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Sample records for bone healing process

  1. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  2. Intramembranous bone healing process subsequent to tooth extraction in mice: micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Andreia Espindola; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Junior, Samuel de Barros; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Assis, Gerson Francisco; Taga, Rumio; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After the initial clot dominance (0 h), the development of a provisional immature granulation tissue is evident (7 d), characterized by marked cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory cells infiltration; associated with peaks of growth factors (BMP-2-4-7,TGFβ1,VEGFa), cytokines (TNFα, IL-10), chemokines & receptors (CXCL12, CCL25, CCR5, CXCR4), matrix (Col1a1-2, ITGA4, VTN, MMP1a) and MSCs (CD105, CD106, OCT4, NANOG, CD34, CD146) markers expression. Granulation tissue is sequentially replaced by more mature connective tissue (14 d), characterized by inflammatory infiltrate reduction along the increased bone formation, marked expression of matrix remodeling enzymes (MMP-2-9), bone formation/maturation (RUNX2, ALP, DMP1, PHEX, SOST) markers, and chemokines & receptors associated with healing (CCL2, CCL17, CCR2). No evidences of cartilage cells or tissue were observed, strengthening the intramembranous nature of bone healing. Bone microarchitecture analysis supports the evolving healing, with total tissue and bone volumes as trabecular number and thickness showing a progressive increase over time. The extraction socket healing process is considered complete (21 d) when the dental socket is filled by trabeculae bone with well-defined medullary canals; it being the expression of mature bone markers prevalent at this period. Our data confirms the intramembranous bone healing nature of the model used, revealing parallels between the gene expression profile and the

  3. Experimental study on healing process of rat mandibular bone fracture examined by radiological procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Yukio; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The healing process of rat mandibular fractures was stereoscopically observed daily, using plain roentgenography in the lateral-oblique and tooth axis directions and bone scintigraphy using 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphoric acid (Tc-99m-MDP). The findings were compared with microradiograms of regional polished specimens. X-ray findings included the following. Up to 3 days after bone fracture, the fracture mesiodistally showed distinct radiolucency, with sharp and irregular fracture stump. Radiopacity of the fracture site gradually increased 7 days or later, and bone trabecular formation by callus and stump bridging started to occur at 14 days. Findings similar to those in the control group were observed 49 days or later. The inside was difficult to differentiate, irrespective of the observation time. Bone scans in the mesiodistal and buccolingual planes revealed tracer uptake in the areas of mandibular and soft tissue damage one day after bone fracture. Tracer uptake began to be seen in the fracture site 3 days later, and became marked at 14 days. Then Tc-99m DMP began to be localized and returned to the findings similar to those at 49 days. Bone scanning tended to show wider areas earlier than roentgenography. Microradiographic mesiodistal examination revealed distinct radiopacy of the fracture line for 3 days after bone fracture. Seven days later, bone resorption cavity occurred in the cortical bone around the fracture stump, along with neogenesis of callus. Neogenesis and calcification began to occur gradually, and 14 days later, the fracture osteoremodeling of the internal bone trabeculae was observed. Bone trabecular formation within the bone, however, occurred later. (N.K.).

  4. A study of healing process and prognosis of medial femoral neck fracture evaluated by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As to healing process and prognosis of femoral neck fracture, radionuclide bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound was performed and the following results were obtained. 1. In cases of osteosynthesis, scintigraphical study showed a certain serial pattern until fracture was uneventfully healed. 2. On the other hand, in cases with non-union or late segmental collapse of the head, scintigraphy revealed defect at superolateral or central area in the head. This finding could be already noted prior to roentgenographical evaluation. 3. In the study of radionuclide uptake count on the femoral head of resected specimen, the higher value was observed in the area along medial fracture edge to medial margin of the head. Histological study showed feature of increased new bone formation at the area of higher radionuclide uptake. Vascular supply through the bone marrow of the neck and superior retinacular artery was thought to play an important role for the new bone formation. 4. From the aforementioned results, sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound scintigraphy was considered as one of the quite useful methods for early diagnosis of complications after femoral neck fracture. (author)

  5. Intramembranous Bone Healing Process Subsequent to Tooth Extraction in Mice: Micro-Computed Tomography, Histomorphometric and Molecular Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Andreia Espindola; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Junior, Samuel de Barros; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; Taga, Rumio; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After t...

  6. The effect of zoledronate during bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Marcos Almeida; Tannuri, Uenis; Guarniero, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates have become the treatment of choice for a variety of bone diseases in which excessive osteoclastic activity is an important pathologic feature. However, inhibition of osteoclastic activity could lead to inhibition of remodeling during bone healing or repair. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of zoledronate (the most potent bisphosphonate) in the biological process of bone healing. Methods Thirty immature male rabbits were divided into two grou...

  7. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the...

  8. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  9. Experimental study on bone mineral determination in the wound healing process after tooth extraction by 125I-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out by 125I-photon absorptiometry in tooth extraction wounds of dogs to determine the bone mineral content of the mandibular premolar region. The bone mineral content of excised mandibles was measured on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 56th, and the 84th day, respectively, after tooth extraction. These were then compared with the values obtained by photodensitometry and by histological findings. The bone mineral content obtained by 125I-photon absorptiometry varied within a range of 0.270 and 0.720 g/cm2, over a period of 84-days. The highest mineral content value was noted in the apical site. Lower values were noted in the central site and with still lower values in the marginal site. In each case the bone mineral content which deacreased on the 3rd and 7th day after extraction tended to increase gradually thereafter. On the 56th and 84th day after tooth extraction, an increase in bone mineral in the margical site and a deacrease in the apical site was observed. This observation indicated that homogenization of the bone mineral occurred in the tooth extraction wound. Bone changes in the histological findings related to the healing process and the changes of values obtained by photodensitometry coincided with the changes shown in 125I-photon absorptiometry. (author)

  10. Bone healing following irradiation during tourniquet ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone harvest chamber (BHC) methodology, a titanium implant for quantitative evaluations of bone healing, was used in order to investigate the radioprotective function of anoxia, in healing bone tissue. After incorporation of one BHC in each proximal tibial metaphysis of a rabbit it was possible to collect newly formed bone specimens in 3-week-periods without animal sacrifice. The amount of bone was determined by microradiography and densitometry. Ten animals divided into 2 groups were used. One group receiving a single dose of 25 Gy during tourniquet ischaemia was compared with another receiving the same dose during normal blood perfusion. A significantly improved bone healing response was seen in the ischaemic group, with a tendency to further improvement with increasing time after irradiation. (orig.)

  11. The effect of smoking on bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, R. A.; Wilson, R. F.; Patel, P A; Palmer, R M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To review the systemic impact of smoking on bone healing as evidenced within the orthopaedic literature. Methods A protocol was established and studies were sourced from five electronic databases. Screening, data abstraction and quality assessment was conducted by two review authors. Prospective and retrospective clinical studies were included. The primary outcome measures were based on clinical and/or radiological indicators of bone healing. This review specifically focused on non...

  12. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice. PMID:24647509

  13. Diabetes-induced fibrotic matrix inhibits intramembranous bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Trackman, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes diminishes bone healing and ossification. Reduced bone formation in intramembranous ossification is known, yet the mechanism(s) behind impaired intramembranous bone healing are unclear. Here we report the formation of a fibrotic matrix during healing of intramembranous calvarial bone defects that appears to exclude new bone growth. Our histological analyses of 7-day and 14-day calvaria bone healing tissue in chemically-induced diabetic mice and non-diabetic mice showed the accumulati...

  14. A study of the bone healing kinetics of plateau versus screw root design titanium dental implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Gary

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the bone healing process around plateau root from (PRF) and screw root from (SRF) titanium dental implants over the immediate 12 week healing period post implant placement.

  15. Combined bone grafting: an alternative method for bone healing stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most provocative problem in bone grafting is the effectiveness of healing of the graft. When you use the heterogenous bone graft, it may take one or more than two years for consolidation and union depends on the graft quality and the situation of surrounding blood supply. In our preliminary report seven cases of freeze-dried heterogenous bone graft from the Bangkok Biomaterial Center were mixed with autogenous iliac bone graft from the patient in the ratio of 3:1. After that the healing was checked by clinical examination and X-ray in the periodic follow up. The causes of bone lost are post evacuation of benign bone tumor and post infection of bone after trauma. The result of bony union could be tested by clinical examination and showed in the X-ray films as early as 3 months post grafting

  16. Role of mathematical modeling in bone fracture healing

    OpenAIRE

    Pivonka, Peter; Colin R Dunstan

    2012-01-01

    Bone fracture healing is a complex physiological process commonly described by a four-phase model consisting of an inflammatory phase, two repair phases with soft callus formation followed by hard callus formation, and a remodeling phase, or more recently by an anabolic/catabolic model. Data from humans and animal models have demonstrated crucial environmental conditions for optimal fracture healing, including the mechanical environment, blood supply and availability of mesenchymal stem cells...

  17. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  18. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  19. Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, J.P.; Lalani, Z.; Bossano, C.M.; Brey, E.M.; Demian, N.; Johnston, C.M.; Dean, D.; Jansen, J.A.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion.

  20. Monitoring of bone healing by piezoelectric-EMI method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlina, M. H.; Sarpinah, Bibi; Tawie, Rudy; Daho, Claira Dalislone; Annuar, Ishak

    2016-02-01

    Smart Piezoelectric devices which have excellent piezoelectric properties have been employed for various sensor and actuators applications. The work presented here is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of bone healing monitoring by using piezoelectric-electromechanical impedance (EMI) method that have several advantages such as low cost, portable, light weight and simplicity in measurement. A Piezoelectric sensor (PZT) has been widely used in damage detection of various structures including concrete, pipes and bones due to their unique sensing and actuating properties. The EMI technique has emerged as a universal Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) tool suitable for almost all engineering materials and structures. The method used for this proposed study consists of put healing agent in the host structure in particular cracks bone to be monitored by PZT-needle sensor which is embedded to the host structure. The measurements were taken in the frequency range between 0.04 to 100 kHz at 1 kHz interval using AD5933 evaluation board. The signals retrieved from the AD5933 evaluation board, were quantify and analyse to obtain Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) percentage value. Measurements were taken every hour for 12 hours. The result from the study shows the feasibility of the piezoelectric-EMI method to effectively detect changes during bone-cracks healing process until the cracks bone is fully recovered.

  1. Effect of electrical current on the healing of mandibular freeze-dried bone allografts in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branham, G.B.; Triplett, R.G.; Yeandle, S.; Vieras, F.

    1985-06-01

    Low levels of electrical current have been shown to affect the process of osseous repair. This study experimentally evaluated the effect of electrical stimulation on the healing of freeze-dried mandibular allogeneic bone grafts in dogs. Healing of the grafts was monitored by sequential submento-occlusal radiographs and radionuclide bone imaging at two, four, six, and eight weeks after grafting. Results indicated no significant difference in the osseous repair of stimulated and nonstimulated freeze-dried allogeneic bone grafts.

  2. Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John P; Lalani, Zahid; Bossano, Carla M; Brey, Eric M; Demian, Nagi; Johnston, Carol M; Dean, David; Jansen, John A; Wong, Mark E K; Mikos, Antonios G

    2004-03-01

    In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion. To test this hypothesis, healing bone was investigated within a rabbit incisor extraction socket, a subcritical size bone defect that resists significant soft tissue invasion by virtue of its conformity. After removal of the incisor teeth, one tooth socket was left as an empty control, one was filled with crosslinked polymer networks formed from the hydrophobic polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), and one was filled with a hydrogel formed from the hydrophilic oligomer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF). At five different times (4 days as well as 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks), jaw bone specimens containing the tooth sockets were removed. We analyzed bone healing by histomorphometrical analysis of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections as well as immunohistochemically stained sections. The proposed hypothesis, that a hydrophilic material would hinder bone healing, was supported by the histomorphometrical results. In addition, the immunohistochemical results reflect molecular signaling indicative of the early invasion of platelets, the vascularization of wound-healing tissue, the differentiation of migrating progenitor cells, and the formation and remodeling of bone tissue. Finally, the results emphasize the need to consider biomaterial properties and their differing effects upon endogenous growth factors, and thus bone healing, during the development of tissue engineering devices. PMID:14762922

  3. A unified theory of bone healing and nonunion: BHN theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D S; Newman, K J H; Forward, D P; Hahn, D M; Ollivere, B; Kojima, K; Handley, R; Rossiter, N D; Wixted, J J; Smith, R M; Moran, C G

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a unified clinical theory that links established facts about the physiology of bone and homeostasis, with those involved in the healing of fractures and the development of nonunion. The key to this theory is the concept that the tissue that forms in and around a fracture should be considered a specific functional entity. This 'bone-healing unit' produces a physiological response to its biological and mechanical environment, which leads to the normal healing of bone. This tissue responds to mechanical forces and functions according to Wolff's law, Perren's strain theory and Frost's concept of the "mechanostat". In response to the local mechanical environment, the bone-healing unit normally changes with time, producing different tissues that can tolerate various levels of strain. The normal result is the formation of bone that bridges the fracture - healing by callus. Nonunion occurs when the bone-healing unit fails either due to mechanical or biological problems or a combination of both. In clinical practice, the majority of nonunions are due to mechanical problems with instability, resulting in too much strain at the fracture site. In most nonunions, there is an intact bone-healing unit. We suggest that this maintains its biological potential to heal, but fails to function due to the mechanical conditions. The theory predicts the healing pattern of multifragmentary fractures and the observed morphological characteristics of different nonunions. It suggests that the majority of nonunions will heal if the correct mechanical environment is produced by surgery, without the need for biological adjuncts such as autologous bone graft. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:884-91. PMID:27365465

  4. Cisplatin inhibits bone healing during distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Kimo C; Wahl, Elizabeth C; Liu, Lichu; Skinner, Robert A; Vanderschilden, Jacquelyn; Bunn, Robert C; Montgomery, Corey O; Suva, Larry J; Aronson, James; Becton, David L; Nicholas, Richard W; Swearingen, Christopher J; Lumpkin, Charles K

    2014-03-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor affecting children and adolescents. Many patients are treated with a combination of chemotherapy, resection, and limb salvage protocols. Surgical reconstructions after tumor resection include structural allografts, non-cemented endoprostheses, and distraction osteogenesis (DO), which require direct bone formation. Although cisplatin (CDP) is extensively used for OS chemotherapy, the effects on bone regeneration are not well studied. The effects of CDP on direct bone formation in DO were compared using two dosing regimens and both C57BL/6 (B6) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 knockout (TNFR1KO) mice, as CDP toxicity is associated with elevated TNF levels. Detailed evaluation of the five-dose CDP regimen (2 mg/kg/day), demonstrated significant decreases in new bone formation in the DO gaps of CDP treated versus vehicle treated mice (p CDP regimen were observed in TNFR1KO mice. The two-dose regimen significantly inhibited new bone formation in B6 mice. These results demonstrate that CDP has profound short term negative effects on the process of bone repair in DO. These data provide the mechanistic basis for modeling peri-operative chemotherapy doses and schedules and may provide new opportunities to identify molecules that spare normal cells from the inhibitory effects of CDP. PMID:24259375

  5. Effect of nicotine on bone healing in rats - A histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Rayapati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Nicotine is the major alkaloid in tobacco products (Nicotiona tabacum and a psychoactive ingredient responsible for the Central Nervous System (CNS effects and tobacco addiction. It’s been reported to have effects directly on the small blood vessels in producing vasoconstriction and increased vascular resistance that exerts on the microvasculature inhibiting the angioblastic response during re-vascularization and limits the recruitment of cytokines, Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, Transforming Growth Factor – β (TGF – β, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF and the basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF. This leads to inhibition of re-epithelialization, osteogenesis and cellular healing. This study intends to demonstrate histologically the effect of nicotine on bone healing and the healing of bone defects incorporated with autogenous bone graft in an animal model. Methods: 60 female Wistar rats were used in the study. Nicotine hemisulfate at a dose of 3mg/kg body weight of the animal given twice daily for 4 weeks prior to creation of a bone defect. The defect on the ramus of the mandible and the healing in the defect was evaluated at weekly intervals for four weeks for both the quality and quantity of new bone formation by histological and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Significant impairment of healing of bone both in the early and late stages due to the influence of Nicotine was seen. Conclusion: In our study, incorporation of autogenous bone did significantly improve the bone healing process in the end stages of healing while nicotine significantly impaired the healing of bone in early stages.

  6. Mechanical and structural properties of bone in non-critical and critical healing in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Rebecca M; Seidt, Britta M; Shah, Miheer; Schwarz, Carolin; Willie, Bettina M; Duda, Georg N; Fratzl, Peter; Wagermaier, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    A fracture in bone results in a dramatic change of mechanical loading conditions at the site of injury. Usually, bone injuries heal normally but with increasing fracture gaps, healing is retarded, eventually leading to non-unions. The clinical situation of these two processes with different outcomes is well described. However, the exact relation between the mechanical environment and characteristics of the tissues at all levels of structural hierarchy remains unclear. Here we studied the differences in material formation of non-critical (1mm) and critical (5mm gap) healing. We employed a rat osteotomy model to explore bone material structure depending upon the different mechanical conditions. In both cases, primary bone formation was followed by secondary bone deposition with mineral particle sizes changing from on average short and thick to long and thin particles. Bony bridging occurred at first in the endosteal callus and the nanostructure and microstructure developed towards cortical ordered material organization. In contrast, in critical healing, instead of bridging, a marrow cavity closure was formed endosteal, exhibiting tissue structure oriented along the curvature and a periosteal callus with less mature material structure. The two healing processes separated between 4 and 6 weeks post-osteotomy. The outcome of healing was determined by the varied geometrical conditions in critical and non-critical healing, inducing completely different mechanical situations. PMID:24929204

  7. Smoking and Bone Healing - A Risky Surgical Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Smoking and Bone Healing – A Risky Surgical Combination Imagine ... saying that they'd prefer patients to quit smoking. There hasn't been a great deal of ...

  8. Standard bone healing stages occur during delayed bone healing, albeit with a different temporal onset and spatial distribution of callus tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Anja; Schell, Hanna; Bail, Hermann J.; Hannemann, Marion; Schumann, Tanja; Duda, Georg N; Lienau, Jasmin

    2010-01-01

    Bone healing is considered as a recapitulation of a developmental program initiated at the time of injury. This study tested the hypothesis that in delayed bone healing the regular cascade of healing events, including remodeling of woven to lamellar bone, would be similar compared to standard healing, although the temporal onset would be delayed. A tibial osteotomy was performed in sheep and stabilized with a rotationally unstable fixator leading to delayed healing....

  9. Prognostic factors for healing of bone lesions in histiocytosis X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healing characteristics and rates of resolution were retrospectively reviewed in 38 bone lesions in 18 patients with histiocytosis X. Signs which tended to indicate future healing were a change from a nontrabecular pattern to a trabecular pattern by 10 weeks, a nonsclerotic lesion to one with sclerosis by 13 weeks, and loss of distinct margins by 24 weeks. Complete healing then occurred within 36 to 40 weeks after development of these favorable signs. The earliest occurrence of a favorable sign was 6 weeks. A trabecular pattern was found in 90% of the lesions, outside the skull, which eventually healed. Fifty-eight percent (22 of 38) of the lesions completely healed in an average of 13.6 months. Five months was the most rapid occurrence of healing in any of our cases. (orig.)

  10. The impact of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H;

    2005-01-01

    administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6......OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo was...... weeks (left tibia). Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created. Removal torque test (RMT) was performed at the distal implants. Ground sections were made from the proximal and the central bone beds. The fraction of mineralized bone in contact to the implant (BIC) and the bone density within the...

