group (5802.40±3578.18) than in the control group (1737.26±1439.97). The results found in the present study indicate that the bixin solution inhibits the acute inflammatory response with a minor average number of neutrophils and

  15. A special healing pattern in stable metaphyseal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Tao; Han, Da Cheng; Zhang, Pei Xun; Han, Na; Kou, Yu Hui; Yin, Xiao Feng; Jiang, Bao Guo

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal fractures heal in a rapid fashion that is different from the bone shaft healing process. Animal studies have focused on diaphyseal fractures. We investigated the metaphyseal fracture-healing process in rabbits. 60 rabbits (divided into 12 groups) underwent proximal tibial osteotomy, anatomical reduction, and fixation with screws. After surgery, the proximal tibiae were harvested at different time points for histology. No obvious osteonecrosis or bone resorption were found 2 weeks after surgery. From day 5 to week 5, woven bone or new trabeculae formed. From week 2, remodeling into lamellar bone started and reached a peak at week 6. These 3 stages overlapped. Histomorphometry showed that the structure changed as a unimodal curve. The healing process of metaphyseal fractures appears to differ from the commonly studied healing process in diaphyseal fractures. It is rapid, and can be divided into 4 histological stages: cellular activation and differentiation, formation of woven bone, transformation of woven bone into lamellar bone, and further remodeling.

  16. Effect of bone marrow and low power lasers on fracture healing with destruction of both periosteum and endosteum in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Thanoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten mature rabbits of local breed were used in this study; weighing between 1.5 to 1.75 kg and aged about 1–2 years. These animals were divided into two equal groups; in group A destruction of both periosteum and endosteum was done one centimeter from each side of mid-shaft femoral bone fracture, then sufficient amount of autogenously bone marrow was injected directly at the fracture site after immobilization by intramedullary pin. In group B a similar procedure was achieved as in group A, but in additional to that He-Ne infrared laser therapy was used for several sessions. The result of radiological findings indicated that, the fracture healing occurred within group B at fifteen weeks, whereas in group A the healing occurred at eighteen weeks after operation. The implantation of autologous bone marrow enhanced the fracture healing, whereas using of combinations of autologous bone marrow and He-Ne infrared laser therapy hastened the healing.

  17. Does Activin Receptor Blockade by Bimagrumab (BYM338) Pose Detrimental Effects on Bone Healing in a Rat Fibula Osteotomy Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankó, László B; Goldhahn, Jörg; Varela, Aurore; Lesage, Elisabeth; Smith, Susan Y; Pilling, Andrew; Chivers, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Bimagrumab (BYM338) is a novel fully human monoclonal antibody that exerts strong promyogenic effects on skeletal muscle by blocking activin type II receptors (ActRII). We investigated whether such blockade of ActRII by bimagrumab manifests any detrimental effect on outcomes of bone healing in a rat fibula osteotomy model. Animals (n = 150) were divided into 11 groups and received weekly treatment with either bimagrumab (10 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle. Progression and outcomes of bone healing were assessed by lateral radiographs in vivo as well as by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), 4-point bending test, and microscopic examination of the excised fibula at Day 29 or later. The radiographic progression of bone healing showed no significant differences between treatment groups in any comparative setting. In 3-month-old animals, pQCT revealed slightly reduced immature callus size and bone mineral content in bimagrumab-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals at Day 29 (p fracture healing, and delayed treatment initiation can bypass the small and transient effect of the therapy on immature callus formation observed in younger animals. Verification of these findings in humans is the subject of an ongoing clinical trial on elderly hip fracture patients.

  18. A bioactive molecule in a complex wound healing process: platelet-derived growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltalioglu, Kaan; Coskun-Cevher, Sule

    2015-08-01

    Wound healing is considered to be particularly important after surgical procedures, and the most important wounds related to surgical procedures are incisional, excisional, and punch wounds. Research is ongoing to identify methods to heal non-closed wounds or to accelerate wound healing; however, wound healing is a complex process that includes many biological and physiological events, and it is affected by various local and systemic factors, including diabetes mellitus, infection, ischemia, and aging. Different cell types (such as platelets, macrophages, and neutrophils) release growth factors during the healing process, and platelet-derived growth factor is a particularly important mediator in most stages of wound healing. This review explores the relationship between platelet-derived growth factor and wound healing. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Hui; Huang, Ben-Shian; Horng, Huann-Cheng; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2018-02-01

    Wound healing is an important physiological process to maintain the integrity of skin after trauma, either by accident or by intent procedure. The normal wound healing involves three successive but overlapping phases, including hemostasis/inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, and remodeling phase. Aberration of wound healing, such as excessive wound healing (hypertrophic scar and keloid) or chronic wound (ulcer) impairs the normal physical function. A large number of sophisticated experimental studies have provided insights into wound healing. This article highlights the information after 2010, and the main text includes (i) wound healing; (ii) wound healing in fetus and adult; (iii) prostaglandins and wound healing; (iv) the pathogenesis of excessive wound healing; (v) the epidemiology of excessive wound healing; (vi) in vitro and in vivo studies for excessive wound healing; (vii) stem cell therapy for excessive wound healing; and (viii) the prevention strategy for excessive wound healing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. Wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Hui Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is an important physiological process to maintain the integrity of skin after trauma, either by accident or by intent procedure. The normal wound healing involves three successive but overlapping phases, including hemostasis/inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, and remodeling phase. Aberration of wound healing, such as excessive wound healing (hypertrophic scar and keloid or chronic wound (ulcer impairs the normal physical function. A large number of sophisticated experimental studies have provided insights into wound healing. This article highlights the information after 2010, and the main text includes (i wound healing; (ii wound healing in fetus and adult; (iii prostaglandins and wound healing; (iv the pathogenesis of excessive wound healing; (v the epidemiology of excessive wound healing; (vi in vitro and in vivo studies for excessive wound healing; (vii stem cell therapy for excessive wound healing; and (viii the prevention strategy for excessive wound healing.

  1. Enhancement of tendon–bone healing via the combination of biodegradable collagen-loaded nanofibrous membranes and a three-dimensional printed bone-anchoring bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chao Chou,1,2 Wen-Lin Yeh,2 Chien-Lin Chao,1 Yung-Heng Hsu,1,2 Yi-Hsun Yu,1,2 Jan-Kan Chen,3 Shih-Jung Liu1,2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: A composite biodegradable polymeric model was developed to enhance tendon graft healing. This model included a biodegradable polylactide (PLA bolt as the bone anchor and a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous membrane embedded with collagen as a biomimic patch to promote tendon–bone interface integration. Degradation rate and compressive strength of the PLA bolt were measured after immersion in a buffer solution for 3 months. In vitro biochemical characteristics and the nanofibrous matrix were assessed using a water contact angle analyzer, pH meter, and tetrazolium reduction assay. In vivo efficacies of PLGA/collagen nanofibers and PLA bolts for tendon–bone healing were investigated on a rabbit bone tunnel model with histological and tendon pullout tests. The PLGA/collagen-blended nanofibrous membrane was a hydrophilic, stable, and biocompatible scaffold. The PLA bolt was durable for tendon–bone anchoring. Histology showed adequate biocompatibility of the PLA bolt on a medial cortex with progressive bone ingrowth and without tissue overreaction. PLGA nanofibers within the bone tunnel also decreased the tunnel enlargement phenomenon and enhanced tendon–bone integration. Composite polymers of the PLA bolt and PLGA/collagen nanofibrous membrane can effectively promote outcomes of tendon reconstruction in a rabbit model. The composite biodegradable polymeric system may be useful in humans for tendon reconstruction. Keywords: polylactide–polyglycolide nanofibers, PLGA, collagen, 3D printing, polylactide, PLA, bone-anchoring bolts, tendon healing

  2. Physiology of fracture healing: New aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gajdobranski Đorđe R.; Živković Dragana 1

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Skeletal system has a great regenerative potential, but it isn't the case with other tissues. Bone fracture healing includes a complex cascade of processes at cellular and biochemical levels, ending with a complete structural and functional restoration of the damaged bone. Impaired healing occurs in 5-10% of all fractures, manifesting as delayed union or non-union Such a high incidence of impaired healing certainly presents a problem, and therefore, permanent research regarding p...

  3. Chemically modified titanium-zirconium implants in comparison with commercially pure titanium controls stimulate the early molecular pathways of bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Silvia; Jimbo, Ryo; Naito, Yoshihito; Berner, Simon; Dard, Michel; Wennerberg, Ann

    2017-10-01

    Titanium-zirconium (TiZr) has been proposed as a mechanically stronger alternative to commercially pure titanium for oral and orthopaedic implants. However, not much is known on the osseointegration kinetics of TiZr surfaces. In this study, we aimed to identify the genetic response of bone around TiZr implants compared to pure Ti. Microtextured and hydrophilic TiZr implants (tests) and cpTi implants grade IV (controls) were placed in the tibia of 30 New Zealand white rabbits. At 2, 4 and 12 weeks, the implants were subjected to removal torque test (RTQ). The expression of a panel of genes involved in the process of osseointegration was measured in the bone around the test and control implants by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compared to the control samples. The controls yielded statistically significant higher RTQ at 4 weeks, but the RTQ of the tests had a larger increase between 4 and 12 weeks, when both groups reached similar values. The gene expression analysis showed that all selected markers for bone formation, bone remodelling and cytokines were significantly upregulated around TiZr implants after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks of healing, two bone formation markers were significantly more expressed in the test samples, while at 12 weeks, the expression of all genes was similar in the two groups. TiZr implants showed comparable biomechanical outcomes to cpTi up to 12 weeks of healing. However, at early healing stages, they showed a significant upregulation of osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis markers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Self-Healing Efficiency of Cementitious Materials Containing Microcapsules Filled with Healing Adhesive: Mechanical Restoration and Healing Process Monitored by Water Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Zhenghong; Zhao, Nan; Yuan, Weizhong

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous crack healing of cementitious composite, a construction material that is susceptible to cracking, is of great significance to improve the serviceability and to prolong the longevity of concrete structures. In this study, the St-DVB microcapsules enclosing epoxy resins as the adhesive agent were embedded in cement paste to achieve self-healing capability. The self-healing efficiency was firstly assessed by mechanical restoration of the damaging specimens after being matured. The flexural and compressive configurations were both used to stimulate the localized and distributed cracks respectively. The effects of some factors, including the content of microcapsules, the curing conditions and the degree of damage on the healing efficiency were investigated. Water absorption was innovatively proposed to monitor and characterize the evolution of crack networks during the healing process. The healing cracks were observed by SEM-EDS following. The results demonstrated that the capsule-containing cement paste can achieve the various mechanical restorations depending on the curing condition and the degree of damage. But the voids generated by the surfactants compromised the strength. Though no noticeable improved stiffness obtained, the increasing fracture energy was seen particularly for the specimen acquiring 60% pre-damage. The sorptivity and amount of water decreased with cracks healing by the adhesive, which contributed to cut off and block ingress of water. The micrographs by SEM-EDS also validated that the cracks were bridged by the hardened epoxy as the dominated elements of C and O accounted for 95% by mass in the nearby cracks. PMID:24312328

  5. Self-healing efficiency of cementitious materials containing microcapsules filled with healing adhesive: mechanical restoration and healing process monitored by water absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li

    Full Text Available Autonomous crack healing of cementitious composite, a construction material that is susceptible to cracking, is of great significance to improve the serviceability and to prolong the longevity of concrete structures. In this study, the St-DVB microcapsules enclosing epoxy resins as the adhesive agent were embedded in cement paste to achieve self-healing capability. The self-healing efficiency was firstly assessed by mechanical restoration of the damaging specimens after being matured. The flexural and compressive configurations were both used to stimulate the localized and distributed cracks respectively. The effects of some factors, including the content of microcapsules, the curing conditions and the degree of damage on the healing efficiency were investigated. Water absorption was innovatively proposed to monitor and characterize the evolution of crack networks during the healing process. The healing cracks were observed by SEM-EDS following. The results demonstrated that the capsule-containing cement paste can achieve the various mechanical restorations depending on the curing condition and the degree of damage. But the voids generated by the surfactants compromised the strength. Though no noticeable improved stiffness obtained, the increasing fracture energy was seen particularly for the specimen acquiring 60% pre-damage. The sorptivity and amount of water decreased with cracks healing by the adhesive, which contributed to cut off and block ingress of water. The micrographs by SEM-EDS also validated that the cracks were bridged by the hardened epoxy as the dominated elements of C and O accounted for 95% by mass in the nearby cracks.

  6. Studies on focal alveolar bone healing with technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate and gold-collimated cadmium telluride probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, M.; Hosain, F.; Engelke, W.; Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The benefit of using a collimator for a miniaturized cadmium telluride probe was evaluated by monitoring the bone-healing processes for 13 weeks after the induction of small iatrogenic alveolar bone lesions in one side of the mandible in beagles. Technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (200 to 300 MBq, 5.1 to 8.1 mCi, in a solution of 0.5 to 1 ml, intravenously) was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The radioactivity over the bone lesion (L) and the contralateral normal site (C) in the mandible were measured between 1.5 and 2 hours after injection of the tracer, and the activity ratio L/C served as an index of relative bone uptake. A study of six dogs revealed that the healing response to a hemispheric bone defect of 2 mm diameter in the cortical bone could not be detected by an uncollimated probe, and in a repeated study in two dogs the use of a gold collimator (5 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) did not increase the L/C ratio significantly. A second study in six dogs with 5 mm lesions showed that although systematic trends in the time courses of the L/C ratio obtained both with and without the collimator could be demonstrated, the L/C ratio of collimated versus uncollimated measurements was significantly (p less than 0.005) increased. In three of the latter six dogs, abscesses developed after 9 weeks, leading to a second increase (p less than 0.05) of the L/C ratio with collimation compared with the noninflammation group; without collimation no significant (p greater than 0.15) difference between the two groups could be demonstrated

  7. Comparing the effects of chlorhexidine and persica on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Shahrabi, Shokufeh; Navabazam, Alireza

    2012-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is broadly prescribed by clinicians for treating extraction socket wounds; however, studies have reported adverse effects for chlorhexidine. Persica, a herbal antibacterial agent, could be an alternative for chlorhexidine. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of persica and chlorhexidine on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three study groups: 0.2% chlorhexidine, 10% persica and controls (tap water). The rats were mouth-rinsed for 14 days. On day 8, the mandibular right first molars of all the rats were extracted. On day 21, the rats were euthanized and histological slides of their extraction sockets were prepared. The amount of new bone formation and the number of inflammatory cells in the extraction socket for each rat were recorded. Data were analysed using linear regression and Mann-Whitney tests. There was no significant difference between the control group and the intervention groups in terms of new bone formation and inflammatory cell count. The mean new bone formation was significantly higher in the persica group than in the chlorhexidine group. There was a significant association between new bone formation and inflammatory cell count in the entire sample. In conclusion, there were no significant differences between rinsing with tap water and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine and 10% persica in enhancing extraction socket wound healing in rats. Extraction socket wound healing in rats was better enhanced with 10% persica than 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  8. Influence of bioactive material coating of Ti dental implant surfaces on early healing and osseointegration of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, In-Sung; Min, Seung-Ki; An, Young-Bai

    2010-01-01

    The dental implant surface type is one of many factors that determine the long-term clinical success of implant restoration. The implant surface consists of bioinert titanium oxide, but recently coatings with bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics have often been used on Ti implant surfaces. Bio-active surfaces are known to significantly improve the healing time of the human bone around the inserted dental implant. In this study, we characterized two types of coated implant surfaces by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and surface roughness testing. The effect of surface modification on early bone healing was then tested by using the rabbit tibia model to measure bone-to-implant contact ratios and removal torque values. These modified surfaces showed different characteristics in terms of surface topography, chemical composition, and surface roughness. However, no significant differences were found in the bone-to-implant contact and the resistance to removal torque between these surfaces. Both the coated implants may induce similar favorable early bone responses in terms of the early functioning and healing of dental implants even though they differed in their surface characteristics.

  9. Influence of bioactive material coating of Ti dental implant surfaces on early healing and osseointegration of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, In-Sung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Seung-Ki [Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Young-Bai [Osstem Implant Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The dental implant surface type is one of many factors that determine the long-term clinical success of implant restoration. The implant surface consists of bioinert titanium oxide, but recently coatings with bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics have often been used on Ti implant surfaces. Bio-active surfaces are known to significantly improve the healing time of the human bone around the inserted dental implant. In this study, we characterized two types of coated implant surfaces by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and surface roughness testing. The effect of surface modification on early bone healing was then tested by using the rabbit tibia model to measure bone-to-implant contact ratios and removal torque values. These modified surfaces showed different characteristics in terms of surface topography, chemical composition, and surface roughness. However, no significant differences were found in the bone-to-implant contact and the resistance to removal torque between these surfaces. Both the coated implants may induce similar favorable early bone responses in terms of the early functioning and healing of dental implants even though they differed in their surface characteristics.

  10. Bone healing of critical size defects of the rat femur after the application of bone marrow aspirate and two different rh-BMP7 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högel, F; Hoffmann, S; Hungerer, S; Fleischacker, E; Ullamann, T; Betz, O B; Augat, P

    2015-10-01

    It is known that the application of growth factors can enhance fracture healing in defect fractures. The role of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) in combination with BMP-7 and the dosage of rh BMP-7 are still under discussion. Our hypothesis was that the combination of rh-BMP-7 with BMA can heal bone defects more effectively than rh-BMP-7 alone. Twenty-eight rats obtained a 5 mm critical size defect in the diaphysis of the right femur which was stabilized by a plate. Rh-BMP-7 was applied at 10 and 200 µg either with collagen or together with collagen and BMA. Collagen only and collagen with BMA served as control groups. Blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry in regular time intervals until euthanasia. Callus formation and bone density were measured by micro-computed tomography and biomechanical stability was evaluated by torsional testing at 4 weeks, postoperatively. Blood flow increased at the operated side after surgery until the second postoperative week independent of treatment. Animals treated with high dose BMP-7 showed significantly (p = 0.001) increased mechanical stiffness independent of BMA treatment. Failure loads were lowest for the two control groups (p = 0.001). The reduction of the BMP-7 dose led to less callus tissue and lower biomechanical stability. BMA did not show significant influence on bone healing. The combination of an rhBMP-7 dose that would be equivalent to a dose used clinically in humans with bone marrow aspirate does not heal a critical bone defect more effectively than the same rhBMP-7 dose alone.

  11. Assessment of polycaprolacton (PCL) nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hadi; Jahandideh, Alireza; Asghari, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2017-08-01

    Segmental bone loss due to trauma, infection, and tumor resection and even non-union results in the vast demand for replacement and restoration of the function of the lost bone. The objective of this study is to utilize novel inorganic-organic nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Biodegradable implants have shown great promise for the repair of bone defects and have been commonly used as bone substitutes, which traditionally would be treated using metallic implants. In this study, 45 mature male New Zealand white rabbits 6-8 months and weighting 3-3.5 kg were examined. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Surgical procedures were done after an intramuscular injection of Ketamine 10% (ketamine hydrochloride, 50 mg/kg), Rompun 5% (xylazine, 5 mg/kg). Then an approximately 6 mm diameter - 5 mm cylinder bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs. After inducing the surgical wound, all rabbits were colored and randomly divided into three experimental groups of nine animals each: Group 1 received medical pure nanocomposite polycaprolactone (PCL) granules, Group 2 received hydroxyapatite and Group 3 was a control group with no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30 and 45 after surgery. On day 45 after surgery, the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the healing site in PCL group was better than onward compared with HA and control groups. Finally, nanocomposite PCL granules exhibited a reproducible bone-healing potential.

  12. [Effect of combined therapeutic methods on healing of periodontal vertical bone defects in regenerative surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Ferenc

    2009-03-15

    Several methods are available to enhance the healing and regeneration of periodontal tissues after surgical therapy of intrabony defects. The main indications for the use of combined regenerative procedures are the extent and morphology of the osseous lesions. The six studies of the present dissertation focused on the clinical effect of different barrier techniques, bone substitutes, enamel matrix derivatives and a growth factors containing adjuvant used in various combinations on the healing of severe periodontal intrabony impairments. Synthetic, xenogenetic and autologous materials were used in these randomized clinical studies. Mechanical barriers (polytetrafluoroethylene and collagen membranes) for GTR, biological barriers/enamel matrix proteins (EMD), synthetic (beta-TCP) and xenogeneic (NBM) bone grafts and autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were combined in the test and control groups of the trials. The main clinical variable was the clinical attachment level (CAL) and the subsidiary one was the probing pocket depth (PPD), estimated at baseline and after one year. The summation of the results after the statistical analysis takes cognizance of the followings: a) Each of the eleven regenerative methods evaluated (ten combined procedures) leads to significant CAL gain and PPD decrease. b) Using beta-TCP or NBM with EMD or with PRP+GTR and GTR's, the difference between the parameters of the test and control groups were not statistically significant. c) It was confirmed in four studies that the addition of PRP to graft materials has not increased significantly the positive outcomes independent of the type of barrier or graft. d) Adding platelet-rich plasma to natural bone mineral, no benefit was observed from the point of view of the clinical variables. e) The polypeptide proteins of the platelet-rich plasma do not enhance the clinical regenerative effect of enamel matrix proteins. In conclusion, the option of the periodontal surgeons between these methods

  13. Histologic evaluation of chitosan as an accelerator of bone regeneration in microdrilled rat tibias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chitosan significantly accelerated the bone regeneration process in rat tibias. Regarding its biocompatibility and osteoinductivity, it can be studied as a biomaterial in human bone healing.

  14. Radiologic study of the healing process of the extracted socket of beagle dogs using cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Won; Lee, Won; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, De Sok [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To longitudinally observe the healing process of extracted socket and the alterations of the residual ridge in healthy adult dogs using cone beam CT (CBCT). The mandibular premolars of two beagle dogs were removed and the extraction sites were covered with the gingival tissue. CBCTs (3D X-ray CT scanner, Alphard vega, Asahi Co.) were taken at baseline and at 1 week interval for 12 weeks. Radiographic density of extracted wounds was measured on normalized images with a custom-made image analysis program. The amount of alveolar crestal resorption after the teeth extraction was measured with a reformatted three-dimensional image using CBCT. Bony healing pattern of extracted wound of each group was also longitudinally observed and analyzed. Dimensional changes occurred during the first 6 weeks following the extraction of dogs' mandibular premolars. The reduction of the height of residual ridge was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. Radiographic density of extracted wounds increased by week 4, but the change in density stabilized after week 6. New bone formation was observed at the floor and the peripheral side of extracted socket from week 1. The entrance of extracted socket was sealed by a hard-tissue bridge at week 5. The healing process of extracted wound involved a series of events including new bone formation and residual ridge resorption.

  15. Radiologic study of the healing process of the extracted socket of beagle dogs using cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Won; Lee, Won; Lee, Byung Do; Kim, De Sok

    2009-01-01

    To longitudinally observe the healing process of extracted socket and the alterations of the residual ridge in healthy adult dogs using cone beam CT (CBCT). The mandibular premolars of two beagle dogs were removed and the extraction sites were covered with the gingival tissue. CBCTs (3D X-ray CT scanner, Alphard vega, Asahi Co.) were taken at baseline and at 1 week interval for 12 weeks. Radiographic density of extracted wounds was measured on normalized images with a custom-made image analysis program. The amount of alveolar crestal resorption after the teeth extraction was measured with a reformatted three-dimensional image using CBCT. Bony healing pattern of extracted wound of each group was also longitudinally observed and analyzed. Dimensional changes occurred during the first 6 weeks following the extraction of dogs' mandibular premolars. The reduction of the height of residual ridge was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. Radiographic density of extracted wounds increased by week 4, but the change in density stabilized after week 6. New bone formation was observed at the floor and the peripheral side of extracted socket from week 1. The entrance of extracted socket was sealed by a hard-tissue bridge at week 5. The healing process of extracted wound involved a series of events including new bone formation and residual ridge resorption.

  16. Selective COX-2 inhibitor reduces bone healing in bone defects Inibidor seletivo de COX-2 reduz reparo em defeitos ósseos

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    Bruno César de Vasconcelos Gurgel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory agents have been reported to regulate bone healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (meloxicam on bone healing in calvarial defects in rats. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats were included. After anesthesia, a linear incision was made through the skin of the scalp, a full-thickness flap was reflected and a 4 mm round defect was made with a trephine drill. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the following 4 treatment groups (9 animals each, including daily subcutaneous injections: A: saline solution for 15 days; B: saline solution for 45 days; C: 3 mg/kg of meloxicam for 15 days and D: 3 mg/kg of meloxicam for 45 days. The animals were sacrificed and the specimens, routinely processed. The bone filling was histometrically measured and statistical analysis, performed. Intergroup comparisons demonstrated that the meloxicam groups presented a significant reduction in bone healing when compared to their respective controls (group A, 44.5 ± 5.75%, against group C, 57.5 ± 7.25%, p Agentes antiinflamatórios têm sido descritos como reguladores do reparo ósseo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito de um inibidor seletivo da cicloxigenase-2 (meloxicam no reparo ósseo em defeitos de calvárias de ratos. Trinta e seis ratos machos Wistar foram incluídos no estudo. Após anestesia, incisão linear e rebatimento de retalho de espessura total, um defeito de 4 mm de diâmetro foi criado na calvária dos animais com broca trefina. Os mesmos foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em um dos 4 grupos de tratamento (9 animais por grupo, recebendo injeções subcutâneas diárias de: A: soro fisiológico por 15 dias; B: soro fisiológico por 45 dias; C: 3 mg/kg de meloxicam por 15 dias; D: 3 mg/kg de meloxicam por 45 dias. Os animais foram sacrificados e os espécimes rotineiramente processados. Medidas do preenchimento ósseo foram histometricamente realizadas e

  17. Human amniotic membrane, best healing accelerator, and the choice of bone induction for vestibuloplasty technique (an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Khoshzaban

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad H Samandari1, Shahriar Adibi2, Ahad Khoshzaban3, Sara Aghazadeh5, Parviz Dihimi4, Siamak S Torbaghan6, Saeed H Keshel5, Zohreh Shahabi71Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dentistry Faculty, 2Dental Research of Torabinejad Research Centre, 3Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Centre, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dentistry Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; 5Stem Cells Preparation Unit, Eye Research Center, Farabi Hospital, 6Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Medical Centre, 7BMT Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjective: To investigate the effects of amniotic membrane (AM in bone induction and wound healing after vestibuloplasty surgery on animal samples while receptacle proteins such as growth factors were considered as accelerators for wound healing and bone induction after these operations.Material and methods: Ten adult dogs (5 females, 5 males; race, Iranian mixed; weight, 44 pounds were included, which underwent surgery for transplantation on mandible and maxillary. AM was used for promoting bone induction and healing.Results: The tissue samples were obtained after 2, 8, and 12 weeks for histology survey. No significant differences were observed between male and female or left and right jaws. AM decreased fibrinoleukocytic exudates and inflammation in the experimental group, had significant effects on bone formation, considerably improves wound healing, and gives rise to bone induction (P < 0.0001.Conclusions: Our study findings indicate that the AM is a suitable cover for different injuries and acellular AM has the potential for rapid improvement and bone induction. The AM contains collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, which provide an appropriate substrate for bone induction. This substrate promoted bone induction and might contribute to induction of the progenitor cells and/or stem

  18. [The Influence of Glucocorticoids on the Healing Processes in the Gastric Mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvigina, T T; Filaretova, L P

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we analyzed the data of literature about the glucocorticoid influences on the gastric erosion and ulcer healing. The data show that multiple injections of glucocorticoids at pharmacological doses delay gastric erosion and ulcer healing. However, according to experimental results endogenic glucocorticoids, on the contrary, play significant role in maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. Thus, glucocorticoids may have dual effect on healing of gastric injury: contribute to healing process or delay them. The initial glucocorticoid action is physiological and consists in a participation in healing processes what is considered as component gastroprotective action of these hormones. During a long-lasting action of glucocorticoids, the physiological effect can be transformed into pathological one, delaying erosion and ulcer healing, and this contributes to the ulcerogenic action of glucocorticods.

  19. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, Matheus da Silva; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Pereira, Camila Scacco; Pereira, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Ana Cláudia; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.

  20. Evaluation of an injectable bioactive borate glass cement to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Chengcheng; Yu, Zunxiong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wenlong; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping; Pan, Haobo; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2017-04-01

    There is a need for synthetic biomaterials to heal bone defects using minimal invasive surgery. In the present study, an injectable cement composed of bioactive borate glass particles and a chitosan bonding solution was developed and evaluated for its capacity to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model. The injectability and setting time of the cement in vitro decreased but the compressive strength increased (8±2MPa to 31±2MPa) as the ratio of glass particles to chitosan solution increased (from 1.0gml -1 to 2.5gml -1 ). Upon immersing the cement in phosphate-buffered saline, the glass particles reacted and converted to hydroxyapatite, imparting bioactivity to the cement. Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells showed enhanced proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity when incubated in media containing the soluble ionic product of the cement. The bioactive glass cement showed a better capacity to stimulate bone formation in rabbit femoral condyle defects at 12weeks postimplantation when compared to a commercial calcium sulfate cement. The injectable bioactive borate glass cement developed in this study could provide a promising biomaterial to heal bone defects by minimal invasive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conditioned medium from hypoxic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances wound healing in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs enhance wound repair via paracrine. Because the extent of environmental oxygenation affects the innate characteristics of BM-MSCs, including their stemness and migration capacity, the current study set out to elucidate and compare the impact of normoxic and hypoxic cell-culture conditions on the expression and secretion of BM-MSC-derived paracrine molecules (e.g., cytokines, growth factors and chemokines that hypothetically contribute to cutaneous wound healing in vivo. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analyses of normoxic and hypoxic BM-MSCs and their conditioned medium fractions showed that the stem cells expressed and secreted significantly higher amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF,vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8 under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, hypoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (hypoCM vs. normoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (norCM or vehicle control medium significantly enhanced the proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, the migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and monocytes, and the formation of tubular structures by endothelial cells cultured on Matrigel matrix. Consistent with these in vitro results, skin wound contraction was significantly accelerated in Balb/c nude mice treated with topical hypoCM relative to norCM or the vehicle control. Notably increased in vivo cell proliferation, neovascularization as well as recruitment of inflammatory macrophages and evidently decreased collagen I, and collagen III were also found in the hypoCM-treated group. These findings suggest that BM-MSCs promote murine skin wound healing via hypoxia-enhanced paracrine.

  2. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  3. Analysis of the roles of microporosity and BMP-2 on multiple measures of bone regeneration and healing in calcium phosphate scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Samantha J; Levengood, Sheeny K Lan; Wheeler, Matthew B; Maki, Aaron J; Clark, Sherrie G; Johnson, Amy J Wagoner

    2011-04-01

    Osteoinductive agents, such as BMP-2, are known to improve bone formation when combined with scaffolds. Microporosity (bone regeneration in calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds. However, many studies use only the term "osteoconductive" to describe the effects of BMP-2 and microporosity on bone formation, and do not assess the degree of healing that occurred. The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of BMP-2 and microporosity on bone regeneration and healing in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds using multiple measures including bone volume fraction, radial distribution, and specific surface area. These measures were quantitatively compared by analyzing microcomputed tomography data and used to formally define and assess healing. A custom image segmentation program was used to segment >100 samples, with 900 images each, that were implanted in porcine mandibular defects for 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The assessment of healing presented in this work demonstrates the level of detail possible in evaluating scaffold-guided bone regeneration. The analysis shows that BMP-2 and microporosity accelerate healing up to 4-fold. BMP-2 and microporosity were shown to have different and complementary roles in bone formation that effect the time needed for a defect to heal. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is bisphosphonate therapy for benign bone disease associated with impaired dental healing? A case-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates are common first line medications used for the management of benign bone disease. One of the most devastating complications associated with bisphosphonate use is osteonecrosis of the jaws which may be related to duration of exposure and hence cumulative dose, dental interventions, medical co-morbidities or in some circumstances with no identifiable aggravating factor. While jaw osteonecrosis is a devastating outcome which is currently difficult to manage, various forms of delayed dental healing may be a less dramatic and, therefore, poorly-recognised complications of bisphosphonate use for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is hypothesised that long-term (more than 1 year's duration) bisphosphonate use for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis or other benign bone disease is associated with impaired dental healing. Methods/Design A case-control study has been chosen to test the hypothesis as the outcome event rate is likely to be very low. A total of 54 cases will be recruited into the study following review of all dental files from oral and maxillofacial surgeons and special needs dentists in Victoria where potential cases of delayed dental healing will be identified. Potential cases will be presented to an independent case adjudication panel to determine if they are definitive delayed dental healing cases. Two hundred and fifteen controls (1:4 cases:controls), matched for age and visit window period, will be selected from those who have attended local community based referring dental practices. The primary outcome will be the incidence of delayed dental healing that occurs either spontaneously or following dental treatment such as extractions, implant placement, or denture use. Discussion This study is the largest case-controlled study assessing the link between bisphosphonate use and delayed dental healing in Australia. It will provide invaluable data on the potential link between bisphosphonate use and osteonecrosis of the jaws

  5. Is bisphosphonate therapy for benign bone disease associated with impaired dental healing? A case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Wendy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bisphosphonates are common first line medications used for the management of benign bone disease. One of the most devastating complications associated with bisphosphonate use is osteonecrosis of the jaws which may be related to duration of exposure and hence cumulative dose, dental interventions, medical co-morbidities or in some circumstances with no identifiable aggravating factor. While jaw osteonecrosis is a devastating outcome which is currently difficult to manage, various forms of delayed dental healing may be a less dramatic and, therefore, poorly-recognised complications of bisphosphonate use for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is hypothesised that long-term (more than 1 year's duration bisphosphonate use for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis or other benign bone disease is associated with impaired dental healing. Methods/Design A case-control study has been chosen to test the hypothesis as the outcome event rate is likely to be very low. A total of 54 cases will be recruited into the study following review of all dental files from oral and maxillofacial surgeons and special needs dentists in Victoria where potential cases of delayed dental healing will be identified. Potential cases will be presented to an independent case adjudication panel to determine if they are definitive delayed dental healing cases. Two hundred and fifteen controls (1:4 cases:controls, matched for age and visit window period, will be selected from those who have attended local community based referring dental practices. The primary outcome will be the incidence of delayed dental healing that occurs either spontaneously or following dental treatment such as extractions, implant placement, or denture use. Discussion This study is the largest case-controlled study assessing the link between bisphosphonate use and delayed dental healing in Australia. It will provide invaluable data on the potential link between bisphosphonate use

  6. Regeneration of Vascularized Corticocancellous Bone and Diploic Space Using Muscle-Derived Stem Cells: A Translational Biologic Alternative for Healing Critical Bone Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Denver; Swanson, Edward; Sopko, Nikolai A; Madsen, Christopher; Miller, Devin; Wang, Howard; Guo, Qiongyu; Sursala, Srinivas M; Kumar, Anand R

    2017-04-01

    Regeneration of functional bone substrate remains a priority in reconstructive surgery especially for patients suffering from complex skeletal defects. Efforts to develop implantable osteoinductive constructs and novel osteoconductive materials remain at the forefront of industry forces and product line development. Despite advancement in clinical practice and bone biology, cancellous autograft remains the gold standard for procedures requiring osteogenic mechanisms of healing. This study investigates the utility of muscle-derived stem cells as a cellular therapy for definitive bone regeneration through a form of neo-osteogenesis. Adipose-derived stem cell, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and muscle-derived stem cell populations were isolated separately from C57BL/6 murine tissues and supplemented with collagen scaffolding with or without bone morphogenetic protein-2 to compare relative osteogenic potency and ultrastructure organization in both two- and three-dimensional systems. Parallel populations were bound to a deployable collagen implant within a syngeneic murine cranial defect model. Although all populations provided and maintained mesenchymal stem cell multilineage capacity, adipose-derived stem cell- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell-enriched constructs were capable of forming small bone aggregates. Defects receiving muscle-derived stem cells self-assembled a form of organized corticocancellous structures within two- and three-dimensional in vitro systems and within the in vivo model. Muscle-derived stem cells also augmented healing, implant angiogenesis, and diploic space formation. Muscle-derived stem cell-enriched implants appear to provide an autologous response to current industry-derived products and an attractive alternative to mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of corticocancellous bone and a vascularized diploic space.

  7. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy improves tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jennica J; Cirone, James M.; Morris, Tyler R.; Nuss, Courtney A.; Huegel, Julianne; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zhang, Nianli; Ryaby, James T.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common musculoskeletal injuries often requiring surgical intervention with high failure rates. Currently, pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are used for treatment of long-bone fracture and lumbar and cervical spine fusion surgery. No studies have investigated PEMF in healing soft tissue. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PEMF on rotator cuff healing using a rat rotator cuff repair model. We hypothesized that PEMF exposure following rotator cuff repair would improve tendon mechanical properties, tissue morphology, and alter in vivo joint function. 70 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: bilateral repair with PEMF (n=30), bilateral repair followed by cage activity (n=30), uninjured control with cage activity (n=10). Rats in the surgical groups were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Control group was sacrificed at 8 weeks. Passive joint mechanics and gait analysis were assessed over time. Biomechanical analysis and µCT was performed on left shoulders; histological analysis on right shoulders. Results indicate no differences in passive joint mechanics and ambulation. At 4 weeks the PEMF group had decreased cross-sectional area and increased modulus and maximum stress. At 8 weeks the PEMF group had increased modulus and more rounded cells in the midsubstance. At 16 weeks the PEMF group had improved bone quality. Therefore, results indicate that PEMF improves early tendon healing and does not alter joint function in a rat rotator cuff repair model. Statement of Clinical Significance PEMF exposure following rotator cuff repair improves early tendon healing. PMID:27282093

  8. Effect of membranes and porous hydroxyapatite on healing in bone defects around titanium dental implants. An experimental study in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Warrer, K; Hjørting-Hansen

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of treating bony craters around titanium dental implant with polytetrafluoroethylene membranes (PTFE), with and without grafting of hydroxyapatite (HA), and with HA alone. 4 standardized bone defects were prepared in the alveolar ridge......) no treatment. Following a healing period of 12 weeks, all animals were sacrificed and mesio-distal ground sections of the treated areas were prepared. The histological analysis showed that all bone defects around the implants treated with PTFE membranes and 5 of the defects treated with HA and PTFE membranes...

  9. The Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Healing After Rapid Maxillary Expansion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skondra, Foteini G; Koletsi, Despina; Eliades, Theodore; Farmakis, Eleftherios Terry R

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to systematically appraise the evidence on the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone healing following rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Electronic search was performed in MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases using appropriate Medical Subject Heading terms, with no time restriction. ClinicalTrials.gov ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ) was also searched using the terms "low level laser therapy" and "maxillary expansion." Original research articles on human clinical trials that involved both RME and LLLT were included. Animal studies were also assessed on an exploratory basis. The search strategy resulted in 12 publications (4 randomized controlled trials, 8 animal studies). In human studies, bone density was assessed radiographically (either two-dimensional or three-dimensional imaging). Regardless of the discrepancies in the intervention protocols, the total of the trials revealed that LLLT had stimulatory effects on bone regeneration after RME. The studies in animal models measured the formation and maturation of new bone qualitatively or quantitatively. Despite the limited evidence, LLLT seems to be a promising intervention for stimulating immediate bone regeneration and healing after midpalatal suture expansion. Long-term, randomized clinical trials are needed to formulate safe results and establish a reliable clinical protocol, rendering the method clinically applicable.

  10. Radiologic assessment of bone healing after orthognathic surgery using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang Soo; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, In Seong [Department of Dentistry, Inje University Sanggyepaik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Dae [Division of Information and Communication Engineering, Hallym university, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    To evaluate the radiographic change of operation sites after orthognathic surgery using the digital image processing and fractal analysis. A series of panoramic radiographs of thirty-five randomly selected patients who had undergone mandibular orthognathic surgery (bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy) without clinical complication for osseous healing, were taken. The panoramic radiographs of each selected patient were taken at pre-operation (stage 0), 1 or 2 days after operation (stage 1), 1 month after operation (stage 2), 6 months after operation (stage 3), and 12 months after operation (stage 4). The radiographs were digitized at 600 dpi, 8 bit, and 256 gray levels. The region of interest, centered on the bony gap area of the operation site, was selected and the fractal dimension was calculated by using the tile-counting method. The mean values and standard deviations of fractal dimension for each stage were calculated and the differences among stage 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were evaluated through repeated measures of the ANOVA and paired t-test. The mean values and standard deviations of the fractal dimensions obtained from stage 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 1.658 {+-} 0.048, 1.580 {+-} 0.050, 1.607 {+-} 0.046, 1.624 {+-} 0.049, and 1.641 {+-} 0.061, respectively. The fractal dimensions from stage 1 to stage 4 were shown to have a tendency to increase (p<0.05). The tendency of the fractal dimesion to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating post-operative bony healing of the osteotomy site.

  11. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A.; LeBlanc, Jill M.; Sheets, Kevin T.; Fox, Robert W.; Gatenholm, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  12. A histomorphometric study on the healing of class III furcations utilizing bone labelling in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C; Hancock, E B; Garetto, L P; Kafrawy, A A

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of bone turnover in the furcations of teeth treated with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes were evaluated using multiple fluorochrome labels in 6 male beagle dogs. Loss of attachment involving the furcation area was induced in the second, third, and fourth premolar teeth using silk ligatures. The resulting defects were treated with the use of mucoperiosteal flaps for access, debridement of the defects, and placement of ePTFE membranes covering the furcations of the second and fourth premolars (experimental teeth) while the third premolar received only debridement without membrane placement (control tooth). Five fluorochrome labels were administered intravenously at timed intervals to act as markers of the osseous response. Membranes were removed at 4 weeks and all animals were terminated at 12 weeks post-membrane placement. One side of the mandible was decalcified, sectioned at 7 microns, and stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or Gomori's tri-chrome. The opposite side provided non-decalcified tissue processed as 100 microns ground sections. Using fluorescent light and point-hit evaluation, tissue in the coronal half of each specimen was classified as either labelled bone, unlabelled bone, or resorption space. In addition, microradiographs were prepared of each ground section and specimens classified as either woven bone, old lamellar bone, or new lamellar bone. No significant differences in attachment levels, or level of junctional epithelium, were observed in decalcified sections although greater remodeling activity was noted in the experimental specimens. Comparison of ground sections revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in all categories with both methods of evaluation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Repair process of surgical defects filled with autogenous bone grafts in tibiae of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas Caldeira Esteves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available From a biological standpoint, the best material for reconstruction of bone defects is the autogenous bone graft. However, as tissue healing is affected under diabetic conditions, major changes might take place in the revascularization, incorporation, replacement and remodeling phases of the grafted area. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone healing process in surgical wounds prepared in tibiae of diabetic rats and filled with autogenous bone. Forty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection (penile vein of either citrate buffer solution (Group 1 - control; n=20 or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution (35 mg/kg to induce diabetes (Group 2 - diabetic; n=20. After determination of glycemia, the animals were anesthetized and the anterolateral regions of the tibiae of both limbs were shaved, antisepsis was performed and longitudinal incisions were made in each limb. The tibiae were exposed and two 2mm-diameter surgical cavities were prepared: one in the right limb, filled with particulate autogenous bone and the other in the left limb, filled with blood clot. The animals were euthanized at 10 and 30 postoperative days. The anatomic pieces were obtained, submitted to laboratory processing and sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's Trichrome for histomorphologic and histometric analyses. In both groups, the wounds filled with autogenous bone graft showed better results than those filled with blood clot. The control group showed higher new bone formation in wounds filled with autogenous bone graft at 30 days than the diabetic group, but without statistical significance. It may be concluded that, in general, the new bone formation occurred with autogenous graft was quantitatively similar between control and diabetic groups and qualitatively better in the control group.

  14. Is there evidence that barrier membranes prevent bone resorption in autologous bone grafts during the healing period? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn F. M.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Autologous bone is considered the "reference standard" for bone-grafting procedures. A barrier membrane covering an autologous bone graft (guided bone regeneration [GBR]) is expected to prevent graft resorption. Good clinical results have been reported for GBR, although potential

  15. A derangement of the brain wound healing process may cause some cases of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer's disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer's disease. Our hypothesis -- Alzheimer's disease is brain wound healing gone awry at least in some cases -- could be tested by measuring progression with biomarkers for the four stages of wound healing in humans or appropriate animal models. Autopsy studies might be done. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy might also result from the brain wound healing process.

  16. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat ‘brighter’ than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  17. A technique to evaluate bone healing in non-human primates using sequential sub(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of bone healing through sequential nuclear medical scintigraphy requires a method of consistent localization of the exact fracture area in each consecutive image as the study progresses. This is difficult when there is surrounding bone activity as in the early stages of trauma, and also if complications should set in. The image profile feature, available from most nuclear medical computer software, facilitates this procedure considerably, as is indicated in the present report on bone healing in baboons. Together with roentgenology and histology a sup(99m)Tc-MDP study was in this way successfully done on the healing of long bone fractures experimentally induced in non-human primates. Different surgical implants were used. The results indicated that sup(99m)Tc-MDP accurately reflects the physiological activity in bone. The time-activity curves obtained are presently being studied together with extensive histology, bearing possible clinical application in mind. (orig.) [de

  18. Healed or non-healed? computed tomography (CT) visualisation of morphology of bite trace ichnotaxa on a dinosaur bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Lauridsen, Henrik; Fiirgaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    . Ichnotaxa defined by theropod bite traces can provide useful information for understanding feeding behaviour. However, objective interpretation of possible bite traces can be difficult using traditional visual inspection. In this study, the bite traces on a fossilised dinosaur bone were comprehensively...

  19. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonino; Licata, Maria E; Polizzi, Bianca; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2013-06-13

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  20. Evaluation of the Healing Potential of Demineralized Dentin Matrix Fixed with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Bone Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM fixed with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 through an experimental and a clinical study. Unilateral upper second and third premolars of eight beagles were extracted. A mucoperiosteal flap was elevated around the extraction socket, and a bone defect was made using a surgical drill. Each DDM was fixed with rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone was grafted at the bone defect area with a collagenous membrane. The beagles were euthanized at two, four, eight, and 12 weeks after receiving the bone graft. Block specimens involving grafted bone and surrounding natural bone were extracted. A total of 23 patients who received bone grafts using human DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 (AutoBT BMP with implant placements (36 implants; maxilla: 14, mandible: 22 were selected. The implant stability, marginal bone loss, and clinical outcome were evaluated. Three trephine cores were harvested fourmonths after bone grafting, and histologic examination was performed. In the histological evaluation performed four weeks after the bone graft, autogenous bone showed 52% new bone formation and DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 showed 33% new bone formation. Twelve weeks after the bone graft, autogenous bone showed 75% new bone formation and DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 showed 48% new bone formation. In the clinical study, favorable osseointegration was obtained in 35 out of 36 implant sites (one case of osseointegration failure. In all cases, severe complications were not observed. Histomorphometrically, new bone formation was observed in 14.98% of the cases. The residual DDM particles were 6.22%. AutoBT BMP provides good osteoinductive and osteoconductive potential and clinical efficacy.

  1. In vivo evaluation of two types of bioactive scaffold used for tendon-bone interface healing in the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibin; Pan, Weimin; Zhang, Mingjun; Wei, Yiyong

    2011-04-01

    Fibrin glue combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and recombined bone xenograft (RBX), were compared to evaluate their effect on the tendon-bone interface healing. The interface of fibrin glue-BMP developed new cartilage but the new bone was thinner whereas the interface of RBX had large areas of chondrocyte-like cells, bone formation and an immature neo-enthesis structure. At 12 weeks, bone mineral density of RBX group (152 ± 52 cm(3)) and fibrin glue-BMP group (109 ± 13 cm(3)) was calculated by micro-computed tomography. The ultimate load of fibrin glue-BMP group (60 ± 18 and 51 ± 14 N) and RBX group (65 ± 21 and 57 ± 15 N) was shown by biomechanics at 6 and 12 weeks. RBX thus has an advantage on accelerating tendon-bone interface healing.

  2. Healing of a Large Long-Bone Defect through Serum-Free In Vitro Priming of Human Periosteum-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bolander

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical translation of cell-based strategies for regenerative medicine demands predictable in vivo performance where the use of sera during in vitro preparation inherently limits the efficacy and reproducibility. Here, we present a bioinspired approach by serum-free pre-conditioning of human periosteum-derived cells, followed by their assembly into microaggregates simultaneously primed with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2. Pre-conditioning resulted in a more potent progenitor cell population, while aggregation induced osteochondrogenic differentiation, further enhanced by BMP-2 stimulation. Ectopic implantation displayed a cascade of events that closely resembled the natural endochondral process resulting in bone ossicle formation. Assessment in a critical size long-bone defect in immunodeficient mice demonstrated successful bridging of the defect within 4 weeks, with active contribution of the implanted cells. In short, the presented serum-free process represents a biomimetic strategy, resulting in a cartilage tissue intermediate that, upon implantation, robustly leads to the healing of a large long-bone defect.

  3. Parathyroid Hormone (1-34 Might Not Improve Early Bone Healing after Sinus Augmentation in Healthy Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisun Huh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the effect of administering intermittent parathyroid hormone [PTH (1-34, henceforth PTH] on the early-stage bone healing of maxillary sinus augmentation in healthy rabbits. Materials and Methods. Bovine bone mineral was grafted on the sinuses of 20 female New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, PTH (n=10 or saline (n=10, in which either PTH or saline was injected subcutaneously 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Half of the animals in each group were killed at 2 weeks postoperatively and the other half were killed at 4 weeks postoperatively. The dosage of PTH was 10 μg/kg/day. Radiographic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Result. The new bone area (NBA did not differ significantly between the PTH and saline groups. The NBA in the PTH group in the total augmented area and in the demarcated window, center, and Schneiderian membrane regions increased significantly from 2 to 4 weeks. The number of osteoclasts decreased significantly from 2 to 4 weeks in both groups, with no difference between the two groups. Conclusion. Intermittent PTH might not stimulate new bone formation in healthy rabbits during the first 4 weeks of healing.

  4. Effect of COX-2 inhibition on tendon-to-bone healing and PGE2 concentration after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerschnig, Martin; Stolberg-Stolberg, Josef; Schmidt, Carmen; Wienerroither, Valerie; Plecko, Michael; Schlichting, Karin; Perka, Carsten; Dynybil, Christian

    2018-01-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to reduce pain and inflammation in orthopaedic patients. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been developed to minimize drug-specific side effects. However, they are suspected to impair both bone and tendon healing. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor administration on tendon-to-bone healing and prostaglandin E (PGE2) concentration. Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits underwent reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligaments and were randomized into four groups: Two groups postoperatively received a selective COX-2 inhibitor (Celecoxib) on a daily basis for 3 weeks, the two other groups received no postoperative COX-2 inhibitors at all and were examined after three or 6 weeks. The PGE2 concentration of the synovial fluid, the osseous integration of the tendon graft at tunnel aperture and midtunnel section, as well as the stability of the tendon graft were examined via biomechanic testing. After 3 weeks, the PGE2 content of the synovial fluid in the COX-2 inhibitor recipients was significantly lower than that of the control group (p = 0.018). At the same time, the COX-2 inhibitor recipients had a significantly lower bone density and lower amount of new bone formation than the control group (p = 0.020; p = 0.028) in the tunnel aperture. At the 6-week examination, there was a significant increase in the PGE2 content within synovial fluid of the COX-2 inhibitor recipients (p = 0.022), whose treatment with COX-2 inhibitors had ended 3 weeks earlier; in contrast, the transplant stability decreased and was reduced by 37% compared to the controls. Selective COX-2 inhibitors cause impaired tendon-to-bone healing, weaken mechanical stability and decrease PGE2 content of the synovial fluid. The present study suggests a reluctant use of COX-2 inhibitors when tendon-to-bone healing is intended.

  5. Crack Closure Based Self Healing Process for Metallic Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. (AS&M) is proposing to develop and validate a process that can extend the fatigue life of and potentially self-heal...

  6. Evaluation of the effect of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects by radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özak, Ahmet; Yardimci, Cenk; Nİsbet, Özlem H.; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Nİsbet, Cevat

    2010-01-01

    The effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with autogenous cancellous bone graft on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects was evaluated. A 4-mm defect was created in the middiaphysis of the tibias of 20 rabbits. Rabbits were divided into two groups of ten animals each: only autogenous cancellous graft, PRP and autogenous cancellous graft. In animals of group 1, only autogenous cancellous grafts, and to those in group 2, PRP and autogenous cancellous grafts, were applied to the defect. Radiographical and computed tomography (CT) views were taken and evaluated on postoperative days 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90. According to the bone formation, union, and remodeling scores, group 1 had better scores than group 2 on days 30, 60, and 90. The density was significantly increased on day 60 than on days 0, 15, and 30 in group 1. In conclusion, it was evaluated that PRP could not enhance the bone regeneration in diaphyseal defects when used with autogenous cancellous bone graft

  7. Influence of low-level laser therapy on the healing of human bone maxillofacial defects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santinoni, Carolina Dos Santos; Oliveira, Hiskell Francine Fernandes; Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Verri, Fellippo Ramos

    2017-04-01

    This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to enhance maxillofacial area bone repair. A comprehensive search of studies published up to February 2017 and listed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The 15 selected studies evaluated a total of 374 patients (mean age, 28.5years) who were treated with LLLT. Gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) were the most commonly used devices, and LLLT parameters varied greatly. Wavelengths varied from 500 to 1000nm. Tooth extraction, distraction osteogenesis, maxillary expansion, periodontal defects, orthodontic movement and maxillary cystic defects were evaluated. From the 15 selected studies, six evaluated bone repair (primary outcomes). Of these, four studies showed improvement in bone formation after using LLLT, two demonstrated improved results for only one follow up period, and one showed no additional benefits. The other 9 studies evaluated secondary parameters related to healing (secondary outcomes) in the maxillofacial area after applying LLLT, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and healing accelerator effects, and quality of life related to oral health. There were no adverse or negative effects of LLLT reported. Within the limitation of this review, a possible improvement in bone density can be found when LLLT is applied postoperatively in maxillofacial bony defects. LLLT also seems to promote anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and accelerate healing, as well as enhance quality of life related to oral health. However, LLLT use protocols need to be standardized before more specific conclusions can be drawn about this subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of radiological features of healing in long bone fractures among infants less than a year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Christopher; Miller, Angie; Weinman, Jason; Fadell, Michael [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Maguire, Sabine; Trefan, Laszlo [Cardiff University, Institute of Primary Care and Child Health, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    To create a timetable for dating long bone fractures in infants aged less than 1 year using previously defined radiographic signs of fracture healing. A retrospective cross-sectional time series of long bone fractures in infants aged less than 1 year was conducted from 2006 to 2013. After exclusion criteria were applied 59 digital image series were available for review from 40 infants. Utilizing published criteria for dating fractures, the presence or absence of four pre-defined features of healing was scored: periosteal reaction, callus, bridging, and remodeling. Three radiologists independently scored radiographs with a 3-point scale, marking each feature as present, absent, or equivocal. The times in days when features were first seen, peaked (feature agreed present in >40% of images), and last seen were noted. Statistical analysis using free marginal kappa was conducted. The level of agreement among the three radiologists was high (0.64-0.85). The sequence in which the features were seen was: periosteal reaction range 7-130 (present in the majority of cases between 9 and 49 days); callus range 9-130 (present in the majority of cases between days 9-26); bridging range 15-130 (seen in the majority of cases between 15 and 67 days); remodeling range 51-247 days. This study provides a timetable of radiological features of long bone healing among young infants for the first time. Dating of incomplete long bone fractures is challenging, beyond the presence of periosteal reaction, but a consistent sequence of changes is present in complete fractures. (orig.)

  9. A study of radiological features of healing in long bone fractures among infants less than a year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Christopher; Miller, Angie; Weinman, Jason; Fadell, Michael; Maguire, Sabine; Trefan, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    To create a timetable for dating long bone fractures in infants aged less than 1 year using previously defined radiographic signs of fracture healing. A retrospective cross-sectional time series of long bone fractures in infants aged less than 1 year was conducted from 2006 to 2013. After exclusion criteria were applied 59 digital image series were available for review from 40 infants. Utilizing published criteria for dating fractures, the presence or absence of four pre-defined features of healing was scored: periosteal reaction, callus, bridging, and remodeling. Three radiologists independently scored radiographs with a 3-point scale, marking each feature as present, absent, or equivocal. The times in days when features were first seen, peaked (feature agreed present in >40% of images), and last seen were noted. Statistical analysis using free marginal kappa was conducted. The level of agreement among the three radiologists was high (0.64-0.85). The sequence in which the features were seen was: periosteal reaction range 7-130 (present in the majority of cases between 9 and 49 days); callus range 9-130 (present in the majority of cases between days 9-26); bridging range 15-130 (seen in the majority of cases between 15 and 67 days); remodeling range 51-247 days. This study provides a timetable of radiological features of long bone healing among young infants for the first time. Dating of incomplete long bone fractures is challenging, beyond the presence of periosteal reaction, but a consistent sequence of changes is present in complete fractures. (orig.)

  10. In Vivo Evaluation of Fracture Callus Development During Bone Healing in Mice Using an MRI-compatible Osteosynthesis Device for the Mouse Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Müller-Graf, Fabian; Matthys, Romano; Abaei, Alireza; Jonas, René; Gebhard, Florian; Rasche, Volker; Ignatius, Anita

    2017-11-14

    Endochondral fracture healing is a complex process involving the development of fibrous, cartilaginous, and osseous tissue in the fracture callus. The amount of the different tissues in the callus provides important information on the fracture healing progress. Available in vivo techniques to longitudinally monitor the callus tissue development in preclinical fracture-healing studies using small animals include digital radiography and µCT imaging. However, both techniques are only able to distinguish between mineralized and non-mineralized tissue. Consequently, it is impossible to discriminate cartilage from fibrous tissue. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualizes anatomical structures based on their water content and might therefore be able to noninvasively identify soft tissue and cartilage in the fracture callus. Here, we report the use of an MRI-compatible external fixator for the mouse femur to allow MRI scans during bone regeneration in mice. The experiments demonstrated that the fixator and a custom-made mounting device allow repetitive MRI scans, thus enabling longitudinal analysis of fracture-callus tissue development.

  11. Influence of cyclosporin A therapy on bone healing around titanium implants: a histometric and biomechanic study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Celso E; Margonar, Rogério; Holzhausen, Marinella; Nociti, Francisco H; Alba, Rodolfo Candia; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2003-07-01

    Immunosuppressive agents may induce severe changes on bone metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the administration of cyclosporin A (CsA) on the bone tissue around titanium implants. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups of 9 each. The test group (CsA) received daily subcutaneous injection of CsA (10 mg/kg body weight) and the control group (CTL) received saline solution by the same administration route. Three days after therapy began, 2 implants (7.0 mm long and 3.75 mm in diameter) were inserted bilaterally at the region of the tibial methaphysis. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks the animals were sacrificed and biomechanical tests and histometrical procedures, consisting of the determination of the percentages of bone-implant contact and bone area within the limits of the implant threads, were performed. Intergroup analysis showed that the removal torque and the percentage of bone contact with the implant surface for CsA group were significantly lower than those of the CTL group at 12 weeks (28.5 and 39.2 N cm, P = 0.01; 7.76% and 18.52%, P = 0.02, respectively). The data from the present study suggest that long-term administration of cyclosporin A may negatively influence bone healing around dental implants.