  11. Experimental and clinical studies of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate in bone up-take in process of fracture-healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate (PYP) was given intravenously to rabbits from 3 days to 50 weeks following fracture of the uni-lateral tibia, and the scintigram of bilateral tibias was taken 2 hours following the injection. A ratio of RI accumulation in each site of the tibia was also measured. RI accumulation in fractured site of rabbits increased rapidly one week following the fracture, and decreased after showing its peak three weeks later. The ratio of the RI counts in periosteum of the fractured site one week following the fracture was numerous. However, this was caused by hypertrophy of periosteum itself. The ratio of the counts in bone cortex of the fractured site three weeks following the fracture was numerous, and the ratio of RI accumulation per unit weight showed the maximum value. It was ascertained that the ratio of RI accumulation in the fractured site of rabbits, which were made to postpone the fracture-healing by adding stimulation from outside, had been high since one week following the fracture, and it continued to increase. Change of the ratio of RI accumulation in each fractured site in process of the time almost ran parallel to the rise and fall of the distribution of alkaline phosphatase detected histologically. The ratio of RI accumulation in the fractured site of clinical cases showed the highest valve of 2.8-6.1 three to six months following the fracture, and it was thought to be normal that this highest valve decreased to normal valve ten months following the fracture. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. A MULTI-SITE SHEEP MODEL FOR CANCELLOUS BONE HEALING

    OpenAIRE

    MatthewhenryPelletier

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate, well characterized bone defect animal models remain essential for preclinical research. This pilot study demonstrates a relevant animal model for cancellous bone defect healing. Three different defect diameters (8, 11, 14mm) of fixed depth (25mm) were compared in both skeletally immature (18 month old) and aged sheep (5 year old). In each animal, four defects were surgically created and placed in the cancellous bone of the medial distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses bi...

  13. The Influence of Low-Intensity Laser Therapy on Bone Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, T.; N. Moslemi; Rokn AR; M. Heidari; Nokhbatolfoghahaie, H.; R Fekrazad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) is defined to supply direct biostimulative light energy to the cells. While several studies have demonstrated that LILT has stimulating effects on bone cells and can accelerate the repair process of the bone, others reported delayed fracture healing or no effects after LILT. The aim of this article was to review the studies evaluating the biomodulation effects of LILT on bone-derived stem cells. Materials and Methods: To access relevant articles, ...

  14. Healing process of infarcted myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healing process of infarcts and morphology of left ventricular aneurysms were examined with ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 41 patients with myocardial infarction. According to the time of MRI, the patients fell into Group I - within one month after the onset of myocardial infarction, Group II - between 2 and 3 months, Group III - between 4 and 12 months, and Group IV - more than one year. In Groups I and II, T2 relaxation time for infarcts was significantly prolonged when compared with non-infarcts. It gradually decreased in the following order: Groups I>II>III>IV. Groups IV had the lowest ratio of infarcts to non-infarcts (I/N ratio), followed by Groups II and III, and then Group I. MR imaging had a sensitivity of 70% in morphologically evaluating left ventricular aneurysms. Left ventricular aneurysms tended to be detected when the I/N ratio was 0.6 or less. Acute infarcts had increased signal intensities and a prolonged T2 relaxation time, probably resulting from protons increased by edemas. These appearances returned to normal 2 to 3 months after the onset; and simultaneously, the infarcted wall was becoming thin. These MRI findings seem representative of healing process of infarcts. In cases of associated left ventricular aneurysms, the infarcted wall was remarkably thinned, which was likely affected by an excessive expansion due to an increased tension of the infarcted wall. (Namekawa, K)

  15. Experimental fracture healing: evaluation using radionuclide bone imaging: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed in a rabbit model to observe the course of fracture healing and to establish criteria for distinguishing nonunion and delayed healing from normal healing. Sequential gamma-camera images (with pinhole collimator) were collected and subjected to computer analysis. Five groups were established: (a) control--immobilization; (b) control--immobilization plus periosteal stripping; (c) simple fracture--osteotomy; (d) delayed union--osteotomy plus periosteal stripping; and (e) nonunion--osteotomy, periosteal stripping and polymethyl methacrylate interposed between fracture fragments. Histographic representation of absolute count rates along rabbit tibias followed a predictable pattern in the simple-fracture and delayed-union groups. They differed only in the time of appearance of phases. The non-union group demonstrated no recognizable sequential pattern. In this experimental model, serial bone scanning the quantitative data analysis has shown potential for indicating the course of healing in fractures and for serving as a guide to treatment

  16. Intermittently Administered Parathyroid Hormone [1–34] Promotes Tendon-Bone Healing in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanggang Bi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone [1–34] (PTH[1–34] promotes tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction in vivo. A rat model of ACL reconstruction with autograft was established at the left hind leg. Every day, injections of 60 μg PTH[1–34]/kg subcutaneously were given to the PTH group rats (n = 10 for four weeks, and the controls (n = 10 received saline. The tendon-bone healing process was evaluated by micro-CT, biomechanical test, histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The effects of PTH[1–34] on serum chemistry, bone microarchitecture and expression of the PTH receptor (PTH1R and osteocalcin were determined. Administration of PTH[1–34] significantly increased serum levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase (AP, osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. The expression of PTH1R on both osteocytes and chondrocyte-like cells at the tendon-bone interface was increased in the PTH group. PTH[1–34] also enhanced the thickness and microarchitecture of trabecular bone according to the micro-CT analysis. The results imply that systematically intermittent administration of PTH[1–34] promotes tendon-bone healing at an early stage via up-regulated PTH1R. This method may enable a new strategy for the promotion of tendon-bone healing after ACL reconstruction.

  17. Injectable reactive biocomposites for bone healing in critical-size rabbit calvarial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craniofacial injuries can result from trauma, tumor ablation, or infection and may require multiple surgical revisions. To address the challenges associated with treating craniofacial bone defects, an ideal material should have the ability to fit complex defects (i.e. be conformable), provide temporary protection to the brain until the bone heals, and enhance tissue regeneration with the delivery of biologics. In this study, we evaluated the ability of injectable lysine-derived polyurethane (PUR)/allograft biocomposites to promote bone healing in critical-size rabbit calvarial defects. The biocomposites exhibited favorable injectability, characterized by a low yield stress to initiate flow of the material and a high initial viscosity to minimize the adverse phenomena of extravasation and filter pressing. After injection, the materials cured within 10–12 min to form a tough, elastomeric solid that maintained mechanical integrity during the healing process. When injected into a critical-size calvarial defect in rabbits, the biocomposites supported ingrowth of new bone. The addition of 80 µg mL−1 recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) enhanced new bone formation in the interior of the defect, as well as bridging of the defect with new bone. These observations suggest that injectable reactive PUR/allograft biocomposites are a promising approach for healing calvarial defects by providing both mechanical stability as well as local delivery of rhBMP-2. (paper)

  18. Histomorphometric evaluation of bone healing in rabbit fibular osteotomy model without fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão Fabio B; Araújo Francisco P; Matos Marcos A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal models of fracture consolidation are fundamental for the understanding of the biological process of bone repair in humans, but histological studies are rare and provide only qualitative results. The objective of this article is to present the histomorphometric study of the bone healing process using an experimental model of osteotomy in rabbit fibula without interference of synthesis material. Methods Fifteen rabbits were submitted to fibular osteotomy without any f...

  19. Serial strain gauge measurement of bone healing in hoffmann® external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N

    1984-04-01

    In order to better assess callus strength for postoperative management of Hoffmann external fixation patients, the author attempted to estimate the amount of strain when bending or compressing the fracture site with a strain gauge glued to the middle of a connecting rod. Calculations in a computer architectural model of a plane beam structure show that the amount of strain on a connecting rod would decrease hyperbolically when the mechanical properties of the callus increased. Strength testing in a cadaveric crural bone confirms the importance of callus volume. The serial strain gauge measurement technique was applied to a series of 23 cases treated with Hoffmann external fixation, 20 of which achieved bone healing. On the basis of the bone healing curve obtained with the strain gauge measurements, the healing process is classified into five types. PMID:24822815

  20. The Influence of Low-Intensity Laser Therapy on Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT is defined to supply direct biostimulative light energy to the cells. While several studies have demonstrated that LILT has stimulating effects on bone cells and can accelerate the repair process of the bone, others reported delayed fracture healing or no effects after LILT. The aim of this article was to review the studies evaluating the biomodulation effects of LILT on bone-derived stem cells.Materials and Methods: To access relevant articles, searching in three electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct was conducted until April 2012. The key words used were low-level laser, low-intensity laser, low-power laser therapy, stem cell, bone marrow stem cell, bone and osteoblast. The articles that met the eligibility criteria were included in this review of literature.Results: Twenty-five relevant articles (13 in vitro and 12 animal studies were included. Eleven in vitro studies showed positive results with regard to acceleration of cell proliferation and differentiation. All animal studies showed improved bone healing in sites irradiated with low-intensity laser.Conclusion: Based on the results of the reviewed articles, low intensity laser therapy can accelerate bone healing in extraction sites, bone fracture defects and distraction osteogenesis, provided proper parameters were applied.

  1. Histomorphometric evaluation of bone healing in rabbit fibular osteotomy model without fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paixão Fabio B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal models of fracture consolidation are fundamental for the understanding of the biological process of bone repair in humans, but histological studies are rare and provide only qualitative results. The objective of this article is to present the histomorphometric study of the bone healing process using an experimental model of osteotomy in rabbit fibula without interference of synthesis material. Methods Fifteen rabbits were submitted to fibular osteotomy without any fixation device. Groups of five animals were submitted to pharmacological euthanasia during a period of one (group A, two (group B and four weeks (group C after osteotomy. Histomorphometric evaluation was performed in the histological sections. Results During week one there was intense cellularity (67/field, a large amount of woven bone (75.7% and a small amount of lamellar bone (7.65%. At two weeks there was a decrease in woven bone (41.59% and an increase in lamellar bone (15.16%. At four weeks there was a decrease of cellularity (19.17/field and lamellar bone (55.56% exceeded the quantity of woven bone (31.68%. Conclusion Histomorphometric (quantitative evaluation of the present study was shown to be compatible with bone healing achieved in qualitative experimental models that have been commended in the literature.

  2. Evolution of bone biomechanical properties at the micrometer scale around titanium implant as a function of healing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue around implants is important to understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of elastic properties of newly formed bone tissue as a function of healing time. To do so, nanoindentation and micro-Brillouin scattering techniques are coupled following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 µm from the cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity. Two rabbits were sacrificed after 7 and 13 weeks of healing time. The histological analyses allow us to distinguish mature and newly formed bone tissue. The bone mechanical properties were measured in mature and newly formed bone tissue. Analysis of variance and Tukey–Kramer tests reveals a significant effect of healing time on the indentation modulus and ultrasonic velocities of bone tissue. The results show that bone mass density increases by 12.2% (2.2% respectively) between newly formed bone at 7 weeks (13 weeks respectively) and mature bone. The dependence of bone properties on healing time may be explained by the evolution of bone microstructure and mineralization. (paper)

  3. Evolution of bone biomechanical properties at the micrometer scale around titanium implant as a function of healing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayron, Romain; Matsukawa, Mami; Tsubota, Ryo; Mathieu, Vincent; Barthel, Etienne; Haiat, Guillaume

    2014-03-01

    The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue around implants is important to understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of elastic properties of newly formed bone tissue as a function of healing time. To do so, nanoindentation and micro-Brillouin scattering techniques are coupled following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 µm from the cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity. Two rabbits were sacrificed after 7 and 13 weeks of healing time. The histological analyses allow us to distinguish mature and newly formed bone tissue. The bone mechanical properties were measured in mature and newly formed bone tissue. Analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer tests reveals a significant effect of healing time on the indentation modulus and ultrasonic velocities of bone tissue. The results show that bone mass density increases by 12.2% (2.2% respectively) between newly formed bone at 7 weeks (13 weeks respectively) and mature bone. The dependence of bone properties on healing time may be explained by the evolution of bone microstructure and mineralization.

  4. Bioengineered periosteal progenitor cell sheets to enhance tendon-bone healing in a bone tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tendon-bone tunnel healing is crucial for long term success in anterior cruciate liga­ment (ACL reconstruction. The periosteum contains osteochondral progenitor cells that can differenti­ate into osteoblasts and chondroblasts during tendon-bone healing. We developed a scaf­fold-free method using polymerized fibrin-coated dishes to make functional periosteal progenitor cell (PPC sheets. Bioengineered PPC sheets for enhancing tendon-bone healing were evaluated in an extra-articular bone tunnel model in rabbit. Methods: PPC derived from rabbit tibia periosteum, cultivated on polymerized fi­brin-coated dishes and harvested as PPC sheet. A confocal microscopy assay was used to evaluate the morphology of PPC sheets. PPC sheets as a periosteum to wrap around hamstring tendon grafts were pulled into a 3-mm diameter bone tunnel of tibia, and compared with a tendon graft without PPC sheets treatment. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biochemical as­say and histological assay to demonstrate the enhancement of PPC sheets in tendon-bone healing. Results: PPC spread deposit on fibrin on the dish surface with continuous monolayer PPC was ob­served. Histological staining revealed that PPC sheets enhance collagen and glycosaminoglycans deposi­tion with fibrocartilage formation in the tendon-bone junction at 4 weeks. Collagen fiber with fibrocartilage formation at tendon-bone junction was also found at 8 weeks. Matured fibrocartilage and dense collagen fiber were formed at the tendon-bone interface at 8 weeks by Masson trichrome and Safranin-O staining Conclusions: Periosteal progenitor cell monolayer maintains the differentiated capacity and osteochon­dral potential in order to promote fibrocartilage formation in tendon-bone junction. Bioengi­neered PPC sheets can offer a new feasible therapeutic strategy of a novel approach to en­hance tendon-bone junction healing.

  5. In silico Mechano-Chemical Model of Bone Healing for the Regeneration of Critical Defects: The Effect of BMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico O Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The healing of bone defects is a challenge for both tissue engineering and modern orthopaedics. This problem has been addressed through the study of scaffold constructs combined with mechanoregulatory theories, disregarding the influence of chemical factors and their respective delivery devices. Of the chemical factors involved in the bone healing process, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 has been identified as one of the most powerful osteoinductive proteins. The aim of this work is to develop and validate a mechano-chemical regulatory model to study the effect of BMP-2 on the healing of large bone defects in silico. We first collected a range of quantitative experimental data from the literature concerning the effects of BMP-2 on cellular activity, specifically proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and extracellular matrix production. These data were then used to define a model governed by mechano-chemical stimuli to simulate the healing of large bone defects under the following conditions: natural healing, an empty hydrogel implanted in the defect and a hydrogel soaked with BMP-2 implanted in the defect. For the latter condition, successful defect healing was predicted, in agreement with previous in vivo experiments. Further in vivo comparisons showed the potential of the model, which accurately predicted bone tissue formation during healing, bone tissue distribution across the defect and the quantity of bone inside the defect. The proposed mechano-chemical model also estimated the effect of BMP-2 on cells and the evolution of healing in large bone defects. This novel in silico tool provides valuable insight for bone tissue regeneration strategies.

  6. The crucial role of neutrophil granulocytes in bone fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, A; Bergdolt, S; Wiegner, R; Radermacher, P; Huber-Lang, M; Ignatius, A

    2016-01-01

    Delayed bone fracture healing and the formation of non-unions represent an important clinical problem, particularly in polytrauma patients who suffer from posttraumatic systemic inflammation. However, the underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear. Neutrophil granulocytes are crucial effector cells in the systemic immune response and represent the most abundant immune cell population in the early fracture haematoma. Here we investigated the role of neutrophils in a mouse model of uncomplicated fracture healing and compromised fracture healing induced by an additional thoracic trauma. Twenty four hours before injury, 50 % of the mice were systemically treated with an anti-Ly-6G-antibody to reduce neutrophil numbers. In the isolated fracture model, Ly-6G-Ab treatment significantly increased the concentration of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, and chemokines, for example, C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in the fracture haematoma. Monocyte/macrophage recruitment was also significantly enhanced. After 21 d, bone regeneration was considerably impaired as demonstrated by significantly diminished bone content and impaired mechanical properties of the fracture callus. These results indicate that undisturbed neutrophil recruitment and function in the inflammatory phase after fracture is crucial to initiate downstream responses leading to bone regeneration. In the combined trauma model, the reduction of neutrophil numbers ameliorated pulmonary inflammation but did not provoke any significant effect on bone regeneration, suggesting that neutrophils may not play a crucial pathomechanistic role in compromised fracture healing induced by an additional thoracic trauma. PMID:27452963

  7. Analysis of fracture healing in osteopenic bone caused by disuse: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Paiva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis has become a serious global public health issue. Hence, osteoporotic fracture healing has been investigated in several previous studies because there is still controversy over the effect osteoporosis has on the healing process. The current study aimed to analyze two different periods of bone healing in normal and osteopenic rats. Sixty, 7-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: unrestricted and immobilized for 2 weeks after osteotomy (OU2, suspended and immobilized for 2 weeks after osteotomy (OS2, unrestricted and immobilized for 6 weeks after osteotomy (OU6, and suspended and immobilized for 6 weeks after osteotomy (OS6. Osteotomy was performed in the middle third of the right tibia 21 days after tail suspension, when the osteopenic condition was already set. The fractured limb was then immobilized by orthosis. Tibias were collected 2 and 6 weeks after osteotomy, and were analyzed by bone densitometry, mechanical testing, and histomorphometry. Bone mineral density values from bony calluses were significantly lower in the 2-week post-osteotomy groups compared with the 6-week post-osteotomy groups (multivariate general linear model analysis, P<0.000. Similarly, the mechanical properties showed that animals had stronger bones 6 weeks after osteotomy compared with 2 weeks after osteotomy (multivariate general linear model analysis, P<0.000. Histomorphometry indicated gradual bone healing. Results showed that osteopenia did not influence the bone healing process, and that time was an independent determinant factor regardless of whether the fracture was osteopenic. This suggests that the body is able to compensate for the negative effects of suspension.

  8. Stem cell therapy: a promising biological strategy for tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zi-Chen; Wang, Shan-Zheng; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Lu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a complex process, impacting significantly on patients' prognosis. Natural tendon-bone healing usually results in fibrous scar tissue, which is of inferior quality compared to native attachment. In addition, the early formed fibrous attachment after surgery is often not reliable to support functional rehabilitation, which may lead to graft failure or unsatisfied function of the knee joint. Thus, strategies to promote tendon-bone healing are crucial for prompt and satisfactory functional recovery. Recently, a variety of biological approaches, including active substances, gene transfer, tissue engineering and stem cells, have been proposed and applied to enhance tendon-bone healing. Among these, stem cell therapy has been shown to have promising prospects and draws increasing attention. From commonly investigated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) to emerging ACL-derived CD34+ stem cells, multiple stem cell types have been proven to be effective in accelerating tendon-bone healing. This review describes the current understanding of tendon-bone healing and summarizes the current status of related stem cell therapy. Future limitations and perspectives are also discussed. PMID:26929145

  9. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy: a potential strategy to stimulate tendon-bone junction healing*

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Zhi-Min; Lin, Tiao; Yan, Shi-Gui

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of a tendon graft within the bone tunnel represents a challenging clinical problem. Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Enhancement of graft healing to bone is important to facilitate early aggressive rehabilitation and a rapid return to pre-injury activity levels. No convenient, effective or inexpensive procedures exist to enhance tendon-bone (T-B) healing after surgery. Low-intensity pulsed u...

  10. The effects of photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Costa Lino, Maíra D.; Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Ferreira Moraes, Michel; Augusto Cardoso, José; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Maria Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there are only a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder as Diabetes Melitus and LLLT. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LLLT (AsGaAl), 780nm, 70mW, CW, Ø~0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) on the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Albinus rats. Surgical bone defects were created in 60 animals divided into four groups of 15 animals each: Group C (non-diabetic - control); Group CL (non-diabetic + LLLT); Group CD (diabetic); Group CDL (diabetic + LLLT). The animals on the irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into four points around the defect, being the first irradiation immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The results of the present investigation showed histological evidence of improved amount of collagen fibers at early stages of the bone healing (15 days) and increased amount of well organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period (30 days) on irradiated animals, (diabetic and non-diabetic) compared to non irradiated ones. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process of bone defects, even when diabetes mellitus was present.

  11. The effect of pentosan polysulphate on bone healing of rat cranial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoirieux, L; Pourquier, D; Picot, M C; Neves, M

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of pentosan polysulphate, used in combination with guided bone regeneration on rat skull defects. The study was conducted on 45 adult Wistar rats. On each animal two symmetrical 6 mm wide, full-thickness, skull defects were created in the parietal regions. The right defect was chosen as the experimental site and the left one was left empty to provide a control. Each experimental site was covered by an inner and outer polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. The 45 rats were divided into 3 groups: in group I (n = 15), carboxymethyl cellulose, used as a delivery vehicle, was injected between the two membranes; in group II (n = 15), 1 mg of pentosan polysulfate was added to the carboxymethyl cellulose vehicle; in group III (n = 15), purified micronized eggshell powder was added to the mixture of pentosan polysulfate and carboxymethyl cellulose between the two membranes. In each group, the animals were sacrificed at 42 days. The harvested specimens were processed for contact radiography and standard histological examination. The results were assessed by a Fisher's exact test. All animals, except one, healed uneventfully. In group I, partial bone healing was observed in 14 out of 15 animals. In group II, partial bone healing was observed in 13 out of 15 animals, and complete bone healing in 1 out of 15 cases. In group III, partial resorption of the eggshell implant was observed with a partial bone healing in only 2 cases (P polysulphate did not result in additional bone gain. The use of particulate material as a space maintainer is also questionable. PMID:10717835

  12. [Serial strain gauge measurement of bone healing in Hoffmann external fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N

    1984-01-01

    Since 1978, the author has applied Hoffmann external fixation to the treatment of open fractures and infected pseudoarthrosis of long bones in the lower limbs, but has some difficulties in determining when weight bearing should be started after operation, how much weight bearing should be and when the pin should be removed. As new method to mechanically analyze the callus strength, I tried to estimate the amount of strain at intervals of 2 to 3 weeks, beginning from the second week after operation, by bending or compressing the fracture site through the strain gauge glued to the middle of the external fixator's connecting rod. From a strength test by means of a model of fracture using a vinyl chloride pipe and also from a study of computer calculation using the model of plane beam structure for architectural design, it was found that the amount of the strain on the connecting rod decreased hyperbolically when the mechanical properties of the callus increased, and that it became constant when the mechanical properties of the callus reached 50% of the intact bone. The strength test using an cadaveric skin bone demonstrated that the callus volume was one of the most important and affecting factor. Twenty-three cases were treated by Hoffmann external fixation, and the bone healing was achieved in 20 of them. On the basis of the bone healing curve obtained by the serial strain gauge measurement in those cases, the bone healing process could be classified into 5 types: normal healing, slow healing, non-union, arrest in evolution and breakage of callus; and were employed as indexes in the post-operative rehabilitation program. PMID:6747402

  13. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects grafted with bovine bone in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; da Costa Lino, Maíra Doria Martinez; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Cangussu, Maria Cristina; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there is a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder such as Diabetes Mellitus, a systemic disorder associated to impair of the repair of different tissues. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic rats treated or not with LLLT (λ780nm, 70mW, CW, o/˜0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) associated or not to the use of a biomaterial. Surgical tibial bone defects were created in 60 animals that were divided into 4 groups: Group B (non-diabetic + biomaterial); Group BL (non-diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT); Group BD (diabetic + biomaterial); Group BDL (diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT). The irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into 4 points around the defect, being the first irradiation carried out immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The specimens underwent a semi-quantitative analysis. The results showed inflammation more intense in the BD and BDL groups than in the B and BL groups in the period of 15 days (p = 0.02), however the cortical repair in the BDL group was below 25% in more than half of the specimens, while in the BD group, the repair was more than to 25% in all specimens. At 30 days, both osteoblastic activity and collagen deposition were significantly higher in the B group when compared to the BD group (p=0.04). Bone deposition was significantly higher in the BL group (p=0.023) than in BDL group. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect in the early stages of the healing process of bone defects grafted with biomaterial in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  14. Mechanical microenvironments and protein expression associated with formation of different skeletal tissues during bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory J; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Morgan, Elise F

    2015-11-01

    Uncovering the mechanisms of the sensitivity of bone healing to mechanical factors is critical for understanding the basic biology and mechanobiology of the skeleton, as well as for enhancing clinical treatment of bone injuries. This study refined an experimental method of measuring the strain microenvironment at the site of a bone injury during bone healing. This method used a rat model in which a well-controlled bending motion was applied to an osteotomy to induce the formation of pseudarthrosis that is composed of a range of skeletal tissues, including woven bone, cartilage, fibrocartilage, fibrous tissue, and clot tissue. The goal of this study was to identify both the features of the strain microenvironment associated with formation of these different tissues and the expression of proteins frequently implicated in sensing and transducing mechanical cues. By pairing the strain measurements with histological analyses that identified the regions in which each tissue type formed, we found that formation of the different tissue types occurs in distinct strain microenvironments and that the type of tissue formed is correlated most strongly to the local magnitudes of extensional and shear strains. Weaker correlations were found for dilatation. Immunohistochemical analyses of focal adhesion kinase and rho family proteins RhoA and CDC42 revealed differences within the cartilaginous tissues in the calluses from the pseudarthrosis model as compared to fracture calluses undergoing normal endochondral bone repair. These findings suggest the involvement of these proteins in the way by which mechanical stimuli modulate the process of cartilage formation during bone healing. PMID:25822264

  15. Enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified with bFGF/BMP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Li, Bin; Qi, Yong-Jian; Ni, Qu-Bo; Pan, Zheng-Qi; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies, including various growth factors and gene transfer, have been used to augment healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The biological environment regulated by the growth factors during the stage of tendon-bone healing was considered important in controlling the integrating process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) genetically modified with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on healing after ACL reconstruction. BMSCs were infected with an adenoviral vector encoding BMP2 (AdBMP2) or bFGF (AdbFGF). Then, the infected BMSCs were surgically implanted into the tendon-bone interface. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the formation of abundant cartilage-like cells, smaller tibial bone tunnel and significantly higher ultimate load and stiffness levels, through histological analysis, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing, were observed. In addition, the AdBMP2-plus-AdbFGF group had the smallest bone tunnel and the best mechanical properties among all the groups. The addition of BMP2 or bFGF by gene transfer resulted in better cellularity, new bone formation and higher mechanical property, which contributed to the healing process after ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, the co-application of these two genes was more powerful and efficient than either single gene therapy. PMID:27173013

  16. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on new trabecular bone during bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model: a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study.

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    Hongbin Lu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone-tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone-tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone-tendon junction injury model at the patella-patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point. The patella-patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone-tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promote bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone-tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate

  17. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

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    Wing-Sum Siu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing.

  18. Low level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalha, Carla Christina; Santos, Ana Lúcia Yaeko Silva; Veronez, Suellen de Oliveira; Fernandes, Kelly Rossetti; Magri, Angela Maria Paiva; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-06-01

    Bone loss occurs rapidly and consistently after the occurrence of a spinal cord injury (SCI), leading to a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and a higher risk of fractures. In this context, the stimulatory effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) also known as photobiomodulation (PBM) have been highlighted, mainly due to its osteogenic potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT on bone healing using an experimental model of tibial bone defect in SCI rats. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham group (SG), SCI control group (SC) and SCI laser treated group (SL). Two weeks after the induction of the SCI, animals were submitted to surgery to induce a tibial bone defect. Treatment was performed 3days a week, for 2weeks, at a single point over the area of the injury, using an 808nm laser (30mW, 100J/cm(2); 0.028cm(2), 1.7W/cm², 2.8J). The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation. In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI. PMID:27077555

  19. Knockdown of SVCT2 impairs in-vitro cell attachment, migration and wound healing in bone marrow stromal cells

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    Rajnikumar Sangani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC adhesion and migration are fundamental to a number of pathophysiologic processes, including fracture and wound healing. Vitamin C is beneficial for bone formation, fracture repair and wound healing. However, the role of the vitamin C transporter in BMSC adhesion, migration and wound healing is not known. In this study, we knocked-down the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter, SVCT2, the only known transporter of vitamin C in BMSCs, and performed cell adhesion, migration, in-vitro scratch wound healing and F-actin re-arrangement studies. We also investigated the role of oxidative stress on the above processes. Our results demonstrate that both oxidative stress and down-regulation of SVCT2 decreased cell attachment and spreading. A trans-well cell migration assay showed that vitamin C helped in BMSC migration and that knockdown of SVCT2 decreased cell migration. In the in-vitro scratch wound healing studies, we established that oxidative stress dose-dependently impairs wound healing. Furthermore, the supplementation of vitamin C significantly rescued the BMSCs from oxidative stress and increased wound closing. The knockdown of SVCT2 in BMSCs strikingly decreased wound healing, and supplementing with vitamin C failed to rescue cells efficiently. The knockdown of SVCT2 and induction of oxidative stress in cells produced an alteration in cytoskeletal dynamics. Signaling studies showed that oxidative stress phosphorylated members of the MAP kinase family (p38 and that vitamin C inhibited their phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that both the SVCT2 transporter and oxidative stress play a vital role in BMSC attachment, migration and cytoskeletal re-arrangement. BMSC-based cell therapy and modulation of SVCT2 could lead to a novel therapeutic approach that enhances bone remodeling, fracture repair and wound healing in chronic disease conditions.

  20. Gene gun transferring-bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene enhanced bone fracture healing in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenju; Wei, Haifeng; Xia, Chunmei; Zhu, Xiaomeng; Hou, Guozhu; Xu, Feng; Xinghua SONG; Zhan, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transferring the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) genes into the tissues or cells can improve the bone healing of the fracture has been widely accepted. We evaluated the efficiency of using gene gun to transfer the BMP-2 gene thereby affected the healing of a fractured bone. Methods: The vector coding for BMP-2 was constructed by a non-replicating encephalo-myocarditis virus (ECMV)-based vector. The segmental bone defect (1.5 cm) model was created by a wire-saw at the middle part...

  1. Histologic Evaluation of Bone Healing Following Application of Anorganic Bovine Bone and β-tricalcium Phosphate in Rabbit Calvaria

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Rokn; Moslemi, N.; B. Eslami; H. Khandagh Abadi; M. Paknejad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Both anorganic bovine bone (ABB) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are used in clinical practice as bone substitute materials, but there is limited data comparing these two materials in standardized defects. The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effectiveness of ABB and β-TCP in the healing of experimentally induced bone defects. Materials and Methods: Eighteen bone defects were created on the calvaria of six rabbits. In each animal, one defect was left untreate...

  2. Augmentation of cutaneous wound healing by pharmacologic mobilization of endogenous bone marrow stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; McGrath, John A

    2014-09-01

    Novel therapeutic tools to accelerate wound healing would have a major impact on the overall burden of skin disease. Lin et al. demonstrate in mice that endogenous bone marrow stem cell mobilization, produced by a pharmacologic combination of AMD3100 and tacrolimus, leads to faster and better-quality wound healing, findings that have exciting potential for clinical translation. PMID:25120149

  3. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L0) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N0) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p1) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N1) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p2) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N2) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  4. Effect of allogeneic bone marrow derived stromal cells on induced third-degree skin burn healing in mouse

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    Leyla Soleymani

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This experimental modulation of wound healing suggests that bone marrow-derived stromal cells can significantly enhance the rate of wound healing possibly through stimulation of granulation tissue, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition.

  5. Evaluation of bone-tendon junction healing using water jet ultrasound indentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Hua; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Lu, Hong-Bin; Huang, Qing-Hua; Qin, Ling

    2009-11-01

    The re-establishment of bone-tendon junction (BTJ) tissues with the junction, characterized as a unique transitional fibrocartilage zone, is involved in many trauma and reconstructive surgeries. Experimental and clinical findings have shown that a direct BTJ repair requires a long period of immobilization, which may be associated with a postoperative weak knee. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the morphologic and mechanical properties of BTJ tissues in situ to better understand the healing process for the purpose of reducing the adverse effects of immobilization. We previously reported a noncontact ultrasound water jet indentation system for measuring and mapping tissue mechanical properties. The key idea was to utilize a water jet as an indenter as well as the coupling medium for high-frequency ultrasound. In this article, we used ultrasound water jet indentation to evaluate the BTJ healing process. The system's capability of measuring the material elastic modulus was first validated using tissue-mimicking phantoms. Then it was employed to assess the healing of the BTJ tissues after partial patellectomy over time on twelve 18-week-old female New Zealand White rabbits. It was found that in comparison with the normal control samples, the elastic modulus of the fibrocartilage of the postoperative samples was significantly smaller, while its thickness increased significantly. Among the postoperative sample groups, the elastic modulus of the fibrocartilage of the samples harvested at week 18 was significantly higher than those harvested at week 6 and week 12, which was even comparable with the value of the control samples at the same sacrifice time. The results suggested that the noncontact ultrasound water jet indentation system provided a nondestructive way to evaluate the material properties of small animal tissues in situ and thus had the ability to evaluate the healing process of BTJ. PMID:19766382

  6. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of guided ultrasound wave propagation in intact and healing long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopappas, Vasilios C; Kourtis, Iraklis C; Kourtis, Lampros C; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Massalas, Christos V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2007-06-01

    The use of guided waves has recently drawn significant interest in the ultrasonic characterization of bone aiming at supplementing the information provided by traditional velocity measurements. This work presents a three-dimensional finite element study of guided wave propagation in intact and healing bones. A model of the fracture callus was constructed and the healing course was simulated as a three-stage process. The dispersion of guided modes generated by a broadband 1-MHz excitation was represented in the time-frequency domain. Wave propagation in the intact bone model was first investigated and comparisons were then made with a simplified geometry using analytical dispersion curves of the tube modes. Then, the effect of callus consolidation on the propagation characteristics was examined. It was shown that the dispersion of guided waves was significantly influenced by the irregularity and anisotropy of the bone. Also, guided waves were sensitive to material and geometrical changes that take place during healing. Conversely, when the first-arriving signal at the receiver corresponded to a nondispersive lateral wave, its propagation velocity was almost unaffected by the elastic symmetry and geometry of the bone and also could not characterize the callus tissue throughout its thickness. In conclusion, guided waves can enhance the capabilities of ultrasonic evaluation. PMID:17552737

  7. Bone healing in titanium and zirconia implants surface: a pilot study on the rabbit tibia

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    Mariza Akemi Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zirconia has been considered an alternative material to titanium for implant manufacturing, however the mechanisms regarding to bone healing in presence of zirconia implants remains poorly known. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the bone healing surrounding titanium and zirconia implants in rabbits after 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days of implant placement through histological evaluation. Material and methods: Fifteen rabbits were used in this study and randomly subdivided into 5 groups, according to experimental periods. Titanium and zirconia implants were inserted into the right and left tibia, respectively. After healing periods of 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days, animals were euthanatized, the implants were removed and the samples were submitted to histological procedures. Results: Our histological results demonstrated similar bone healing surrounding titanium and zirconia implants after 7, 14 and 30 days after implant placement. After 45 days, a trend towards to earlier bone maturation was detected, remaining after 60 days. Inflammatory infiltrate, bone resorption and foreign body reaction were not observed in any periods and groups evaluated. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that zirconia and titanium presented a similar pattern of bone healing.

  8. The effect of three hemostatic agents on early bone healing in an animal model

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    Dry Sarah M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resorbable bone hemostasis materials, oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC and microfibrillar collagen (MFC, remain at the site of application for up to 8 weeks and may impair osteogenesis. Our experimental study compared the effect of a water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymer (AOC to ORC and MFC versus no hemostatic material on early bone healing. Methods Two circular 2.7 mm non-critical defects were made in each tibia of 12 rabbits. Sufficient AOC, ORC or MFC was applied to achieve hemostasis, and effectiveness recorded. An autologous blood clot was applied to control defects. Rabbits were sacrificed at 17 days, tibiae excised and fixed. Bone healing was quantitatively measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT expressed as fractional bone volume, and qualitatively assessed by histological examination of decalcified sections. Results Hemostasis was immediate after application of MFC and AOC, after 1-2 minutes with ORC, and >5 minutes for control. At 17 days post-surgery, micro-CT analysis showed near-complete healing in control and AOC groups, partial healing in the ORC group and minimal healing in the MFC group. Fractional bone volume was 8 fold greater in the control and AOC groups than in the MFC group (0.42 ± 0.06, 0.40 ± 0.03 vs 0.05 ± 0.01, P P Conclusions Early healing appeared to be impaired by the presence of MFC and impeded by the presence of ORC. In contrast, AOC did not inhibit bone healing and suggest that AOC may be a better bone hemostatic material for procedures where bony fusion is critical and immediate hemostasis required.

  9. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone loss and enhanced tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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    PPY Lui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-tunnel bone loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is commonly observed, both clinically and experimentally. We aimed to study the effect and mechanisms of different doses of alendronate in the reduction of peri-tunnel bone loss and promotion of graft-bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction. Eighty-four ACL-reconstructed rats were divided into 4 groups. Alendronate at different dosages, or saline, were injected subcutaneously weekly, for 2 or 6 weeks post-reconstruction, for vivaCT (computed tomography imaging, biomechanical tests, histology and immunohistochemistry. Alendronate significantly increased bone mass and density of tissue inside bone tunnels except at the epiphyseal region of tibial tunnel. The femoral tunnel diameter decreased significantly in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups compared to that in the saline group at week 6. Alendronate significantly increased the peri-tunnel bone mass and density along all tunnel regions at week 6. Better graft-bone tunnel integration and intra-tunnel graft integrity were observed in the alendronate groups. The ultimate load was significantly higher in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups at week 2, but not at week 6. There was a reduction in matrix metalloprotein (MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells at the peri-tunnel region and graft-bone interface in the alendronate-treated group compared to the saline group. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone resorption, increased mineralised tissue inside bone tunnel as well as histologically and biomechanically promoted graft-bone tunnel healing, probably by reducing the expression of MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells. Alendronate might be used for reducing peri-tunnel bone loss and promoting graft-bone tunnel healing at early stage post-ACL reconstruction.