  12. Continuous therapeutic ultrasound in the healing process in rat skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani de Marque Carrer

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : The therapeutic ultrasound is one of the main resources utilized on physical therapy to stimulate the healing due its thermal and mechanic effects. However, your application still not properly standardized. Objective :To analyze the presence of the collagens types I and III stimulated by the ultrasonic wave in continuous mode at the cutaneous injury local for first intention. Material and methods : It was utilized 90 Wistar rats, young adults, with average weight of 230g, divided in 3 groups of 30 animals: control group, treated with ultrasound off; group 1, treated with ultrasound 0.5 W/cm2 and group 2, treated with ultrasound 2.0 W/cm2. Each group was subdivided in 3 subgroups according with the healing phases, 3, 7 and 21 days of consecutive therapeutic sessions. The ultrasound therapy began 24 hours after the termination of the surgical act, at the dorsal region, applying frequency of 3 MHz and intensities 0.5 W/cm2 and 2.0 W/cm2 during 5 minutes under sliding technique. Later, the animals were sacrificed according to the healing phases for removal of incisional area and histological analyses. Conclusions : The results allowed conclude that the continuous mode of therapeutic ultrasound in the intensities 0.5 W/cm2 and 2.0 W/cm2promoted stimulus to formation of collagens types I and III in the lesion area for first intention.

  13. Processing and performance of self-healing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P S; Bhattacharyya, D; Zhang, M Q

    2009-01-01

    Two self-healing methods were implemented into composite materials with self-healing capabilities, using hollow glass fibres (HGF) and microencapsulated epoxy resin with mercaptan as the hardener. For the HGF approach, two perpendicular layers of HGF were put into an E-glass/epoxy composite, and were filled with coloured epoxy resin and hardener. The HGF samples had a novel ball indentation test method done on them. The samples were analysed using micro-CT scanning, confocal microscopy and penetrant dye. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy produced limited success, but their viability was established. Penetrant dye images showed resin obstructing flow of dye through damage regions, suggesting infiltration of resin into cracks. Three-point bend tests showed that overall performance could be affected by the flaws arising from embedding HGF in the material. For the microcapsule approach, samples were prepared for novel double-torsion tests used to generate large cracks. The samples were compared with pure resin samples by analysing them using photoelastic imaging and scanning electron microscope (SEM) on crack surfaces. Photoelastic imaging established the consolidation of cracks while SEM showed a wide spread of microcapsules with their distribution being affected by gravity. Further double-torsion testing showed that healing recovered approximately 24% of material strength.

  14. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Flegg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last thirty years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e. capillary sprout growth has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made towards the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  15. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Jennifer A; Menon, Shakti N; Maini, Philip K; McElwain, D L Sean

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e., capillary sprout growth, has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made toward the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  16. Finite element analysis of a bone healing model: 1-year follow-up after internal fixation surgery for femoral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Jun, Zhou; Min, Zhao; Ya-Bo, Yan; Wei, Lei; Ren-Fa, Lv; Zhi-Yu, Zhu; Rong-Jian, Chen; Wei-Tao, Yu; Cheng-Fei, Du

    2014-03-01

    Finite element analysis was used to compare preoperative and postoperative stress distribution of a bone healing model of femur fracture, to identify whether broken ends of fractured bone would break or not after fixation dislodgement one year after intramedullary nailing. Method s: Using fast, personalized imaging, bone healing models of femur fracture were constructed based on data from multi-slice spiral computed tomography using Mimics, Geomagic Studio, and Abaqus software packages. The intramedullary pin was removed by Boolean operations before fixation was dislodged. Loads were applied on each model to simulate a person standing on one leg. The von Mises stress distribution, maximum stress, and its location was observed. Results : According to 10 kinds of display groups based on material assignment, the nodes of maximum and minimum von Mises stress were the same before and after dislodgement, and all nodes of maximum von Mises stress were outside the fracture line. The maximum von Mises stress node was situated at the bottom quarter of the femur. The von Mises stress distribution was identical before and after surgery. Conclusion : Fast, personalized model establishment can simulate fixation dislodgement before operation, and personalized finite element analysis was performed to successfully predict whether nail dislodgement would disrupt femur fracture or not.

  17. Histomorphometric evaluation of the effect of systemic and topical ozone on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemci, F; Gunaydin, Y; Sencimen, M; Bassorgun, I; Ozler, M; Oter, S; Gulses, A; Gunal, A; Sezgin, S; Bayar, G R; Dogan, N; Gider, I K

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic and topical ozone applications on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction. One hundred and twelve male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of 14 rats each; seven groups were experimental (A-G) and one formed the control group (K). The experimental groups were further divided into two sub-groups, with seven rats in each - sacrificed on days 14 and 28 (subgroups 1 and 2). The maxillary right central incisors were extracted under general anaesthesia following the administration of local anaesthesia. After sacrifice, semi-serial histological sections were prepared, and mineralized and trabecular bone and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces were measured. Measurements of the trabecular bone showed statistically higher values in the groups treated with systemic ozone (D(2): 50.01 ± 2.12; E(2): 49.03 ± 3.03; F(2): 48.76 ± 2.61; G(2): 50.24 ± 3.37) than in the groups that underwent topical ozone administration (A(2): 46.01 ± 3.07; B(2): 46.79 ± 3.09; C(2): 47.07 ± 2.12; P = 0.030 (G(2)-A(2), G(2)-B(2), G(2)-C(2))). Within the limitations of the current study, it may be concluded that postoperative long-term systemic ozone application can accelerate alveolar bone healing following extraction. However, additional studies are required to clarify the effects of the different ozone applications on new bone formation. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of peri-implant bone exposure on soft tissue healing and bone loss in two adjacent implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Yun; Kye, Seung-Boem; Hong, Jongrak; Paeng, Jun-Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soft tissue and bone change around two adjacent implants in one-stage implant surgery. Methods Eleven subjects (7 males, 4 females) who were needed placement of 2 adjacent implants in the molar area were included. The two implants were placed with the platform at the level of the alveolar crest. The interproximal bone between the 2 implants was not covered with gingiva. After surgery, an alginate impression was taken to record the gingival shape and radiographs were taken to evaluate implant placement. Using a master cast, the gingival height was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. In the radiograph, the alveolar bone level was measured at the mesial and distal side of both implants at baseline and 12 weeks. Results The exposed bone was covered with gingiva at both 4 and 12 weeks. Loss of alveolar bone around implants was found in all areas. The alveolar bone level in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in the non-exposed area. Conclusions This study showed that the alveolar bone level and gingival height around 2 adjacent implants in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in unexposed bone area. PMID:22413070

  19. Mechanical Loading Improves Tendon-Bone Healing in a Rabbit Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Model by Promoting Proliferation and Matrix Formation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tendon Cells

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    Fanglong Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study investigated the effect of mechanical stress on tendon-bone healing in a rabbit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction model as well as cell proliferation and matrix formation in co-culture of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and tendon cells (TCs. Methods: The effect of continuous passive motion (CPM therapy on tendon-bone healing in a rabbit ACL reconstruction model was evaluated by histological analysis, biomechanical testing and gene expressions at the tendon-bone interface. Furthermore, the effect of mechanical stretch on cell proliferation and matrix synthesis in BMSC/TC co-culture was also examined. Results: Postoperative CPM therapy significantly enhanced tendon-bone healing, as evidenced by increased amount of fibrocartilage, elevated ultimate load to failure levels, and up-regulated gene expressions of Collagen I, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, Tenascin C and tenomodulin at the tendon-bone junction. In addition, BMSC/TC co-culture treated with mechanical stretch showed a higher rate of cell proliferation and enhanced expressions of Collagen I, Collagen III, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, Tenascin C and tenomodulin than that of controls. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that proliferation and differentiation of local precursor cells could be enhanced by mechanical stimulation, which results in enhanced regenerative potential of BMSCs and TCs in tendon-bone healing.

  20. Conservative treatment for pediatric lumbar spondylolysis to achieve bone healing using a hard brace: what type and how long?: Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Sakai, Toshinori; Yasui, Natsuo; Dezawa, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Various kinds of trunk braces have been used to achieve bone healing in cases of pediatric lumbar spondylolysis. However, the optimal brace for achieving bone healing is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine in what types of spondylolysis bone healing can be achieved and how long it takes. In this prospective study, 63 pars interarticularis defects (spondylolysis) among 37 patients who were younger than 18 years (mean 13.5 ± 2.7 years) were treated using a hard brace. The youngest patient was 8 years old. Based on the results of CT scanning, the lyses were classified into 3 categories: early, progressive, and terminal defects. Progressive defects were further divided into 2 types according to STIR MRI findings: those with high signal intensity at the adjacent pedicle and those with low signal intensity (that is, a normal appearance). A hard brace, such as a molded plastic thoracolumbosacral orthosis, was used to immobilize the trunk. Approximately every 3 months, CT scanning was performed to evaluate bone healing until approximately 6 months. The union rates were 94%, 64%, 27%, and 0% for the early, progressive with high signal intensity, progressive with low signal intensity, and terminal defects, respectively. It was noted that no terminal defect was healed using conservative treatment. The mean time to healing among the defects that showed bone healing was 3.2, 5.4, and 5.7 months for the early, progressive with high signal intensity, and progressive with low signal intensity groups, respectively. Patients with early-stage defects are the best candidates for conservative treatment with a hard brace because more than 90% of such cases can be healed in 3 months.

  1. The ultrastructure and processing properties of Straumann Bone Ceramic and NanoBone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, S; Bayerlein, T; Proff, P; Hoffmann, A; Gedrange, T

    2006-02-01

    The ultrastructure, fundamental chemistry, and processing modes of fully synthetic bone grafting materials are relevant to the reconstruction of osseous defects. Rapid progress in the profitable market of biomaterials has led to the development of various bone substitutes. Despite all these efforts, an ideal and full substitute of autologous bone is not yet in sight. With regard to anorganic calcium phosphate ceramics, Straumann Bone Ceramic and NanoBone are compared. These have a similar composition and are osteoconductive, which indispensably requires contact with well-vascularised bone.

  2. Effect of GBR in Combination with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on the Healing of Calvarial Defects in Rabbits

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    AA. Khoshkhoonejad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The guided bone regeneration (GBR technique does not always produce consistent results. Bone filling within the space provided by the membrane can be incomplete.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a collagen membrane (Bio-Gide in combination with or without deproteinezed bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss on the healing of calvarial defects in rabbits.Materials and Methods: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were used in this randomized single-blind experimental study. Four equal defects were created on the calvarium of all animals. Each defect in each rabbit was randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: Group 1(control, no treatment; Group 2, covered withBio-Gide; Group 3, filled with Bio-Oss; Group 4, filled with Bio-Oss and Bio-Gide.The animals were sacrificed for histologic and histomorphometric analysis, 30 and 60 days after treatment.Results: A significant difference was not observed in regenerated bone between the control and Bio-Gide groups (P>0.05, at 1 and 2 months. The amount of regenerated bone was significantly higher (P0.05 between the Bio-Oss and Bio-Oss+Bio-Gide groups. Bone regeneration increased significantly in all treatment groups, between the two study periods (P<0.05.Conclusion: In groups 3 and 4, the presence of a collagen membrane did not affect the amount of new bone regeneration. According to these results, use of a collagen membrane has no additional benefit in the regeneration of intrabony defects.

  3. Inflammatory response and bone healing capacity of two porous calcium phosphate ceramics in critical size cortical bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjea, Anindita; van der Stok, Johan; Danoux, Charlène B; Yuan, Huipin; Habibovic, Pamela; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Weinans, Harrie; de Boer, Jan

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, two open porous calcium phosphate ceramics, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and hydroxyapatite (HA) were compared in a critical-sized femoral defect in rats. Previous comparisons of these two ceramics showed significantly greater osteoinductive potential of β-TCP upon intramuscular implantation and a better performance in a spinal fusion model in dogs. Results of the current study also showed significantly more bone formation in defects grafted with β-TCP compared to HA; however, both the ceramics were not capable of increasing bone formation to such extend that it bridges the defect. Furthermore, a more pronounced degradation of β-TCP was observed as compared to HA. Progression of inflammation and initiation of new bone formation were assessed for both materials at multiple time points by histological and fluorochrome-based analyses. Until 12 days postimplantation, a strong inflammatory response in absence of new bone formation was observed in both ceramics, without obvious differences between the two materials. Four weeks postimplantation, signs of new bone formation were found in both β-TCP and HA. At 6 weeks, inflammation had subsided in both ceramics while bone deposition continued. In conclusion, the two ceramics differed in the amount of bone formed after 8 weeks of implantation, whereas no differences were found in the duration of the inflammatory phase after implantation or initiation of new bone formation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF AN EARLY RETURN TO TRAINING ON THE BONE-TENDON JUNCTION POST-ACUTE MICRO-INJURY HEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone-tendon junction (BTJ overuse injuries are common athletic and occupational problems. BTJ injuries may sometimes be caused by resuming training too early after injury. To study the effects of post-injury resuming training within 48 hours on the acute injury healing process, as it is often the case for athletes. Twelve mature female rabbits were assigned to one of the following groups: acute injury (AI, n = 6, post-injury early return to training (PIERT, n = 6 and normal control (CON, n = 6. Tissue specimens were harvested at week 4. The radiological and histological characteristics of the AI and PIERT groups were compared among the groups. The trabecular thickness of the PIERT group was significantly different from those of the AI and CON group. A histological evaluation revealed poor collagen fibre alignment, extensive scar tissue and lowered cell density in the AI and PIERT groups compared with the CON group, but no significant differences were observed between the AI group and the PIERT group. The fibrocartilage zone and proteoglycan area in the PIERT group were significantly different from those in AI group. No differences were observed in the Total VOI volume (TV, Object volume (OBV, Percent object volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N among the AI, PIERT and CON groups. In conclusion, a repeatable animal model of bone-tendon junction acute micro-damage by puncture was established. Resuming training in 48 hours did not significantly deteriorate the BTJ injury healing, but improved bone remodelling and increased fibrocartilage zone thickness

  5. Scanning electron image analysis to monitor of implant degradation and host healing following implantation of a drug-eluting bone graft void filler - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Sherry N; Lawson, Scott T; Grainger, David W; Brooks, Amanda E

    2013-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and often sourced during orthopedic surgical intervention. Successful treatment or prevention of this bone penetrating infection requires antibiotics be delivered in excess of the minimal inhibitory concentration to prohibit the growth of the causative organism for sufficient duration. Unfortunately, current standard-of-care antibiotic therapies, administered via intravenous or oral delivery, suffer not only from systemic toxicity and low patient compliance but also provide insufficient local concentrations for therapy. To overcome these clinical inadequacies, a synthetic bone graft material was coated with an antibiotic (tobramycin)-releasing polymer (polycaprolactone) matrix to create a polymer-controlled antibiotic- releasing combination therapy for use as a bone void filler in orthopedic surgeries. Even though this local delivery strategy allows antibiotic delivery over a clinically relevant time frame to prevent infection, complete healing requires the host bone to infiltrate and reabsorb the bone void filler, ultimately replacing the defect with healthy tissue. Unfortunately, the same polymer matrix that allows for controlled local antibiotic delivery may also discourage host bone healing. Efficient orthopedic healing requires the rate of polymer degradation to match the rate of host-bone infiltration. Current imaging techniques, such as histological staining and x-ray imaging, are insufficient to simultaneously assess polymer degradation and host bone integration. Alternative techniques relying on backscatter electron detection during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging may allow a visual differentiation between host bone, synthetic bone, and polymer. Analysis of backscattered SEM images was automated using a custom MATLAB program to determine the ratio of bone to polymer based upon the contrast between the bone (white) and polymer (dark grey). By collecting images of the implant over time

  6. Changes in the fractal dimension, feret diameter, and lacunarity of mandibular alveolar bone during initial healing of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Erinç; Baksı, B Güniz; Sogur, Elif

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the combination of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity, and Feret diameter (FeD) to quantitatively characterize structural changes of mandibular alveolar bone around dental implants during initial healing. Three standard-sized regions of interest (ROIs) (mesial and distal crest and apical area) around implants and three ROIs of the same size in the alveolar bone on the contralateral side were analyzed on digital panoramic images. FD was calculated using the box-counting method, and lacunarity was calculated using the FracLac plugin of Image J software. FeD was measured in the same ROIs. Comparisons of the groups were done with the Dunnett test. Forty-two implants in the posterior mandibles of 21 patients were used for FD measurements. A total of 189 ROIs was segmented into binary images. Mean FD values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 1.26, 1.36, and 1.4, respectively. The mean FD of alveolar bone around premolars/molars was 1.39 for all ROIs. The mean FeD for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants was 7.63, 7.86, and 8.02, respectively, whereas it ranged between 7.88 and 8.13 for premolar teeth. Mean lacunarity values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.48, respectively. Lacunarity values for ROIs around premolars ranged between 0.45 and 0.50. No significant differences were observed in FD, FeD, or lacunarity measurements between ROIs around implants and around teeth. The satisfactory healing of bone following implant placement may be monitored by calculating FD, lacunarity, and FeD using digital panoramic images. Although preliminary, these values may alert the practitioner to any implants with loss of stability.

  7. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells influence early tendon-healing in a rabbit achilles tendon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alphonsus K S; Ang, Abel D; Goh, James C H; Hui, James H P; Lim, Aymeric Y T; Lee, Eng Hin; Lim, Beng Hai

    2007-01-01

    A repaired tendon needs to be protected for weeks until it has accrued enough strength to handle physiological loads. Tissue-engineering techniques have shown promise in the treatment of tendon and ligament defects. The present study tested the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can accelerate tendon-healing after primary repair of a tendon injury in a rabbit model. Fifty-seven New Zealand White rabbits were used as the experimental animals, and seven others were used as the source of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The injury model was a sharp complete transection through the midsubstance of the Achilles tendon. The transected tendon was immediately repaired with use of a modified Kessler suture and a running epitendinous suture. Both limbs were used, and each side was randomized to receive either bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a fibrin carrier or fibrin carrier alone (control). Postoperatively, the rabbits were not immobilized. Specimens were harvested at one, three, six, and twelve weeks for analysis, which included evaluation of gross morphology (sixty-two specimens), cell tracing (twelve specimens), histological assessment (forty specimens), immunohistochemistry studies (thirty specimens), morphometric analysis (forty specimens), and mechanical testing (sixty-two specimens). There were no differences between the two groups with regard to the gross morphology of the tendons. The fibrin had degraded by three weeks. Cell tracing showed that labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells remained viable and present in the intratendinous region for at least six weeks, becoming more diffuse at later time-periods. At three weeks, collagen fibers appeared more organized and there were better morphometric nuclear parameters in the treatment group (p tendon repair can improve histological and biomechanical parameters in the early stages of tendon-healing.

  8. Effect of Poloxamer 407 as a carrier vehicle on rotator cuff healing in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soung-Yon; Chae, Soo-Won; Lee, Juneyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo studies showing the effects of biologic healing-promoting factors on tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair have focused only on biologic healing-promoting factors and have not taken into consideration the effect of the carrier vehicle. Moreover, most studies have evaluated the healing process using different carrier vehicles, each of which may have specific effects on tendon healing. This may explain the large variability seen in outcomes in research studies. In ...

  9. Conservative Healing of an 11 × 9-cm Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp with Bone Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjd, Victoria; Maltese, Giovanni; Kölby, Lars; Tarnow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare congenital condition, and it is difficult to find scientific support for optimal treatment strategies. In addition, these may vary due to defect size, tissue layers involved, contemporary malformations, and the physiologic status of the affected child. Clinical Presentation This case report describes complete skin coverage in 20 weeks and uneventful healing of a large 11 × 9-cm defect of the vertex, involving both skin and skull bone, using conservative treatment. To prevent infection and promote healing, the defect was kept moist and covered at all times, and it was treated with surgical debridement when necessary. For infection control, ionized silver-coated dressings were used in addition to prophylactic antibiotics over the first 3.5 weeks. Follow-up was 2 years. Conclusion Surgical treatment is usually preferred for larger aplasia cutis congenita defects, but it is accompanied with potential risks and will exacerbate secondary reconstruction of alopecia or skull bone defects. This case shows that even very complex defects may be treated conservatively. PMID:25485218

  10. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Temporal and Spatial Blood Flow during Bone Graft Healing Using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songfeng; Hoffman, Michael D.; Proctor, Ashley R.; Vella, Joseph B.; Mannoh, Emmanuel A.; Barber, Nathaniel E.; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Ki Won; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Choe, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using diffuse correlation spectroscopy in a murine femoral segmental defect model. Blood flow was measured at several positions proximal and distal to the graft site before implantation and every week post-implantation for a total of 9 weeks (autograft n = 7 and allograft n = 10). Measurements of the ipsilateral leg with the graft were compared with those of the intact contralateral control leg. Both autografts and allografts exhibited an initial increase in blood flow followed by a gradual return to baseline levels. Blood flow elevation lasted up to 2 weeks in autografts, but this duration varied from 2 to 6 weeks in allografts depending on the spatial location of the measurement. Intact contralateral control leg blood flow remained at baseline levels throughout the 9 weeks in the autograft group; however, in the allograft group, blood flow followed a similar trend to the graft leg. Blood flow difference between the graft and contralateral legs (ΔrBF), a parameter defined to estimate graft-specific changes, was elevated at 1–2 weeks for the autograft group, and at 2–4 weeks for the allograft group at the proximal and the central locations. However, distal to the graft, the allograft group exhibited significantly greater ΔrBF than the autograft group at 3 weeks post-surgery (p flow supports established trends of delayed healing in allografts versus autografts. PMID:26625352

  11. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy improves tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jennica J; Cirone, James M; Morris, Tyler R; Nuss, Courtney A; Huegel, Julianne; Waldorff, Erik I; Zhang, Nianli; Ryaby, James T; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2017-04-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common musculoskeletal injuries often requiring surgical intervention with high failure rates. Currently, pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are used for treatment of long-bone fracture and lumbar and cervical spine fusion surgery. Clinical studies examining the effects of PEMF on soft tissue healing show promising results. Therefore, we investigated the role of PEMF on rotator cuff healing using a rat rotator cuff repair model. We hypothesized that PEMF exposure following rotator cuff repair would improve tendon mechanical properties, tissue morphology, and alter in vivo joint function. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: bilateral repair with PEMF (n = 30), bilateral repair followed by cage activity (n = 30), and uninjured control with cage activity (n = 10). Rats in the surgical groups were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Control group was sacrificed at 8 weeks. Passive joint mechanics and gait analysis were assessed over time. Biomechanical analysis and μCT was performed on left shoulders; histological analysis on right shoulders. Results indicate no differences in passive joint mechanics and ambulation. At 4 weeks the PEMF group had decreased cross-sectional area and increased modulus and maximum stress. At 8 weeks the PEMF group had increased modulus and more rounded cells in the midsubstance. At 16 weeks the PEMF group had improved bone quality. Therefore, results indicate that PEMF improves early tendon healing and does not alter joint function in a rat rotator cuff repair model. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:902-909, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bone mineral density of the coracoid process decreases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranger, Jean Sébastien; Maqdes, Ali; Pujol, Nicolas; Desmoineaux, Pierre; Beaufils, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Surgical options in the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability are numerous. The Latarjet procedure is one of the most common procedures performed. It has been previously demonstrated that bone mineral density decreases with age. This reduction thus increases the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related iatrogenic, traumatic or pathological fractures. The objective of this study was to quantify the bone mineral density of the coracoid process in different age groups. The hypothesis was that mineral bone density of the coracoid process decreases with age. Using the hospital's electronic database, 60 patients who underwent a shoulder CT scan were randomly selected retrospectively. Four groups of 15 were formed with mean ages of 20, 30, 40 and 50 years. Bone density, length, width and thickness of the coracoid process 10 mm from the tip were measured four times by two different evaluators. Bone density was expressed in Hounsfield units (HU). The mean bone mineral density of the coracoid process significantly decreased with age (p < 0.0001). A lower but insignificant difference of bone mineral density was observed in females. A good inter- and intra-observer reliability was found for bone mineral density measurement of the coracoid process (0.67 and 0.7, respectively). The bone mineral density of the coracoid process diminishes with age, thus confirming our hypothesis. There is a good inter- and intra-observer reliability of our CT scan-based coracoid process bone mineral density measurement rendering it reproducible in daily clinical practice. IV.

  13. Microtomographic imaging in the process of bone modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralph

    1999-09-01

    Micro-computed tomography ((mu) CT) is an emerging technique to nondestructively image and quantify trabecular bone in three dimensions. Where the early implementations of (mu) CT focused more on technical aspects of the systems and required equipment not normally available to the general public, a more recent development emphasized practical aspects of micro- tomographic imaging. That system is based on a compact fan- beam type of tomograph, also referred to as desktop (mu) CT. Desk-top (mu) CT has been used extensively for the investigation of osteoporosis related health problems gaining new insight into the organization of trabecular bone and the influence of osteoporotic bone loss on bone architecture and the competence of bone. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by excessive bone loss and deterioration in bone architecture. The reduced quality of bone increases the risk of fracture. Current imaging technologies do not allow accurate in vivo measurements of bone structure over several decades or the investigation of the local remodeling stimuli at the tissue level. Therefore, computer simulations and new experimental modeling procedures are necessary for determining the long-term effects of age, menopause, and osteoporosis on bone. Microstructural bone models allow us to study not only the effects of osteoporosis on the skeleton but also to assess and monitor the effectiveness of new treatment regimens. The basis for such approaches are realistic models of bone and a sound understanding of the underlying biological and mechanical processes in bone physiology. In this article, strategies for new approaches to bone modeling and simulation in the study and treatment of osteoporosis and age-related bone loss are presented. The focus is on the bioengineering and imaging aspects of osteoporosis research. With the introduction of desk-top (mu) CT, a new generation of imaging instruments has entered the arena allowing easy and relatively inexpensive access to

  14. Effects of diclofenac and celecoxib on osteoclastogenesis during alveolar bone healing, in vivo

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    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily: Receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on the RANKL/OPG balance during the healing of the alveolar process. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, carried on 45 male Wistar rats (200 ± 25 g, 8-10 weeks old. After extraction of the right maxillary first molar, 15 rats received 5 mg/kg/day of diclofenac and 15 rats received 15 mg/kg/day of celecoxib and 15 rats received normal saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. The number of osteoclasts, OPG and RANKL messenger ribonucleic acid expression were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR respectively. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: On days 7, 14 and 21 the ratio of RANKL/OPG in the control group was higher than diclofenac and celecoxib groups. TRAP immunolabeling of the control group was more than diclofenac group on day 7 and was more than celecoxib group on day 14. On day 21, no significant differences were noted among the three studied groups. Conclusion: Both drugs affect RANKL/OPG gene expression and also osteoclastogenesis in alveolar socket during the experimental period of 21 days.

  15. In Vivo Study of Ligament-Bone Healing after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Autologous Tendons with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Affinity Peptide Conjugated Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffold

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    Jingxian Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning nanofibrous scaffold was commonly used in tissue regeneration recently. Nanofibers with specific topological characteristics were reported to be able to induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. In this in vivo study, autologous tendon grafts with lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold wrapping at two ends of autologous tendon were used to promote early stage of ligament-bone healing after rabbit ACL reconstruction. To utilize native MSCs from bone marrow, an MSCs specific affinity peptide E7 was conjugated to nanofibrous meshes. After 3 months, H-E assessment and specific staining of collagen type I, II, and III showed direct ligament-bone insertion with typical four zones (bone, calcified fibrocartilage, fibrocartilage, and ligament in bioactive scaffold reconstruction group. Diameters of bone tunnel were smaller in nanofibrous scaffold conjugated E7 peptide group than those in control group. The failure load of substitution complex also indicated a stronger ligament-bone insertion healing using bioactive scaffold. In conclusion, lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold with specific MSCs affinity peptide has great potential in promoting early stage of ligament-bone healing after ACL reconstruction.

  16. Dynamic Self-Healing Mechanism for Transactional Business Process

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    Yuhai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that transactional behavior consistency is a prerequisite and basis for construction of a reliable services-based business application. However, in previous works, maintaining transactional consistency during exception handling was ignored. Maintaining transactional consistency requires functionality for rolling back some operations and revoking uploaded data. Replacing only the failed service will eventually lead to overall business application failure. In this study, we take fully into account the behavioral consistency of transactional services and propose two effective self-healing mechanisms for service-based applications. If a service enters into potential failure condition, a rescheduling mechanism is triggered to maintain consistent transactional behavior and to ensure reliable execution; if a service fails during execution, the compensation operation is triggered and the system will take action to ensure transactional behavior consistency. Meanwhile, cost-benefit analysis with compensation support is proposed to minimize the dynamic reselection cost. Finally, the experimental analysis shows that the proposed strategies can effectively guarantee the reliability of Web-based applications system.