  10. Celecoxib does not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model: a bone histomorphometry study

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    Iwamoto J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Azusa Seki2, Yoshihiro Sato3, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Hamri Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanBackground and objective: The objective of the present study was to determine whether celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, would delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model by examining bone histomorphometry parameters.Methods: Twenty-one 6-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral osteotomy of the femoral diaphysis followed by intramedullary wire fixation; the rats were then divided into three groups: the vehicle administration group (control, n = 8, the vitamin K2 administration (menatetrenone 30 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (positive control, n = 5, and the celecoxib administration (4 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (n = 8. After 6 weeks of treatment, the wires were removed, and a bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on the bone tissue inside the callus. The lamellar area relative to the bone area was significantly higher and the total area and woven area relative to the bone area were significantly lower in the vitamin K2 group than in the vehicle group. However, none of the structural parameters, such as the callus and bone area relative to the total area, lamellar and woven areas relative to the bone area, or the formative and resorptive parameters such as osteoclast surface, number of osteoclasts, osteoblast surface, osteoid surface, eroded surface, and bone formation rate per bone surface differed significantly between the vehicle and celecoxib groups.Conclusion: The present study implies that celecoxib may not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model based on the results of a bone histomorphometric analysis.Keywords: femoral osteotomy, bone healing, callus, rat, celecoxib

  11. Effects of pre- and postoperative irradiation on the healing of bone grafts in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healing of cellular bone grafts irradiated at various times in the postsurgical course was compared to the healing characteristics of bone grafts placed into already irradiated tissue and to controls of irradiated host mandible in a rabbit model. Physical graft consolidation was assessed by load stress characteristics and serial histologic examination. Results indicated that grafts placed into already irradiated tissues failed to form bone in both phases of expected regeneration resulting in structurally weakened and histologically deficient ossicles. Bone grafts irradiated after placement were tolerant of irradiation. Bone grafts irradiated after four weeks were found to be less affected by irradiation than those irradiated within the first four weeks, forming an ossicle structurally and histologically superior to that of bone ossicles developed from grafts placed into irradiated tissues

  12. Influence of inflammation-mediated osteopenia on the regional acceleratory phenomenon and the systemic acceleratory phenomenon during healing of a bone defect in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, T; Müller, M; Minne, H W; Ziegler, R

    1998-08-01

    We have previously shown that restoration of a local bone defect in the rat not only leads to a regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP), but also to a systemic acceleration of osteogenesis (SAP) at distant sites of the skeleton. In this study, we investigated whether specific inhibition of osteoblasts would affect the local RAP and the systemic acceleratory phenomenon (SAP) healing sites. Systemic inhibition of osteoblasts was induced by inflammation-mediated osteopenia (IMO), a nonspecific type of inflammation initiated by s.c. injections of sterile talc. A drill hole defect 1.2 mm in diameter was performed at the midshaft of the left tibia of female rats. On day 7, during the formation phase of the local healing process, IMO did not influence the number of osteoblasts or the bone volume in the marrow cavity of the local healing site, whereas it did lead to a significant reduction of osteoblast number and bone volume at the systemic site (subepiphyseal spongiosa of the tibia). By contrast, on days 14 and 21, during the resorption phase of bone healing. IMO led to a significant reduction in both osteoblast number and bone volume in the marrow cavity of the local healing site. At the same time, however, it did not influence the cortical area of the bone defect where newly formed bone is needed to ensure mechanical stability. In summary, our model of bone healing reveals that a humoral noxious osteoblast stimulus such as IMO is able to inhibit systemically osteoblasts stimulated by SAP, whereas it is not able to inhibit osteoblasts either from producing woven bone during a RAP or from producing bone that is needed to mechanically stabilize a defect. PMID:9685523

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy: a potential strategy to stimulate tendon-bone junction healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-min YING; Tiao LIN; Shi-gui YAN

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of a tendon graft within the bone tunnel represents a challenging clinical problem.Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel.Enhancement of graft healing to bone is important to facilitate early aggressive rehabilitation and a rapid return to pre-injury activity levels.No convenient,effective or inexpensive procedures exist to enhance tendon-bone (T-B) healing after surgery.Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) improves local blood perfusion and angiogenesis,stimulates cartilage maturation,enhances differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts,and motivates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs),and therefore,appears to be a potential non-invasive tool for T-B healing in early stage of rehabilitation of ACL reconstruction.It is conceivable that LIPUS could be used to stimulate T-B tunnel healing in the home,with the aim of accelerating rehabilitation and an earlier return to normal activities in the near future.The purpose of this review is to demonstrate how LIPUS stimulates T-B healing at the cellular and molecular levels,describe studies in animal models,and provide a future direction for research.

  14. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy: a potential strategy to stimulate tendon-bone junction healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhi-min; Lin, Tiao; Yan, Shi-gui

    2012-12-01

    Incorporation of a tendon graft within the bone tunnel represents a challenging clinical problem. Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Enhancement of graft healing to bone is important to facilitate early aggressive rehabilitation and a rapid return to pre-injury activity levels. No convenient, effective or inexpensive procedures exist to enhance tendon-bone (T-B) healing after surgery. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) improves local blood perfusion and angiogenesis, stimulates cartilage maturation, enhances differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts, and motivates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and therefore, appears to be a potential non-invasive tool for T-B healing in early stage of rehabilitation of ACL reconstruction. It is conceivable that LIPUS could be used to stimulate T-B tunnel healing in the home, with the aim of accelerating rehabilitation and an earlier return to normal activities in the near future. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate how LIPUS stimulates T-B healing at the cellular and molecular levels, describe studies in animal models, and provide a future direction for research. PMID:23225850

  15. The Effect of Inital-Phase Bone Remodeling on Implant Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Oh, Tae-Ju; Rudek, Ivan; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    This case series aimed to investigate the initial-phase bone remodeling during implant wound healing and to discuss the possible contributing factors. A total of 11 implants with polished collars were placed in premaxillary regions via flapless approach with the aid of computer technology. After 15 months of follow-up, the results suggested that the presence of polished collars triggered bone resorption via a bone remodeling mechanism. The overall vertical crestal resorption was 0.78 ± 0.46 mm on average. This initial-phase bone remodeling primarily occurred within the first 3 months postoperatively. The slightly exposed polished collar may not worsen crestal bone level. PMID:27560679

  16. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Yeon Lee; Soo Jin Son; Jun Sik Son; Seong Soo Kang; Seok Hwa Choi

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing betwe...

  17. Kinetics of gene expression of alkaline phosphatase during healing of alveolar bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Willian Caetano; Fabris, André Luís da Silva; Hassumi, Jaqueline Suemi; Gonçalves, Alaíde; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Okamoto, Roberta

    2016-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies and molecular biology have enabled us to identify numerous proteins that are involved in the metabolism of bone, and their encoding genes. Among these is alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme that is responsible for the initiation of mineralisation of the extracellular matrix during alveolar bone repair. To evaluate the gene expression of ALP during this process, we studied nine healthy adult male rats, which had their maxillary central incisors extracted from the right side and were randomly divided into three groups. During three experimental periods, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days, the alveoli were curetted, the rats killed, and samples analysed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The RNAm that encodes the gene for the synthesis of ALP was expressed during the three periods analysed, but its concentration was significantly increased at 14 and 28 days compared with at 7 days. There was no significant difference between 14 and 28 days (p=0.0005). We conclude that genes related to ALP are expressed throughout the healing process and more intensively during the later periods (14 and 28 days), which coincides with the increased formation of mineralised bone. PMID:26935214

  18. A new experimental model to study healing process of metaphyseal fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Na; ZHANG Pei-xun; WANG Wei-bin; HAN Da-cheng; CHEN Jian-hai; ZHAN Hong-bo; JIANG Bao-guo

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few researches for the healing of metaphyseal fractures; moreover,the animal models to study the metaphyseal fractures are usually made by the oscillating saw osteotomy without reliable fixation,which is not in accordance with our current clinical practice.In this study,we established a new model to observe the healing process of metaphyseal fractures.Methods Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were used in the study.The fracture model was created by splitting the medial tibial plateau in rabbits,then reset,and fixed with compression screws.At 1,2,3,4,6,and 8 weeks postoperatively,the tibial specimens were collected; firstly,a general observation and an X-ray examination of the specimens was done,and then they were embedded in methylmethacrylate and cut into sections with hard tissue slicer.The sections were stained with Giemsa reagent and examined under light microscopy.Results There was no fracture displacement in the tibial specimens of all time points,except for one showing a collapse.No external callus formation could be observed by X-ray and general examination.After 1 week of the operation,the fracture gap was filled by mesenchymal tissue; 2 weeks postoperatively,a large number of woven bones were formed; from the third week onwards,the woven bone began to turn into lamellar bone,and new trabecular structure began to form.In all of the slices,no obvious chondrocytes formed in fracture areas; thus,there was no endochondral ossification.Conclusions This model was an ideal fracture animal model and suitable for the study of metaphyseal fracture healing.The X-ray and histological images demonstrated that metaphyseal fracture healing was a process of direct bone healing through intramembranous bone formation under the conditions of minor trauma,good reduction,and firm fixation.

  19. Three-Dimensional Porous Gelapin-Simvastatin Scaffolds Promoted Bone Defect Healing in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Ali; Shahrezaee, Mostafa; Shekarchi, Babak; Oryan, Ahmad; Azma, Kamran

    2015-06-01

    Treatment of large bone defects (LBDs) is technically demanding. Tissue engineering is an option. A bioactive graft may be produced by combining tissue scaffolds and healing promotive factors in order to accelerate bone repair. We investigated the role of Simvastatin (Sim)-embedded porous Gelapin (Gel) scaffold on experimental bone healing. At first, the effectiveness of different concentrations of Gel and Sim powders was investigated in an experimentally induced femoral hole model in rabbits (n = 6) for 30 days. Then bone bioactive grafts were produced by combination of the effective concentrations of Gel, Sim, and Genipin. The bioimplants were subcutaneously tested in a rabbit model (n = 9) to determine their biocompatibility and biodegradability for 10-30 days. Finally, a large radial bone defect model was produced in rabbits (n = 20), and the bioimplants were inserted in the defects. The untreated and autograft-treated bone defects were served as controls. The animals were euthanized after 30 and 60 days of bone injury. The bone samples were evaluated by radiography, three-dimensional CT scan, bone densitometry, histopathology, and nano-indentation. At a concentration of 5 mg/hole, Sim closed the femoral bone holes after 30 days, while in the defect, autograft, and Gel groups, the holes were open. Both the Gel and Gel-Sim scaffolds were biocompatible and biodegradable. Subcutaneously, the Gel-Sim scaffold was replaced with the newly regenerated ectopic bone after 30 days. After implantation of the Gel-Sim scaffold in the radial bone defects, the scaffold was completely replaced with new woven bone after 30 days which was then matured and remodeled into a cortical bone after 60 days. Sixty days after bone injury, the Gel-Sim-treated defects had significantly higher bone volume, matrix mineralization, elastic modulus, and contact hardness when compared to the controls. The Gel-Sim scaffold may be a suitable option in managing LBDs. PMID:25804980

  20. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  1. Effects of scaffold architecture on cranial bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A; Woodruff, M A; Lam, C X F; Arafat, M T; Saifzadeh, S; Steck, R; Ren, J; Nerlich, M; Ekaputra, A K; Gibson, I; Hutmacher, D W

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/TCP) scaffolds with two different fibre laydown patterns, which were coated with hydroxyapatite and gelatine, were used as an approach for optimizing bone regeneration in a critical-sized calvarial defect. After 12 weeks, bone regeneration was quantified using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, biomechanical testing, and histological evaluation. Notably, the experimental groups with coated scaffolds showed lower bone formation and lower biomechanical properties within the defect compared to the uncoated scaffolds. Surprisingly, the different laydown pattern of the fibres resulted in different bone formation and biomechanical properties: the 0°/60°/120° scaffolds revealed lower bone formation and biomechanical properties compared to the 0°/90° scaffolds in all the experimental groups. Therefore, future bone regeneration strategies utilizing scaffolds should consider scaffold architecture as an important factor during the scaffold optimization stages in order to move closer to a clinical application. PMID:24183512

  2. Photoacoustic injury and bone healing following 193nm excimer laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustmann, J; Ulmansky, M; Fuxbrunner, A; Lewis, A

    1992-01-01

    The argon-fluoride excimer laser was investigated as a cutting-ablating tool for bone surgery. A total of 52 rats were divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. In one experimental group cortical bone defects were made; in another experimental group defects penetrating into the medullary space were performed. In the two control groups similar defects were achieved using water-cooled carbide burs. The rats were sacrificed on each of the 3, 7, 10, 20, 30, and 40 postoperative day. The cortical bone, the medullary space, and the extrabony tissue were examined by means of light microscopy. In both experimental groups, bone damage, represented by osteocyte destruction, extended to 1,050-1,450 microns ahead from the irradiated site, and bone healing was very much impaired. In the control groups no histological changes could be identified and bone healing appeared to be within normal limits. We believe this extensive bone damage, following 193 nm irradiation, to be a result of photoacoustic waves propagating in the bone following each pulse. In view of our results we feel that excimer lasers presently in use are not suitable for bone surgery. This problem of photoacoustic damage can be overcome in one of two ways: by designing a CW excimer laser or by reducing the pulse width to the picosecond regime. PMID:1495367

  3. Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nogueira Fracon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2 and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new selective COX-2 inhibitor. Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to be no study associating etoricoxib with reparative bone formation. Paracetamol/acetaminophen, one of the first choices for pain control in clinical dentistry, has been considered a weak anti-inflammatory drug, although supposedly capable of inhibiting COX-2 activity in inflammatory sites. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether paracetamol, ketorolac and etoricoxib can hinder alveolar bone formation, taking the filling of rat extraction socket with newly formed bone as experimental model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The degree of new bone formation inside the alveolar socket was estimated two weeks after tooth extraction by a differential point-counting method, using an optical microscopy with a digital camera for image capture and histometry software. Differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA after confirming a normal distribution of sample data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Histometric results confirmed that none of the tested drugs had a detrimental effect in the volume fraction of bone trabeculae formed inside the alveolar socket.

  4. Crack Closure Based Self Healing Process for Metallic Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. (AS&M) is proposing to develop and validate a process that can extend the fatigue life of and potentially self-heal...

  5. Histopathological and Histomorphometrical Effects of Atorvastatin on Experimental Femoral Cortical Bone Defect Healing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Valilu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone remodeling has always been the goal of surgeons for a long time. Recently, it was shown that statins that are commonly prescribed for lowering cholesterol also have beneficial effects on bone healing. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the probable effects of atorvastatin on osteogenesis in the rat femur. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 30 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. The animals were divided randomly into one control and two experiment groups. After induction of anesthesia, a hole of 2 mm in diameter was made in femur width. The control group received physiological serum but the experiment groups one and two, respectively, received 10 and 20 mg/kg/PO of atorvastatin on daily basis. After euthanizing the rats, histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations of the bones were performed 45 days after the intervention. Results: In the control group, the defects seemed to be filled with woven bone and bone marrow, depictive of a poor osteogenic activity. In the experiment groups, many osteoblast groupings and young bone trabeculae had been formed and bone trabeculae were more organized. Histomorphometric results, showed that atorvastatin had significantly promoted bone healing in the experiment groups compared with the controls (P<0.001. Moreover, the analysis showed that atorvastatin had more significant effects in group three receiving high doses of the medication in comparison with group two (P<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that atorvastatin is capable of stimulating osteogenesis in rats.

  6. Impaired bone healing in multitrauma patients is associated with altered leukocyte kinetics after major trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Okan W; Kuijer, Anne; Koenderman, Leo; Stellato, Rebecca K; van Solinge, Wouter W; Leenen, Luke PH; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that the systemic inflammatory response to major injury impairs bone regeneration. It remains unclear whether the systemic immune response contributes to impairment of fracture healing in multitrauma patients. It is well known that systemic inflammatory changes after major trauma affect leukocyte kinetics. We therefore retrospectively compared the cellular composition of peripheral blood during the first 2 weeks after injury between multitrauma patients with normal (n=48) and impaired (n=32) fracture healing of the tibia. The peripheral blood-count curves of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and thrombocytes differed significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after trauma (P-values were 0.0122, 0.0083, 0.0204, and fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after major injury. This finding suggests that the systemic immune response to major trauma can disturb tissue regeneration. PMID:27274302

  7. miRNA-29b improves bone healing in mouse fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wayne Y; Li, Nan; Lin, Sien; Wang, Bin; Lan, Hui Y; Li, Gang

    2016-07-15

    A number of miRNAs regulates bone remodeling and their levels in circulation were associated with bone fracture, however no miRNAs have yet been shown to improve fracture healing directly. This study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-29b-3p on mice femoral fracture healing through site-specific delivery with microbubble-ultrasound system. miR-29b-3p promoted osteogenesis of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as indicated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Alizarin red S staining. Animal study showed that single injection of miR-29b-3p at week 2 post fracture improved healing outcome as indicated by significant decrease of callus width and area with radiographic analysis without causing significant weight loss. Static bone histomorphometry analysis showed that miR-29b-3p increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) measurement showed increased BV/TV of high density bone and bone mineral density (BMD) of the callus. 3 point bending mechanical test showed improved relative stiffness. However, repeated injection of miR-29b-3p at weeks 2 and 3 did not result in additive therapeutic outcome, and caused increased total tissue volume and reduced BMD of the callus. This is the first report showing significant therapeutic effect of miR-29b-3p on femoral fracture healing through site-specific delivery with microbubble-ultrasound system. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms and to refine the treatment protocol. PMID:27113026

  8. Are Endogenous BMPs Necessary for Bone Healing during Distraction Osteogenesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Norine; St-Arnaud, René; Lauzier, Dominique; Rosen, Vicki; Hamdy, Reggie C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous reports suggest the application of exogenous BMPs can accelerate bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO). However, there are drawbacks associated with the use of exogenous BMPs. A possible alternative to the use of exogenous BMPs is to upregulate the expression of endogenous BMPs. Since DO results in spontaneously generated de novo bone formation in a uniform radiographic, histological, and biomechanical temporal sequence, a genetically engineered model lacking endogenous...

  9. CXCL13 Promotes the Effect of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs on Tendon-Bone Healing in Rats and in C3HIOT1/2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are potential effective therapy for tissue repair and bone regeneration. In present study, the effects of CXC chemokine ligand-13 (CXCL13 were evaluated on tendon-bone healing of rats. Methods: Tendon bone healing of the rat model was established and biomechanical testing was performed at 2, 4, 8 weeks after surgery. Murine mesenchymal cell line (C3HIOT1/2 cells was cultured. The expression of miRNA-23a was detected by real-time PCR. The protein expression of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 was detected by western blotting. MiR-23a mimic and inhibitor were used to overexpress or silence the expression of miR-23a. Results: MSCs significantly elevated the levels of ultimate load to failure, stiffness and stress in specimens of rats, the effects of which were enhanced by CXCL13. The expression of miR-23a was down-regulated and the protein of ERK1/2 level was up-regulated by CXCL13 treatment in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. ERK1/2 expression was elevated by overexpression of miR-23a and reduced by miR-23a inhibitor. Conclusions: These findings revealed that CXCL13 promoted the tendon-bone healing in rats with MSCs treatment, and implied that the activation of ERK1/2 via miR-23a was involved in the process of MSCs treated bone regeneration.

  10. The Effectiveness of Human Parathyroid Hormone and Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on the Fracture Healing in Osteoporotic Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansjur, Karima Q; Kuroda, Shingo; Izawa, Takashi; Maeda, Yuichi; Sato, Minami; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Horiuchi, Shinya; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporotic fracture has become a major public health problem, and until today, the treatments available are not satisfactory. While there is growing evidence to support the individual treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) exposure as respectively systemic and local therapies during osteoporotic fracture healing, their effects have not yet been investigated when introduced concurrently. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combined treatment with PTH (1-34) and LIPUS on fracture healing in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty-two, 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were OVX to induce osteoporosis. After 12 weeks, the rats underwent surgery to create bilateral mid-diaphyseal fractures of proximal tibiae. All animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8 for each): control group as placebo, PTH group, LIPUS group, and combined group. PTH group had PTH administration at a dose of 30 μg/kg/day for 3 days/week for 6 weeks. LIPUS group received ultrasound 5 days/week for 20 min/day for 6 weeks and combined group had both PTH administration and LIPUS exposure for 6 weeks. Fracture healing was observed weekly by anteroposterior radiography and micro-CT. Five weeks after the fracture, the tibia were harvested to permit histological assessments and at week 6, for mechanical property of the fracture callus. Micro-CT showed that the PTH and combined groups exhibited significantly higher BMD and trabecular bone integrity than control group at weeks 4-6. Radiography, fracture healing score and mean callus area indicated that the combined group revealed better healing processes than the individual groups. Mechanically, bending moment to failure was significantly higher in LIPUS, PTH and combined groups than in control group. These data suggest that the combined treatment of PTH and LIPUS have been shown to accelerate fracture bone healing and enhance bone properties rather than single agent

  11. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) increases healing process of rats' Achilles tendons

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Pascon, Frédéric; Libertiaux, Vincent; Le Goff, Caroline; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Some tendinopathies (epicondylitis, jumper’s knee or Achilles tendinopathy) are frequently considered as rebel to “classic” treatments such as rest, orthotics, NSAIs, electrotherapy, physiotherapy, corticosteroid infiltrations, extracorporeal shock waves… Recently, several studies, essentially in vitro, demonstrated the positive effects of platelets on the healing process of different tissues: bones, muscles and tendons. Objectives The aim of our experiment was to ascert...

  12. Quantitative assessment of bone defect healing by multidetector CT in a pig model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate multidetector CT volumetry in the assessment of bone defect healing in comparison to histopathological findings in an animal model. In 16 mini-pigs, a circumscribed tibial bone defect was created. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the tibia was performed on a 64-row scanner 42 days after the operation. The extent of bone healing was estimated quantitatively by MDCT volumetry using a commercially available software programme (syngo Volume, Siemens, Germany).The volume of the entire defect (including all pixels from -100 to 3,000 HU), the nonconsolidated areas (-100 to 500 HU), and areas of osseous consolidation (500 to 3,000 HU) were assessed and the extent of consolidation was calculated. Histomorphometry served as the reference standard. The extent of osseous consolidation in MDCT volumetry ranged from 19 to 92% (mean 65.4 ± 18.5%). There was a significant correlation between histologically visible newly formed bone and the extent of osseous consolidation on MDCT volumetry (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). A significant negative correlation was detected between osseous consolidation on MDCT and histological areas of persisting defect (r = -0.9, P < 0.0001). MDCT volumetry is a promising tool for noninvasive monitoring of bone healing, showing excellent correlation with histomorphometry. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative assessment of bone defect healing by multidetector CT in a pig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, Carolin; Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S.; Miese, Falk R.; Antoch, Gerald; Scherer, Axel [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hakimi, Ahmad R. [Universtity Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Oral Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    To evaluate multidetector CT volumetry in the assessment of bone defect healing in comparison to histopathological findings in an animal model. In 16 mini-pigs, a circumscribed tibial bone defect was created. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the tibia was performed on a 64-row scanner 42 days after the operation. The extent of bone healing was estimated quantitatively by MDCT volumetry using a commercially available software programme (syngo Volume, Siemens, Germany).The volume of the entire defect (including all pixels from -100 to 3,000 HU), the nonconsolidated areas (-100 to 500 HU), and areas of osseous consolidation (500 to 3,000 HU) were assessed and the extent of consolidation was calculated. Histomorphometry served as the reference standard. The extent of osseous consolidation in MDCT volumetry ranged from 19 to 92% (mean 65.4 {+-} 18.5%). There was a significant correlation between histologically visible newly formed bone and the extent of osseous consolidation on MDCT volumetry (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). A significant negative correlation was detected between osseous consolidation on MDCT and histological areas of persisting defect (r = -0.9, P < 0.0001). MDCT volumetry is a promising tool for noninvasive monitoring of bone healing, showing excellent correlation with histomorphometry. (orig.)

  14. Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Alice B W; Chyan, William J; Reichert, William M

    2012-10-01

    Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerization of a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-based polyurethane prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol to encapsulate 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA). Various capsule characteristics, including: resultant morphology, average size and size distribution, shell thickness, content and reactivity of encapsulated agent, and shelf life are investigated and their reliance on solvent type and amount, surfactant type and amount, temperature, pH, agitation rate, reaction time, and mode of addition of the oil phase to the aqueous phase are presented. Capsules had average diameters ranging from 74 to 222 μm and average shell thicknesses ranging from 1.5 to 6 μm. The capsule content was determined via thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent analysis of the capsules following up to 8 weeks storage revealed minimal loss of core contents. Mechanical testing of OCA-containing capsules showed individual capsules withstood compressive forces up to a few tenths of Newtons, and the contents released from crushed capsules generated tensile adhesive forces of a few Newtons. Capsules were successfully mixed into the poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement, surviving the mixing process, exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer, and the resulting exothermic matrix curing. PMID:22807313

  15. Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventres, William B

    2016-01-01

    My personal ethos of healing is an expression of the belief that I can and do act to heal patients while I attend to the traditional goals of medicine. The 7 supporting principles that inform my ethos are dignity, authenticity, integrity, transparency, solidarity, generosity, and resiliency. I invite others, including medical students, residents, and practicing physicians, to reflect and discover their own ethos of healing and the principles that guide their professional growth. A short digital documentary accompanies this essay for use as a reflective prompt to encourage personal and professional development. PMID:26755787

  16. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  17. Efficacy of a Sclerostin Antibody Compared to a Low Dose of PTH on Metaphyseal Bone Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Agholme, Fredrik; Macias, Brandon,; Hamang, Matt; Lucchesi, Jonathan; Adrian, Mary D.; Kuhstoss, Stuart; Harvey, Anita; Sato, Masahiko; Aspenberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effect of a sclerostin antibody to that of a clinically relevant dose of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in a rat model for metaphyseal bone healing. Screws of steel or poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) were inserted bilaterally into the proximal tibia of young male rats. During 4 weeks the animals then received injections of either phosphate buffered saline (control), sclerostin antibody (25mg/kg, twice weekly) or PTH (5 mu g/kg, daily). The healing response around the screws was the...

  18. The effects of supplemental melatonin administration on the healing of bone defects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    YILDIRIMTURK, Senem; BATU, Sule; ALATLI, Canan; OLGAC, Vakur; FIRAT, Deniz; SIRIN, Yigit

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes an increased production of free radicals that can impair bone healing. Melatonin is a hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland, which participates in the neutralization process of free radicals. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate histologic and biochemical effects of supplemental melatonin administration on bone healing and antioxidant defense mechanism in diabetic rats. Material and Methods Eighty-six Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in this study. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Surgical bone defects were prepared in the tibia of each animal. Diabetic animals and those in control groups were treated either with daily melatonin (250 μg/animal/day/i.p.) diluted in ethanol, only ethanol, or sterile saline solution. Rats were humanely killed at the 10th and 30th postoperative days. Plasma levels of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were measured. The number of osteoblasts, blood vessels and the area of new mineralized tissue formation were calculated in histologic sections. Results At the 10th day, DM+MEL (rats receiving both STZ and melatonin) group had significantly higher number of osteoblasts and blood vessels as well as larger new mineralized tissue surfaces (pgroup. At the 30th day, DM group treated with melatonin had significantly lower levels of AOPP and MDA than those of DM group (p<0.05). Conclusion Melatonin administration in STZ induced diabetic rats reduced oxidative stress related biomarkers and showed beneficial effects on bone healing at short term. PMID:27383705

  19. Relationship among bone mineral density, collagen composition, and biomechanical properties of callus in the healing of osteoporotic fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bin; MU Jian-xiong; PEI Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the change and relationship among bone mineral density (BMD), collagen composition and biomechanical properties of the callus in the healing process of osteoporotic fracture.Methods: The osteoporotic rat model and fracture model were established through bilateral ovariectomy(OVX) and osteotomy of the middle shaft of the right hind tibiae, respectively. Ninety female SD rats were randomly divided into OVX group and sham group. With the samples of blood and callus, roentgenoraphic and histological observation were performed for the assessment of the healing progress of the fracture, and the serum concentration of TRAP-5b, proportion of type Ⅰ collagen,BMD and biomechanical properties of the callus were measured.Results: The OVX group experienced a significant delay of fracture healing. The mean serum concentration of TRAP-5b of rats in the OVX group was much higher than that in the sham group after the operation (P < 0.05), but the difference at the same time point after fracture was smaller than that before fracture (P < 0.05 ). The BMD of the callus in both groups reached the peak value at the 6 th week after fracture while the proportion of the type Ⅰ collagen and the biomechanical strength reached the peak at the 8th week.Conclusions: The deficiency of estrogen after the ovariectomy could induce the up-regulation of the osteoclasts activities, whereas the potency of further activation after fracture was depressed. Although the synthesis of collagen together with its mineralization determines the biomechanical properties of new bone, the accumulation of collagen could be assessed as an index in the prediction of biomechanical strength of bones independent of the bone mineral deposition.

  20. Biodegradable nanocomposite coatings accelerate bone healing: In vivo evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji; Mohammad Hossein Fathi; Vajihesadat Mortazavi; Sayed Behrouz Mousavi; Ali Akhavan; Abbas Haghighat; Batool Hashemi-Beni; Sayed Mohammad Razavi; Fatemeh Mashhadiabbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of bioactive and biodegradable poly (lactide-co-glycolide)/bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite (PBGHA) and poly (lactide-co-glycolide)/bioactive glass (PBG) nanocomposite coatings with bone. Materials and Methods: Sol-gel derived 58S bioactive glass nanoparticles, 50/50 wt% poly (lactic acid)/poly (glycolic acid) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were used to prepare the coatings. The nanocomposite coatings were characterized by ...

  1. Radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical effects of recombinant canine somatotropin in an unstable ostectomy gap model of bone healing in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effect of recombinant canine somatotropin (STH) on radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing using an unstable ostectomy gap model. Study Design: After an ostectomy of the midshaft radius, bone healing was evaluated over an 8-week period in control dogs (n = 4) and dogs receiving recombinant canine STH (n = 4). Animals Or Sample Population: Eight sexually intact female Beagle dogs, 4 to 5 years old. Methods: Bone healing was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation of serial radiographs every 2 weeks. Terminal dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending biomechanical testing were also performed. Results: Dogs receiving STH had more advanced radiographic healing of ostectomy sites. Bone area, bone mineral content, and bone density were two to five times greater at the ostectomy sites of treated dogs. Ultimate load at failure and stiffness were three and five times greater in dogs receiving STH. Conclusions: Using the ostectomy gap model, recombinant canine STH enhanced the radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing in dogs. Clinical Relevance: Dogs at risk for delayed healing of fractures may benefit from treatment with recombinant canine STH

  2. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Son, Soo Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, was evaluated. The rabbits were assigned to the following groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (PCL/PLGA hybrid scaffolds), group 3 (PCL/PLGA/TCP hybrid scaffolds), and group 4 (PCL/PLGA/DB hybrid scaffolds). A 5 mm critical defect was induced in the diaphysis of the left radius. X-ray, micro-CT, and histological analyses were conducted at (time 0) 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and osteocalcin) were measured and oxidative stress status was determined. X-ray, micro-CT, biochemistry, and histological analyses revealed that the PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold promotes new bone formation in rabbit radius by inducing repair, suggesting that it could be a good option for the treatment of fracture. PMID:27042660

  3. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yeon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone (PCL, β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, was evaluated. The rabbits were assigned to the following groups: group 1 (control, group 2 (PCL/PLGA hybrid scaffolds, group 3 (PCL/PLGA/TCP hybrid scaffolds, and group 4 (PCL/PLGA/DB hybrid scaffolds. A 5 mm critical defect was induced in the diaphysis of the left radius. X-ray, micro-CT, and histological analyses were conducted at (time 0 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and osteocalcin were measured and oxidative stress status was determined. X-ray, micro-CT, biochemistry, and histological analyses revealed that the PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold promotes new bone formation in rabbit radius by inducing repair, suggesting that it could be a good option for the treatment of fracture.

  4. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Son, Soo Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, was evaluated. The rabbits were assigned to the following groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (PCL/PLGA hybrid scaffolds), group 3 (PCL/PLGA/TCP hybrid scaffolds), and group 4 (PCL/PLGA/DB hybrid scaffolds). A 5 mm critical defect was induced in the diaphysis of the left radius. X-ray, micro-CT, and histological analyses were conducted at (time 0) 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and osteocalcin) were measured and oxidative stress status was determined. X-ray, micro-CT, biochemistry, and histological analyses revealed that the PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold promotes new bone formation in rabbit radius by inducing repair, suggesting that it could be a good option for the treatment of fracture. PMID:27042660

  5. Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on healing of wound combined with local radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on healing of wounds combined with local skin irradiation injury. Methods: MSC were injected into the wound combined with local skin irradiation injury. Light and electron microscopy, fibroblast and capillary vessel counts, detection of hydroxyproline content in the wound and demonstration of MSC distribution by fluorescence examination were carried out. Results: MSC could accelerate the speed of wound healing. The number of fibroblasts and capillary vessels increased obviously during 5 to 20 days after wounding. Granular tissues were abundant in the wound, and the content of hydroxyproline increased in the MSC-treated groups. The fluorescence labelling showed that MSC could be found during 1 to 20 days after injection. Conclusion: MSC can remain alive in the wound for a long time and surely promote wound healing

  6. Impaired bone healing in multitrauma patients is associated with altered leukocyte kinetics after major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Okan W; Kuijer, Anne; Koenderman, Leo; Stellato, Rebecca K; van Solinge, Wouter W; Leenen, Luke Ph; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that the systemic inflammatory response to major injury impairs bone regeneration. It remains unclear whether the systemic immune response contributes to impairment of fracture healing in multitrauma patients. It is well known that systemic inflammatory changes after major trauma affect leukocyte kinetics. We therefore retrospectively compared the cellular composition of peripheral blood during the first 2 weeks after injury between multitrauma patients with normal (n=48) and impaired (n=32) fracture healing of the tibia. The peripheral blood-count curves of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and thrombocytes differed significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after trauma (P-values were 0.0122, 0.0083, 0.0204, and systemic immune response to major trauma can disturb tissue regeneration. PMID:27274302

  7. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-04-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing.

  8. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing

  9. /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate bone imaging and uptake in healing rat extraction sockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinically positive bone scans of the jaws may result from a variety of benign dental conditions. An experimental system for studying radionuclide imaging and uptake in the jaws of rats was developed. Sequential /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate bone scans and radionuclide uptake determinations were performed on rats after standardized extractions of their mandibular left first molars. Positive bone scans were seen 4 to 16 days after molar extraction, and increased radionuclide uptake was found in the healing extraction wounds 4 to 42 days after the extraction. Conventional radiography and histology fail to show unusual bony architecture in extraction sockets at such times. These results correlate with clinical findings in patients and suggest that human beings may have positive bone scans for several months after dental extraction

  10. Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Chyan, William J.; Reichert, William M

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerization of a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-based polyurethane prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol to encapsulate 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA). Various capsule characteristics, including: resultant morphology, average size and size distribution, shell thicknes...

  11. Periosteal PTHrP Regulates Cortical Bone Remodeling During Fracture Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meina; Nasiri, Ali R; Broadus, Arthur E; Tommasini, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is widely expressed in the fibrous outer layer of the periosteum (PO), and the PTH/PTHrP type I receptor (PTHR1) is expressed in the inner PO cambial layer. The cambial layer gives rise to the PO osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs) that model/remodel the cortical bone surface during development as well as during fracture healing. PTHrP has been implicated in the regulation of PO modeling during development, but nothing is known as regards a role of PTHrP in this location during fracture healing. We propose that PTHrP in the fibrous layer of the PO may be a key regulatory factor in remodeling bone formation during fracture repair. We first assessed whether PTHrP expression in the fibrous PO is associated with PO osteoblast induction in the subjacent cambial PO using a tibial fracture model in PTHrP-lacZ mice. Our results revealed that both PTHrP expression and osteoblast induction in PO were induced 3 days post-fracture. We then investigated a potential functional role of PO PTHrP during fracture repair by performing tibial fracture surgery in 10-week-old CD1 control and PTHrP conditional knockout (PTHrP cKO) mice that lack PO PTHrP. We found that callus size and formation as well as woven bone mineralization in PTHrP cKO mice were impaired compared to that in CD1 mice. Concordant with these findings, functional enzyme staining revealed impaired OB formation and OC activity in the cKO mice. We conclude that deleting PO PTHrP impairs cartilaginous callus formation, maturation and ossification as well as remodeling during fracture healing. These data are the initial genetic evidence suggesting that PO PTHrP may induce osteoblastic activity and regulate fracture healing on the cortical bone surface. PMID:26164475

  12. The progress of early phase bone healing using porous granules produced from calcium phosphate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Bone grafting is a vital component in many surgical procedures to facilitate the repair of bone defects or fusions. Autologous bone has been the gold standard to date in spite of associated donor-site morbidity and the limited amount of available donor bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the progress of bone regeneration and material degradation of calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder compared to the use of autologous bone grafting in the treatment of "critical size defects" on load-bearing long bones of minipigs. Methods A critical size defect in the tibial metaphysis of 16 mini-pigs was filled either with autologous cancellous graft or with micro- and macroporous carbonated, apatic calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder. After 6 weeks, the specimens were assessed by X-ray and histological evaluation. The amount of new bone formation was analysed histomorphometrically. Results The semi-quantitative analysis of the radiological results showed a complete osseous bridging of the defect in three cases for the autograft group. In the same group five animals showed a beginning, but still incomplete bridging of the defect, whereas in the CPG group just two animals developed this. All other animals of the CPG group showed only a still discontinuous new bone formation. Altogether, radiologically a better osseous bridging was observed in the autograft group compared to the CPG group. Histomorphometrical analysis after six weeks of healing revealed that the area of new bone was significantly greater in the autograft group concerning the central area of the defect zone (p Conclusions Within the limits of the present study it could be demonstrated that autologous cancellous grafts lead to a significantly better bone regeneration compared to the application of calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium

  13. Extended fatigue life of a catalyst-free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Matthys, Oriane B.; Craig, Stephen L.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, and fatigue lifetime were investigated in accordance with ASTM and ISO standards for the testing of PMMA bone cement. The bending strength of bone cement specimens decreased with increasing wt% capsules content for capsules without or with ...

  14. Healing of open fracture of shoulder bone in owl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokić Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Curing and treatment of accidental injuries in birds that have the nature of complex, old and contaminated wounds demand maximum caution from the surgeon. Birds, in particular wild fowl, are sensitive to manipulation during examinations and the diagnosis of the injuries. The estimate of the complexity of an injury and the general condition of the patient are of key importance for the correct choice of diagnostic procedures, anesthesia, and the operative procedure. The implementation of ketamine and diazepam for general injection anesthesia provides possibilities for the unhindered executing of the surgical procedure. The implementation of Kischner needles and pins is a good choice for the fixation of long bones in birds. The postoperative course in the patient requires constant medical and professional supervision which must be followed to the letter.

  15. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type II on Long Bones Fractures Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fracture healing is a complex process where synthesis and activation of a cascade of cells and molecules collaborate and participate in regeneration of the fractured bones. There are several factors involved in nonunion of fractured bones. Endocrine and metabolic diseases are regarded as factors causing nonunion of fractured bones. The present study aims at evaluating effect of diabetes type II, as an important and prevalent metabolic disease, on results of surgical treatment of long bones fractures. Method: This case-control study was conducted on 74 patients with isolated fracture of tibia and femur shafts resulting from low-energy trauma. In this study, 50 patients with definite diagnosis of diabetes were compared with 24 metabolically health persons considering age, gender, type of fracture, and treatment method. The diabetic patients were classified in two groups considering their insulin or oral agent. Level of hs-CRP inflammatory marker was also determined in these patients. Union rate and duration as well as relation between inflammatory marker and union rate were studied.Results: Prevalence of nonunion and delayed union were seen in 8 (32% and 2 (8% patients with orally-treated diabetes, respectively. It was 3 (12% in diabetes patients treated with insulin.However, there was not any case of nonunion in the health group. There was a statistically significant difference between these groups. According to the regression model, hs-CRP level played a significant role considering nonunion prediction (P=0.001, Odd’s Ratio=3.4, CI95%:1.4-4.8. Also, type of diabetes treatment had a significant role in predicting nonunion (P=0.04, Odd’s Ratio=0.6, CI95%:0.3-1.4. Duration of being affected by diabetes did not play any important role in nonunion prediction.Conclusion: Prevalence of nonunion in patients with diabetes suffering from fracture and undergoing orthopedic surgery is higher than healthy people. It seems that increase of

  16. Enhancement of Tendon–Bone Healing for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL Reconstruction Using Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Infected with BMP-2

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    Shiyi Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon–bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 on tendon–bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control, and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon–bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively. In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3 was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4 or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0 (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively. Based on the

  17. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing

  18. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhonghua [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Wang, Haiqin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fifth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Huo, Ran, E-mail: rhuo12@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing.