  17. Does intrawound application of vancomycin influence bone healing in spinal surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Claudia; Schenk, Stefan; Trifinopoulos, Jana; Külekci, Büsra; Kienzl, Melanie; Schildböck, Sabrina; Ogon, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Surgical site infections represent a major complication of spinal surgery. The application of lyophilised vancomycin into the wound is reported to significantly decrease infection rates. As concentrations applied locally can exceed the minimal bacterial inhibitory concentration for more than a 1000-fold, toxic side effects on local tissue may be possible. Primary osteoblast cell cultures were generated from bone tissue samples of 10 patients. Samples were incubated in absence or presence of either 3, 6 or 12 mg/cm(2) vancomycin according to a planned phase I clinical trial protocol. Changes in pH, osteoblast migration, proliferation and viability were analysed. Alkaline phosphatase as well as mineralisation patterns was studied. The application of more than 3 mg/cm(2) vancomycin induced a decline of pH. The migration potential of osteoblasts was decreased from 100% (control samples) to zero (12 mg/cm(2) vancomycin) in a dose-dependant manner. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited at dosages above 3 mg/cm(2). Significant cell death was observed if the dosage applied exceeded 6 mg/cm(2). The synthesis of alkaline phosphatase was markedly reduced in all dosages applied and calcium deposition was significantly decreased in dosages above 3 mg/cm(2). As bone remodelling requires the immigration, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts at the fusion site, high dosages of intrawound vancomycin might interfere with regenerative processes and increase the risk of non-union. To allow an appropriate balance of infection risk and the risk of non-union, the minimal local concentration required should be determined by controlled in vivo studies.

  18. Effects of weight reduction surgery on the abdominal wall fascial wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpata, David M; Criss, Cory N; Gao, Yue; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Anderson, James M; Novitsky, Yuri W; Rosen, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Bariatric surgery patients enter into a catabolic state postoperatively, which can lead to an aberrant wound healing process. To improve the future treatment of morbidly obese patients, the aim of our study was to understand the link between bariatric surgery and alterations in the wound healing processes. A total of 18 morbidly obese Zucker rats were separated into three groups and underwent one of three surgical procedures: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 6); sleeve gastrectomy (GS; n = 6); or midline laparotomy only (n = 6). The rats were weighed on postoperative day 0, 3, 7, and 14. On day 14, the abdominal wall was harvested and underwent histologic and biomechanical evaluation. A significant difference was found in the weight gain between the laparotomy control group (LC) and bariatric surgical groups at 7 and 14 d. By postoperative day 7, the GS and RYGB rats weighed significantly less than the LC group, losing, on average, 7% and 6% of their initial body weight, respectively, and the LC gained 4% of their weight (P gained 20% of their original weight, and the two bariatric groups both weighed significantly less (P bariatric surgery negatively affects wound healing both histologically and biomechanically compared with nonbariatric models. Although obesity remains a significant factor in the wound healing process, understanding the link between bariatric surgery and alterations in wound healing is imperative before advocating simultaneous repair of ventral hernias during concomitant bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of chrysin-loaded nanofiber on wound healing process in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zoheyr; Sharif Zak, Mohsen; Majdi, Hasan; Seidi, Khaled; Barati, Meisam; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Latifi, Ali Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Wound healing is an inflammatory process. Chrysin, a natural flavonoid found in honey, has been recently investigated to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this work, the effects of chrysin-loaded nanofiber on the expressions of genes that are related to wound healing process such as P53, TIMPs, MMPs, iNOS, and IL-6 in an animal model study were evaluated. The electrospinning method was used for preparation the different concentrations of chrysin-loaded PCL-PEG nanofiber (5%, 10%, and 20% [w/w]) and characterized by FTIR and SEM. The wound healing effects of chrysin-loaded PCL-PEG nanofiber were in vivo investigated in rats, and the expressions of genes related to wound healing process were evaluated by real-time PCR. The study results showed chrysin-loaded PLC-PEG compared to chrysin ointment and control groups significantly increase IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 (p hand, nanofibers containing chrysin significantly decreased p53 and iNOS expression compared to chrysin ointment and control groups (p healing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Are polymorphisms of molecules involved in bone healing correlated to aseptic femoral and tibial shaft non-unions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeckey, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank; Glaubitz, Lena-Marie; Jürgens, Simon; Ludwig, Theresa; Andruszkow, Hagen; Hüfner, Tobias; Krettek, Christian; Stuhrmann, Manfred

    2011-11-01

    Fracture healing is a well-organized process between several molecules and mediators. As known from other diseases, genetic polymorphisms may exhibit different expression patterns in these mediators. Concerning fracture healing, this may lead to an extended healing process or non-union. We investigated the incidence of polymorphisms in patients with aseptic non-unions after femoral and tibial shaft fractures as compared to patients with uneventful healing. Exclusion criteria were smoking, diabetes, bilateral fractures, systemic corticoid therapy, and septic non-unions. Analysis of allele frequencies and genotype distribution of various mediators were carried out following PCR. Clinical parameters such as injury severity and in-hospital were analyzed. Fifty patients following non-union (group NU) were enrolled, the control group consisted of 44 patients (group H). A significant association of a PDGF haplotype and non-unions following fracture could be observed. There was a significantly increased in-hospital time and amount of surgical procedures in group NU. Polymorphisms within the PDGF gene seem to be a genetic risk factor for the development of non-unions of the lower extremity following fracture. The early identification of high risk patients could result in an adapted therapeutical strategy and might contribute to a significant decrease of posttraumatic non-unions. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. Additional bone graft accelerates healing of clavicle non-unions and improves long-term results after 8.9 years: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzke, Marc; Morbitzer, Christian; Aytac, Sara; Erhardt, Matthias; Frank, Christian; Muenzberg, Matthias; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Helbig, Lars; Suda, Arnold J; Gruetzner, Paul-Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten

    2015-01-09

    Clavicle non-unions can occur after both conservative and operative treatment failure. Here, we investigated the outcome of patients with delayed fracture healing or non-unions of the clavicle. Patients underwent revision surgery by plate osteosynthesis of the clavicle with or without bone grafting. Our aim was to determine rates of bone healing and the functional long-term outcome. The study population of 58 consecutive patients was divided into group 1 (n = 25; no bone graft) and group 2 (n = 33; iliac crest bone graft). Bone consolidation was determined by the Lane-Sandhu score preoperatively and after 2.2 ± 1.8 years, respectively. The functional long-term outcome was determined after 8.9 ± 2.7 years in all available patients (n = 30) by the Constant score, DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score and SF-36, and clavicle length was measured by ultrasound as compared to the healthy side. Clavicle consolidation was achieved in 54 out of 58 patients (93.1%) after revision surgeries. The radiographic score and bone consolidation rates were significantly higher in group 2 (93.3%) as compared with 72% in group 1 (p = 0.02), resulting in a significantly shorter time to bone consolidation in group 2. Similarly, the relative risk for additional surgery after the first revision surgery was 4.7-fold higher in group 1 (p = 0.02). The long-term results showed overall very good results in DASH score (14.9 ± 16.5) and good results in Constant scores (77.9 ± 19.9). The group analyses found significantly better Constant scores and better visual analogue pain scale (VAS) numbers in group 2. Clavicle shortening appeared to affect the clinical results, and a mild correlation between shortening and Constant scores (R = -0.31) was found. This study shows high rates of bone healing and good functional outcomes after surgical revision of clavicle non-unions and further demonstrates that additional bone graft could

  2. Use of a new model allowing controlled uniaxial loading to evaluate tendon healing in a bone tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeo, Scott A; Voigt, Clifford; Ma, Richard; Solic, John; Stasiak, Mark; Ju, Xiaodong; El-Amin, Saddiq; Deng, Xiang-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The optimal mechanical loading regimen for the healing of a tendon graft in a bone tunnel is unknown. We developed a rat model that directly tensions a healing tendon graft, without the use of confounding joint motion. Fifty cycles of either 0, 3, or 6 N of tension were applied to groups daily for 3 or 6 weeks. At 3 weeks the low load (3 N) group had the highest failure load (p = 0.009), but by 6 weeks there were no differences in failure load among groups. At 3 weeks the high load (6 N) group had greater osteoclast activity compared to the immobilized (0 N) group (p < 0.05), and by 6 weeks there were significantly more osteoclasts in the high load group compared to the low load group (p = 0.01). Bone volume fraction was higher in the immobilized group compared to the 3 N load group at 3 weeks (p = 0.014) and 6 weeks (p = 0.007). At 6 weeks, the immobilized group had greater trabecular number compared to both loading groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low magnitude loading had a beneficial early effect but continued loading led to poorer new bone formation over time and no beneficial effect at 6 weeks, perhaps due to delayed maturation from cumulative loads. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:852-859, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Estrogen receptor α- (ERα), but not ERβ-signaling, is crucially involved in mechanostimulation of bone fracture healing by whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Kovtun, Anna; Lackner, Ina; Mödinger, Yvonne; Hacker, Steffen; Liedert, Astrid; Tuckermann, Jan; Ignatius, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Mechanostimulation by low-magnitude high frequency vibration (LMHFV) has been shown to provoke anabolic effects on the intact skeleton in both mice and humans. However, experimental studies revealed that, during bone fracture healing, the effect of whole-body vibration is profoundly influenced by the estrogen status. LMHFV significantly improved fracture healing in ovariectomized (OVX) mice being estrogen deficient, whereas bone regeneration was significantly reduced in non-OVX, estrogen-competent mice. Furthermore, estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) were differentially expressed in the fracture callus after whole-body vibration, depending on the estrogen status. Based on these data, we hypothesized that ERs may mediate vibration-induced effects on fracture healing. To prove this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of LMHFV on bone healing in mice lacking ERα or ERβ. To study the influence of the ER ligand estrogen, both non-OVX and OVX mice were used. All mice received a femur osteotomy stabilized by an external fixator. Half of the mice were sham-operated or subjected to OVX 4 weeks before osteotomy. Half of each group received LMHFV with 0.3 g and 45 Hz for 20 min per day, 5 days per week. After 21 days, fracture healing was evaluated by biomechanical testing, μCT analysis, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Absence of ERα or ERβ did not affect fracture healing in sham-treated mice. Wildtype (WT) and ERβ-knockout mice similarly displayed impaired bone regeneration after OVX, whereas ERα-knockout mice did not. Confirming previous data, in WT mice, LMHFV negatively affected bone repair in non-OVX mice, whereas OVX-induced compromised healing was significantly improved by vibration. In contrast, vibrated ERα-knockout mice did not display significant differences in fracture healing compared to non-vibrated animals, both in non-OVX and OVX mice. Fracture healing in ERβ-knockout mice was similarly affected by LMHFV as in WT

  4. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  5. Facile preparation of self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 surface by electrochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Hiraga, Takuya; Zhu, Chunyu; Tsuji, Etsushi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2017-11-01

    Herein we report simple electrochemical processes to fabricate a self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 coating on Type 304 stainless steel. The CeO2 surface anodically deposited on flat stainless steel surface is hydrophilic, although high temperature-sintered and sputter-deposited CeO2 surface was reported to be hydrophobic. The anodically deposited hydrophilic CeO2 surface is transformed to hydrophobic during air exposure. Specific accumulation of contaminant hydrocarbon on the CeO2 surface is responsible for the transformation to hydrophobic state. The deposition of CeO2 on hierarchically rough stainless steel surface produces superhydrophobic CeO2 surface, which also shows self-healing ability; the surface changes to superhydrophilic after oxygen plasma treatment but superhydrophobic state is recovered repeatedly by air exposure. This work provides a facile method for preparing a self-healing superhydrophobic surface using practical electrochemical processes.

  6. A 5-year comparison of marginal bone level following immediate loading of single-tooth implants placed in healed alveolar ridges and extraction sockets in the maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Antoine N.; Sabbagh, Joseph M.; Aboushelib, Moustafa N.; Noujeim, Ziad F.; Salameh, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in need of a single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden). Implants were placed either in healed ridges (group I) or immediately into fresh extraction sockets (group II). Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36, and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implant. Results: Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study. The mean change in marginal bone loss (MBL) after implant placement was 0.26 ± 0.161 mm for 1 year, and 0.26 ± 0.171 mm for 3 years, and 0.21 ± 0.185 mm for 5 years in extraction sockets and was 0.26 ± 0.176 mm for 1 year and 0.21 ± 0.175 mm for 3 years, and 0.19 ± 0.172 mm for 5 years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P implant after cementation of the provisional (P immediately loaded implants placed either in extraction sockets or healed ridges were similar. Functional loading technique by using prefabricated abutment placed during the surgery time seems to maintain marginal bone around implant in both healed and fresh extraction sites. PMID:24550840

  7. A 5-year comparison of marginal bone level following immediate loading of single-tooth implants placed in healed alveolar ridges and extraction sockets in the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Antoine N; Sabbagh, Joseph M; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Noujeim, Ziad F; Salameh, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol. Thirty-six patients in need of a single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden). Implants were placed either in healed ridges (group I) or immediately into fresh extraction sockets (group II). Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36, and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implant. Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study. The mean change in marginal bone loss (MBL) after implant placement was 0.26 ± 0.161 mm for 1 year, and 0.26 ± 0.171 mm for 3 years, and 0.21 ± 0.185 mm for 5 years in extraction sockets and was 0.26 ± 0.176 mm for 1 year and 0.21 ± 0.175 mm for 3 years, and 0.19 ± 0.172 mm for 5 years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P implant after cementation of the provisional (P immediately loaded implants placed either in extraction sockets or healed ridges were similar. Functional loading technique by using prefabricated abutment placed during the surgery time seems to maintain marginal bone around implant in both healed and fresh extraction sites.

  8. Means of enhancing bone fracture healing : Optimal cell source, isolation methods and acoustic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghebes, Corina Adriana; Braham, Maaike Vera Jasmijn; Zeegers, Adelgunde Veronica Clemens Maria; Renard, Auke Jan Sijbe; Fernandes, Hugo; Saris, Daniel B F

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human body has an extensive capacity to regenerate bone tissue after trauma. However large defects such as long bone fractures of the lower limbs cannot be restored without intervention and often lead to nonunion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the pool and

  9. Healing of experimentally created defects: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1995-01-01

    of these materials questionable. Healing and degradation of alloplastic materials are inconsistent with subsequent restricted use. The principle of guided tissue regeneration excluding soft tissue cells from a certain area is not alone sufficient to insure complete bony healing. Recombinant bone morphogenetic......Within cranio-maxillofacial surgery and orthopedic surgery a bone graft or a bone substitute is required to recontour or assist bony healing in repair of osseous congenital deformities, or in repair of deformity due to trauma or to surgical excision after elimination of osseous disease processes...... exceeding a certain size. An autogenous bone graft is the optimal material of choice, however its use is problematic due to donor site morbidity, sparse amounts and uncontrolled resorption. Immunological responses and risk of viral contamination of allogenous and xenogenous bone materials make the use...

  10. The effect of peri-implant bone exposure on soft tissue healing and bone loss in two adjacent implants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung-Yun; Kye, Seung-Boem; Hong, Jongrak; Paeng, Jun-Young; Yang, Seung-Min

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soft tissue and bone change around two adjacent implants in one-stage implant surgery. Methods Eleven subjects (7 males, 4 females) who were needed placement of 2 adjacent implants in the molar area were included. The two implants were placed with the platform at the level of the alveolar crest. The interproximal bone between the 2 implants was not covered with gingiva. After surgery, an alginate impression was taken to record the gingival...

  11. Bone Adaptation as an Evolutionary Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The internal bone adaptation of the proximal femur is considered. A three-dimensional finite element model of the proximal femur is used. The bone remodeling in this work is numerically described byan evolutionary remodeling scheme with anisotropic material parameters andtime-dependent loading...

  12. Uterine Wound Healing: A Complex Process Mediated by Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrumento, Dario D; Di Nardo, Maria A; De Falco, Marianna; Di Lieto, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is the process by which a complex cascade of biochemical events is responsible of the repair the damage. In vivo, studies in humans and mice suggest that healing and post-healing heterogeneous behavior of the surgically wounded myometrium is both phenotype and genotype dependent. Uterine wound healing process involves many cells: endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, myometrial cells as well a stem cell population found in the myometrium, myoSP (side population of myometrial cells). Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) isoforms, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-β) are involved in the wound healing mechanisms. The increased TGF- β1/β3 ratio reduces scarring and fibrosis. The CTGF altered expression may be a factor involved in the abnormal scars formation of low uterine segment after cesarean section and of the formation of uterine dehiscence. The lack of bFGF is involved in the reduction of collagen deposition in the wound site and thicker scabs. The altered expression of TNF-β, VEGF, and PDGF in human myometrial smooth muscle cells in case of uterine dehiscence, it is implicated in the uterine healing process. The over-and under-expressions of growth factors genes involved in uterine scarring process could represent patient's specific features, increasing the risk of cesarean scar complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Exogenous peripheral blood mononuclear cells affect the healing process of deep-degree burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Li, Yaonan; Ye, Lan; Wang, Xinglei; Zhang, Jixun; Dong, Zhengxue; Jiang, Duyin

    2017-01-01

    The regenerative repair of deep-degree (second degree) burned skin remains a notable challenge in the treatment of burn injury, despite improvements being made with regards to treatment modality and the emergence of novel therapies. Fetal skin constitutes an attractive target for investigating scarless healing of burned skin. To investigate the inflammatory response during scarless healing of burned fetal skin, the present study developed a nude mouse model, which was implanted with normal human fetal skin and burned fetal skin. Subsequently, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to treat the nude mouse model carrying the burned fetal skin. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 were investigated during this process. In the present study, fetal skin was subcutaneously implanted into the nude mice to establish the murine model. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect alterations in the skin during the development of fetal skin and during the healing process of deep-degree burned fetal skin. The expression levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined using immunochemical staining, and their staining intensity was evaluated by mean optical density. The results demonstrated that fetal skin subcutaneously implanted into the dorsal skin flap of nude mice developed similarly to the normal growth process in the womb. In addition, the scarless healing process was clearly observed in the mice carrying the burned fetal skin. A total of 2 weeks was required to complete scarless healing. Following treatment with PBMCs, the burned fetal skin generated inflammatory factors and enhanced the inflammatory response, which consequently resulted in a reduction in the speed of healing and in the formation of scars. Therefore, exogenous PBMCs may alter the lowered immune response environment, which is required for scarless healing, resulting in scar formation. In conclusion, the present

  14. Exogenous peripheral blood mononuclear cells affect the healing process of deep‑degree burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Li, Yaonan; Ye, Lan; Wang, Xinglei; Zhang, Jixun; Dong, Zhengxue; Jiang, Duyin

    2017-12-01

    The regenerative repair of deep‑degree (second degree) burned skin remains a notable challenge in the treatment of burn injury, despite improvements being made with regards to treatment modality and the emergence of novel therapies. Fetal skin constitutes an attractive target for investigating scarless healing of burned skin. To investigate the inflammatory response during scarless healing of burned fetal skin, the present study developed a nude mouse model, which was implanted with normal human fetal skin and burned fetal skin. Subsequently, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to treat the nude mouse model carrying the burned fetal skin. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)‑1 were investigated during this process. In the present study, fetal skin was subcutaneously implanted into the nude mice to establish the murine model. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect alterations in the skin during the development of fetal skin and during the healing process of deep‑degree burned fetal skin. The expression levels of MMP‑9 and TIMP‑1 were determined using immunochemical staining, and their staining intensity was evaluated by mean optical density. The results demonstrated that fetal skin subcutaneously implanted into the dorsal skin flap of nude mice developed similarly to the normal growth process in the womb. In addition, the scarless healing process was clearly observed in the mice carrying the burned fetal skin. A total of 2 weeks was required to complete scarless healing. Following treatment with PBMCs, the burned fetal skin generated inflammatory factors and enhanced the inflammatory response, which consequently resulted in a reduction in the speed of healing and in the formation of scars. Therefore, exogenous PBMCs may alter the lowered immune response environment, which is required for scarless healing, resulting in scar formation. In conclusion

  15. Analysis of new bone, cartilage, and fibrosis tissue in healing murine allografts using whole slide imaging and a new automated histomorphometric algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Longze; Chang, Martin; Beck, Christopher A; Schwarz, Edward M; Boyce, Brendan F

    2016-01-01

    Histomorphometric analysis of histologic sections of normal and diseased bone samples, such as healing allografts and fractures, is widely used in bone research. However, the utility of traditional semi-automated methods is limited because they are labor-intensive and can have high interobserver variability depending upon the parameters being assessed, and primary data cannot be re-analyzed automatically. Automated histomorphometry has long been recognized as a solution for these issues, and ...

  16. Effects of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells and Platelet-rich Plasma on Healing Response of Canine Alveolar Surgical Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Shafieian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the known disadvantages of autologous bone grafting, tissue engineering approaches have become an attractive method for ridge augmentation in dentistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to evaluate the potential therapeutic capacity of PRP-assisted hADSCs seeded on HA/TCP granules on regenerative healing response of canine alveolar surgical bone defects. This could offer a great advantage to alternative approaches of bone tissue healing-induced therapies at clinically chair-side procedures. Methods: Cylindrical through-and-through defects were drilled in the mandibular plate of 5 mongrel dogs and filled randomly as following: I- autologous crushed mandibular bone, II- no filling material, III- HA/TCP granules in combination with PRP, and IV- PRP-enriched hADSCs seeded on HA/TCP granules. After the completion of an 8-week period of healing, radiographic, histological and histomorphometrical analysis of osteocyte number, newly-formed vessels and marrow spaces were used for evaluation and comparison of the mentioned groups. Furthermore, the buccal side of mandibular alveolar bone of every individual animal was drilled as normal control samples (n=5. Results: Our results revealed that hADSCs subcultured on HA/TCP granules in combination with PRP significantly promoted bone tissue regeneration as compared with those defects treated only with PRP and HA/TCP granules (P

  17. Bone Healing Around Dental Implants: Simplified vs Conventional Drilling Protocols at Speed of 400 rpm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luiz Fernando; Sarendranath, Alvin; Neiva, Rodrigo; Marão, Heloisa F; Tovar, Nick; Bonfante, Estevam A; Janal, Malvin N; Castellano, Arthur; Coelho, Paulo G

    This study evaluated whether simplified drilling protocols would provide comparable histologic and histomorphometric results to conventional drilling protocols at a low rotational speed. A total of 48 alumina-blasted and acid-etched Ti-6Al-4V implants with two diameters (3.75 and 4.2 mm, n = 24 per group) were bilaterally placed in the tibiae of 12 dogs, under a low-speed protocol (400 rpm). Within the same diameter group, half of the implants were inserted after a simplified drilling procedure (pilot drill + final diameter drill), and the other half were placed using the conventional drilling procedure. After 3 and 5 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the retrieved bone-implant samples were subjected to nondecalcified histologic sectioning. Histomorphology, bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) analysis were performed. Histology showed that new bone was formed around implants, and inflammation or bone resorption was not evident for both groups. Histomorphometrically, when all independent variables were collapsed over drilling technique, no differences were detected for BIC and BAFO; when drilling technique was analyzed as a function of time, the conventional groups reached statistically higher BIC and BAFO at 3 weeks, but comparable values between techniques were observed at 5 weeks; 4.2-mm implants obtained statistically higher BAFO relative to 3.75-mm implants. Based on the present methodology, the conventional technique improved bone formation at 3 weeks, and narrower implants were associated with less bone formation.

  18. The Masquelet technique of induced membrane for healing of bone defects. A review of 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Ulrik Kähler; Eckardt, Henrik; Bosemark, Per; Paulsen, Anders Wallin; Dahl, Benny; Hede, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Segmental defects of long bones are notoriously difficult to treat. This study evaluates eight cases in which the Masquelet technique of induced membranes was used. The primary purpose was to assess the results compared to other types of bone reconstruction and share our tips and tricks to improve the outcome. Retrospective study based on patient records and radiographs. Eight patients operated between 2011 and 2014 were included. Three had infected non-unions. Outcome measures were time-to full weight-bearing, time to radiographic consolidation, need for secondary bone grafting procedures and occurrence of complications. Time to full weight bearing seemed shorter in patients treated with nails. In two cases only partial radiographic consolidation was noted at the latest follow up visit. One patient needed secondary bone grafting and two limbs were malaligned. There were no amputations, no persistent infections, and no implant failures. The induced membrane technique is a useful tool to substitute bone loss yet consolidation time is somewhat unpredictable and prolonged non-weight bearing is required. Nailing seems to improve outcome compared to plating. It shortens treatment time, reduces the amount of bone graft needed, aligns the bone and should be considered when feasible. Further larger scale studies are welcome to throw more light into the efficacy and effectiveness of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemodynamic study for the healing process of ruptured achilles tendon by dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Toshiyuki; Hamanishi, Hiroji; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Mizuno, Kosaku

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic MR imaging with a combination of fast MR imaging technique and intravenous bolus administration of Gd-DTPA is a useful method to evaluate the vascularity of the soft tissue. By using this technique, we evaluated the healing processes of ruptured Achilles tendon. Eighteen patients who underwent percutaneous suture of the ruptured Achilles tendon were examined monthly by dynamic MRI in their course of healing. We evaluated time intensity curve obtained from each data of dynamic MRI. Time intensity curve showed slow fill in-slow wash out pattern 4 weeks after operation. Eight weeks after operation, the time course of the fill in-wash out changed to be shorter. Rapid fill in-rapid wash out pattern was observed about 12 weeks after surgery. After that period, time intensity curve tended to change into non-fitting pattern. (normal pattern) Eight functional parameters were obtained from time-intensity curve. We analyzed which parameters are useful for evaluation of tendon healing. In addition, we studied the healing processes of rabbit Achilles tendon following surgical incision. Twelve rabbits underwent tenotomy of Achilles tendon. The tendons excised at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 weeks after operation were examined using microangiography and a light microscope. Four weeks after tenotomy, many capillary vessels filled with Gd-DTPA were observed in the ruptured area. About 10 weeks after operation, the capillary vessels decreased and collageneous fibers were arranged along the long axis of the tendon. This term would be thought to correspond to the condition about 12-14 weeks after surgery in clinical cases. From this study, dynamic MRI is thought to be useful method to know the hemodynamic conditions of the healing tendons. Especially, four parameters-Mean Transit Time, Corrected Transit Time, Time to Peak, Inflection Width, -seemed to have absolute value and be useful for the quantitative evaluation of the healing processes in human Achilles tendon. (author)

  20. Hemodynamic study for the healing process of ruptured achilles tendon by dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Toshiyuki [Hyogo Rehabilitation Center (Japan); Hamanishi, Hiroji; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Mizuno, Kosaku

    2000-12-01

    Dynamic MR imaging with a combination of fast MR imaging technique and intravenous bolus administration of Gd-DTPA is a useful method to evaluate the vascularity of the soft tissue. By using this technique, we evaluated the healing processes of ruptured Achilles tendon. Eighteen patients who underwent percutaneous suture of the ruptured Achilles tendon were examined monthly by dynamic MRI in their course of healing. We evaluated time intensity curve obtained from each data of dynamic MRI. Time intensity curve showed slow fill in-slow wash out pattern 4 weeks after operation. Eight weeks after operation, the time course of the fill in-wash out changed to be shorter. Rapid fill in-rapid wash out pattern was observed about 12 weeks after surgery. After that period, time intensity curve tended to change into non-fitting pattern. (normal pattern) Eight functional parameters were obtained from time-intensity curve. We analyzed which parameters are useful for evaluation of tendon healing. In addition, we studied the healing processes of rabbit Achilles tendon following surgical incision. Twelve rabbits underwent tenotomy of Achilles tendon. The tendons excised at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 weeks after operation were examined using microangiography and a light microscope. Four weeks after tenotomy, many capillary vessels filled with Gd-DTPA were observed in the ruptured area. About 10 weeks after operation, the capillary vessels decreased and collageneous fibers were arranged along the long axis of the tendon. This term would be thought to correspond to the condition about 12-14 weeks after surgery in clinical cases. From this study, dynamic MRI is thought to be useful method to know the hemodynamic conditions of the healing tendons. Especially, four parameters-Mean Transit Time, Corrected Transit Time, Time to Peak, Inflection Width, -seemed to have absolute value and be useful for the quantitative evaluation of the healing processes in human Achilles tendon. (author)

  1. Mindful Processing in Psychotherapy - Facilitating Natural Healing Process within Attuned Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is non-judgmental, accepting awareness of what is going on in the present moment. The author proposes that mindfulness promotes natural healing of the organism, where the change comes spontaneously by acceptance and awareness of internal experience. Such process the author describes as ‘mindful processing’, because with mindful awareness disturbing experiences can be processed and integrated. The author’s interest in how mindfulness can be systematically applied in psychotherapy led to the development of the ‘mindful processing’ method, which invites the client to become aware of the moment-to-moment subjective experience. The method is used within attuned therapeutic relationship and thetheoretical framework of Integrative Psychotherapy. Mindful Processing is not goal-oriented and doesn’t strive to achieve a positive outcome. Such an outcome is a natural by-product of accepting awareness of both pleasant and unpleasant inner experience (body sensations, affects and/or thoughts. The method is illustrated with a transcript of a session with commentary.

  2. [Evaluation of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) extract on the healing process of gastroraphy in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Orlando José dos; Ribas Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Castelo Branco Neto, Manoel Lages; Naufel, Carlos; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Campos, Rodrigo Peixoto; Moreira, Hamilton; Porcides, Rafael Dib; Dobrowolski, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the healing process of gastric suture in rats using hydroalcoholic aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) extract. Forty adult male rats, divided into two groups of 20 animals were operated and named as follows: aroeira group (Ga), and the control group (Gc). Each group was divided into two subgroups (SG) of 10 animals (SGa and SGc) according to the time of provoked death (three and seven days). The same surgical procedure was performed in all animals consisting in incision and simple suture of the stomach (Prolene(R) 6-0). The only difference was on the type of medical treatment. The aroeira group received a single 100 mg/kg of aroeira extract in an intraperitoneal dose and the animals from the control group received the same quantity in milliliters (ml) of the isotonic saline solution. The evaluated parameters were: macroscopic alterations, microscopic healing process and toleration to atmospheric air insufflation. All animals had good healing process of abdominal wall with no clinical evidence of infection, dehiscence, abscesses and peritonitis. Both groups presented adherences to gastric suture line area with surrounding organs, mainly the liver, lower intestines and the abdominal wall. Microscopic analysis showed only chronic inflammation significant difference between the aroeira and control groups on the third day of observation. Resistance tests did not present significant statistical differences in the studied groups. The use of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) hydro-alcoholic extract did not alter the stomach healing process, considered on macroscopic, tensiometric and microscopic assessment.

  3. Effect of Gukang capsule-assisted surgical treatment on fracture healing, microcirculation and bone metabolism in elder patients with fracture of distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Nian Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of Gukang capsule-assisted surgical treatment on fracture healing, microcirculation and bone metabolism in elder patients with fracture of distal radius. Methods: A total of 200 elderly patients with fracture of distal radius treated from September 2010 to September 2015 were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=100. Control group received routine surgical treatment, and observation group underwent Gukang capsule-assisted surgical treatment. Fracture healing was compared between two groups, serum microcirculation and bone metabolism indexes were detected 1 week after operation, X-ray examination was performed 6 months after operation and imaging parameters were measured. Results: Regression time of postoperative affected-side limb swelling and radiographic healing time of broken ends of fractured bone of observation group were significantly shorter than those of control group; 1 week after operation, serum TXB2, CTX-I, CTX-II, RANK, RANKL and TRACP5b levels as well as TXB-2/6-Keto-PGF1α ratio of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and 6-Keto-PGF1α, ALP, OPG, PICP, BGP and 1,25(OH2D3 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Gukang capsule-assisted surgery helps promote the fracture healing in elderly patients with fracture of distal radius and can improve microcirculation and bone metabolism.

  4. Combined Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Diagnostic and Treatment System for Bone Quality Assessment and Fracture Healing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration...

  5. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyappatite-β-tricalciumphosphate (HA/β-TCP) was reinforced with poly(D,L)-lactic acid (PDLLA) to overcome its weak mechanical properties. Two substitutes with porosities of 77% and 81% HA/β-TCP reinforced with 12 wt % PDLLA were tested in compression. The effects of allograft, substitute (HA......, the sheep were sacrificed. Implants with surrounding bone were harvested and sectioned into two parts: one for microcomputed tomography scanning and push-out test, and one for histomorphometry. The 77% HA/β-TCP reinforced with PDLLA had similar mechanical properties to human cancellous bone...... and was significantly stronger than the HA/β-TCP without PDLLA. Microarchitecture of gap mass was significantly changed after implantation for all groups. Allograft had stronger shear mechanical properties than the other three groups, whereas there were no significant differences between the other three groups...

  6. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wiercigroch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H2 receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H3 receptor antagonist and H1 receptor agonist is used in the treatment of Ménière’s disease.Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results.Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H1 and H2 receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed.

  8. The Masquelet technique of induced membrane for healing of bone defects. A review of 8 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ulrik Kähler; Eckardt, Henrik; Bosemark, Per

    2015-01-01

    to improve the outcome. METHOD: Retrospective study based on patient records and radiographs. Eight patients operated between 2011 and 2014 were included. Three had infected non-unions. Outcome measures were time-to full weight-bearing, time to radiographic consolidation, need for secondary bone grafting...... procedures and occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Time to full weight bearing seemed shorter in patients treated with nails. In two cases only partial radiographic consolidation was noted at the latest follow up visit. One patient needed secondary bone grafting and two limbs were malaligned. There were...... no amputations, no persistent infections, and no implant failures. DISCUSSION: The induced membrane technique is a useful tool to substitute bone loss yet consolidation time is somewhat unpredictable and prolonged non-weight bearing is required. CONCLUSION: Nailing seems to improve outcome compared to plating...

  9. Assessment of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing processes in a nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in salt, two aspects of salt behavior are expected to contribute to favorable conditions for waste isolation. First, consolidation of crushed salt backfill due to creep closure of the underground openings may result in a backfill barrier with low permeability. Second, fractures created in the salt by excavation may heal under the influence of stress and temperature following sealing. This report reviews the status of knowledge regarding crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing, provides analyses which predict the rates at which the processes will occur under repository conditions, and develops requirements for future study. Analyses of the rate at which crushed salt will consolidate are found to be uncertain because of unexplained wide variation in the creep properties of crushed salt obtained from laboratory testing, and because of uncertainties in predictions of long term closure rates of openings in salt. This uncertainty could be resolved to a large degree by additional laboratory testing of crushed salt. Similarly, additional testing of fracture healing processes is required to confirm that healing will be effective under repository conditions. Extensive references, 27 figures, 5 tables

  10. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC located in the coronoid process of the mandible in a 12-year-old girl is presented. Treatment consisted of excision of the lesion through preauricular, submandibular and intraoral approach. An access osteotomy distal to second molar region was required to gain access to medial side of the coronoid process. To our knowledge, this is the third case of an aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process of mandible. While examining a patient with a large expansile intrabony jaw cavity with thin peripheral bone, which is filled with blood without presence of bruit, thrills and pulse pressure, the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst should be on top of the differential diagnosis list. Seventy-four to eighty-five percent of aneurysmal bone cysts of jaws occur in 10-20 years age group. Therefore, a pediatric dentist may be the first person to see such a lesion.

  11. Desferrioxamine for Stimulation of Fracture Healing and Revascularization in a Bone Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    anticipate completing the radiographic, torsional, micro-CT, and histological evaluations of these animals in December and January. We will begin ...formation of denser trabecular bone and lamellar bone. Alternatively, it may be that at higher dosages the chelation ability of DFO begins to interfere with...4 week xray (0-2) 6week xray (0-4) Control 0.54 ± 0.63 2.03 ± 1.29 DBA 0.88 ± 0.76 2.56 ± 1.19 DBM+ L-DFO 1.08 ± 0.75* 3.13 ± 1.04* DBM+ H-DFO

  12. Preliminary study on the effect of parenteral naloxone, alone and in association with calcium gluconate, on bone healing in an ovine "drill hole" model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhoff Jens D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several diseases affect bone healing and physiology. Many drugs that are commonly used in orthopaedics as "analgesics" or anti-inflammatory agents impair bone healing. Stressful conditions are associated with decreased serum osteocalcin concentration. High endorphin levels alter calcium metabolism, blocking the membrane channels by which calcium normally enters cells. The consequent decrease of intracellular calcium impairs the activities of calcium-related enzymes. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. Morphine-induced osteocalcin inhibition was abolished when osteoblasts were incubated with naloxone. Naloxone restored the altered cellular and tissue physiology by removing β-endorphins from specific receptors. However, this is only possible if the circulating Ca concentration is adequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral naloxone administration in inducing fast mineralization and callus remodelling in a group of sheep with a standardised bone lesion. Methods Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. Group A acted as control, group B received a solution of calcium gluconate, group C a solution of naloxone, and group D a solution of calcium gluconate and naloxone. A transverse hole was drilled in the left metacarpus, including both cortices, then parenteral treatment was administered intramuscularly, daily for four weeks. Healing was evaluated by weekly radiographic examination for eight weeks. For quantitative evaluation, the ratio of the radiographic bone density between the drill area and the adjacent cortical bone was calculated. After eight weeks the sheep were slaughtered and a sample of bone was collected for histopathology Results Group D showed a higher radiographic ratio than the other groups. Sheep not treated with naloxone showed a persistently lower ratio in the lateral than the medial cortex (P Conclusion A low-dose parenteral regimen of naloxone enhances

  13. The use of Straumann Bone Ceramic in a maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure: a clinical, radiological, histological and histomorphometric evaluation with a 6-month healing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, J W F H; Bouwman, W F; Bravenboer, N; Zijderveld, S A; Schulten, E A J M; ten Bruggenkate, C M

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the quality and quantity of bone formation in maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure using a new fully synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) consisting of a mixture of 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% of beta-tricalcium phosphate (Straumann Bone Ceramic). A unilateral maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure was performed in six patients using 100% BCP. Biopsy retrieval for histological and histomorphometric analysis was carried out before implant placement after a 6-month healing period. In this study, the maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure with the use of BCP showed uneventful healing. Radiological evaluation after 6 months showed maintenance of vertical height gained immediately after surgery. Primary stability was achieved with all Straumann SLA dental implants of 4.1 mm diameter and 10 or 12 mm length. The implants appeared to be osseointegrated well after a 3-month healing period. Histological investigation showed no signs of inflammation. Cranial from the native alveolar bone, newly formed mineralized tissue was observed. Also, osteoid islands as well as connective tissue were seen around the BCP particles, cranial from the front of newly formed mineralized tissue. Close bone-to-substitute contact was observed. Histomorphometric analysis showed an average bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) of 27.3% [standard deviation (SD) 4.9], bone surface/total volume (BS/TV) 4.5 mm(2)/mm(3) (SD 1.1), trabecula-thickness (TbTh) 132.1 mum (SD 38.4), osteoid-volume/bone volume (OV/BV) 7.5% (SD 4.3), osteoid surface/bone surface (OS/BS) 41.3% (SD 28.5), osteoid thickness (O.Th) 13.3 mum (SD 4.7) and number of osteoclasts/total area (N.Oc/Tar) 4.4 1/mm (SD 5.7). Although a small number of patients were treated, this study provides radiological and histological evidence in humans confirming the suitability of this new BCP for vertical augmentation of the atrophied maxilla by means of a maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure allowing

  14. Chronic alcoholism and bone remodeling processes: Caveats and considerations for the forensic anthropologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Amy R; Bengtson, Jennifer D

    2016-02-01

    Clinical literature provides substantial information on the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on bone remodeling and related skeletal disease processes. This biomedical information is seldom considered in detail by forensic anthropologists, who often rely on normative macroscopic models of bone remodeling and traditional macroscopic age estimation methods in the creation of biological profiles. The case study presented here considers the ways that alcoholism disrupts normal bone remodeling processes, thus skewing estimations of age-at-death. Alcoholism affects bone macroscopically, resulting in a porous appearance and an older estimation of age, while simultaneously inhibiting osteoblastic activity and resulting in a younger microscopic appearance. Forensic anthropologists must also be cognizant of pathological remodeling stemming from alcoholism in cases where trauma analysis is critical to the reconstruction of events leading up to death, as fracture healing rates can be affected. Beyond the case study, we also consider how forensic anthropologists and practitioners can recognize and account for osteological signatures of alcoholism in medico-legal contexts. In order to best estimate age at death, a combined macroscopic and microscopic approach should be employed whenever possible alcohol and drug abuse is known or suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Stimulation of bone healing in new fractures of the tibial shaft using interferential currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, J A; Bowerbank, P

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish whether interferential currents (IFC) could significantly reduce the healing time for fractures of the tibia and thereby prevent nonunion. Males between the ages of 12 and 86, who had sustained fractures of the tibiae, were entered into this double blind clinical trial. According to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final sample of 227 cases (208 subjects) were entered by block randomization into two groups; an experimental group (n = 41) and placebo group (n = 35). A further group was entered retrospectively--control group (n = 151). IFCs were applied to the experimental group via suction electrodes for 30 minutes per day for 10 days, using a beat frequency of 10-25 Hz and a swing mode of 6 integral of 6. The placebo group had only suction electrodes applied, the intermittent mode produced a rhythmical massage effect; subjects in this group commented on pain relief which resulted in the addition of the control group as a check on the possible effect of intermittent suction. The control group received no intervention. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance which resulted in a finding of no significant difference in the time taken to union for the three groups. This means that to date there is no reason to believe that IFCs (using the parameters of this trial) can reduce the healing time for new fractures of the tibia or prevent nonunion. However, further investigation is recommended.

  16. Optimization of Microencapsulation Process for Self-Healing Polymeric Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, S.; Neon, G.S.; Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim

    2011-01-01

    A series of poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) microcapsules filled with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) was successfully prepared by in situ polymerization. The effect of diverse process parameters and ingredients on the morphology of the microcapsules was observed by SEM, optical microscopy (OM) and digital microscopy. Different techniques for the characterization of the chemical structure and the core content were considered such as FT-IR and 1 H-NMR as well as the characterization of thermal properties by DSC. High yields of free flowing powder of spherical microcapsules were produced. The synthesized microcapsules can be incorporated into another polymeric host material. In the event the host material cracks due to excessive stress or strong impact, the microcapsules would rupture to release the DCPD, which could polymerize to repair the crack. (author)

  17. A new metaphyseal bone defect model in osteoporotic rats to study biomaterials for the enhancement of bone healing in osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Volker; Thormann, Ulrich; Ray, Seemun; Zahner, Daniel; Dürselen, Lutz; Lips, Katrin; El Khassawna, Thaqif; Heiss, Christian; Riedrich, Alina; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Ignatius, Anita; Kampschulte, Marian; von Dewitz, Helena; Heinemann, Sascha; Schnettler, Reinhard; Langheinrich, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    The intention of this study was to establish a new critical size animal model that represents clinically relevant situations with osteoporotic bone status and internally fixated metaphyseal defect fractures in which biomaterials for the enhancement of fracture healing in osteoporotic fracture defects can be studied. Twenty-eight rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with a calcium-, phosphorus-, vitamin D3-, soy- and phytoestrogen-free diet. After 3months Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements showed statistically significant reductions in bone mineral density of the spine of -25.9% and of the femur of -21.3% of the OVX rats compared with controls, confirming osteoporosis in the OVX rats. The OVX rats then underwent either 3 or 5mm wedge-shaped osteotomy of the distal metaphyseal area of the femur that was internally stabilized with a T-shaped mini-plate. After 42days biomechanical testing yielded completely unstable conditions in the 5mm defect femora (bending stiffness 0Nmm(-2)) and a bending stiffness of 12,500Nmm(-2) in the 3mm defects, which showed the beginning of fracture consolidation. Micro-computed tomography showed statistically significant more new bone formation in the 3mm defects (4.83±0.37mm(2)), with bridging of the initial fracture defect area, compared with the 5mm defects (2.68±0.34mm(2)), in which no bridging of the initial defect was found. These results were confirmed by histology. In conclusion, the 5mm defect can be considered as a critical size defect model in which biomaterials can be tested. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Change in the mineralization of the healing bone callus after whole-body irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.; Pleinard, J.F.; Nguyen, T.L.; Goyffon, M.

    The delayed consolidation of diaphysial long-bone fractures in mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation is expressed biochemically by a faulty mineralization of the repair callus. This deficiency is proportional to the irradiation intensity and is not corrected by previous administration of cycteamine [fr

  19. Injectable Reactive Biocomposites For Bone Healing In Critical-Size Rabbit Calvarial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    anterior lumbar interbody fusion and periodontal ridge augmentation (INFUSE R© bone graft) [21, 22]. When implanted in a rabbit calvarial CSD, rhBMP-2...Lewis G 2007 Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for the stand-alone augmentation of osteoporosis -induced vertebral compression fractures

  20. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Erika Nishida,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Akihito Kato,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Toshihiko Iwanaga,3 Takehito Momose,1 Kosuke Ogawa,1 Shusuke Murakami,1 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami11Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Support Section for Education and Research, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 3Laboratory of Histology and Cytology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Graphene oxide (GO consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1

  1. Effects of " vitex agnus castus" extract and magnesium supplementation, alone and in combination, on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and fracture healing in women with long bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of vitex agnus castus extract, as a source of phytoestrogens, plus magnesium supplementation on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and callus formation in women with long bone fracture. Material and Methods: In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, 64 women with long bone fracture, 20-45 years old, were randomly allocated to receive 1 one Agnugol tablet (4 mg dried fruit extract of vitex agnus castus plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (VAC + Mg group (n = 10, 2 one Agnugol tablet plus placebo (VAC group (n = 15, 3 placebo plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (Mg group (n = 12, or 4 placebo plus placebo (placebo group (n = 14 per day for 8 weeks. At baseline and endpoint of the trial, serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured together with radiological bone assessment. Results: There were no significant differences in the characteristic aspects of concern between the four groups at baseline. Despite the increased level of alkaline phosphatase in the VAC group (188.33 ± 16.27 to 240.40 ± 21.49, P = 0.05, administration of VAC + Mg could not increase alkaline phosphatase activity. However, treatment with VAC + Mg significantly enhanced the osteocalcin level. The serum concentration of VEGF was increased in the VAC group (269.04 ± 116.63 to 640.03 ± 240.16, P < 0.05. Callus formation in the VAC + Mg group was higher than the other groups but the differences between the four groups were not significant (P = 0.39. No relevant side effect was observed in patients in each group. Conclusion : Our results suggest that administration of vitex agnus castus plus magnesium may promote fracture healing. However, more studies need to further explore the roles of vitex agnus castus in fracture repair processes.

  2. Effects of "vitex agnus castus" extract and magnesium supplementation, alone and in combination, on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and fracture healing in women with long bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Rostami, Zahra Hassanzadeh; Emami, Mohammad Jafar; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of vitex agnus castus extract, as a source of phytoestrogens, plus magnesium supplementation on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and callus formation in women with long bone fracture. In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, 64 women with long bone fracture, 20-45 years old, were randomly allocated to receive 1) one Agnugol tablet (4 mg dried fruit extract of vitex agnus castus) plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (VAC + Mg group (n = 10)), 2) one Agnugol tablet plus placebo (VAC group (n = 15)), 3) placebo plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (Mg group (n = 12)), or 4) placebo plus placebo (placebo group (n = 14)) per day for 8 weeks. At baseline and endpoint of the trial, serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured together with radiological bone assessment. There were no significant differences in the characteristic aspects of concern between the four groups at baseline. Despite the increased level of alkaline phosphatase in the VAC group (188.33 ± 16.27 to 240.40 ± 21.49, P = 0.05), administration of VAC + Mg could not increase alkaline phosphatase activity. However, treatment with VAC + Mg significantly enhanced the osteocalcin level. The serum concentration of VEGF was increased in the VAC group (269.04 ± 116.63 to 640.03 ± 240.16, P vitex agnus castus plus magnesium may promote fracture healing. However, more studies need to further explore the roles of vitex agnus castus in fracture repair processes.

  3. Assessment of tricalcium phosphate/collagen (TCP/collagene)nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Mahmoud; Jahandideh, Alireza; Abedi, Gholamreza; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Bone regeneration is an important objective in clinical practice and has been used for different applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanocomposite tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone healing in surgery of femoral defects in rabbits. In this study, 45 mature male New Zealand white rabbits between 6 and 8 months old and weighting between 3 and 3.5 kg were examined. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Surgical procedures were performed after intramuscular injection of Ketamine 10% (ketamine hydrochloride, 50 mg/kg) and Rompun 5% (xylazine, 5 mg/kg). Then an approximately 6 mm diameter-5 mm cylinder bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs. After inducing the surgical wound, all rabbits were coloured and randomly divided into three experimental groups of 15 animals each. Group 1 received pure medical nanocomposite TCP/collagen granules, group 2 received hydroxyapatite, and third group was a control group which received no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30, and 45 after surgery. On days 15, 30, and 45 after surgery, the quantity and the velocity of stages of bone formation at the healing site in nanocomposite TCP/collagen group were better than HA and control groups and the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone at the healing site in nanocomposite TCP/collagen group were better than onward compared with HA and control groups. In conclusion, it seems that TCP/collagen nanocomposite has a significant role in the reconstruction of bone defects and can be used as scaffold in bone fractures.

  4. Histological evaluation of healing after transalveolar maxillary sinus augmentation with bioglass and autogenous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sima, Catalin; Sima, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    . RESULTS: Bone and connective tissue fraction in the newly formed tissues inside the sinus cavity averaged 23.4 ± 13.2% and 54.1 ± 23.5%, respectively. Residual biomaterial, empty spaces, and debris averaged 1.9 ± 3.5%, 10.5 ± 6.3%, and 8.4 ± 14.5%, respectively. In the transalveolar osteotomy, bone...... and connective tissue fraction averaged 41.6 ± 14.3% and 46.1 ± 13%, respectively, while the amount of residual biomaterial, empty spaces, and debris was 2.8 ± 5%, 4.7 ± 1.9%, and 3.2 ± 2.6%, respectively. Statistically significant differences between the sinus cavity and the transalveolar osteotomy were found......OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate histologically the outcome of a bioglass and autogenous bone (at 1 : 1 ratio) composite implantation for transalveolar sinus augmentation. METHODS: In 31 patients, during implant installation ca. 4 months after sinus augmentation, biopsies were harvested through...

  5. Effectiveness of Enteral Nutritional Therapy in the Healing Process of Pressure Ulcers: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, Gisely; Meier, Marineli Joaquim; Stocco, Janislei Giseli Dorociaki; Roehrs, Hellen; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutritional therapy (ENT) in the healing process of pressure ulcers (PU) in adults and the elderly. METHOD A systematic review whose studies were identified through the databases of Cochrane, MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and manual searches. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) without delimiting the period or language of publication, which addressed adults and elderly patients with pressure ulcers ...

  6. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui PPY

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis" which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed.

  7. A Derangement of the Brain Wound Healing Process May Cause Some Cases of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer’s disease. Our hypothesis – Alzheimer’s disease is brain wound healing gone awry at least in some cases – could be tested by measuring progression with biomarkers for the four stages of wound healing in humans or appropriate animal models. Autopsy studies might be done. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy might also result from the brain wound healing process. PMID:27585229

  8. [Investigation of the healing process of invaginated anastomoses in animal experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, Géza; Barna, Tibor; Tóth, Imre; Bráth, Endre; Gyáni, Károly; Incze, Dénes; Mikó, Irén

    2003-04-01

    The telescopic anastomosis technique is not frequently used method, but its history could have been followed in the surgical literature since the beginning of the XXth century. Authors can use this technique successfully in their clinical practice performing esophago-gastrostomies, esophago-jejunostomies and ileo-colostomies. They would like to show the healing process of these kind of anastomoses in experimental work, using animal subjects, as data regarding this aspect is not found in the literature. The healing process of esophago-gastrostomies, and ileo-colostomies performed on dogs have been examined. 1. The invaginated esophageal or ileal segment (up to 30 mm length of submerged part) has not suffered from ischaemic damage. 2. The invaginated esophageal or ileal segment has been covered by the mucosa of the stomach or colon. 3. The physical strength of the anastomosis has arised gradually based this on the measured bursting pressure values. 4. The quality of the healing process has not depended on the length of the invaginated esophageal or ileal segment (up to 30 mm length of submerged part).

  9. Marginal Bone Remodeling around healing Abutment vs Final Abutment Placement at Second Stage Implant Surgery: A 12-month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nabih; Aboulhosn, Maissa; Berberi, Antoine; Manal, Cordahi; Younes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The periimplant bone level has been used as one of the criteria to assess the success of dental implants. It has been documented that the bone supporting two-piece implants undergoes resorption first following the second-stage surgery and later on further to abutment connection and delivery of the final prosthesis. The aim of this multicentric randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the crestal bone resorption around internal connection dental implants using a new surgical protocol that aims to respect the biological distance, relying on the benefit of a friction fit connection abutment (test group) compared with implants receiving conventional healing abutments at second-stage surgery (control group). A total of partially edentulous patients were consecutively treated at two private clinics, with two adjacent two-stage implants. Three months after the first surgery, one of the implants was randomly allocated to the control group and was uncovered using a healing abutment, while the other implant received a standard final abutment and was seated and tightened to 30 Ncm. At each step of the prosthetic try-in, the abutment in the test group was removed and then retightened to 30 Ncm. Horizontal bone changes were assessed using periapical radiographs immediately after implant placement and at 3 (second-stage surgery), 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up examinations. At 12 months follow-up, no implant failure was reported in both groups. In the control group, the mean periimplant bone resorption was 0.249 ± 0.362 at M3, 0.773 ± 0.413 at M6, 0.904 ± 0.36 at M9 and 1.047 ± 0.395 at M12. The test group revealed a statistically significant lower marginal bone loss of 20.88% at M3 (0.197 ± 0.262), 22.25% at M6 (0.601 ± 0.386), 24.23% at M9 (0.685 ± 0.341) and 19.2% at M9 (0.846 ± 0.454). The results revealed that bone loss increased over time, with the greatest change in bone loss occurring between 3 and 6 months. Alveolar bone loss was significantly greater in the

  10. Effect of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs) to Accelerate Burn Healing of Rat on the Expression of Collagen Type I and Integrin α2β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Gusti; Darwin, Eryati; Yanwirasti; Rantam, Fedik A

    Burn is a public health problem, it causes physical disability even death. Treatment of burn wound has been conducted in various ways, but the satisfactory healing has not been provided. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) treatment is one of attempt to burn recovery, accelerate wound healing and angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of allogeneic BM-MSC treatment on the expression of collagen type I and integrin α2β1 in burn skin tissue of rat observed on day 14. Twelve Wistar rats divided into two groups, control group (injected with phospate buffer solution) and treatment group (injected with BM-MSC). Rat was anaesthetized with xylazine and ketamine (ratio 1:1), fur of rat's back was shaved and full thickness burn was made by boiling plate in hot water for 30 min and patched on the back for 20 min. The burns were covered by tegaderm film and elastomult haft. Antalgin as an analgetic was injected to rats during observation process. Burns of rat was observed on day 14. In this study one-way analysis of variance test and Tukey as a further test were analyzed. The results showed that the healing time of allogeneic BM-MSC treatment on burn skin tissue rats was faster, the thickness of collagen type I in burn skin tissue of rats was thicker (0.977 μm) than controls (0.475 μm) and statistically demonstrated significant differences (p = 0.000). The average percentage of integrin α2β1 expression was higher (2.94%) than control group (2.34%), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.176). The study concluded that BM-MSC treatment was able to accelerate the healing process of burns by increasing the thickness of the collagen and the percentage of integrin α2β1, thus accelerated the cell migration involved during wound healing.

  11. Comprehensive review of the clinical application of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of chronic wounds and diabetic bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Gerit D; Lee, Daniel K; Jeppesen, Nathan S

    2012-12-01

    Chronic ulcerations are a physical and financial burden to the health and economic establishment in the United States and Worldwide. Improvements in biotechnology and knowledge in stem cell applications have progressed and basic science results are making their way slowly into the clinical arena. Chronic wounds and diabetic bone healing are the key components in the limb salvage of the common diabetic foot. We have examined the current available literature and present the latest on stem cells applications as a novel clinical technique in the treatment of chronic wound and diabetic bone healing and their impact in the treatment paradigm of patients. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  12. Enhancing the healing processes of chemical burns with He-Ne radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakai, S.F.K.; Albarwari, S.E.; Alsenawi, T.A.

    1988-02-01

    The process by which He-Ne laser radiation (λ = 632.8 nm) enhances the healing of cutaneous wounds, made by concentrated nitric acid on mice has been studied. The dose used was of the order of 2.7 Joule per day, till the day of complete wound closure. The wounds were irradiated at three points on its periphery so that to form a semitriangular pattern this method was adopted, because chemical burns involve the killing of both the epidermis and dermis. The influence of the laser on the healing was estimated quantitatively and statistically, with a significance of p<0.001 over the control (the unirradiated). (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the healing process of the gastric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnich, Eliza; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Sicińska, Paulina; Hinc, Krzysztof; Obuchowski, Michał; Gajewski, Adrian; Moran, Anthony P; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the impact of selected well defined Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antigens on gastric barrier cell turnover. METHODS In this study, using two cellular models of gastric epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we have focused on exploring the effects of well defined H. pylori soluble components such as glycine acid extract antigenic complex (GE), subunit A of urease (UreA), cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cell turnover by comparing the wound healing capacity of the cells in terms of their proliferative and metabolic activity as well as cell cycle distribution. Toxic effects of H. pylori components have been assessed in an association with damage to cell nuclei and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. RESULTS We showed that H. pylori GE, CagA and UreA promoted regeneration of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which is necessary for effective tissue healing. However, in vivo increased proliferative activity of these cells may constitute an increased risk of gastric neoplasia. In contrast, H. pylori LPS showed a dose-dependent influence on the process of wound healing. At a low concentration (1 ng/mL) H. pylori LPS accelerated of healing epithelial cells, which was linked to significantly enhanced cell proliferation and MTT reduction as well as lack of alterations in cell cycle and downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) production as well as cell nuclei destruction. By comparison, H. pylori LPS at a high concentration (25 ng/mL) inhibited the process of wound repair, which was related to diminished proliferative activity of the cells, cell cycle arrest, destruction of cell nuclei and downregulation of the EGF/STAT3 signalling pathway. CONCLUSION In vivo H. pylori LPS driven effects might lead to the maintenance of chronic inflammatory response and pathological disorders on the level of the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:27672275

  14. The effect of layer-by-layer chitosan-hyaluronic acid coating on graft-to-bone healing of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) artificial ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Ge, Yunsheng; Zhang, Pengyun; Wu, Lingxiang; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-01-01

    Surface coating with an organic layer-by-layer self-assembled template of chitosan and hyaluronic acid on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) artificial ligament was designed for the promotion and enhancement of graft-to-bone healing after artificial ligament implantation in a bone tunnel. The results of in vitro culturing of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells supported the hypothesis that the layer-by-layer coating of chitosan and hyaluronic acid could promote the cell compatibility of grafts and could promote osteoblast proliferation. A rabbit extra-articular tendon-to-bone healing model was used to evaluate the effect of this kind of surface-modified stainless artificial ligament in vivo. The final results proved that this organic compound coating could significantly promote and enhance new bone formation at the graft-bone interface histologically and, correspondingly, the experimental group with coating had significantly higher biomechanical properties compared with controls at 8 weeks (P < 0.05).