  19. The Effect of 58S Bioactive Glass Coating on Polyethylene Terephthalates in Graft-Bone Healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wu; Shiyi Chen; Jia Jiang; Hong Li; Kai Gao; Pengyun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of surface modification of Polyethylene Terephthalates (PET) fibers with 58S bioactive glasses on osteoblasts proliferation and osseointegration in the tibia-articular tendon-bone healing model were investigated.PET sheets were coated with 58S bioactive glass and uncoated PET sheets were used as a control.Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer were adopted to analyze the surface characteristics of the fibers.MT3T3-E 1 cells were cultured with the PET fibers and the MTT and ALP were tested at 1,3,5 days.Twenty-four skeletally mature male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups,the 58S-PET group and the PET group.Both groups underwent a surgical procedure to establish a tibia-articular tendon-bone healing model.Mechanical examinations and histological assays were taken to verify the coating effects in vivo.Results of both MTT and ALP tests show significant differences (P < 0.01) between the 58S-PET group and the PET group.At 6 weeks and 12 weeks,the max load-to-failure was significantly higher in the 58S-PET group.In the histological assays,distinct new bone formation was observed only in the 58S-PET group and stronger osseointegration was seen in the 58S-PET group than that in the control group.The 58S-coating on PET could enhance the proliferation and activity of the osteoblasts and therefore promote the new bone formation and tendon-bone healing.

  20. Knee loading protects against osteonecrosis of the femoral head by enhancing vessel remodeling and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daquan; Li, Xinle; Li, Jie; Yang, Jing; Yokota, Hiroki; Zhang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a serious orthopedic problem. Moderate loads with knee loading promote bone formation, but their effects on osteonecrosis have not been investigated. Using a rat model, we examined a hypothesis that knee loading enhances vessel remodeling and bone healing through the modulation of the fate of bone marrow-derived cells. In this study, osteonecrosis was induced by transecting the ligamentum teres followed by a tight ligature around the femoral neck. For knee loading, 5 N loads were laterally applied to the knee at 15 Hz for 5 min/day for 5 weeks. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the femur were measured by pDEXA, and ink infusion was performed to evaluate vessel remodeling. Femoral heads were harvested for histomorphometry, and bone marrow-derived cells were isolated to examine osteoclast development and osteoblast differentiation. The results showed that osteonecrosis significantly induced bone loss, and knee loading stimulated both vessel remodeling and bone healing. The osteonecrosis group exhibited the lowest trabecular BV/TV (p b 0.001) in the femoral head, and lowest femoral BMD and BMC (both p b 0.01). However, knee loading increased trabecular BV/TV (p b 0.05) as well as BMD (pb 0.05) and BMC (p b 0.01). Osteonecrosis decreased the vessel volume (pb 0.001), vessel number (pb 0.001) and VEGF expression (p b 0.01), and knee loading increased them (pb 0.001, pb 0.001 and p b 0.01). Osteonecrosis activated osteoclast development, and knee loading reduced its formation, migration, adhesion and the level of “pit” formation (pb 0.001, pb 0.01, pb 0.001 and pb 0.001). Furthermore, knee loading significantly increased osteoblast differentiation and CFU-F (both p b 0.001). A significantly positive correlation was observed between vessel remodeling and bone healing (both p b 0.01). These results indicate that knee loading could be effective in repair osteonecrosis of the femoral head in a rat

  1. Histologic Evaluation of Bone Healing Following Application of Anorganic Bovine Bone and β-tricalcium Phosphate in Rabbit Calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both anorganic bovine bone (ABB and β-tricalcium phosphate (β- TCP are used in clinical practice as bone substitute materials, but there is limited data comparing these two materials in standardized defects.The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effectiveness of ABB and β-TCP in the healing of experimentally induced bone defects.Materials and Methods: Eighteen bone defects were created on the calvaria of six rabbits. In each animal, one defect was left untreated and the other two werefilled with ABB and β-TCP. After one month, histological sections were prepared.Type and vitality of newly formed bone, percentage of new bone formation and residual material, thickness of trabeculae, inflammation and foreign body reaction were assessed.Results: The newly formed osseous tissue was vital in all defects and consisted of woven and lamellar bone. Mean percentages of new bone formation were 30.83±14.29%, 16.83±11.07% and 14.00±8.17% in β-TCP, ABB and control groups, respectively and the mean percentages of residual biomaterial were 24.17±14.01% and 36.50±8.43% in β-TCP and ABB groups, respectively. However,the differences were not statistically significant (all ps>0.05. Inflammatoryinfiltration was statistically higher in β-TCP compared to the control group (p=0.025, but the difference was not significant between β-TCP and ABB groups (p=0.083. Trabeculation thickness and foreign body reaction were not statistically different between β-TCP and ABB groups.Conclusion: β-TCP and ABB were not different with regard to the quantity and quality of newly formed osseous tissue. However, inflammatory infiltration washigher in sites filled with β-TCP.

  2. Comparative study on the role of gelatin, chitosan and their combination as tissue engineered scaffolds on healing and regeneration of critical sized bone defects: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh; Bigham-Sadegh, Amin; Moshiri, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Gelatin and chitosan are natural polymers that have extensively been used in tissue engineering applications. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan and gelatin or combination of the two biopolymers (chitosan-gelatin) as bone scaffold on bone regeneration process in an experimentally induced critical sized radial bone defect model in rats. Fifty radial bone defects were bilaterally created in 25 Wistar rats. The defects were randomly filled with chitosan, gelatin and chitosan-gelatin and autograft or left empty without any treatment (n = 10 in each group). The animals were examined by radiology and clinical evaluation before euthanasia. After 8 weeks, the rats were euthanized and their harvested healing bone samples were evaluated by radiology, CT-scan, biomechanical testing, gross pathology, histopathology, histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy. Gelatin was biocompatible and biodegradable in vivo and showed superior biodegradation and biocompatibility when compared with chitosan and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds. Implantation of both the gelatin and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds in bone defects significantly increased new bone formation and mechanical properties compared with the untreated defects (P  0.05). In conclusion, application of the gelatin alone or its combination with chitosan had beneficial effects on bone regeneration and could be considered as good options for bone tissue engineering strategies. However, chitosan alone was not able to promote considerable new bone formation in the experimentally induced critical-size radial bone defects. PMID:27590825

  3. Composite transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq data in a sheep model for delayed bone healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundlos Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sheep is an important model organism for many types of medically relevant research, but molecular genetic experiments in the sheep have been limited by the lack of knowledge about ovine gene sequences. Results Prior to our study, mRNA sequences for only 1,556 partial or complete ovine genes were publicly available. Therefore, we developed a composite de novo transcriptome assembly method for next-generation sequence data to combine known ovine mRNA and EST sequences, mRNA sequences from mouse and cow, and sequences assembled de novo from short read RNA-Seq data into a composite reference transcriptome, and identified transcripts from over 12 thousand previously undescribed ovine genes. Gene expression analysis based on these data revealed substantially different expression profiles in standard versus delayed bone healing in an ovine tibial osteotomy model. Hundreds of transcripts were differentially expressed between standard and delayed healing and between the time points of the standard and delayed healing groups. We used the sheep sequences to design quantitative RT-PCR assays with which we validated the differential expression of 26 genes that had been identified by RNA-seq analysis. A number of clusters of characteristic expression profiles could be identified, some of which showed striking differences between the standard and delayed healing groups. Gene Ontology (GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched in terms including extracellular matrix, cartilage development, contractile fiber, and chemokine activity. Conclusions Our results provide a first atlas of gene expression profiles and differentially expressed genes in standard and delayed bone healing in a large-animal model and provide a number of clues as to the shifts in gene expression that underlie delayed bone healing. In the course of our study, we identified transcripts of 13,987 ovine genes, including 12,431 genes for which

  4. Hedgehog signaling mediates woven bone formation and vascularization during stress fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; McKenzie, Jennifer A; Shen, Tony S; Long, Fanxin; Silva, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical in developmental osteogenesis, and recent studies suggest it may also play a role in regulating osteogenic gene expression in the post-natal setting. However, there is a void of studies directly assessing the effect of Hh inhibition on post-natal osteogenesis. This study utilized a cyclic loading-induced ulnar stress fracture model to evaluate the hypothesis that Hh signaling contributes to osteogenesis and angiogenesis during stress fracture healing. Immediately prior to loading, adult rats were given GDC-0449 (Vismodegib - a selective Hh pathway inhibitor; 50mg/kg orally twice daily), or vehicle. Hh signaling was upregulated in response to stress fracture at 3 days (Ptch1, Gli1 expression), and was markedly inhibited by GDC-0449 at 1 day and 3 days in the loaded and non-loaded ulnae. GDC-0449 did not affect Hh ligand expression (Shh, Ihh, Dhh) at 1 day, but decreased Shh expression by 37% at 3 days. GDC-0449 decreased woven bone volume (-37%) and mineral density (-17%) at 7 days. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed that the 7 day callus was composed predominantly of woven bone in both groups. The observed reduction in woven bone occurred concomitantly with decreased expression of Alpl and Ibsp, but was not associated with differences in early cellular proliferation (as determined by callus PCNA staining at 3 days), osteoblastic differentiation (Osx expression at 1 day and 3 days), chondrogenic gene expression (Acan, Sox9, and Col2α1 expression at 1 day and 3 days), or bone resorption metrics (callus TRAP staining at 3 days, Rankl and Opg expression at 1 day and 3 days). To evaluate angiogenesis, vWF immunohistochemistry showed that GDC-0449 reduced fracture callus blood vessel density by 55% at 3 days, which was associated with increased Hif1α gene expression (+30%). Dynamic histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that GDC-0449 also inhibited lamellar bone formation. Lamellar bone analysis of the loaded limb (directly adjacent

  5. Impaired bone healing in multitrauma patients is associated with altered leukocyte kinetics after major trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian OW

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Okan W Bastian,1 Anne Kuijer,1 Leo Koenderman,2 Rebecca K Stellato,3 Wouter W van Solinge,4 Luke PH Leenen,1 Taco J Blokhuis1 1Department of Traumatology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics and Research Support, Julius Center, 4Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Abstract: Animal studies have shown that the systemic inflammatory response to major injury impairs bone regeneration. It remains unclear whether the systemic immune response contributes to impairment of fracture healing in multitrauma patients. It is well known that systemic inflammatory changes after major trauma affect leukocyte kinetics. We therefore retrospectively compared the cellular composition of peripheral blood during the first 2 weeks after injury between multitrauma patients with normal (n=48 and impaired (n=32 fracture healing of the tibia. The peripheral blood-count curves of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and thrombocytes differed significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after trauma (P-values were 0.0122, 0.0083, 0.0204, and <0.0001, respectively. Mean myeloid cell counts were above reference values during the second week after injury. Our data indicate that leukocyte kinetics differ significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after major injury. This finding suggests that the systemic immune response to major trauma can disturb tissue regeneration. Keywords: SIRS, inflammation, neutrophils, myelopoiesis, regeneration

  6. Evaluation of Bone Healing on Sandblasted and Acid Etched Implants Coated with Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite: An In Vivo Study in Rabbit Femur

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    Lory Melin Svanborg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating if a coating of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals would enhance bone healing over time in trabecular bone. Sandblasted and acid etched titanium implants with and without a submicron thick coat of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nano-HA were implanted in rabbit femur with healing times of 2, 4, and 9 weeks. Removal torque analyses and histological evaluations were performed. The torque analysis did not show any significant differences between the implants at any healing time. The control implant showed a tendency of more newly formed bone after 4 weeks of healing and significantly higher bone area values after 9 weeks of healing. According to the results from this present study, both control and nano-HA surfaces were biocompatible and osteoconductive. A submicron thick coating of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals deposited onto blasted and acid etched screw shaped titanium implants did not enhance bone healing, as compared to blasted and etched control implants when placed in trabecular bone.

  7. Evaluation of simvastatin in the process of fracture healing in tibiae of rats

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    José Wanderley Vasconcelos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of simvastatin in the process of fracture healing in rat tibia. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were subjected to diaphyseal fracture of the leg bones and divided in the statin group (GE and control group (GC, being subdivided into three subgroups according to days post-fracture (7th, 14th and 28th day to assess bone healing. In GE was administered by gavage a solution of simvastatin to the sacrifice. In the control group was administered saline by the same route of SG. Immobilization was not used. After the sacrifice was made to limb amputation in the distal femur and conducted the clinical, radiological and histological analysis. Clinical evaluation was made as to the mobility of the fracture. Then the samples were radiographed and evaluated for callus diameter. Histological examination was performed with cuts of 5 micrometers and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and Alcian blue pH 2.5. The level of significance to exclude the null hypothesis was 5%. RESULTS: All GE animals showed greater stability of the fracture and higher callus area. There were no significant changes in the histological study. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin accelerates the consolidation process by increasing the callus, but does not alter the histology of the newly formed bone.

  8. The role of parathyroid hormone in bone healing.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Loughlin, Padhraig F

    2011-01-01

    Animal fracture models have been extensively applied to pre-clinical research as a platform to identify and characterize normal and abnormal physiological processes and develop specific maneuvers that alter the biology and biomechanics being examined. The choice of animal model employed in a study bears a direct relationship to the specific intervention being analyzed. The animal models employed should be described clearly, control group data should be established and reproducibility should b...

  9. The effects of amlodipine and platelet rich plasma on bone healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yusuf Atalay,1 Mehmet Fatih Bozkurt,2 Yucel Gonul,3 Omer Cakmak,4 Kamil Serkan Agacayak,5 Ibrahim Köse,6 Omer Hazman,7 Hikmet Keles,2 Ozan Turamanlar,3 Mehmet Eroglu8 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 4Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 5Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey; 6Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, Turkey; 7Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 8Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium channel blocker (CCB amlodipine (AML, platelet rich plasma (PRP, and a mixture of both materials on bone healing.Materials and methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: group A, tibia defect model with no treatment; group B, tibia defect model treated with AML, 0.04 mg daily by oral gavage; group C, tibia defect model treated with local PRP; group D, tibia defect model treated with local PRP and AML, 0.04 mg daily by oral gavage.Results: At day 21, bone healing was significantly better in groups C and D compared to group A (P<0.05, but comparisons showed no statistically significant difference in group B (P>0.05. At day 30, groups B and C showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 compared to group A, but bone healing in group D was significantly better than in group A (P<0.05. Statistically, AML did not affect alkaline

  10. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bihua; Luo, Xueshi; Li, Zhiwen; Zhuang, Caiping; Li, Lihua; Lu, Lu; Ding, Shan; Tian, Jinhuan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-11-01

    Collagen biomineralization is regulated by complicated interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. Here, the use of sodium tripolyphosphate to simulate the templating functional motif of the C-terminal fragment of non-collagenous proteins is reported, and a low molecular weight polyacrylic acid served as a sequestration agent to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate into nanoprecursors. Self-assembled collagen fibrils served as a fixed template for achieving rapid biomimetic mineralization in vitro. Results demonstrated that, during the mineralization process, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar hydroxyapatite mineral with collagen fibrils formed and did so via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallization approach in the presence of these dual biomimetic functional analogues. In vitro human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) culture found that the mineralized scaffolds have a better cytocompatibility in terms of cell viability, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts. A rabbit femoral condyle defect model was established to confirm the ability of the n-HA/collagen scaffolds to facilitate bone regeneration and repair. The images of gross anatomy, MRI, CT and histomorphology taken 6 and 12weeks after surgery showed that the biomimetic mineralized collagen scaffolds with hUCMSCs can promote the healing speed of bone defects in vivo, and both of the scaffolds groups performing better than the bone defect control group. As new bone tissue formed, the scaffolds degraded and were gradually absorbed. All these results demonstrated that both of the scaffolds and cells have better histocompatibility. PMID:27523994

  11. Therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in cutaneous wound healing

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    Jerry S Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in wound care, many wounds never heal and become chronic problems that result in significant morbidity and mortality to the patient. Cellular therapy for cutaneous wounds has recently come under investigation as a potential treatment modality for impaired wound healing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a promising source of adult progenitor cells for cytotherapy as they are easy to isolate and expand and have been shown to differentiate into various cell lineages. Early studies have demonstrated that MSCs may enhance epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and neovascularization resulting in accelerated wound closure. It is currently unclear if these effects are mediated through cellular differentiation or by secretion of cytokines and growth factors. This review discusses the proposed biological contributions of MSCs to cutaneous repair and their clinical potential in cell-based therapies.

  12. Do Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Affect Bone Healing? A Critical Analysis

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    Ippokratis Pountos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs play an essential part in our approach to control pain in the posttraumatic setting. Over the last decades, several studies suggested that NSAIDs interfere with bone healing while others contradict these findings. Although their analgesic potency is well proven, clinicians remain puzzled over the potential safety issues. We have systematically reviewed the available literature, analyzing and presenting the available in vitro animal and clinical studies on this field. Our comprehensive review reveals the great diversity of the presented data in all groups of studies. Animal and in vitro studies present so conflicting data that even studies with identical parameters have opposing results. Basic science research defining the exact mechanism with which NSAIDs could interfere with bone cells and also the conduction of well-randomized prospective clinical trials are warranted. In the absence of robust clinical or scientific evidence, clinicians should treat NSAIDs as a risk factor for bone healing impairment, and their administration should be avoided in high-risk patients.

  13. The effects of Zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus information, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls (n=30), receiving placebo for 60 days. Individual and clinical information was determined by a questionnaire: nutritional intake by 3 days food records at the beginning and the end of trial. Serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by enzymatic method. Callus information during fracture healing was evaluated by radiography of the bone. There was no significant difference in physical activity, gender, age, type of fractures and nutrient intake, between the 2 groups. The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity. Assessment of bone x-rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls. This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study. (author)

  14. Efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite prepared by an aqueous solution combustion technique in healing bone defects of goat

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Samit Kumar; Kundu, Biswanath; Ghosh, Samir Kumar; De, Dipak Kumar; Basu, Debabrata

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate porous hydroxyapatite (HAp), the powder of which was prepared by a novel aqueous solution combustion technique, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects in vivo, as assessed by radiologic and histopathologic methods, oxytetracycline labeling, and angiogenic features in Bengal goat. Bone defects were created in the diaphysis of the radius and either not filled (group I) or filled with a HAp strut (group II). The radiologic study in group II show...

  15. The accuracy of the imaging reformation of cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of bone defect healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of the imaging reformation of cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of bone defect healing in rat model. Sprague-Dawely strain rats weighing about 350 gms were selected. Then critical size bone defects were done at parietal bone with implantation of collagen sponge. The rats were divided into seven groups of 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks. The healing of surgical defect was assessed by multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images and three-dimensional (3-D) images of cone beam computed tomography, compared with soft X-ray radiograph and histopathologic examination. MPR images and 3-D images showed similar reformation of the healing amount at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks, however, lower reformation at 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks. According to imaging-based methodologies, MPR images revealed similar reformation of the healing mount than 3-D images compare with soft X-ray image. Among the four threshold values for 3-D images, 400-500 HU revealed similar reformation of the healing amount. Histopathologic examination confirmed the newly formed trabeculation correspond with imaging-based mythologies. MPR images revealed higher accuracy of the imaging reformation of cone beam computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography is a clinically useful diagnostic tool for the assessment of bone defect healing.