  15. A 5- Year Comparison of Marginal Bone Level Following Immediate Loading of Single-Tooth Implants Placed in Healed Alveolar Ridges and Extraction Sockets in the Maxilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nicolas Berberi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in need of a single tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden. Implants were placed in healed ridges (group I or immediately into extraction sockets (group II. Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36 and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implantResults: Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study and all remaining implants osseointegrated successfully after 5 years of functional loading. The mean change in marginal bone loss after implant placement was 0.267±0.161 for one year, and 0.265±0.171 for three years and 0.213±0.185 for five years in extraction sockets and was 0.266±0.176 for one year and 0.219±0.175 for three years and 0.194±0.172 for five years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone loss was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P

  16. Effects of rhBMP-2 in wound healing of bone where late effects of irradiation had developed. An experimental study with rat tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shionoya, Yuji; Matsui, Yoshiro; Tamura, Sayaka; Liu, Weixian; Ohno, Kohsuke; Michi, Ken-ichi; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rhBMP-2 on wound healing of the bone where long-term effects of irradiation had developed. Forty male Wistar rats were used. A single dose of 15 or 30 Gy irradiation from a Linac source was delivered to the right lower leg of all rats. The left leg was remained as non-irradiated site. A block of Poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and gelatin sponge with 100 ng, 1, or 2, {mu}g rhBMP-2 was installed to the bilateral tibial proximal metaphysis three months after irradiation. The rats implanted the carrier without rhBMP-2 were served as control. Two weeks after placement, the bone healing was examined histologically. The newly formed bone mineral content (BMC) was also quantified with pQCT. The results obtained were as follows. Administration of rhBMP-2 promoted bone formation in both the 15 and 30 Gy irradiated groups. However, BMC did not increase dose-dependently in either irradiated group, but did in the non-irradiated control. Bone formation in the central and outer parts of the carrier was less in the 30-Gy group than the control and the 15 Gy group. These results indicate that rhBMP-2 improves bone formation to some degree in bone where long-term effects of irradiation had developed, but the level was not so high as on the non-irradiated bone. (author)

  17. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound increases bone volume, osteoid thickness and mineral apposition rate in the area of fracture healing in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, S.; Nolte, P.A.; Korstjens, C.M.; van Duin, M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates impaired fracture healing, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how LIPUS affects bone healing at the tissue level in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula, by using histology

  18. Effect of Diabetes Condition on Topical Treatment of Binahong Leaf Fraction in Wound Healing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintoko Kintoko

    2017-08-01

    binahong leaf fractions. FADB 10% has significant differences potention in wound healing process in diabetic rats macroscopically that accelerates wound contraction compared with negative and positive control groups (p<0,05.

  19. Retrospective study of the healing processes of endodontically treated teeth characterized by osteolytic defects of the periapical area: four-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of primary endodontic treatment is the prevention of periapical tissue changes which, in the majority of clinical cases in general practice, does not take place because of the availability of a wide range of precise endodontic instruments. The healing process of the periapical area in teeth with inflammatory bone destruction is still a challenge in contemporary endodontic practice. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the postoperative healing process of teeth with osteolytic defects in the periapical area. Eighty-nine endodontically treated teeth (n = 89 were included in the study. The teeth with necrotic pulp and without detectable periapical lesions were successfully treated in 92.9% of the cases. All of the incisors, canines and premolars showed significantly higher probabilities of success (97.8% than molars (90.9%; P = 0.036. In all monitored teeth, the maxillary first molars with periapical index (PAI 1 (80.2%, mandibular premolars with PAI3 (75% and mandibular molars with PAI5 (75% had the lowest rates of treatment success. In this study, the success rate of teeth with pulp necrosis complicated with a periapical lesion was 89.75% (P > 0.05. The analysis of the results from this study confirmed that the exact orthograde retreatment of the cases with osteolytic defects of the periapical area led to satisfactory healing and regeneration in the periapical area.

  20. Effectiveness of Enteral Nutritional Therapy in the Healing Process of Pressure Ulcers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Blanc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutritional therapy (ENT in the healing process of pressure ulcers (PU in adults and the elderly. METHOD A systematic review whose studies were identified through the databases of Cochrane, MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and manual searches. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs without delimiting the period or language of publication, which addressed adults and elderly patients with pressure ulcers in a comparative treatment of enteral nutritional therapy and placebo or between enteral nutritional therapy with different compositions and dosages. RESULTS We included ten studies that considered different interventions. It resulted in more pressure ulcers healed in the groups that received the intervention. The included studies were heterogeneous with regard to patients, the type of intervention, the sample and the follow-up period, all of which made meta-analysis impossible. CONCLUSION Although the enteral nutritional therapy demonstrates a promotion of pressure ulcer healing, sufficient evidence to confirm the hypothesis was not found.

  1. Activation of mitosis and angiogenesis in diabetes-impaired wound healing by processed human amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Ameneh; Owji, Mohammad; Yazdani, Maryam; Varedi, Masoumeh

    2014-05-15

    Functional characterization of human amniotic fluid (AF) proteome, 845 proteins, has revealed that top three functions are cell proliferation, movement and differentiation, events fundamental to development, and tissue repair. Although these findings fortify the idea that AF components play roles in regeneration-like fetal wound healing, it is not known whether the components endure processing. Therefore, we processed AF and tested its effects on diabetes-impaired wound healing in an animal model. Through a germfree procedure, mature and premature AF samples were collected, respectively, from the mothers of full-term and preterm infants. Excisional wounds were generated on the dorsum of diabetic rats. Wounds were treated on day 3 and harvested on day 7 postwounding. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alpha-smooth muscles actin, markers for mitosis and angiogenesis, respectively, were assessed by in situ immunodetection method. Significant increases in the rate of wound closure and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing cells were observed in AF-treated wounds when compared with that of sham and control wounds. Likewise, the number of large vessels was significantly increased in the wounds treated with the AF. However, population of myofibroblasts was not affected by the treatment. The mature and premature AF were almost equally effective. Our data, for the first time, show that processed AF accelerates diabetes-impaired wound healing by activating mitosis and angiogenesis, indicating that bioactive molecules in AF may endure processing. We believe that processed forms of this naturally designed "Cocktail" of bioactive molecules may have multiple clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of discarded keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels on the wound healing process in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mira [Department of Organic Materials & Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Kyoung [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402–751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Suhk [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Jin; Kim, In-Shik [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Yong, E-mail: parkb@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Yong, E-mail: khy@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation (EBI) were examined in wound healing. As the EBI dose increased to 60 kGy, the tensile strength of the hydrogels increased, while the percentage of elongation of the hydrogels decreased. After 7 days, the dehydrated wool-based hydrogels show the highest mechanical properties (the % elongation of 1341 and the tensile strength of 6030 g/cm{sup 2} at an EBI dose of 30 kGy). Excision wound models were used to evaluate the effects of human hair-based hydrogels and wool-based hydrogels on various phases of healing. On post-wounding days 7 and 14, wounds treated with either human hair-based or wool-based hydrogels were greatly reduced in size compared to wounds that received other treatments, although the hydrocolloid wound dressing-treated wound also showed a pronounced reduction in size compared to an open wound as measured by a histological assay. On the 14th postoperative day, the cellular appearances were similar in the hydrocolloid wound dressing and wool-based hydrogel-treated wounds, and collagen fibers were substituted with fibroblasts and mixed with fibroblasts in the dermis. Furthermore, the wound treated with a human hair-based hydrogel showed almost complete epithelial regeneration, with the maturation of immature connective tissue and hair follicles and formation of a sebaceous gland. - Highlights: • Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels were examined for wound healing process. • Human hair-based hydrogel is superior to wool-based hydrogel in wound healing. • Discarded keratin-based hydrogels are expected more eco-friendly therapeutic agents.

  3. Comparing the Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on Mast Cells Maturing Process in a Diabetic and Normoglycemic Rat Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing is a complicated process that is influenced by many factors. Studies at molecular level on human and animal models have revealed several molecular changes related to the effect of diabetes on wound healing process. Increasing number of researches implicates the influence of mast cells on skin wounds healing. The present experimental study was conducted to compare systemic pentoxifylline administration on maturing process of mast cells during skin wound healing in diabetic and normoglycemic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 48 wistar rats were divided into 2 groups of normoglycemic and diabetic and each group was divided into experimental and control. Experimental group received intraperitoneal (25 mg/kg twice a day and control group received distilled water. The number of mast cells and their maturing process was evaluated by microscopically counting of the types of mast cells (types 1, 2, 3 by stereological methods on day 3 and 7 after surgery. Results: In all experimental groups receiving pentoxifylline there were significant difference in the number of total mast cells, comparing normoglycemic groups (p<0.05 and also we found that in wound healing process pentoxifylline caused increasing the number of type 2 mast cells in all experimental groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In all pentoxifylline treated groups delay in converting type 2 into type 3 mast cell was seen. Pentoxifylline causes decreasing mast cell degranulation during wound healing process.

  4. Histomorphometric results of different grafting materials and effect of healing time on bone maturation after sinus floor augmentation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh-Sani, S A; Engebretson, S P; Janal, M N

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate histomorphometric variables, the amount of new bone (NB), residual graft (RG) particles and soft tissue (ST), related to various grafting materials and assess the effect of graft healing time on different histomorphometric outcomes. Studies that were published before October 2015 were electronically and manually searched in three databases. We included human studies that reported the amount of NB, RG and ST in the biopsies taken from the grafted sinuses. Based on the applied grafting materials, extracted data were categorized into different groups. Furthermore, extracted data were classified into three groups based on healing time: (i) ≤ 4.5 mo; (ii) 4.5-9 mo; and (iii) ≥ 9-13.5 mo. The search provided 791 titles. Full text analysis was performed for 258 articles resulting in 136 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Autogenous bone (AB) resulted in the highest amount of NB and lowest amount of RG compared to other grafting materials. Based on this meta-analysis, a significant difference was noticed in the amount of NB formation in grafts with a healing time of > 4.5 mo when compared to the grafts with less healing time. However, when comparing biopsies taken at 4.5-9 mo of healing (average = 6.22 mo) to the ones taken at ≥ 9-13.5 mo (average = 10.36 mo), no significant difference was noticed in the amount of NB formation of various grafts except allografts that resulted in a significantly higher percentage of NB at 9.5 mo of healing. Based on histomorphometric analysis, AB results in the highest amount of NB formation in comparison to the other grafting materials. Bone substitute materials (allografts, alloplastic materials and xenografts) seem to be good alternatives to autogenous bone and can be considered as grafting materials to avoid disadvantages related to AB, including morbidity rate, limited availability and high volumetric change. Combining AB with alloplastic materials and xenografts brings no

  5. Overtime evaluation of the vascular HEALing process after everolimus-eluting stent implantation by optical coherence tomography. The HEAL-EES study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuki, Shuji; Brugaletta, Salvatore, E-mail: sabrugal@clinic.ub.es; Sabaté, Manel; Shiratori, Yoshitaka; Gomez-Monterrosas, Omar; Scalone, Giancarla; Romero-Villafañe, Sebastian; Hernández-Enríquez, Marco; Freixa, Xavier; Martín-Yuste, Victoria; Masotti, Mónica

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) have shown a better safety and efficacy as compared to first generation DES due to an improved vascular healing process. This process has not been so far evaluated in vivo in an overtime fashion by optical coherent tomography (OCT). We sought to evaluate the vascular healing process after everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation at 6, 9 and 12 months, by OCT. Methods: Consecutive 36 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with EES were randomized 1:1:1 to receive OCT imaging at 6 (group A), 9 (group B) or 12-month follow-up (group C). One patient from group C was excluded because of target lesion revascularization at 1-month, whereas 5 patients withdraw the informed consent. Finally, 30 patients were analyzed. Results: Neointimal thickness was not different between 3 groups (group A: 99.50 [94.06–127.79] μm, group B: 107.26 [83.48–133.59] μm, group C: 127.67 [102.51–138.49] μm; p = 0.736). Although the percentage of “uncovered struts” was significantly higher in group A as compared to the other groups (8.0% vs. 4.4% vs. 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.180), the ratio of uncovered to total struts per section < 30% was similar between 3 groups (0.3% vs. 0.3% vs. 0%, respectively; p = 1.000). Conclusion: Healing process following EES implantation seems almost completed at 6-month follow-up. These data, which need to be confirmed in a larger study, may support the decision to shorten dual antiplatelet therapy. - Highlights: • Healing process following everolimus-eluting stent implantation is complete at 6-month • There are no difference in RUTTS > 30% between 6, 9 and 12 months analyses. • This finding may support to shorten dual antiplatelet therapy in this context.

  6. Assessment of regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets augmented using xenograft (CollaPlugTN Zimmer in comparison with the normal healing on the contralateral side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar bone resorption is a significant clinical problem. Bone loss in third molar region following extraction or surgical removal not only leads to periodontal problems in second molar region but also it may lead to some serious problems like increased incidence of angle fractures. In order to reduce the risks following third molar surgery, the socket should be augmented with bone grafts. In recent days guided tissue regeneration is the most accepted and successful technique followed many authors and its efficacy has been proved. Materials and Methods: Based upon our clinical experience, the use of bio absorbable collagen wound dressing such as CollaPlugTN has achieved quick healing and more primary wound coverage. Amongst the graft materials collagen is preferable due to its high biocompatibility and hemostatic ability. This study was done to assess the regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets using xenograft (CollaPlugTN-Zimmer which was compared with the normal healing on the contra lateral side. The assessment was done to analyze post-operative healing complications and to compare the bone density formed between control site and implant site radiologically. Conclusion: On this basis of this study, the use of collaplugTN appears to be beneficial to the patient in postoperative wound healing and also for better bone formation. The use of this material was advantageous because of its simplicity of application cost effectiveness and availability. There is enhanced wound healing and early bone formation.

  7. Proteomic evaluation of wound-healing processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Inês; Pinheiro, Carla; Paiva, Jorge A P; Planchon, Sébastien; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Graça, José A; Costa, Gonçalo; Coelho, Ana V; Ricardo, Cândido P Pinto

    2009-09-01

    Proteins from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber slices, related to the wound-healing process, were separated by 2-DE and identified by an MS analysis in MS and MS/MS mode. Slicing triggered differentiation processes that lead to changes in metabolism, activation of defence and cell-wall reinforcement. Proteins related to storage, cell growth and division, cell structure, signal transduction, energy production, disease/defence mechanisms and secondary metabolism were detected. Image analysis of the 2-DE gels revealed a time-dependent change in the complexity of the polypeptide patterns. By microscopic observation the polyalyphatic domain of suberin was clearly visible by D4, indicating that a closing layer (primary suberisation) was formed by then. A PCA of the six sampling dates revealed two time phases, D0-D2 and D4-D8, with a border position between D2 and D4. Moreover, a PCA of differentially expressed proteins indicated the existence of a succession of proteomic events leading to wound-periderm reconstruction. Some late-expressed proteins (D6-D8), including a suberisation-associated anionic peroxidase, have also been identified in the native periderm. Despite this, protein patterns of D8 slices and native periderm were still different, suggesting that the processes of wound-periderm formation are extended in time and not fully equivalent. The information presented in this study gives clues for further work on wound healing-periderm formation processes.

  8. Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Conditioned Medium on Tibial Partial Osteotomy Model of Fracture Healing in Hypothyroidism Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefati, Niloofar; Norouzian, Mohsen; Abbaszadeh, Hojjat-Allah; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Amini, Abdollah; Bagheri, Mohammad; Aryan, Arefeh; Fadaei Fathabady, Fatemeh

    2018-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with dysfunction of the bone turnover with reduced osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) secrete various factors and cytokines that may stimulate bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of MSCs-conditioned medium (CM) in hypothyroidism male rats after inducing bone defect. : In this study, 24 male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (I) hypothyroidism+bone defect (HYPO), (II) hypothyroidism+bone defect+CM (HYPO+CM), and (III) no hypothyroidism+bone defect (control). Four weeks after surgery, the right tibia was removed, and immediately, biomechanical and histological examinations were performed. The results showed a significant reduction in bending stiffness (32.64±3.99), maximum force (14.63±1.89), high stress load (7.59±2.31), and energy absorption (12.68±2.12) at the osteotomy site in hypothyroidism rats in comparison to the control and hypothyroidism+condition medium groups (P<0.05). There was also a significant decrease in the trabecular bone volume (3.86±3.88) and the number of osteocytes (5800±859.8) at the osteotomy site in hypothyroidism rats compared to the control and hypothyroidism+condition medium groups (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively). The present study suggests that the use of the CM can improve the fracture regeneration and accelerates bone healing at the osteotomy site in hypothyroidism rats.

  9. Analyzing the behavior of a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66 composite for healing of bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yan Xiong,1 Cheng Ren,1 Bin Zhang,1 Hongsheng Yang,1 Yun Lang,1 Li Min,1 Wenli Zhang,1 Fuxing Pei,1 Yonggang Yan,2 Hong Li,2 Anchun Mo,3 Chongqi Tu,1 Hong Duan11Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, 2School of Physical Science and Technology, 3Department of Oral Implant, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66 composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%. Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society's (MSTS 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28–30 points and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In

  10. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  11. A Derangement of the Brain Wound Healing Process May Cause Some Cases of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer’s disease. Our hypothesi...

  12. Repeatability and accuracy of a paralleling technique for radiographic evaluation of distal bone healing after impacted third molar surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inocêncio Faria, A; Gallas Torreira, M; López Ratón, M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the repeatability and radiographic accuracy of an intraoral paralleling technique to evaluate periodontal bone healing on the distal surface of the second mandibular molar (2 Mm) after impacted third mandibular molar (3 Mm) surgical extraction. Methods In order to estimate the variation in different radiographs, three replicas were made, each from 2 Mm, totalling 69 radiographic radicular longitude (RRL) recordings. One operator performed the periapical radiographs in a standard manner, utilizing a modified posterior film holder for the radiographic technique of parallelism, applied on the posterior region with the X-ray beam focused on the centre of 2 Mm. These radiographic recordings of the same region were obtained on three different and separate occasions, over a 12 month evaluation period after surgical extraction of the impacted 3 Mm. The RRL variable was measured and recorded three times by the same operator, with side-by-side comparison of three posterior periapical radiographs, irrespective of when the assessments were performed. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the three replica recordings (p = 0.969). The correlations between the three sets of measurements were evaluated and found to be highly associated (intraclass correlation reliability coefficient = 0.90) and statistically significant (p≤0.05). The median and mean error of the radiographic technique evaluated was ±0.257 mm and ±0.347 mm, respectively. Conclusions The radiographic technique described permits standardization in periapical radiographs with a high repeatability and accuracy in posterior radiographic records (distal surface of 2 Mm) over a postoperative evaluation period of 12 months. PMID:22752321

  13. Histologic healing following tooth extraction with ridge preservation using mineralized versus combined mineralized-demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Tyler D; Mealey, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Mineralized and demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (FDBAs) are used in alveolar ridge (AR) preservation; however, each material has advantages and disadvantages. Combinations of allografts aimed at capitalizing on the advantages each offers are available. To date, there is no evidence to indicate if a combination allograft is superior in this application. The primary objective of this study is to histologically evaluate and compare healing of non-molar extraction sites grafted with either mineralized FDBA or a 70:30 mineralized:demineralized FDBA combination allograft in AR preservation. The secondary objective is to compare dimensional changes in ridge height and width after grafting with these two materials. Forty-two patients randomized into two equal groups received ridge preservation with either 100% mineralized FDBA (active control group) or the combination 70% mineralized: 30% demineralized allograft (test group). Sites were allowed to heal for 18 to 20 weeks, at which time core biopsies were obtained and dental implants were placed. AR dimensions were evaluated at the time of extraction and at implant placement, including change in ridge width and change in buccal and lingual ridge height. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to determine percentage of vital bone, residual graft, and connective tissue/other non-bone components. There was no significant difference between groups in AR dimensional changes. Combination allograft produced increased vital bone percentage (36.16%) compared to the FDBA group (24.69%; P = 0.0116). The combination allograft also had a significantly lower mean percentage of residual graft particles (18.24%) compared to FDBA (27.04%; P = 0.0350). This study provides the first histologic evidence showing greater new bone formation with a combination mineralized/demineralized allograft compared to 100% mineralized FDBA in AR preservation in humans. Combination allograft results in increased vital bone formation while

  14. Plasma treatment effect on angiogenesis in wound healing process evaluated in vivo using angiographic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. W.; Park, T. J.; Jang, S. J.; You, S. J.; Oh, W. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma holds promise for promoting wound healing. However, plasma-induced angiogenesis, which is important to better understand the underlying physics of plasma treatment effect on wound healing, remains largely unknown. We therefore evaluated the effect of non-thermal plasma on angiogenesis during wound healing through longitudinal monitoring over 30 days using non-invasive angiographic optical coherence tomography imaging in vivo. We demonstrate that the plasma-treated vascular wound area of mouse ear was noticeably decreased as compared to that of control during the early days in the wound healing process. We also observed that the vascular area density was increased in the plasma affected region near the wound as compared to the plasma unaffected region. The difference in the vascular wound area and the vascular area density peaked around day 3. This indicates that the plasma treatment induced additional angiogenic effects in the wound healing process especially during the early days. This non-invasive optical angiographic approach for in vivo time-lapse imaging provides further insights into elucidating plasma-induced angiogenesis in the wound healing process and its application in the biomedical plasma evaluation.

  15. Tooth in the line of angle fractures: the impact in the healing process. A retrospective study of 112 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanakis, Stylianos; Tasoulas, Jason; Angelidis, Ioannis; Dendrinos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the prophylactic removal of mandibular third molars (TM) in fracture lines to facilitate healing. Recent evidence suggests that poor healing is attributed to the limited use of antimicrobials, delayed care and semi-rigid fixation as a treatment method, favoring retention of TM. A retrospective cohort study of all patients presenting with mandibular angle fractures at the Hippokration General Hospital of Athens (2006-2011) was designed to examine the association between the presence versus absence of TMs in the line of mandibular fractures and the fracture healing process. Development of complications during the healing process was the outcome of interest. Additional factors considered were patient age, sex, and fracture etiology. Data were extracted from a retrospective chart review, including information from clinical and radiological examinations. The analytical sample included 112 patients with 121 angle fractures. Bivariate methods including Fisher's exact and chi-square tests were used to test the association between TM presence in the fracture line and healing complications. This study found no association between the presence of mandibular TM in the fracture line and postoperative complications and the healing process when combined with light intermaxillary fixation for 15 days. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Should orthopedic surgeons consider the effects of gabapentin administration on bone healing while treating a long bone fracture: experimental study in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofu Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of the present study was to assess the radiographic, histological, and mechanical effects of gabapentin on fracture healing in a rat model of femur fracture. Materials and methods: A standard transverse fracture of the mid-diaphysis was created. A total of 60 female Wistar-Albino rats with the mean age of 13.5 ± 1.2 weeks were used for this experimental trial. The rats were randomized into four groups with 15 animals included in each group. Group A and B were the control groups whereas C and D were the treatment groups. Drugs were delivered by oral gavage twice a day with the daily dosage calculated according to body surface area conversion to the human equivalent dosing regimen of 1200 mg/day. Radiographic, histological, and biomechanical evaluation was performed. Results: We could not detect any statistically significant difference between the control and gabapentin treatment groups according to the comparative assessment of radiographic scores on the 15th and 30th days. Although no significant differences were found between the groups on the 15th day, histological scores were better in the control group on the 30th day. According to the results of biomechanical testing, the fractured femurs resected from the control group exhibited significantly more strength on the 30th day. Conclusions: According to the data we acquired during the present study, administration of gabapentin negatively affects the fracture healing process especially in the aspects of histological progression as well as the biomechanical strength of the callus in a rat model.

  17. Biomimetic Self-Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    interface. A chemical healing process in which the adhesion strength is higher than the inherent material strength would provide a solution; however...Encapsulation of Healing Substances 4.1.1. Self-Healing Based on Biological Capsules Of the different methods for self-healing, the use of capsules is the least...common approach in nature, which encapsulates chemicals for numerous reasons other than self- healing. Cells can be seen as capsules with numerous

  18. Processing and Damage Tolerance of Continuous Carbon Fiber Composites Containing Puncture Self-Healing Thermoplastic Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Gordon, Keith L.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) has identified several commercially available thermoplastic polymers that self-heal after ballistic impact and through-penetration. One of these resins, polybutadiene graft copolymer (PB(sub g)), was processed with unsized IM7 carbon fibers to fabricate reinforced composite material for further evaluation. Temperature dependent characteristics, such as the degradation point, glass transition (T(sub g)), and viscosity of the PBg polymer were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic parallel plate rheology. The PBg resin was processed into approximately equal to 22.0 cm wide unidirectional prepreg tape in the NASA LaRC Advanced Composites Processing Research Laboratory. Data from polymer thermal characterization guided the determination of a processing cycle used to fabricate quasi-isotropic 32-ply laminate panels in various dimensions up to 30.5cm x 30.5cm in a vacuum press. The consolidation quality of these panels was analyzed by optical microscopy and acid digestion. The process cycle was further optimized based on these results and quasi-isotropic, [45/0/-45/90]4S, 15.24cm x 15.24cm laminate panels were fabricated for mechanical property characterization. The compression strength after impact (CAI) of the IM7/pBG composites was measured both before and after an elevated temperature and pressure healing cycle. The results of the processing development effort of this composite material as well as the results of the mechanical property characterization are presented in this paper.

  19. Healing process in mice model of surgical wounds enhanced by Phyllocaulis boraceiensis mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Piza, Ana Rita de; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Phyllocaulis boraceiensis mucus has been studied as a potential source of new natural compounds that are capable of inducing proliferation and remodeling tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of healing in the wounded mouse skin, which was treated with an ointment that was composed of mucus, which was released by P boraceiensis. Mice were submitted to a 1-cm dorsal excision. The control group (T1) was treated with papain; the T2 group was treated with papain that was associated with 0.18 μg/μL of mucus; and the T3 group was treated with papain that was associated with 0.012 μg/μL of mucus. Accelerated proliferation was observed after 3 days in the T3 group, presenting a high deposition of fibroblasts at the wound margin, whereas accelerated proliferation in the T1 group began 5 days after surgery. The T2 group presented inflammation during all periods of observation, and even when healing had already begun, the new tissue showed capillary fragility. Remodeling began after 4 days in the T3 group, whereas remodeling began after 6 days in the other groups. T3 showed edema, hyperemia, and bleeding only until the fifth day, and granulation and scar tissues intensely appeared from the 11th day forward. T1 and T2 groups exhibited edema, hyperemia, and bleeding until the 11th day, and granulation and scar tissues appeared after the 13th day. The healing process and wound closure were efficient after the daily application of 0.012 μg/μL P boraceiensis mucus.

  20. The influence of different loads on the remodeling process of a bone and bioresorbable material mixture with voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Ivan; Andreaus, Ugo; Madeo, Angela

    2016-03-01

    A model of a mixture of bone tissue and bioresorbable material with voids was used to numerically analyze the physiological balance between the processes of bone growth and resorption and artificial material resorption in a plate-like sample. The adopted model was derived from a theory for the behavior of porous solids in which the matrix material is linearly elastic and the interstices are void of material. The specimen—constituted by a region of bone living tissue and one of bioresorbable material—was acted by different in-plane loading conditions, namely pure bending and shear. Ranges of load magnitudes were identified within which physiological states become possible. Furthermore, the consequences of applying different loading conditions are examined at the end of the remodeling process. In particular, maximum value of bone and material mass densities, and extensions of the zones where bone is reconstructed were identified and compared in the two different load conditions. From the practical view point, during surgery planning and later rehabilitation, some choice of the following parameters is given: porosity of the graft, material characteristics of the graft, and adjustment of initial mixture tissue/bioresorbable material and later, during healing and remodeling, optimal loading conditions.

  1. Dual modulation of bone formation and resorption with zoledronic acid-loaded biodegradable magnesium alloy implants improves osteoporotic fracture healing: An in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Lei; Yuan, Guangyin; Dai, Kerong; Pei, Jia; Hao, Yongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Osteoporotic fracture (OPF) remains a major clinical challenge for skeletal regeneration. Impaired osteogenesis and excessive remodeling result in prolonged and poor quality of fracture healing. To augment bone formation and inhibit excessive resorption simultaneously, we constructed a biodegradable magnesium-based implant integrated with the anti-catabolic drug zoledronic acid (ZA); this implant exhibits controllable, sustained release of magnesium degradation products and ZA in vitro. The extracts greatly stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of rat-bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), while osteoclastogenesis is inhibited by ZA. Implantation of intramedullary nails to fix femur fracture in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic rats for up to 12 weeks demonstrates magnesium implants alone can enhance OPF repair through promoting callus formation compared to conventional stainless steel, while the combinatory treatment with local ZA release from implant coating further increases bone regeneration rate and callus size, remarkably improves bone quality and mechanical strength and suppresses osteoclasts and bone remodeling, due to the synergistic effect of both agents. The slow and uniform degradation of the implant ensures a steady decrease in bending force, which meets clinical requirements. In summary, biodegradable magnesium-based implants can locally co-deliver magnesium degradation products and zoledronic acid in a controlled manner, and can be superior alternatives for the reconstruction of osteoporosis-related fracture. Management of osteoporotic fracture has posed a major challenge in orthopedics, as the imbalance between diminished osteogenesis and excessive bone remodeling often leads to delayed and compromised fracture repair. Among various efforts expended on augmenting osteoporotic fracture healing, herein we reported a new strategy by engineering and utilizing a biodegradable magnesium-based implant integrated with local drug delivery

  2. A Multicentric, Open-Label, Randomized, Comparative Clinical Trial of Two Different Doses of Expanded hBM-MSCs Plus Biomaterial versus Iliac Crest Autograft, for Bone Healing in Nonunions after Long Bone Fractures: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gómez-Barrena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ORTHOUNION is a multicentre, open, comparative, three-arm, randomized clinical trial (EudraCT number 2015-000431-32 to compare the efficacy, at one and two years, of autologous human bone marrow-derived expanded mesenchymal stromal cell (hBM-MSC treatments versus iliac crest autograft (ICA to enhance bone healing in patients with diaphyseal and/or metaphysodiaphyseal fracture (femur, tibia, and humerus status of atrophic or oligotrophic nonunion (more than 9 months after the acute fracture, including recalcitrant cases after failed treatments. The primary objective is to determine if the treatment with hBM-MSCs combined with biomaterial is superior to ICA in obtaining bone healing. If confirmed, a secondary objective is set to determine if the dose of 100 × 106 hBM-MSCs is noninferior to that of 200 × 106 hBM-MSCs. The participants (n=108 will be randomly assigned to either the experimental low dose (n=36, the experimental high dose (n=36, or the comparator arm (n=36 using a central randomization service. The trial will be conducted in 20 clinical centres in Spain, France, Germany, and Italy under the same clinical protocol. The confirmation of superiority for the proposed ATMP in nonunions may foster the future of bone regenerative medicine in this indication. On the contrary, absence of superiority may underline its limitations in clinical use.

  3. A Multicentric, Open-Label, Randomized, Comparative Clinical Trial of Two Different Doses of Expanded hBM-MSCs Plus Biomaterial versus Iliac Crest Autograft, for Bone Healing in Nonunions after Long Bone Fractures: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma G; Avendaño-Solá, Cristina; Payares-Herrera, Concepción; Velasco-Iglesias, Ana; Torres, Ferran; Rosset, Philippe; Gebhard, Florian; Baldini, Nicola; Rubio-Suarez, Juan C; García-Rey, Eduardo; Cordero-Ampuero, José; Vaquero-Martin, Javier; Chana, Francisco; Marco, Fernando; García-Coiradas, Javier; Caba-Dessoux, Pedro; de la Cuadra, Pablo; Hernigou, Philippe; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Gouin, François; Mainard, Didier; Laffosse, Jean Michel; Kalbitz, Miriam; Marzi, Ingo; Südkamp, Norbert; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Donati, Davide Maria; Zagra, Luigi; Pazzaglia, Ugo; Zarattini, Guido; Capanna, Rodolfo; Catani, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    ORTHOUNION is a multicentre, open, comparative, three-arm, randomized clinical trial (EudraCT number 2015-000431-32) to compare the efficacy, at one and two years, of autologous human bone marrow-derived expanded mesenchymal stromal cell (hBM-MSC) treatments versus iliac crest autograft (ICA) to enhance bone healing in patients with diaphyseal and/or metaphysodiaphyseal fracture (femur, tibia, and humerus) status of atrophic or oligotrophic nonunion (more than 9 months after the acute fracture, including recalcitrant cases after failed treatments). The primary objective is to determine if the treatment with hBM-MSCs combined with biomaterial is superior to ICA in obtaining bone healing. If confirmed, a secondary objective is set to determine if the dose of 100 × 10 6 hBM-MSCs is noninferior to that of 200 × 10 6 hBM-MSCs. The participants ( n = 108) will be randomly assigned to either the experimental low dose ( n = 36), the experimental high dose ( n = 36), or the comparator arm ( n = 36) using a central randomization service. The trial will be conducted in 20 clinical centres in Spain, France, Germany, and Italy under the same clinical protocol. The confirmation of superiority for the proposed ATMP in nonunions may foster the future of bone regenerative medicine in this indication. On the contrary, absence of superiority may underline its limitations in clinical use.

  4. Molecular pathology of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toshikazu; Ishida, Yuko

    2010-12-15

    Skin-wound healing is an orchestrated biological phenomena consisting of three sequential phases, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Many biological substances are involved in the process of wound repair, and this short and simplified overview of wound healing can be adopted to determine wound vitality or wound age in forensic medicine. With the development of genetically engineered animals, essential molecules for skin-wound healing have been identified. Especially, cytokines, and growth factors are useful candidates and markers for the determination of wound vitality or age. Moreover, bone marrow-derived progenitor cells would give significant information to wound age determination. In this review article, some interesting observations are presented, possibly contributing to the future practice of forensic pathologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of Bone Healing After Osteotomies Prepared With Er:YAG Laser in Contact and Noncontact Modes and Piezosurgery--An Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrić, Dragana; Blašković, Marko; Gjorgijevska, Elizabeta; Mladenov, Mitko; Tašič, Blaž; Jurič, Ivona Bago; Ban, Ticijana

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the healing of bone tissue treated with Er:YAG laser contact and noncontact modes of and piezosurgery in a rat model using triangular laser profilometry. Twenty-four 10-week-old adult male Wistar rats were used in the study. Three osteotomies on the medial part of tibia were performed in each animal, 1 in the right tibia and 2 in the left tibia. The osteotomies were performed with a piezoelectric device set at maximal power and the Er:YAG laser in contact mode (power, 7.5 W; pulse energy, 375 mJ; repetition rate, 20 Hz; MSP mode) and noncontact mode (power, 7.5 W; pulse energy, 750 mJ; repetition rate, 10 Hz; QSP mode) with a novel type of circular, digitally controlled handpiece (x-Runner). After surgery, 6 animals were immediately euthanized (group 1), and the others were euthanized after 1 week (group 2, n = 6), 2 weeks (group 3, n = 6), and 3 weeks (group 4, n = 6). Bone healing after osteotomy was analyzed using a 3-dimensional laser scanning technique (ie, laser triangulation profilometry). The volume reduction rates are similar for all 3 techniques (0.2 to 0.25 mm(3) per week). Greater volume reduction of 0.25 mm3 per week was observed for the Er:YAG laser in noncontact mode (x-Runner). After 3 weeks, almost complete healing of the prepared osteotomy was observed. Within the limitations of this study, the osteotomies performed by the Er:YAG laser in digitally controlled noncontact mode healed the fastest. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A meta-analysis of histomorphometric results and graft healing time of various biomaterials compared to autologous bone used as sinus floor augmentation material in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijn, Reinoud J; Meijer, Gert J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Jansen, John A

    2010-10-01

    To date, no studies have been published in which histomorphometric data from a large group of patients comparing various biomaterials for sinus floor augmentation procedures were evaluated. A meta-analysis of the English literature from January 1993 till April 2009 was carried out. Out of 147 titles, according to our criteria, 64 articles were selected for analysis describing the use of autologous bone and their alternatives, such as allogenic, xenogenic, and alloplastic materials. On the basis of autologous bone grafting, a reference value for total bone volume (TBV) of 63% was found. Particulation of the bone graft resulted in a general reduction of −18% in TBV. Delayed implant placement reduced the TBV with −7%. Overall TBV was 8% or 6% higher if a biopsy was, respectively, taken before 4.5 months or after 9.0 months after initial sinus augmentation surgery. Allogenic, xenogenic, alloplastic, or combinations of graft materials all resulted in a significant lower amount of TBV compared to autologous bone grafting ranging from −7% to −26%. Inventorying the effect of "biopsy time" for autologous bone, the TBV was significantly higher before 4.5 and after 9.0 months of healing time compared to period in between. Surprisingly, no significant differences in TBV with respect to "biopsy time" for bone substitutes were found. On the basis of the aspect of TBV autologous bone still has to be considered to be the gold standard in sinus augmentation surgery. However, the consequence of the TBV for implant survival is still unraveled yet.

  7. Analyzing the behavior of a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite for healing of bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Ren, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hongsheng; Lang, Yun; Min, Li; Zhang, Wenli; Pei, Fuxing; Yan, Yonggang; Li, Hong; Mo, Anchun; Tu, Chongqi; Duan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T)16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%). Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society’s (MSTS) 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28–30 points) and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In conclusion, this study indicated that the porous n-HA/PA66 composite had biological safety, and good biocompatibility, osteoinduction, and osseointegration. Thus, the porous n-HA/PA66 composite is an ideal artificial bone substitute and worthy of promotion in the field. PMID:24531621

  8. Effects of combined hydroxyapatite and human platelet rich plasma on bone healing in rabbit model: radiological, macroscopical, hidtopathological and biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Meimandi Parizi, A; Shafiei-Sarvestani, Z; Bigham, A S

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic hydroxyapatite has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. On the other hand, human platelet rich plasma (hPRP) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factor. A combination of hPRP and hydroxyapatite is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of hydroxyapatite and hPRP on osteogenesis in vivo, using rabbit model bone healing. A critical size defect of 10 mm long was created in the radial diaphysis of 36 rabbit and either supplied with hydroxyapatite-human PRP or hydroxyapatite or was left empty (control group). Radiographs of each forelimb were taken postoperatively on 1st day and then at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks post injury to evaluate bone formation, union and remodeling of the defect. The operated radiuses of half of the animals in each group were removed on 56th postoperative day and were grossly and histopathologically evaluated. In addition, biomechanical test was conducted on the operated and normal forearms of the other half of the animals of each group. This study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-humanPRP, could promote bone regeneration in critical size defects with a high regenerative capacity. The results of the present study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-hPRP could be an attractive alternative for reconstruction of the major diaphyseal defects of the long bones in animal models.

  9. A Comparative Histological Study of Bone Healing in Rat Calvarial Defect Using the Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser and Rotary Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Jin, Seung-Chan; Lee, Sook-Young; Jang, Eun-Sook; Piao, Zheng-Gang; Lim, Sung-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers have been used in dentistry for cutting bone and removal of caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone healing in a skull defect prepared in rats using various instruments including Er:YAG laser. The 7 mm calvarial defects were created in 45 rats and 45 rats were divided into three groups (n = 15): a high-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), a low-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), and an Er:YAG laser. Specimens obtained after 3 days or 4 or 8 weeks were submitted for histological analysis. Three days after surgery, no bone formation had occurred in any of the groups. Four weeks after surgery, 90 ±8.16% new bone formation was observed in the high-speed group, and 8 weeks after surgery, 100 ±0% new bone formation was observed in the low- and high-speed groups. There were significant differences among the periods after surgery, but no significant differences were observed among final results with in different device groups.

  10. Effectiveness of Russian current in bone regeneration process in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida de Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Russian current is an electric current of average frequency that is able to restore the properties of skeletal muscle at a low treatment cost. It is essential to know the effects of Russian current in bone tissue, since electromagnetic energy could be an efficient and low cost method to treat bone disorders. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Russian current in the consolidation of tibia fracture in adult rats. Methods: 24 adult male Albinus Wistar rats wereused. The animals were divided randomly into two groups: control group (CG, composed of 12 animals, and Intervention Group (IG consisting of 12 animals, both groups were submitted to osteotomy (proximal medial surface of the tibia. The IG underwent an electrical stimulation protocol with Russian current, while the CG did not undergo any kind of intervention. Euthanasia was performed in three animals of each group on the following days: 5, 10, 20, and 30 days of treatment. Results: The results suggested higher primary ossification, intense osteogenic activity, and increased thickness of the periosteum, characterizing more advanced ossification and a greater presence of trabecular bone marrow in rats in the group subjected to the treatment. In this way, we can assign one more beneficial effect to interventions with Russian current, for the treatment of postfracture rehabilitation. Conclusion: In both groups the bone tissue repair process occurred, but in the electrically stimulated group the osteogenesis process was more advanced.

  11. Quantitative assessment of wound-healing process as a response to laser-induced micro-injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2009-02-01

    Currently, most investigations of wound healing rely on invasive biopsy followed by histology and immunohistochemistry staining. There is a great need to develop non-invasive techniques for in vivo diagnostic, clinical and scientific evaluation. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the dynamic wound healing process as a response to laser-induced microinjuries using non-invasive imaging techniques such as reflectance laser-scanning confocal microscopy and video microscopy. Eight healthy subjects ranging from Fitzpatrick skin type II-VI with age from 27 to 57 years were recruited. The volar forearm of each subject was treated with a laser device that generates an array of microbeams with an infrared wavelength. The microscopic changes of epidermal cells and collagen during the wound healing process were assessed non-invasively using confocal microscopy. We also developed a quantitative method to evaluate the dynamic wound healing process at the microscopic level in three areas of interest: (1) treated micro-wounding zone, (2) surrounding collateral damage zone and (3) normal area. The depth-dependent intensity profile derived from reflectance confocal microscope images clearly distinguishes the three areas of interest and quantitatively measures the cellular structure-associated changes. A progressive change in depth-dependent intensity profiles in subjects with different ages parallels the clinical observation of wound healing rate. The quantitative analysis developed in this study may find broad applications in assessing the skin response to treatment at a microscopic level.

  12. Differential expression of system L amino acid transporters during wound healing process in the skin of young and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Chun Sung; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Heung-Joong; Ko, Yeong Mu; Park, Kyung Jin; Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Endou, Hitoshi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Lim, Do-Seon; Kim, Do Kyung

    2008-03-01

    In order to elucidate the role of the system L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) in the wound healing process of aged and young subjects, we investigated the expression of LAT1, LAT2 and their subunit 4F2hc in the skin healing process after artificial wounds of dorsal skin in the young and old rats. The 1 cm full-thickness incisional wounds were made through the skin and panniculus carnosus muscle. The wounds were harvested at days 1, 3, 5 and 7 post-wounding, the experimental controls were harvested the skin of rat without wounds and the various analyses were performed. In young rats, gradually and noticeable wound healing was detected, however, in old rats, wound healing was found to be greatly delayed. In young rats, the expression of LAT1 was increased rapidly on the day 1 after wound induction, on the other hand, in old rats, the expression of LAT1 after wound induction was not different from the control group. In young rats, the expression of LAT2 after the induction of wound was not different from the control group, however in old rats, the expression of LAT2 on the day 1 of wound induction was rapidly elevated. These results suggest that the LAT1 and LAT2 increase in the wound healing process after cell injury in young and old rats, respectively.

  13. Ultrasonography of the healing process during a 3-month follow-up after a splenic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Rafailidis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a 14-year-old boy with a grade III splenic injury due to a bicycle accident, who was treated conservatively. The boy’s medical history included splenomegaly due to thalassemia. The splenic lesion was initially investigated with computed tomography (CT and then, was followed by ultrasonography for 3 months. CT revealed a large intraparenchymal hematoma which appeared hyperechoic on ultrasonography. During follow-up, the hematoma developed a more complex echogenicity and became gradually hypoechoic. The hematoma increased in size during the first week but then, started decreasing until it eventually resolved completely. The patient had an uneventful full recovery. In this report, we discuss the ultrasonographic changes of the hematoma throughout the healing process.

  14. In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuting; Ung, Benjamin S Y; Parrott, Edward P J; Wallace, Vincent P; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2017-09-01

    We use terahertz imaging to measure four human skin scars in vivo. Clear contrast between the refractive index of the scar and surrounding tissue was observed for all of the scars, despite some being difficult to see with the naked eye. Additionally, we monitored the healing process of a hypertrophic scar. We found that the contrast in the absorption coefficient became less prominent after a few months post-injury, but that the contrast in the refractive index was still significant even months post-injury. Our results demonstrate the capability of terahertz imaging to quantitatively measure subtle changes in skin properties and this may be useful for improving scar treatment and management. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nitric Oxide Chemical Donor Affects the Early Phases of In Vitro Wound Healing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Cristina; Cinque, Benedetta; Lombardi, Francesca; Miconi, Gianfranca; Palumbo, Paola; Evtoski, Zoran; Placidi, Giuseppe; Fanini, Donatella; Cimini, Anna Maria; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Giuliani, Maurizio; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2016-10-01

    An artificial wound in a confluent monolayer of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells or mouse embryo fibroblast Swiss NIH 3T3 cells was used to analyze the effects of the nitric oxide (NO) chemical donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). SNAP exposure promoted an enhanced rate of wound closure and accelerated motility of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared to control cells. The wounded monolayer cultures of HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, treated with or without SNAP, were monitored under a phase contrast microscope. Structural and ultrastructural modifications were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images were captured by a digital camera at different time points (0-28 h) and the wound area was analyzed through software included in Matlab®. As early as 15 min, SNAP induced significant cytoskeletal remodeling, as shown by immunostaining (phalloidin-labelling), which in turn was associated with increased filopodium number and length rise. NO donor treatment also induced overexpression of Ki-67 protein, a typical marker of cell proliferation, as shown by immunostaining. Both SNAP-induced migration and proliferation were antagonized by the NO-sensitive GC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[-4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which suggests activation of the NO/cGMP signalling cascade in the observed SNAP-induced effects in the early stages of the healing process. Moreover, we provide evidence that PPAR-β antagonist (GSK0660) may interfere with NO-mediated wound healing process. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2185-2195, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Taurine improves the wound healing process in cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice model, based on stereological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a self-limiting disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, which affects the skin with full-thickness wounds, which are prone to scar formation even after treatment. Taurine (Tu is one of the most abundant amino acids that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which play an important role in the process of wound healing. Herein, we have investigated the effects of Tu on cutaneous Leishmaniasis wounds and L. major promastigotes. Materials and Methods: Eighteen mice were induced with Leishmaniasis wounds (with L. Major on the base of their tails and divided into three groups, T1: Treated with Tu injection, T2: Treated with Tu gel, and C: No treatment. Treatments were carried out every 24 hours for 21 days. The volume densities of the collagen bundles and vessels, vessel′s length density and diameter, and fibroblast populations were estimated by stereological methods. Flow cytometry was used in order to investigate the direct Tu effect on parasites. The Mann-Whitney U test was used and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The numerical density of the fibroblasts, volume density of the collagen bundles, and length densities of the vessels in groups T1 and T2 were significantly higher than in group C (P < 0.05. The fibroblast numerical density of group T1 was higher than that of group T2 (P = 0.02. Incidentally, Tu had no direct effect on L. major parasites according to the flow cytometry analysis. Conclusion: Tu showed the ability to improve the wound healing process and tissue regeneration although it had no direct anti-leishmaniasis effect.

  17. Histologic Evaluation of Wound Healing After Ridge Preservation With Cortical, Cancellous, and Combined Cortico-Cancellous Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetter, Randy S; Calahan, Blaine G; Mealey, Brian L

    2017-09-01

    Cortical and cancellous mineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (FDBA) are available for use in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction. There are currently no data regarding use of a combination 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA compared with a 100% cortical or 100% cancellous FDBA in ridge preservation. The primary objective of this study is to dimensionally and histologically evaluate healing after ridge preservation in non-molar sites using 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA versus 100% cortical and 100% cancellous FDBA. Sixty-six patients requiring extraction of a non-molar tooth were enrolled and randomized into three groups to receive ridge preservation with the following: 1) 100% cortical FDBA; 2) 100% cancellous FDBA; or 3) 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA. After 18 to 20 weeks of healing, a biopsy was harvested, and an implant was placed. The alveolar ridge was measured pre- and postoperatively to evaluate change in ridge height and width. Percentages of vital bone, residual graft, and connective tissue (CT)/other were determined via histomorphometric analysis. Histomorphometric analysis revealed no significant differences among groups regarding percentage of vital bone or CT/other. The 100% cortical FDBA group had significantly greater residual graft material (P = 0.04). Dimensional analysis revealed no significant between-group differences in any parameter measured. To the best knowledge of the authors, this study offers the first histologic evidence demonstrating no significant difference in vital bone formation or dimensional changes among 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA, 100% cortical FDBA, and 100% cancellous FDBA when used in ridge preservation of non-molar tooth sites.

  18. Healing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    The project examines how architecture and design of space in the intensive unit promotes or hinders interaction between relatives and patients. The primary starting point is the relatives. Relatives’ support and interaction with their loved ones is important in order to promote the patients healing...... process. Therefore knowledge on how space can support interaction is fundamental for the architect, in order to make the best design solutions. Several scientific studies document that the hospital's architecture and design are important for human healing processes, including how the physical environment...... architectural and design solutions in order to improve quality of interaction between relative and patient in the hospital's intensive unit....

  19. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy at different frequencies and durations on rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huegel, Julianne; Choi, Daniel S.; Nuss, Courtney A.; Minnig, Mary C.C.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zhang, Nianli; Ryaby, James T.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rotator cuff tears affect millions of individuals each year, often requiring surgical intervention. However, repair failure remains common. We have previously shown that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy improved tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff model. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of both PEMF frequency and exposure time on rotator cuff healing. METHODS 210 Sprague Dawley rats underwent acute bilateral supraspinatus injury and repair followed by either Physio-Stim® PEMF or High Frequency PEMF for 1, 3, or 6 hours daily. Control animals did not receive PEMF therapy. Mechanical and histological properties were assessed at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. RESULTS Improvements in different mechanical properties at various endpoints were identified for all treatment modalities when compared to non-treated animals, regardless of PEMF frequency or duration. Of note, one hour of Physio-Stim showed significant improvements in tendon mechanical properties across all time points, including increases in both modulus and stiffness as early as 4 weeks. Collagen organization improved for several of the treatment groups compared to controls. Additionally, improvements in collagen I and fibronectin expression were identified with PEMF treatment. Importantly, no adverse effects were identified in any mechanical or histological property. CONCLUSIONS Overall, results suggest that PEMF has a positive effect on rat rotator cuff healing for each electromagnetic fundamental pulse frequency and treatment duration tested in this study. PMID:29174271

  20. Combination of HIF-1α gene transfection and HIF-1-activated bone marrow-derived angiogenic cell infusion improves burn wound healing in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Liu, L; Lay, F; Wang, Q; Dou, C; Zhang, X; Hosseini, S M; Simon, A; Rees, D J; Ahmed, A K; Sebastian, R; Sarkar, K; Milner, S; Marti, G P; Semenza, G L; Harmon, J W

    2013-11-01

    Impaired burn wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator that orchestrates the cellular response to hypoxia. Its actions in dermal wounds promote angiogenesis and improve healing. In a murine burn wound model, aged mice had impaired wound healing associated with reduced levels of HIF-1. When gene therapy with HIF-1 alone did not correct these deficits, we explored the potential benefit of HIF-1 gene therapy combined with the intravenous infusion of bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMDACs) cultured with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). DMOG is known to reduce oxidative degradation of HIF-1. The mice treated with a plasmid DNA construct expressing a stabilized mutant form of HIF-1α (CA5-HIF-1α)+BMDACs had more rapid wound closure. By day 17, there were more mice with completely closed wounds in the treated group (χ(2), P=0.05). The dermal blood flow measured by laser Doppler showed significantly increased wound perfusion on day 11. Homing of BMDACs to the burn wound was dramatically enhanced by CA5-HIF-1α gene therapy. HIF-1α mRNA expression in the burn wound was increased after transfection with CA5-HIF-1α plasmid. Our findings offer insight into the pathophysiology of burns in the elderly and point to potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  1. A randomized controlled clinical trial comparing small buccal dehiscence defects around dental implants treated with guided bone regeneration or left for spontaneous healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ronald E; Herzog, Milan; Wolleb, Karin; Ramel, Christian F; Thoma, Daniel S; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present randomized controlled clinical study was to test whether small bony dehiscence defects (≤5 mm) left to heal spontaneously result in the same clinical and radiological outcome as defects treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR). Twenty-two patients who received at least one implant with a small bony dehiscence defect were enrolled in the study. If the defect height was ≤5 mm, the site was randomly assigned to either the spontaneous healing (SH) group or the GBR group. In the SH group, the defect was left without any treatment. In the GBR group, the defects around the implants were grafted with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and covered with a native collagen membrane. Clinical and radiographic measurements were performed 6 months after implant placement with a reentry surgery and at the time of crown insertion and the subsequent follow-up appointments at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after loading. For statistical analyses, the mixed linear model was applied for the clinical and radiographic measurements observed around the implants. Simple comparisons of the location of the measurements in the two independent groups are performed with the Mann-Whitney U-test. In addition, the mixed model assumptions were checked. The implant and crown survival rate 18 months after loading was 100%, revealing no serious biologic or prosthetic complication. The mean changes of the buccal vertical bone height between implant placement and reentry surgery after 6 months revealed a small bone loss of -0.17 ± 1.79 mm (minimum -4 mm and maximum 2.5 mm) for the SH group and a bone gain of 1.79 ± 2.24 mm (minimum of -2.5 mm and maximum of 5 mm) for the GBR group, respectively (P = 0.017). Radiographic measurements demonstrated a slight bone loss of -0.39 ± 0.49 mm for the SH group and a stable bone level of 0.02 ± 0.48 mm for GBR group after 18 months. All peri-implant soft tissue parameters revealed healthy tissues with no

  2. Design, Materials, and Mechanobiology of Biodegradable Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Marco A.; Narváez-Tovar, Carlos A.; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    A review about design, manufacture, and mechanobiology of biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is given. First, fundamental aspects about bone tissue engineering and considerations related to scaffold design are established. Second, issues related to scaffold biomaterials and manufacturing processes are discussed. Finally, mechanobiology of bone tissue and computational models developed for simulating how bone healing occurs inside a scaffold are described. PMID:25883972

  3. Healing of experimentally created defects: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1995-01-01

    Within cranio-maxillofacial surgery and orthopedic surgery a bone graft or a bone substitute is required to recontour or assist bony healing in repair of osseous congenital deformities, or in repair of deformity due to trauma or to surgical excision after elimination of osseous disease processes...... proteins have with success been added as adjuncts to already known biomaterials. In the future, inductive materials together with a suitable carrier and a biodegradable membrane may be the choice of bone substitute used within cranio-maxillofacial and orthopaedic surgery....

  4. Healing agent in cement-based materials and structures, and process for its preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to healing agent in cement-based materials and structures, wherein said healing agent comprises organic compounds and/or bacteria-loaded porous particles, which porous particles comprise expanded clay- or sintered fly ash. Furthermore, said porous particles are intact

  5. Biochemical process of ureolysis-based microbial CaCO3 precipitation and its application in self-healing concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Xianzhi; Wang, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Urea hydrolysis has already been considered as the most effective pathway for microbially induced CaCO 3 precipitation (MICP). The present work first studied the combination of several key factors including initial pH, temperature, and dosage of urea, which contribute to the biochemical process of MICP. Under an amiable condition of pH and temperature, the dosage of urea has a significant impact on the rate of urea degradation and CaCO 3 precipitation. A bacteria-based self-healing system was developed by loading healing agents on ceramsite carriers. The self-healing efficiency was evaluated by visual inspection on crack closure, compressive strength regain, and capillary water absorption. A preferable healing effectiveness was obtained when the bacteria and organic nutrients were co-immobilized in carriers. Image analysis showed that cracks up to 273 μm could be healed with a crack closure ratio of 86% in 28 days. The compressive strength regain increased 24% and the water absorption coefficient decreased 27% compared to the reference. The findings indicated a promising application of ureolysis-based MICP in restoring the mechanical properties and enhancing the durability of concrete.

  6. Digital image processing of bone - Problems and potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, E. R.; Wronski, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a digital image processing system for bone histomorphometry and fluorescent marker monitoring is discussed. The system in question is capable of making measurements of UV or light microscope features on a video screen with either video or computer-generated images, and comprises a microscope, low-light-level video camera, video digitizer and display terminal, color monitor, and PDP 11/34 computer. Capabilities demonstrated in the analysis of an undecalcified rat tibia include the measurement of perimeter and total bone area, and the generation of microscope images, false color images, digitized images and contoured images for further analysis. Software development will be based on an existing software library, specifically the mini-VICAR system developed at JPL. It is noted that the potentials of the system in terms of speed and reliability far exceed any problems associated with hardware and software development.

  7. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.borkowski@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Polkowska, Izabela [Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin (Poland); Belcarz, Anna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Karpiński, Mirosław [Department of Companion and Wildlife Animals, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Słowik, Tymoteusz [Independent Radiology Unit at Lublin Small Animals Medical Centre, Stefczyka 11, 20-151 Lublin (Poland); Matuszewski, Łukasz [Children' s Orthopaedic Clinic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 2, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Ślósarczyk, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Ginalska, Grażyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration.