  16. Wound healing after irradiation of bone tissues by Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Aoki, Akira; Ishikawa, Isao

    1997-05-01

    Clinical applications of Er:YAG laser are now developing in periodontics and restorative dentistry. To date, there have been few studies indicating safety criteria for intraoral usage of the Er:YAG laser. The present study examined the effects of the Er:YAG laser on bone tissues, supposing mis- irradiation in the oral cavity during dental application, especially periodontal surgery. The experiments were performed using the newly-developed Er:YAG laser apparatus equipped with a contact probe. In experiment 1, 10 pulses of laser irradiation were administered to the parietal bone of a rat at 50, 150 and 300 mJ/pulse with and without water irrigation, changing the irradiation distance to 0, 5, 10 and 20 mm, respectively. As a control, electric knife was employed. Macroscopic and SEM observations of the wound surface were performed. In experiment 2, laser irradiation in a straight line was performed at 150 mJ/pulse, 1- pps and 0,5, 10 mm irradiation distance without water irrigation. Wound healing was observed histologically at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after laser irradiation and compared with that of the control. Non-contact irradiation by Er:YAG laser did not cause severe damage to the parietal bone tissue under water irrigation. Contact irradiation induced a limited wound, however, new bone formation was observed 28 days after laser irradiation, while osseous defect with thermal degenerative tissue remained at the control site. In conclusion, irradiation with an Er:YAG laser would not cause severe damage to surrounding bone tissues in the oral cavity when used within the usual power settings for dental treatment. Furthermore, this laser may be applicable for osseous surgery because of its high ablation efficiency and good wound healing after irradiation.

  17. Osseous healing with a composite of allograft and demineralized bone matrix: adverse effects of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziran, Bruce H; Hendi, Pooneh; Smith, Wade R; Westerheide, Kenneth; Agudelo, Juan F

    2007-04-01

    We report on our use of a composite graft of lyophilized cancellous allogenic chips and demineralized bone matrix (DBM; Grafton; Osteotech, Eatontown, NJ) to manage traumatic osseous defects and nonunions. Data were prospectively collected from all patients who received this composite bone graft between 1996 and 2000. Only acute fractures with bone loss resulting in a uncontained defect and atrophic non-unions were included in the present study. Demographic data and complications related to composite use, tobacco use, and other comorbidities that could affect healing were evaluated. One hundred seven patients (112 bone graft sites) were followed up for a mean of 32 months (range, 12-60 months). Graft sites included the forearm, femur and tibia. Of the 112 patients, there were 56 smokers (25 non-unions and 31 fractures) and 56 non-smokers (28 fractures and 28 non-unions). Healing occured in 38/56 smokers compared with 49/56 non-smokers. In failed cases, smoking was characteristic in 7/9 non-unions and 11/16 fractures. There were 26 acute uncontained injuries, 29 acute contained defects, and 67 nonunions. Grafting sites were radius/ulna (13 cases), humerus (17), femur (31), and tibia/fibula (51). Significant comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (4 cases), fungal osteomyelitis (1), and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (1). Eight (73%) of the 11 patients with graft failure had a significant smoking history. This composite graft is an option for managing osseous defects and nonunions traditionally treated with autologous bone grafting but should be used with caution when treating patients who are smokers. PMID:17515188

  18. Interaction of age and mechanical stability on bone defect healing: an early transcriptional analysis of fracture hematoma in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ode

    Full Text Available Among other stressors, age and mechanical constraints significantly influence regeneration cascades in bone healing. Here, our aim was to identify genes and, through their functional annotation, related biological processes that are influenced by an interaction between the effects of mechanical fixation stability and age. Therefore, at day three post-osteotomy, chip-based whole-genome gene expression analyses of fracture hematoma tissue were performed for four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats with a 1.5-mm osteotomy gap in the femora with varying age (12 vs. 52 weeks - biologically challenging and external fixator stiffness (mechanically challenging. From 31099 analysed genes, 1103 genes were differentially expressed between the six possible combinations of the four groups and from those 144 genes were identified as statistically significantly influenced by the interaction between age and fixation stability. Functional annotation of these differentially expressed genes revealed an association with extracellular space, cell migration or vasculature development. The chip-based whole-genome gene expression data was validated by q-RT-PCR at days three and seven post-osteotomy for MMP-9 and MMP-13, members of the mechanosensitive matrix metalloproteinase family and key players in cell migration and angiogenesis. Furthermore, we observed an interaction of age and mechanical stimuli in vitro on cell migration of mesenchymal stromal cells. These cells are a subpopulation of the fracture hematoma and are known to be key players in bone regeneration. In summary, these data correspond to and might explain our previously described biomechanical healing outcome after six weeks in response to fixation stiffness variation. In conclusion, our data highlight the importance of analysing the influence of risk factors of fracture healing (e.g. advanced age, suboptimal fixator stability in combination rather than alone.

  19. Optimization of coil geometries for bone fracture healing via dielectrophoretic force stimulation - a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibritoğlu, Erman; Gülçür, Halil Özcan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose a novel technique for shortening fracture healing times based on the use of dielectrophoretic forces (DEPFs). If a non-uniform electromagnetic field is applied around a fracture site, red blood cells within the blood will be polarized; creating electrical dipoles. The dielectrophoretic forces resulting from the interaction of these dipoles and the electromagnetic field, can be used to manipulate blood flow at a fracture site, promote vascularization, increase transmembrane signaling, increase supply of nutrients, necessary hormones and growth factors at the fracture site and thus may help bone healing. For the generation of non-uniform fields we considered three different coil designs (linear, parabolic and square root) and using Mathcad numerically studied the dielectrophoretic forces for a long bone fracture where the main arteries are vertically-oriented and the blood flow is downward. The gravitational force and the drag force on the red blood cells determine the steady state blood flow. The dielectrophoretic force added to the force balance is functional in increasing the blood flow. The ratio of the velocity in the presence of dielectrophoresis to the velocity without dielectrophoresis (called here as the Dielectrophoretic Force Factor, K(DEpF)) is a good measure of the performance of the dielectrophoresis, since it indicates the increase in blood flow. It was found that the dielectorophoretic force reaches peak levels at a frequency range between 5-15 Hz. At 5 Hz, the average value of dielectrophoretic force factor is 1.90, 2.51 and 1.61 for the linear, parabolic and the square root coils, respectively. The parabolic coil results in the best DEPF and therefore would be the configuration to use in an experimental study to determine if DEPF is useful for bone healing. PMID:26737886

  20. Discontinuous release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded within interconnected pores of honeycomb-like polycaprolactone scaffold promotes bone healing in a large bone defect of rabbit ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Hak-Jun; Lim, Hong-Chul; Park, Jung-Ho; Liu, Yuchun; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2011-10-01

    The choice of an appropriate carrier and its microarchitectural design is integral in directing bone ingrowth into the defect site and determining its subsequent rate of bone formation and remodeling. We have selected a three-dimensional polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure to provide a conduit for vasculature ingrowth as well as an osteoconductive pathway to guide recruited cells responding to a unique triphasic release of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) from these PCL scaffolds. We hypothesize that the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2)-PCL constructs promotes rapid union and bone regeneration of a large defect. Results of our pilot study on a unilateral 15 mm mid-diaphyseal segmental rabbit ulna defect demonstrated enhanced bone healing with greater amount of bone formation and bridging under plain radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging when compared with an empty PCL and untreated group after 8 weeks postimplantation. Quantitative measurements showed significantly higher bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, with lower trabecular separation in the rhBMP2-treated groups. Histology evaluation also revealed greater mature bone formation spanning across the entire scaffold region compared with other groups, which showed no bone regeneration within the central defect zone. We highlight that it is the uniqueness of the scaffold having a highly porous network of channels that promoted vascular integration and allowed for cellular infiltration, leading to a discontinuous triphasic BMP2 release profile that mimicked the release profile during natural repair mechanisms in vivo. This study serves as preclinical evidence demonstrating the potential of combining osteoinductive rhBMP2 with our PCL constructs for the repair of large defects in a large animal model. PMID:21682591

  1. Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gilday, Steven D.; Casstevens, E. Chris; Kenter, Keith; Jason T Shearn; David L Butler

    2013-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natura...

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Regeneration and Application to Bone Healing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crha, M.; Nečas, A.; Srnec, R.; Janovec, J.; Raušer, P.; Urbanová, L.; Plánka, L.; Jančář, J.; Amler, Evžen

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2009), s. 635-642. ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130; GA AV ČR IAA500390702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : tissue engineering * biomaterials * segmental bone lesion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  3. Effect of Combined Calcium Hydroxide and Accelerated Portland Cement on Bone Formation and Soft Tissue Healing in Dog Bone Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recent literatures show that accelerated Portland cement (APC and calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2 may have the potential to promote the bone regeneration. However, certain clinical studies reveal consistency of Ca (OH2, as one of the practical drawbacks of the material when used alone. To overcome such inconvenience, the combination of the Ca (OH2 with a bone replacement material could offer a convenient solution. Objectives: To evaluate the soft tissue healing and bone regeneration in the periodontal intrabony osseous defects using accelerated Portland cement (APC in combination with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2, as a filling material. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adult mongrel dogs aged 2-3 years old (approximately 20 kg in weight with intact dentition and healthy periodontium were selected for this study. Two one-wall defects in both mesial and distal aspects of the 3rd premolars of both sides of the mandible were created. Therefore, four defects were prepared in each dog. Three defects in each dog were randomly filled with one of the following materials: APC alone, APC mixed with Ca (OH2, and Ca (OH2 alone. The fourth defect was left empty (control. Upon clinical examination of the sutured sites, the amount of dehiscence from the adjacent tooth was measured after two and eight weeks, using a periodontal probe mesiodistally. For histometric analysis, the degree of new bone formation was estimated at the end of the eighth postoperative week, by a differential point-counting method. The percentage of the defect volume occupied by new osteoid or trabecular bone was recorded. Results: Measurement of wound dehiscence during the second week revealed that all five APCs had an exposure of 1-2 mm and at the end of the study all samples showed 3-4 mm exposure across the surface of the graft material, whereas the Ca (OH2, control, and APC + Ca (OH2 groups did not show any exposure at the end of the eighth week of the study. The most

  4. Influence of Interleukin-1 Beta on Platelet-Poor Plasma Clot Formation: A Potential Impact on Early Bone Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Hematoma quality (especially the fibrin matrix plays an important role in the bone healing process. Here, we investigated the effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β on fibrin clot formation from platelet-poor plasma (PPP.Five-milliliter of rat whole-blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein. All blood samples were firstly standardized via a thrombelastograph (TEG, blood cell count, and the measurement of fibrinogen concentration. PPP was prepared by collecting the top two-fifths of the plasma after centrifugation under 400 × g for 10 min at 20°C. The effects of IL-1β cytokines on artificial fibrin clot formation from PPP solutions were determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, confocal microscopy (CM, turbidity, and clot lysis assays.The lag time for protofibril formation was markedly shortened in the IL-1β treatment groups (243.8 ± 76.85 in the 50 pg/mL of IL-1β and 97.5 ± 19.36 in the 500 pg/mL of IL-1β compared to the control group without IL-1β (543.8 ± 205.8. Maximal turbidity was observed in the control group. IL-1β (500 pg/mL treatment significantly decreased fiber diameters resulting in smaller pore sizes and increased density of the fibrin clot structure formed from PPP (P < 0.05. The clot lysis assay revealed that 500 pg/mL IL-1β induced a lower susceptibility to dissolution due to the formation of thinner and denser fibers.IL-1β can significantly influence PPP fibrin clot structure, which may affect the early bone healing process.

  5. Tissue growth controlled by geometric boundary conditions: a simple model recapitulating aspects of callus formation and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, F Dieter; Zickler, Gerald A; Dunlop, John W C; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The shape of tissues arises from a subtle interplay between biochemical driving forces, leading to cell growth, division and extracellular matrix formation, and the physical constraints of the surrounding environment, giving rise to mechanical signals for the cells. Despite the inherent complexity of such systems, much can still be learnt by treating tissues that constantly remodel as simple fluids. In this approach, remodelling relaxes all internal stresses except for the pressure which is counterbalanced by the surface stress. Our model is used to investigate how wettable substrates influence the stability of tissue nodules. It turns out for a growing tissue nodule in free space, the model predicts only two states: either the tissue shrinks and disappears, or it keeps growing indefinitely. However, as soon as the tissue wets a substrate, stable equilibrium configurations become possible. Furthermore, by investigating more complex substrate geometries, such as tissue growing at the end of a hollow cylinder, we see features reminiscent of healing processes in long bones, such as the existence of a critical gap size above which healing does not occur. Despite its simplicity, the model may be useful in describing various aspects related to tissue growth, including biofilm formation and cancer metastases. PMID:26018964

  6. Demineralized Bone Matrix Add-On for Acceleration of Bone Healing in Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Consecutive Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Noratep Kulachote; Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong; Norachart Sirisreetreerux; Pongsthorn Chanplakorn; Praman Fuangfa; Chanyut Suphachatwong; Wiwat Wajanavisit

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delayed union and nonunion are common complications in atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) despite having good fracture fixation. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a successfully proven method for enhancing fracture healing of the long bone fracture and nonunion and should be used in AFFs. This study aimed to compare the outcome after subtrochanteric AFFs (ST-AFFs) fixation with and without DBM. Materials and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 9 ST-AFFs patients using DB...

  7. Enoxaparin and rivaroxaban have different effects on human mesenchymal stromal cells in the early stages of bone healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbel, J.; Prodinger, P. M.; Mrotzek, S. J.; Fischer, J. C.; Zilkens, C.; Bittersohl, B.; Krauspe, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major potential complication following orthopaedic surgery. Subcutaneously administered enoxaparin has been used as the benchmark to reduce the incidence of VTE. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term administration of enoxaparin and its possible negative effects on bone healing and bone density with an increase of the risk of osteoporotic fractures. New oral anticoagulants such as rivaroxaban have recently been introduced, however, there is a lack of information regarding how these drugs affect bone metabolism and post-operative bone healing. Methods We measured the migration and proliferation capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under enoxaparin or rivaroxaban treatment for three consecutive weeks, and evaluated effects on MSC mRNA expression of markers for stress and osteogenic differentiation. Results We demonstrate that enoxaparin, but not rivaroxaban, increases the migration potential of MSCs and increases their cell count in line with elevated mRNA expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and alpha-B-crystallin (CryaB). However, a decrease in early osteogenic markers (insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1, IGF2), bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP2)) indicated inhibitory effects on MSC differentiation into osteoblasts caused by enoxaparin, but not by rivaroxaban. Conclusions Our findings may explain the adverse effects of enoxaparin treatment on bone healing. Rivaroxaban has no significant impact on MSC metabolism or capacity for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Cite this article: Dr H. Pilge. Enoxaparin and rivaroxaban have different effects on human mesenchymal stromal cells in the early stages of bone healing. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:95–100. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.53.2000595. PMID:26989119

  8. 99mTC-Methylene diphosphonate uptake at injury site correlates with osteoblast differentiation and mineralization during bone healing in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhendong A Zhong; Anderson Peck; Shihong Li; Jeff VanOss; John Snider; Casey J Droscha; Tingtung A Chang; Bart O Williams

    2015-01-01

    99mTc-Methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) is widely used in clinical settings to detect bone abnormalities. However, the mechanism of 99mTc-MDP uptake in bone is not well elucidated. In this study, we utilized a mouse tibia injury model, single-photon emission computed tomography (gamma scintigraphy or SPECT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography, and histology to monitor 99mTc-MDP uptake in injury sites during skeletal healing. In an ex vivo culture system, calvarial cells were differentiated into osteoblasts with osteogenic medium, pulsed with 99mTc-MDP at different time points, and quantitated for 99mTc-MDP uptake with a gamma counter. We demonstrated that 99mTc-MDP uptake in the injury sites corresponded to osteoblast generation in those sites throughout the healing process. The 99mTc-MDP uptake within the injury sites peaked on day 7 post-injury, while the injury sites were occupied by mature osteoblasts also starting from day 7. 99mTc-MDP uptake started to decrease 14 days post-surgery, when we observed the highest level of bony tissue in the injury sites. We also found that 99mTc-MDP uptake was associated with osteoblast maturation and mineralization in vitro. This study provides direct and biological evidence for 99mTc-MDP uptake in osteoblasts during bone healing in vivo and in vitro.

  9. Healing gardens: design processes and realizations of beneficial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Cooper Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Having defined the topic and its related management effects in the healthcare environment, this paper reports considerations of specific design processes, including evidence-based design, Integrated Healthcare Strategies, participatory practices and post occupancy evaluation. Landscape of Italian examples follows before a case study of three Californian healing gardens dedicated to cancer patients, linked to a survey of this category of users’ needs in such spaces. Conclusions report the reflection of practical implications deriving from studying North American examples, underlining the opportunity for audit and certification of therapeutic gardens, as well as the chance to export them outside health infrastructures for social needs.

  10. Hydroxyapatite-doped polycaprolactone nanofiber membrane improves tendon-bone interface healing for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yaying; Lin, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Chen, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring tendon autograft is a routine graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, ways of improving the healing between the tendon and bone is often overlooked in clinical practice. This issue can be addressed by using a biomimetic scaffold. Herein, a biomimetic nanofiber membrane of polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHAp/Col) is fabricated that mimics the composition of native bone tissue for promoting tendon-bone healing. This membrane has good cytocompatibility, allowing for osteoblast cell adhesion and growth and bone formation. As a result, MC3T3 cells reveal a higher mineralization level in PCL/nHAp/Col membrane compared with PCL membrane alone. Further in vivo studies in ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model shows that PCL/nHAp/Col-wrapped tendon may afford superior tissue integration to nonwrapped tendon in the interface between the tendon and host bone as well as improved mechanical strength. This study shows that PCL/nHAp/Col nanofiber membrane wrapping of autologous tendon is effective for improving tendon healing with host bone in ACL reconstruction. PMID:26677323

  11. Hydroxyapatite-doped polycaprolactone nanofiber membrane improves tendon–bone interface healing for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yaying; Lin, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Chen, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring tendon autograft is a routine graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, ways of improving the healing between the tendon and bone is often overlooked in clinical practice. This issue can be addressed by using a biomimetic scaffold. Herein, a biomimetic nanofiber membrane of polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHAp/Col) is fabricated that mimics the composition of native bone tissue for promoting tendon–bone healing. This membrane has good cytocompatibility, allowing for osteoblast cell adhesion and growth and bone formation. As a result, MC3T3 cells reveal a higher mineralization level in PCL/nHAp/Col membrane compared with PCL membrane alone. Further in vivo studies in ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model shows that PCL/nHAp/Col-wrapped tendon may afford superior tissue integration to nonwrapped tendon in the interface between the tendon and host bone as well as improved mechanical strength. This study shows that PCL/nHAp/Col nanofiber membrane wrapping of autologous tendon is effective for improving tendon healing with host bone in ACL reconstruction. PMID:26677323

  12. Hydroxyapatite-doped polycaprolactone nanofiber membrane improves tendon–bone interface healing for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fei Han,1,* Peng Zhang,2,* Yaying Sun,2 Chao Lin,1 Peng Zhao,1 Jiwu Chen2 1Shanghai East Hospital, The Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Nanoscience, Tongji University School of Medicine, Tongji University, 2Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hamstring tendon autograft is a routine graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. However, ways of improving the healing between the tendon and bone is often overlooked in clinical practice. This issue can be addressed by using a biomimetic scaffold. Herein, a biomimetic nanofiber membrane of polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHAp/Col is fabricated that mimics the composition of native bone tissue for promoting tendon–bone healing. This membrane has good cytocompatibility, allowing for osteoblast cell adhesion and growth and bone formation. As a result, MC3T3 cells reveal a higher mineralization level in PCL/nHAp/Col membrane compared with PCL membrane alone. Further in vivo studies in ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model shows that PCL/nHAp/Col-wrapped tendon may afford superior tissue integration to nonwrapped tendon in the interface between the tendon and host bone as well as improved mechanical strength. This study shows that PCL/nHAp/Col nanofiber membrane wrapping of autologous tendon is effective for improving tendon healing with host bone in ACL reconstruction. Keywords: nanohydroxyapatite, polycaprolactone, nanofiber, tissue engineering, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on wound healing of alveolar bone socket after extraction of rat maxillary molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of radiation on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds. X-ray doses of 10 Gy or 20 Gy were delivered, once, to the maxillofacial area of Wistar-strain rats. Then, 24 hours after irradiation, the maxillary first molars were extracted bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 42, and 84 days after tooth extraction, and the maxilla were sliced, to make thin sections. These specimens were then double stained with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The ratio of bone area to socket area (bone formation ratio), the ratio of bone length to ALP positive area length (ALP positive ratio), and the number of TRAP-positive cells, were evaluated. The results showed: The bone formation ratios at days 3 and 7 after tooth extraction were significantly low in both irradiation groups, compared with those for the non-irradiation group. The ALP positive reaction ratio peaked 7 days after in the non-irradiation group. In both irradiation groups, the ratios that were worked out at 3 days and 7 days after were significantly lower than those in the non-irradiation group. There was no significant difference in the number of TRAP-positive cells between the non-irradiation group and the 10 Gy irradiation group. In the 20 Gy irradiation group, the TRAP-positive cell count plummeted to a significantly low level at 3 days after tooth extraction, compared with that in the non-irradiation group. (author)

  14. Healing of Large Segmental Bone Defect after Implantation of Autogenous Cancellous Bone Graft in Comparison to Hydroxyapatite and 0.5% Collagen Scaffold Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečas, A.; Proks, P.; Urbanová, L.; Srnec, R.; Stehlík, L.; Crha, M.; Raušer, P.; Plánka, L.; Janovec, J.; Dvořák, M.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jančář, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2010), s. 607-612. ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : fracture fixation * bone healing * comminuted fracture Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  15. Effect of bone marrow and low power lasers on fracture healing with destruction of both periosteum and endosteum in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Thanoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten mature rabbits of local breed were used in this study; weighing between 1.5 to 1.75 kg and aged about 1–2 years. These animals were divided into two equal groups; in group A destruction of both periosteum and endosteum was done one centimeter from each side of mid-shaft femoral bone fracture, then sufficient amount of autogenously bone marrow was injected directly at the fracture site after immobilization by intramedullary pin. In group B a similar procedure was achieved as in group A, but in additional to that He-Ne infrared laser therapy was used for several sessions. The result of radiological findings indicated that, the fracture healing occurred within group B at fifteen weeks, whereas in group A the healing occurred at eighteen weeks after operation. The implantation of autologous bone marrow enhanced the fracture healing, whereas using of combinations of autologous bone marrow and He-Ne infrared laser therapy hastened the healing.