  8. 17β-estradiol improves the efficacy of exploited autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in non-union radial defect healing: A rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Mazdeh, Delaram; Mirshokraei, Pezhman; Emami, Mohammadreza; Mirshahi, Ali; Karimi, Iraj

    2017-12-28

    Exploiting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appears to be an appealing alternative to the traditional clinical approach in the treatment of non-union bone defects. It has been shown that 17β-estradiol improves the osteogenesis and proliferation potential of the MSCs via estrogen receptors. We investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on exploiting autologous BMSCs (bone marrow-derived MSCs) for the purpose of healing of radial non-union segmental defect in rabbit. Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 experimental groups: 1. Control group; 2. MSC treatment group; 3. 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment group; and 4. E2+MSC treatment group. Isolated BMSCs were seeded in a critical-sized defect on radial mid-diaphysis that was filled with autologous fibrin clot differently in 4 groups: 1. intact fibrin clot (control); 2. Fibrin clot containing MSCs; 3. Estradiol; and 4. E 2 and MSCs. Defect healing was assessed by radiological (week 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) and histopathological evaluation (week 10). Radiological evaluation data demonstrated that quantities for the E2+MSC group were significantly the greatest in comparison with the other groups at week 4 to 10 inclusive. Moreover, Histopathological evaluation indicated that the E2+MSC group had the highest score which was significantly greater than the E2 group and the control group (Punion bone fractures. Exploiting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appears to be an appealing alternative to the traditional clinical approach in the treatment of non-union bone defects. It has been shown that 17β-estradiol improves the osteogenesis and proliferation potential of the MSCs via estrogen receptors. We investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on exploiting autologous BMSCs (bone marrow-derived MSCs) for the purpose of healing of radial non-union segmental defect in rabbit. Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 experimental groups: 1. Control group; 2. MSC treatment group; 3. 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment group; and 4. E2+MSC treatment group

  9. Alveolar socket healing: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Silva, Cléverson O; Misawa, Mônica; Sukekava, Flavia

    2015-06-01

    Tooth extraction induces a series of complex and integrated local changes within the investing hard and soft tissues. These local alterations arise in order to close the socket wound and to restore tissue homeostasis, and are referred to as '"socket healing". The aims of the present report were twofold: first, to describe the socket-healing process; and, second, to discuss what can be learned from the temporal sequence of healing events, in order to improve treatment outcomes. The socket-healing process may be divided into three sequential, and frequently overlapping, phases: inflammatory; proliferative; and modeling/remodeling. Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the socket-healing process promotes up to 50% reduction of the original ridge width, greater bone resorption at the buccal aspect than at the lingual/palatal counterpart and a larger amount of alveolar bone reduction in the molar region. In conclusion, tooth extraction, once a simple and straightforward surgical procedure, should be performed in the knowledge that ridge reduction will follow and that further clinical steps should be considered to compensate for this, when considering future options for tooth replacement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Is complex signal processing for bone conduction hearing aids useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompis, Martin; Kurz, Anja; Pfiffner, Flurin; Senn, Pascal; Arnold, Andreas; Caversaccio, Marco

    2014-05-01

    To establish whether complex signal processing is beneficial for users of bone anchored hearing aids. Review and analysis of two studies from our own group, each comparing a speech processor with basic digital signal processing (either Baha Divino or Baha Intenso) and a processor with complex digital signal processing (either Baha BP100 or Baha BP110 power). The main differences between basic and complex signal processing are the number of audiologist accessible frequency channels and the availability and complexity of the directional multi-microphone noise reduction and loudness compression systems. Both studies show a small, statistically non-significant improvement of speech understanding in quiet with the complex digital signal processing. The average improvement for speech in noise is +0.9 dB, if speech and noise are emitted both from the front of the listener. If noise is emitted from the rear and speech from the front of the listener, the advantage of the devices with complex digital signal processing as opposed to those with basic signal processing increases, on average, to +3.2 dB (range +2.3 … +5.1 dB, p ≤ 0.0032). Complex digital signal processing does indeed improve speech understanding, especially in noise coming from the rear. This finding has been supported by another study, which has been published recently by a different research group. When compared to basic digital signal processing, complex digital signal processing can increase speech understanding of users of bone anchored hearing aids. The benefit is most significant for speech understanding in noise.

  11. Effects of calcium phosphate/chitosan composite on bone healing in rats: calcium phosphate induces osteon formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tulio; Olave, Gilberto; Valencia, Carlos H; Arce, Sandra; Quinn, Julian M W; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qi-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Vascularization of an artificial graft represents one of the most significant challenges facing the field of bone tissue engineering. Over the past decade, strategies to vascularize artificial scaffolds have been intensively evaluated using osteoinductive calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials in animal models. In this work, we observed that CaP-based biomaterials implanted into rat calvarial defects showed remarkably accelerated formation and mineralization of new woven bone in defects in the initial stages, at a rate of ∼60 μm/day (0.8 mg/day), which was considerably higher than normal bone growth rates (several μm/day, 0.1 mg/day) in implant-free controls of the same age. Surprisingly, we also observed histological evidence of primary osteon formation, indicated by blood vessels in early-region fibrous tissue, which was encapsulated by lamellar osteocyte structures. These were later fully replaced by compact bone, indicating complete regeneration of calvarial bone. Thus, the CaP biomaterial used here is not only osteoinductive, but vasculogenic, and it may have contributed to the bone regeneration, despite an absence of osteons in normal rat calvaria. Further investigation will involve how this strategy can regulate formation of vascularized cortical bone such as by control of degradation rate, and use of models of long, dense bones, to more closely approximate repair of human cortical bone.

  12. Possible benefits of strontium ranelate in complicated long bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Duarte Nuno; Ribeiro, Costa; Sousa, Carlos; Correia, João; Silva, Luís; de Almeida, Luís

    2012-02-01

    Osteoporosis drugs are prescribed to prevent fragility fractures, which is the principal aim of the management of osteoporosis. However, if fracture does occur, then it is also important to promote a fast and uneventful healing process. Despite this, little is known about the effect of osteoporosis drugs on bone healing in humans. Strontium ranelate is an osteoporosis agent that increases bone formation and reduces bone resorption and may therefore be beneficial in fracture healing. We report four cases of fracture non-union for up to 20 months. Treatment with strontium ranelate (2 g/day) for between 6 weeks and 6 months appeared to contribute to bone consolidation in the four cases. Animal studies support beneficial effects of strontium ranelate on bone healing via improvement of bone material properties and microarchitecture in the vicinity of the fracture. The clinical cases described herein provide new information on these effects, in the absence of randomized controlled studies on the clinical efficacy of pharmacological treatments in osteoporosis in fracture repair. Further studies are necessary. Fracture healing is an important topic in orthopedic research and is also a concern for patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Evidence from case reports and animal studies suggests that strontium ranelate improves bone microarchitecture and accelerates fracture healing. A positive effect of osteoporosis treatments on bone healing is an interesting possibility and merits further clinical research.

  13. Intra-oral PTH Administration Promotes Tooth Extraction Socket Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroshima, S.; Kovacic, B.L.; Kozloff, K.M.; McCauley, L.K.; Yamashita, J.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH. PMID:23611925

  14. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N.; Marao, Heloisa Fonseca; Pinto, Nelson; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1) dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured) and (2) micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface). L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International) was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α = 0.05) evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal), individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants. PMID:28042577

  15. Biomechanic and histologic analysis of fibroblastic effects of tendon-to-bone healing by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) on tendon-to-bone reconstruction of rotator cuff tears. Seventy-two rat supraspinatus tendons were transected and reconstructed in situ. At 8 and 16 weeks, specimens of three groups; that is control, L-dose (low dose), and H-dose (high dose) were harvested and underwent a biomechanical test to evaluate the maximum load and stiffness values. Histology sections of the tendon-to-bone interface were identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Masson trichrome stain. Collagen type III was observed by picric acid sirius red staining under polarized light. The level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Collagen type III of the H-dose group had a significant difference in histology structure compared with the L-dose group (P<0.05). The maximum load and stiffness decreased significantly in the control group compared with the values of the L-dose and H-dose groups. The stiffness among the three groups differed significantly at the same postoperative time (P<0.05). Interestingly, progressive reestablishment of collagen type III affected tendon-to-bone healing significantly in the later stages. The H-dose was associated with an increased collagen type III morphology stimulated by TGF-β1.

  16. Enhanced bone healing using collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold implantation in the treatment of a large multiloculated mandibular aneurysmal bone cyst in a thoroughbred filly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Florent; Levingstone, Tanya J; Schneeweiss, Wilfried; de Swarte, Marie; Jahns, Hanne; Gleeson, John P; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-10-01

    An unmet need remains for a bone graft substitute material that is biocompatible, biodegradable and capable of promoting osteogenesis safely in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a novel collagen-hydroxyapatite (CHA) bone graft substitute in the clinical treatment of a mandibular bone cyst in a young horse and to assess its potential to enhance repair of the affected bone. A 2 year-old thoroughbred filly, presenting with a multilobulated aneurysmal bone cyst, was treated using the CHA scaffold. Post-operative clinical follow-up was carried out at 2 weeks and 3, 6 and 14 months. Cortical thickening in the affected area was observed from computed tomography (CT) examination as early as 3 months post-surgery. At 14 months, reduced enlargement of the operated mandible was observed, with no fluid-filled area. The expansile cavity was occupied by moderately dense mineralized tissue and fat and the compact bone was remodelled, with a clearer definition between cortex and medulla observed. This report demonstrates the promotion of enhanced bone repair following application of the CHA scaffold material in this craniomaxillofacial indication, and thus the potential of this material for translation to human applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mechanical stimulation enhanced estrogen receptor expression and callus formation in diaphyseal long bone fracture healing in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, S K H; Leung, K S; Qin, J; Guo, A; Sun, M; Qin, L; Cheung, W H

    2016-10-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture was reported to exhibit delayed expression. Mechanical stimulation enhanced ER-α expression in osteoporotic fracture callus at the tissue level. ER was also found to be required for the effectiveness of vibrational mechanical stimulation treatment in osteoporotic fracture healing. Estrogen receptor(ER) is involved in mechanical signal transduction in bone metabolism. Its expression was reported to be delayed in osteoporotic fracture healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles played by ER during osteoporotic fracture healing enhanced with mechanical stimulation. Ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic SD rats that received closed femoral fractures were divided into five groups, (i) SHAM, (ii) SHAM-VT, (iii) OVX, (iv) OVX-VT, and (v) OVX-VT-ICI, where VT stands for whole-body vibration treatment and ICI for ER antagonization by ICI 182,780. Callus formation and gene expression were assessed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postfracture. In vitro osteoblastic differentiation, mineralization, and ER-α expression were assessed. The delayed ER expression was found to be enhanced by vibration treatment. Callus formation enhancement was shown by callus morphometry and micro-CT analysis. Enhancement effects by vibration were partially abolished when ER was modulated by ICI 182,780, in terms of callus formation capacity at 2-4 weeks and ER gene and protein expression at all time points. In vitro, ER expression in osteoblasts was not enhanced by VT treatment, but osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were enhanced under estrogen-deprived condition. When osteoblastic cells were modulated by ICI 182,780, enhancement effects of VT were eliminated. Vibration was able to enhance ER expression in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture healing. ER was essential in mechanical signal transduction and enhancement in callus formation effects during osteoporotic fracture healing enhanced by vibration

  18. EFFECT OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID IN THE HEALING PROCESS OF COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    CASTILHO, Tiago Jacometo Coelho de; CAMPOS, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; MELLO, Eneri Vieira de Souza Leite

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has been studied in the context of healing and tissue regeneration mainly due to its anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and antioncogenic properties. Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects with the use of enteral immunonutrition containing various farmaconutrients such as L-arginine, omega-3, trace elements, but the individual action of each component in the healing of colonic anastomosis remains unclear. Aim: To e...

  19. Role of Osteal Macrophages in Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Cho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages have been shown to have pleiotropic functions in various pathophysiologies, especially in terms of anti-inflammatory and regenerative activity. Recently, the novel functions of bone marrow resident macrophages (called osteal macrophages were intensively studied in bone development, remodeling and tissue repair processes. This review discusses the current evidence for a role of osteal macrophages in bone modeling, remodeling, and fracture healing processes.

  20. Assessment of vacuum-assisted closure therapy on the wound healing process in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakakis, Georgios; Photiades, Renos; von Oppell, Ulrich O

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a serious complication in cardiac surgery (1-5% of patients) with high mortality and morbidity rates. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy has shown promising results in terms of wound healing process, postoperative hospital length of stay and lower in-hospital costs. The aim of our retrospective study is to report the outcome of patients with DSWI treated with VAC therapy and to assess the effect of contributory risk factors. Data of 52 patients who have been treated with VAC therapy in a single institution (study period: September 2003-March 2012) were collected electronically through PAtient Tracking System PATS and statistically analysed using SPSS version 20. Of the 52 patients (35 M: 17 F), 88·5% (n = 46) were solely treated with VAC therapy and 11·5% (n = 6) had additional plastic surgical intervention. Follow-up was complete (mean 33·8 months) with an overall mortality rate of 26·9% (n = 14) of whom 50% (n = 7) died in hospital. No death was related to VAC complications. Patient outcomes were affected by pre-operative, intra-operative and postoperative risk factors. Logistic EUROscore, postoperative hospital length of stay, advanced age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and long-term corticosteroid treatment appear to be significant contributing factors in the long-term survival of patients treated with VAC therapy. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tissue Factor and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in the Wound-Healing Process After Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślusarz, Robert; Głowacka, Mariola; Biercewicz, Monika; Barczykowska, Ewa; Haor, Beata; Rość, Danuta; Gadomska, Grażyna

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the concentrations of tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in the blood of patients with a postoperative wound after neurosurgery. Participants included 20 adult patients who underwent neurosurgery because of degenerative spine changes. The concentration of TF and TFPI in the patients' blood serum was measured 3 times: before surgery, during the first 24 hr after surgery, and between the 5th and 7th days after surgery. The control group comprised 20 healthy volunteers similar to the patient group with respect to gender and age. A statistically significant difference was observed between TF concentration at all three measurement time points in the research group and TF concentration in the control group (p = .018, p = .010, p = .001). A statistically significant difference was found between TFPI concentration at the second time point in the research group and TFPI concentration in the control group (p = .041). No statistically significant within-subject difference was found between TF concentrations before and after surgery. A statistically significant within-subject difference was found between TFPI concentrations within 24 hr after surgery and 5-7 days after surgery (p = .004). High perioperative concentrations of TF indicate not only the presence of thrombophilia but also the importance of TF in the wound-healing process. Perioperative changes in TFPI concentrations are related to its compensatory influence on hemostasis in thrombophilic conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A Novel In Vivo Joint Loading System to Investigate the Effect of Daily Mechanical Load on a Healing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak, Mark; Imhauser, Carl; Packer, Jonathan; Bedi, Asheesh; Brophy, Robert; Kovacevic, David; Jackson, Kent; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Rodeo, Scott; Torzilli, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We designed and validated a novel knee joint fixation/distraction system to study tendon–to-bone healing in an in vivo rat model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The system uses an external fixator to apply a cyclic distraction of the knee joint while monitoring the resultant force developed across the joint, thus providing a temporal indication of structural changes during the healing process of the bone-tendon-bone reconstruction. The validation was performed using an opt...

  3. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. P. van Gestel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis.

  4. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy at different frequencies and durations on rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huegel, Julianne; Choi, Daniel S; Nuss, Courtney A; Minnig, Mary C C; Tucker, Jennica J; Kuntz, Andrew F; Waldorff, Erik I; Zhang, Nianli; Ryaby, James T; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2018-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears affect millions of individuals each year, often requiring surgical intervention. However, repair failure remains common. We have previously shown that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy improved tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff model. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of both PEMF frequency and exposure time on rotator cuff healing. Two hundred ten Sprague-Dawley rats underwent acute bilateral supraspinatus injury and repair followed by either Physio-Stim PEMF or high-frequency PEMF therapy for 1, 3, or 6 hours daily. Control animals did not receive PEMF therapy. Mechanical and histologic properties were assessed at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Improvements in different mechanical properties at various endpoints were identified for all treatment modalities when compared with untreated animals, regardless of PEMF frequency or duration. Of note, 1 hour of Physio-Stim treatment showed significant improvements in tendon mechanical properties across all time points, including increases in both modulus and stiffness as early as 4 weeks. Collagen organization improved for several of the treatment groups compared with controls. In addition, improvements in type I collagen and fibronectin expression were identified with PEMF treatment. An important finding was that no adverse effects were identified in any mechanical or histologic property. Overall, our results suggest that PEMF therapy has a positive effect on rat rotator cuff healing for each electromagnetic fundamental pulse frequency and treatment duration tested in this study. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immediate implant placement in fresh sockets versus implant placement in healed bone for full-arch fixed prostheses with conventional loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, N Y; Taskesen, F; Bagis, B; Baltacioglu, E; Cezairli, B; Senel, F C

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study assessed the success of immediate and non-immediate implants installed in patients undergoing planned extraction of all remaining teeth and rehabilitation with implant-supported full fixed prostheses. Patients in need of dental implants for full fixed prostheses to replace teeth extracted in the maxilla and mandible were included in this study. Dental implants were installed in the same surgical procedure, immediately at the extraction site, or in healed bone. Implant success, complications, and failures were recorded during follow-up. Forty-one patients with 512 implants were included in the study. Healing progressed uneventfully for 501 installed implants, but nine implants were lost in the non-immediate group and two were lost in the immediate group, during a mean follow-up of 44.9 months. All failures in both groups were observed in the maxilla. The success rate was the same in both groups, at 97.8%. This retrospective analysis showed that with thorough patient evaluation, the extraction of all residual teeth and implant installation in a single surgical procedure is a safe and predictable treatment modality for the successful rehabilitation of the edentulous patient with a fixed prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deproteinized bovine bone and biodegradable barrier membranes to support healing following immediate placement of transmucosal implants: a short-term controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelini, Roberto; Cangini, Filippo; Martuscelli, Gianluca; Wennström, Jan

    2004-12-01

    This 6-month clinical study evaluated the use of a porous bone mineral matrix xenograft (Bio-Oss) as an adjunct to a biodegradable barrier membrane (Bio-Gide) to support healing following the immediate placement of transmucosal implants into extraction sockets. Twenty adult patients scheduled for tooth replacement with dental implants were accepted for participation. Following implant placement into the extraction site, subjects were assigned to one of two treatment alternatives for the remaining bone defect around the implant: (1) Bio-Oss + Bio-Gide membrane (test); or (2) Bio-Gide membrane (control). The treatment outcome was evaluated after 6 months by the use of clinical and radiographic variables. The null hypothesis of no treatment group differences was tested by ANOVA. At 6 months, the radiographic bone level remained unchanged compared to baseline in the test and control groups. No differences were observed between test and control groups in terms of mean probing attachment level. At proximal sites, the soft tissue margin was located 2.6 mm more coronal than the shoulder of the implant in the test group, compared to 1.3 mm in the control group. The corresponding figures for the lingual aspect were 2.3 mm and 1.1 mm, respectively, and at buccal sites 2.1 mm and 0.9 mm, respectively. The use of deproteinized bovine bone mineral as a membrane support at immediately placed transmucosal implants may offer an advantage in areas with high esthetic demands in terms of soft tissue support.

  7. Long bone nonunions treated with autologous concentrated bone marrow-derived cells combined with dried bone allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, M; Fabbri, L; Dell'Omo, D; Gambini, F; Guido, G

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays the treatment of long bone nonunion continues to be one of the most complex and debated topics due to the large number of failures. For several years, in the relevant literature three factors have been considered essential in the healing process: growth factors and hormones, osteoprogenitor cells (mesenchymal stem cells), and extracellular matrix. The mechanical stability of the fracture site is considered the fourth element of the "Diamond concept theory." The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of biological adjuvants of mechanical synthesis allowing a faster healing process of nonunions. We dealt with 19 patients with long bone nonunion. All patients have been treated with concentrated mesenchymal stem cells without bone autologous transplant. We used the Extracell BMC-marrow aspirate protocol of Regen Lab. The radiographic parameters taken into account for the diagnosis of successful healing were the presence of a bridge callus, obliteration of the fracture line and bone cortical continuity. Clinically, the pain was investigated with VAS score (visual analogue scale), where zero means no pain and 10 the worst possible pain. Radiographic investigation shows complete healing in 78.9 % (15 cases) with an average time to healing of 6.5 months (minimum healing time 80 days) corresponding also in complete remission of clinical symptoms. The use of growth factors and autologous mesenchymal stem cells through the enforcement of system for tissue regeneration is a valid and innovative biotechnology technique for the treatment long bone nonunions.

  8. Bone healing with or without platelet-rich plasma around four different dental implant surfaces in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckbein, Philipp; Kleis, Wilfried; Buch, Rainer S R; Hansen, Torsten; Weibrich, Gernot

    2014-08-01

    Surface development is one of the major aims in dental implant engineering. Additive application of substances could possibly improve the new bone formation around dental implants. The present study evaluated the bone reaction on four different implant surfaces with or without platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Four self-tapping titanium screw implants (Brånemark MK III [Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden], Osseotite [3i, Miami, FL, USA], Xive [Densply Friadent, Mannheim, Germany], and Compress [IGfZ eG, Diez, Germany]) with different surfaces were inserted in each hemimandible of 12 female beagle dogs; the implant positions and the application of PRP were randomized. After intravital fluorochrome staining, sacrifices and biopsies harvesting were performed after 6 weeks (five dogs; one dog died before) and 12 weeks (six dogs) and the respective specimens were analyzed. The only significant difference in bone remodeling was found for the Compress implants with increased bone formation compared with the Brånemark implants at 12 weeks (sign test, p = .03). Comparing the histological and histomorphometric specimens of all other implant surfaces with respect to peri-implant bone remodeling and the resulting bone-implant contact rates (BICRs), no statistically significant differences were seen in the PRP or non-PRP groups (sign test, all p values ≥ .063). This study found no significant differences in the BICR for roughened implant surfaces compared with machined surfaces. In this animal model, the addition of PRP did not demonstrate evidence of faster bone formation or the resulting BICR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Observation of an improved healing process in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with a blue-LED haemostatic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Alfieri, Domenico; Bacci, Stefano; Tatini, Francesca; De Siena, Gaetano; Paroli, Gaia; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S

    2016-06-01

    The healing process of superficial skin wounds treated with a blue-LED haemostatic device is studied. Four mechanical abrasions are produced on the back of 10 Sprague Dawley rats: two are treated with the blue-LED device, while the other two are left to naturally recover. Visual observations, non-linear microscopic imaging, as well as histology and immunofluorescence analyses are performed 8 days after the treatment, demonstrating no adverse reactions neither thermal damages in both abraded areas and surrounding tissue. A faster healing process and a better-recovered skin morphology are observed: the treated wounds show a reduced inflammatory response and a higher collagen content. Blue LED induced photothermal effect on superficial abrasions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    2013-01-01

    investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two...... activated in all wounds regardless of treatment. Expression of all three interleukins was highly up regulated in control wounded muscle already at day 1 post-wounding and decreased at subsequent time-points. The reverse was the case with control wounded skin, where expression increased from day 1 through......Wound healing is a complex and well-organized process in which physiological factors and immune mechanisms are involved. A number of different immune modulators have been found to enhance the non-specific defence system in vertebrates, among which β-glucans are the most powerful and extensively...

  11. Angiogenesis & Vasculogenesis: Inducing the growth of new blood vessels and wound healing by stimulation of Bone Marrow Derived Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Omaida C.

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, the vasculature is among the first organs to form and is in charge of maintaining metabolic homeostasis by supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing waste products. As one would expect, blood vessels are critical not only for organ growth in the embryo, but also for repair of wounded tissue in the adult. An imbalance in ‘Angiogenesis’ (a time-honored term that globally refers to the growth of new blood vessels) contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischemic, infectious, immune, and wound healing disorders. In this review, we will focus on the central role of the growth of new blood vessels in ischemic and diabetic wound healing. We define the most current nomenclature that describes the neovascularization process in wounds. There are now two well defined, distinct, yet interrelated processes for the formation of post-natal new blood vessels, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We review recent new data on vasculogenesis that promises to advance the field of wound healing. PMID:17544023

  12. [Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and it's influence in the healing process of colonic anastomosis: experimental study in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Itágores Hoffman I Lopes Sousa; Torres, Orlando Jorge Martins; Matias, Jorge Eduardo F; Coelho, Júlio Cezar U; Stahlke Júnior, Henrique Jorge; Agulham, Miguel Angelo; Bachle, Enio; Camargo, Paulo Antonio Monteiro; Pimentel, Silvânia Klug; de Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    The healing is a complex biological event that involves inflammation, chemotaxis, cells proliferation, differentiation and remodeling. In Brazilian popular medicine, the "Aroeira" is used to treat different situations The anastomotic healing is always a preoccupation among surgeons. The fail in intestinal anastomosis leads to fistulas and dehiscences. To evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper tree) in the healing of colonic anastomosis. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided in two groups (Aroeira and control), each one with 20 animals, according to the treatment received after the anastomosis (Aroeira extract or saline solution 0,9%) and each group was divided in two subgroups (C3 and C7 and A3 and A7,) according to the euthanasia day (at 3rd and at 7th). The macroscopic, microscopic and bursting pressure measurements were performed. To evaluate the groups, the non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney was applied. In the macroscopic aspects, there was no significant difference between the Aroeira and the control group, both at the 3rd and the 7th days. When compared the subgroups of microscopic analysis at the 3rd day, the difference between the Aroeira and the control group was significant in the variables congestion (p = 0.005), polymorphonuclears (p = 0.034), mononuclears (p = 0.023), fibroblastic proliferation (p = 0.023) and at the healing stage (p = 0.001). At the 7th day analysis, the difference between the Aroeira and the control group was significant in all the variables of microscopic analysis. No significant differences were found in the bursting pressure. It was observed a favorable effect of Aroeira, at microscopic level, in the healing process of colonic anastomosis.

  13. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time.

  14. Comparative radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone healing associated with autologous platelet-rich plasma after impacted mandibular third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célio-Mariano, Ronaldo; de Melo, Willian Morais; Carneiro-Avelino, Cássia

    2012-01-01

    This study radiographically evaluated the performance of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applied in tooth sockets. Thirty extractions of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars were performed in 15 volunteers (7 men, 8 women; 18 to 22 years old). After extraction of right and left mandibular third molars, the socket at 1 side received the autologous PRP (PRP group) and the other was filled with blood clot (control group). Millimeter periapical radiographs were obtained 7 days, 1 month, and 2, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Radiographic bone density was quantified 3 times by the same examiner at different moments using HLImage 97 software, and data were statistically analyzed by Statgraf 7.0 software (analysis of variance and Tukey test). In general, there was significantly faster bone formation in sockets treated with PRP (P third month (P < .01) for the PRP group. No statistical differences were observed on the seventh day and sixth month of investigation, yet there were higher means of radiographic bone density in sockets treated with PRP. In the control group, men exhibited significant bone repair compared with women (P < .05). Autologous PRP was found to accelerate alveolar bone regeneration, and men presented better repair after tooth extraction. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Specific Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Nanotopographies Enhance Osteoblastic Differentiation and Bone Graft Osteointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Alayna E.; Wei, Lai; Faryad, Muhammad; Paul, Emmanuel M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Gao, Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-01-01

    Impaired healing of cortical bone grafts represents a significant clinical problem. Cadaveric bone grafts undergo extensive chemical processing to decrease the risk of disease transmission; however, these processing techniques alter the bone surface and decrease the osteogenic potential of cells at the healing site. Extensive work has been done to optimize the surface of bone grafts, and hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanotopography both increase osteoblastic differentiation. HAP is the main mineral component of bone and can enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone implant healing in vivo, while nanotopography can enhance osteoblastic differentiation, adhesion, and proliferation. This is the first study to test the combined effects of HAP and nanotopographies on bone graft healing. With the goal of identifying the optimized surface features to improve bone graft healing, we tested the hypothesis that HAP-based nanotopographic resurfacing of bone grafts improves integration of cortical bone grafts by enhancing osteoblastic differentiation. Here we show that osteoblastic cells cultured on processed bones coated with specific-scale (50–60 nm) HAP nanotopographies display increased osteoblastic differentiation compared to cells on uncoated bone, bones coated with poly-l-lactic acid nanotopographies, or other HAP nanotopographies. Further, bone grafts coated with 50–60-nm HAP exhibited increased formation of new bone and improved healing, with mechanical properties equivalent to live autografts. These data indicate the potential for specific HAP nanotopographies to not only increase osteoblastic differentiation but also improve bone graft incorporation, which could significantly increase patient quality of life after traumatic bone injuries or resection of an osteosarcoma. PMID:23510012

  16. Effect of nicotine and tobacco administration method on the mechanical properties of healing bone following closed fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Sidsel Gaarn; Chen, Xinqian; Bechtold, Joan E; Kyle, Richard F; Rahbek, Ole; Keyler, Daniel E; Skoett, Martin; Soeballe, Kjeld

    2010-09-01

    We previously showed different effects of tobacco and nicotine on fracture healing, but due to pump reservoir limits, maximum exposure period was 4 weeks. To allow flexibility in pre- and post-fracture exposure periods, the objective of this study was to compare a new oral administration route for nicotine to the established pump method. Four groups were studied: (1) pump saline, (2) pump saline + oral tobacco, (3) pump saline/nicotine + oral tobacco, and (4) pump saline + oral nicotine/tobacco. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 84) received a transverse femoral fracture stabilized with an intramedullary pin 1 week after initiating dosing. After 3 weeks, no difference was found in torsional strength or stiffness between oral nicotine/tobacco or pump nicotine + tobacco, while energy absorption with oral nicotine/tobacco was greater than pump nicotine + tobacco (p < 0.05). Compared to saline control, strength for oral nicotine/tobacco was higher than control (p < 0.05), and stiffnesses for pump nicotine + tobacco and oral nicotine/tobacco were higher than control (p < 0.05). No differences in energy were found for either nicotine-tobacco group compared to saline control. Mean serum cotinine (stable nicotine metabolite) was different between pump and oral nicotine at 1 and 4 weeks, but all groups were in the range of 1-2 pack/day smokers. In summary, relevant serum cotinine levels can be reached in rats with oral nicotine, and, in the presence of tobacco, nicotine can influence mechanical aspects of fracture healing, dependent on administration method. Caution should be exercised when comparing results of fracture healing studies using different methods of nicotine administration. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  18. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    progenitors being associated with the vasculature [Kolf et al., 2007; Medici et al., 2010]. This study is the first step in identifying a potential direct...skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 91:652–663. Medici D, Shore EM, Lounev VY, Kaplan FS, Kalluri R, Olsen BR. 2010. Conversion of vascular endothelial

  19. Evaluating of bone healing around porous coated titanium implant and potential systematic bias on the traditional sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    could be affected by the various quality and quantity of bone in the local environment. Thus, implant fixation in one part might differ from the other part of the implant. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the sampling method on data evaluation. Material and methods: Titanium alloy implants...

  20. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on early and late bone healing: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren, R.E.C.M.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Four round critical-size defects were made in the forehe