  16. Monitoring Network and Interfacial Healing Processes by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Natural Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Grande, A M; van der Zwaag, S; García, S J

    2016-04-27

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is introduced as a new and powerful technique to monitor network and macroscale damage healing in an elastomer. For the proof of concept, a partially cured sulfur-cured natural rubber (NR) containing reversible disulfides as the healing moiety was employed. The forms of damage healed and monitored were an invisible damage in the rubber network due to multiple straining and an imposed macroscopic crack. The relaxation times of pristine, damaged, and healed samples were determined and fitted to the Havriliak-Negami equation to obtain the characteristic polymer parameters. It is shown that seemingly full mechanical healing occurred regardless the type of damage, while BDS demonstrates that the polymer architecture in the healed material differs from that in the original one. These results represent a step forward in the understanding of damage and healing processes in intrinsic self-healing polymer systems with prospective applications such as coatings, tires, seals, and gaskets. PMID:27057588

  17. Effects of diclofenac and celecoxib on osteoclastogenesis during alveolar bone healing, in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Ghalayani; Mohsen Minaiyan; Sayyed Mohammad Razavi; Samira Hajisadeghi; Narges Naghsh; Mohammad Shah Abuie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the RANKL/OPG balance during the healing of the alveolar process. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, carried on 45 male Wistar rats (200 ± 25...

  18. Effect of a Novel Nonviral Gene Delivery of BMP-2 on Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schwabe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gene therapeutic drug delivery approaches have been introduced to improve the efficiency of growth factors at the site of interest. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a new nonviral copolymer-protected gene vector (COPROG for the stimulation of bone healing. Methods. In vitro, rat osteoblasts were transfected with COPROG + luciferase plasmid or COPROG + hBMP-2 plasmid. In vivo, rat tibial fractures were intramedullary stabilized with uncoated versus COPROG+hBMP-2-plasmid-coated titanium K-wires. The tibiae were prepared for biomechanical and histological analyses at days 28 and 42 and for transfection/safety study at days 2, 4, 7, 28, and 42. Results. In vitro results showed luciferase expression until day 21, and hBMP-2-protein was measured from day 2 – day 10. In vivo, the local application of hBMP-2-plasmid showed a significantly higher maximum load after 42 days compared to that in the control. The histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly less mineralized periosteal callus area in the BMP-2 group compared to the control at day 28. The rt-PCR showed no systemic biodistribution of luciferase RNA. Conclusion. A positive effect on fracture healing by nonviral BMP-2 plasmid application from COPROG-coated implants could be shown in this study; however, the effect of the vector may be improved with higher plasmid concentrations. Transfection showed no biodistribution to distant organs and was considered to be safe.

  19. Healing process of infarcted myocardium. Evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, Hideaki; Murakami, Eiji; Takekoshi, Noboru; Matsui, Sinobu; Emoto, Jirou; Matoba, Munetoshi; Fukuoka, Takumi; Enyama, Hiroto; Aoyama, Takahiko

    1989-01-01

    Healing process of infarcts and morphology of left ventricular aneurysms were examined with ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 41 patients with myocardial infarction. According to the time of MRI, the patients fell into Group I - within one month after the onset of myocardial infarction, Group II - between 2 and 3 months, Group III - between 4 and 12 months, and Group IV - more than one year. In Groups I and II, T2 relaxation time for infarcts was significantly prolonged when compared with non-infarcts. It gradually decreased in the following order: Groups I>II>III>IV. Groups IV had the lowest ratio of infarcts to non-infarcts (I/N ratio), followed by Groups II and III, and then Group I. MR imaging had a sensitivity of 70% in morphologically evaluating left ventricular aneurysms. Left ventricular aneurysms tended to be detected when the I/N ratio was 0.6 or less. Acute infarcts had increased signal intensities and a prolonged T2 relaxation time, probably resulting from protons increased by edemas. These appearances returned to normal 2 to 3 months after the onset; and simultaneously, the infarcted wall was becoming thin. These MRI findings seem representative of healing process of infarcts. In cases of associated left ventricular aneurysms, the infarcted wall was remarkably thinned, which was likely affected by an excessive expansion due to an increased tension of the infarcted wall. (Namekawa, K).

  20. Additional bone graft accelerates healing of clavicle non-unions and improves long-term results after 8.9 years: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Schnetzke, Marc; Morbitzer, Christian; Aytac, Sara; Erhardt, Matthias; Frank, Christian; Muenzberg, Matthias; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Helbig, Lars; Suda, Arnold J.; Gruetzner, Paul-Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Clavicle non-unions can occur after both conservative and operative treatment failure. Here, we investigated the outcome of patients with delayed fracture healing or non-unions of the clavicle. Patients underwent revision surgery by plate osteosynthesis of the clavicle with or without bone grafting. Our aim was to determine rates of bone healing and the functional long-term outcome. Methods The study population of 58 consecutive patients was divided into group 1 (n = 25; no bone gr...

  1. THE BIOLOGY OF FRACTURE HEALING

    OpenAIRE

    Marsell, Richard; Einhorn, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The biology of fracture healing is a complex biological process that follows specific regenerative patterns and involves changes in the expression of several thousand genes. Although there is still much to be learned to fully comprehend the pathways of bone regeneration, the over-all pathways of both the anatomical and biochemical events have been thoroughly investigated. These efforts have provided a general understanding of how fracture healing occurs. Following the initial trauma, bone hea...

  2. Influence of bioactive material coating of Ti dental implant surfaces on early healing and osseointegration of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dental implant surface type is one of many factors that determine the long-term clinical success of implant restoration. The implant surface consists of bioinert titanium oxide, but recently coatings with bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics have often been used on Ti implant surfaces. Bio-active surfaces are known to significantly improve the healing time of the human bone around the inserted dental implant. In this study, we characterized two types of coated implant surfaces by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and surface roughness testing. The effect of surface modification on early bone healing was then tested by using the rabbit tibia model to measure bone-to-implant contact ratios and removal torque values. These modified surfaces showed different characteristics in terms of surface topography, chemical composition, and surface roughness. However, no significant differences were found in the bone-to-implant contact and the resistance to removal torque between these surfaces. Both the coated implants may induce similar favorable early bone responses in terms of the early functioning and healing of dental implants even though they differed in their surface characteristics.

  3. Influence of bioactive material coating of Ti dental implant surfaces on early healing and osseointegration of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, In-Sung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Seung-Ki [Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Young-Bai [Osstem Implant Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The dental implant surface type is one of many factors that determine the long-term clinical success of implant restoration. The implant surface consists of bioinert titanium oxide, but recently coatings with bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics have often been used on Ti implant surfaces. Bio-active surfaces are known to significantly improve the healing time of the human bone around the inserted dental implant. In this study, we characterized two types of coated implant surfaces by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and surface roughness testing. The effect of surface modification on early bone healing was then tested by using the rabbit tibia model to measure bone-to-implant contact ratios and removal torque values. These modified surfaces showed different characteristics in terms of surface topography, chemical composition, and surface roughness. However, no significant differences were found in the bone-to-implant contact and the resistance to removal torque between these surfaces. Both the coated implants may induce similar favorable early bone responses in terms of the early functioning and healing of dental implants even though they differed in their surface characteristics.

  4. Inhibition of the fracture healing process in smokers: deregulation of cellular and molecular milieu in tibial fracture micro-environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoking has been shown to have a detrimental impact on fracture healing and is often implicated in the non- and delayed-union of bone. Whilst numerous studies have concentrated on the demographic and clinical manifestations of fracture healing and smoking, very little analyses have been undertaken at the biochemical level. Aims: This research project will assess the impact of smoking on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone healing by analysing human tibial fract...

  5. Self-Healing Efficiency of Cementitious Materials Containing Microcapsules Filled with Healing Adhesive: Mechanical Restoration and Healing Process Monitored by Water Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Zhenghong; Zhao, Nan; Yuan, Weizhong

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous crack healing of cementitious composite, a construction material that is susceptible to cracking, is of great significance to improve the serviceability and to prolong the longevity of concrete structures. In this study, the St-DVB microcapsules enclosing epoxy resins as the adhesive agent were embedded in cement paste to achieve self-healing capability. The self-healing efficiency was firstly assessed by mechanical restoration of the damaging specimens after being matured. The flexural and compressive configurations were both used to stimulate the localized and distributed cracks respectively. The effects of some factors, including the content of microcapsules, the curing conditions and the degree of damage on the healing efficiency were investigated. Water absorption was innovatively proposed to monitor and characterize the evolution of crack networks during the healing process. The healing cracks were observed by SEM-EDS following. The results demonstrated that the capsule-containing cement paste can achieve the various mechanical restorations depending on the curing condition and the degree of damage. But the voids generated by the surfactants compromised the strength. Though no noticeable improved stiffness obtained, the increasing fracture energy was seen particularly for the specimen acquiring 60% pre-damage. The sorptivity and amount of water decreased with cracks healing by the adhesive, which contributed to cut off and block ingress of water. The micrographs by SEM-EDS also validated that the cracks were bridged by the hardened epoxy as the dominated elements of C and O accounted for 95% by mass in the nearby cracks. PMID:24312328

  6. Self-healing efficiency of cementitious materials containing microcapsules filled with healing adhesive: mechanical restoration and healing process monitored by water absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li

    Full Text Available Autonomous crack healing of cementitious composite, a construction material that is susceptible to cracking, is of great significance to improve the serviceability and to prolong the longevity of concrete structures. In this study, the St-DVB microcapsules enclosing epoxy resins as the adhesive agent were embedded in cement paste to achieve self-healing capability. The self-healing efficiency was firstly assessed by mechanical restoration of the damaging specimens after being matured. The flexural and compressive configurations were both used to stimulate the localized and distributed cracks respectively. The effects of some factors, including the content of microcapsules, the curing conditions and the degree of damage on the healing efficiency were investigated. Water absorption was innovatively proposed to monitor and characterize the evolution of crack networks during the healing process. The healing cracks were observed by SEM-EDS following. The results demonstrated that the capsule-containing cement paste can achieve the various mechanical restorations depending on the curing condition and the degree of damage. But the voids generated by the surfactants compromised the strength. Though no noticeable improved stiffness obtained, the increasing fracture energy was seen particularly for the specimen acquiring 60% pre-damage. The sorptivity and amount of water decreased with cracks healing by the adhesive, which contributed to cut off and block ingress of water. The micrographs by SEM-EDS also validated that the cracks were bridged by the hardened epoxy as the dominated elements of C and O accounted for 95% by mass in the nearby cracks.

  7. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  8. Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilday, Steven D.; Casstevens, E. Chris; Kenter, Keith; Shearn, Jason T.; Butler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natural PT-to-bone healing have not been well characterized. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the global biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns of both normal and naturally healing murine PT at three time points (2, 5, and 8 weeks) following acute surgical rupture of the tibial enthesis. Normal murine PT exhibited distinct regional variations in tissue strain, with the insertion region experiencing approximately 2.5 times greater strain than the midsubstance at failure (10.80 ± 2.52% vs. 4.11 ± 1.40%; mean ± SEM). Injured tendons showed reduced structural (ultimate load and linear stiffness) and material (ultimate stress and linear modulus) properties compared to both normal and contralateral sham-operated tendons at all healing time points. Injured tendons also displayed increased local strain in the insertion region compared to contralateral shams at both physiologic and failure load levels. 93.3% of injured tendons failed at the tibial insertion, compared to only 60% and 66.7% of normal and sham tendons, respectively. These results indicate that 8 weeks of natural tendon-to-bone healing does not restore normal biomechanical function to the murine PT following injury. PMID:24210849

  9. Healing of the proximal bone clock in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar-tendon-bone graft - a CT-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the middle third of the patellar ligament is a widely used method to re-establish knee function after ACL-injury. However, there is still considerable debate about the operative technique and graft fixation The goal of this study was to evaluate ACL-reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft and femoral fixation with endobutton clinically as well as to evaluate bone tunnel placement and tunnel morphology with CT and x-ray. 51 patients, who had undergone ACL-reconstruction with BPTB-graft and fixation with Endobutton, were evaluated clinically. In 51 cases standard x-ray films - anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral - and in 50 cases computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained. Femoral tunnel placement was measured with a three-dimensional coordinate system on both x-ray films and CT scans. Tunnel widening and bone block healing where determined with CT on both the femoral and the tibial side. 40 patients had a normal or nearly normal knee function, 6 patients scored abnormal and none of the patients was rated severely abonormal according to the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form. Tunnel placement could not be determined on plain x-rays in 46 cases on the AP-films and in 8 cases on the lateral films. Average position: AP: 89,8 %, lateral: 38,5 %. On CT-scans the position could be measured in all 50 cases. Average position CT: AP: 90,5 %, lateral: 34,1 %. Tunnel widening on the femoral side was 40 % tunnel widening where obtained. Femoral bone block healing was complete in all cases. This operative technique shows good clinical results, which are comparable to other studies on ACL-reconstruction with BPTB-grafts. Suspensory femoral fixation with Endobutton does not cause any significant tunnel widening as it was reported when using the same fixation but hamstring grafts. Average tunnel position was comparable to other studies. However, CT scans are superior to plain radiographs

  10. Human amniotic membrane, best healing accelerator, and the choice of bone induction for vestibuloplasty technique (an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Khoshzaban

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad H Samandari1, Shahriar Adibi2, Ahad Khoshzaban3, Sara Aghazadeh5, Parviz Dihimi4, Siamak S Torbaghan6, Saeed H Keshel5, Zohreh Shahabi71Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dentistry Faculty, 2Dental Research of Torabinejad Research Centre, 3Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Centre, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dentistry Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; 5Stem Cells Preparation Unit, Eye Research Center, Farabi Hospital, 6Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Medical Centre, 7BMT Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjective: To investigate the effects of amniotic membrane (AM in bone induction and wound healing after vestibuloplasty surgery on animal samples while receptacle proteins such as growth factors were considered as accelerators for wound healing and bone induction after these operations.Material and methods: Ten adult dogs (5 females, 5 males; race, Iranian mixed; weight, 44 pounds were included, which underwent surgery for transplantation on mandible and maxillary. AM was used for promoting bone induction and healing.Results: The tissue samples were obtained after 2, 8, and 12 weeks for histology survey. No significant differences were observed between male and female or left and right jaws. AM decreased fibrinoleukocytic exudates and inflammation in the experimental group, had significant effects on bone formation, considerably improves wound healing, and gives rise to bone induction (P < 0.0001.Conclusions: Our study findings indicate that the AM is a suitable cover for different injuries and acellular AM has the potential for rapid improvement and bone induction. The AM contains collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, which provide an appropriate substrate for bone induction. This substrate promoted bone induction and might contribute to induction of the progenitor cells and/or stem

  11. [Immunoregulatory role of mesenchymal stem cells in bone reparation processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, D O

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) including osteoblast progenitor cells. When culturedunder conditions promoting an osteoblastic phenotype,MSC proliferate to form colonies that produce alkaline phosphatase and, subsequently, a mature osteoblastic phenotype. Transplantation of cultured autologous MSC to patients with non-healing bone fractures gives a good result leading to complete bone fracture consolidation. The aim of the study is to determine a quantitative production of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha by cultured uncommitted and committed osteogenic MSC. The results showed that the cytokine profile consisting of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha is secreted by cultured MSC. The secretion of IL-1beta and IL-2 by cultured MSC together with hyper production of IL-6 (up to 276.5 pg/ml, pactivators of bone resorption, inflammation and some immunological reactions in the process of altered osteoreparation. PMID:18756772

  12. Effects of diclofenac and celecoxib on osteoclastogenesis during alveolar bone healing, in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Hajisadeghi, Samira; Naghsh, Narges; Abuie, Mohammad Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the RANKL/OPG balance during the healing of the alveolar process. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, carried on 45 male Wistar rats (200 ± 25 g, 8-...

  13. An in vivo study on the effect of scaffold geometry and growth factor release on the healing of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilgor, P; Yilmaz, G; Onal, M B; Solmaz, I; Gundogdu, S; Keskil, S; Sousa, R A; Reis, R L; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2013-09-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the extent of bone regeneration could be enhanced by using scaffolds with appropriate geometry, and that such an effect could be further increased by mimicking the natural timing of appearance of bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2 and BMP-7 after fracture. Bioplotted poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) disks with four different fibre organizations were used to study the effect of 3D scaffold architecture on the healing of bone defects in a rat pelvis model. Moreover, one PCL construct was further modified by introducing a nanoparticulate sequential BMP-2/BMP-7 delivery system into this scaffold. Scaffolds and functionalized construct along with free nanocapsules were implanted using a rat iliac crest defect model. Six weeks post-implantation, the defects were evaluated by CT scan and histology. Analysis revealed that the basic architecture, having the highest pore volume for tissue ingrowth, presented the highest bone formation as determined by the bone mineral density (BMD) within the defect (144.2 ± 7.1); about four-fold higher than that of the empty defect (34.9 ± 10.7). It also showed the highest histological analysis scores with a high amount of bone formation within the defect, within the scaffold pores and along the outer surfaces of the scaffold. The basic scaffold carrying the BMP-2/BMP-7 delivery system showed significantly higher bone formation than the growth factor-free basic scaffold at 6 weeks (BMD 206.8 ± 15.7). Histological analysis also revealed new bone formation in close to or in direct contact with the construct interface. This study indicates the importance of open and interconnecting pore geometry on the better healing of bone defects, and that this effect could be further increased by supplying growth factors, as is the case in nature. PMID:22396311

  14. Management of impaired fracture healing: Historical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gajdobranski Đorđe; Micić Ivan; Mitković Milorad B.; Mladenović Desimir; Milankov Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Establishing continuity of long bones in cases of impaired bone healing and pseudo-arthrosis is one of the most complex problems in orthopedics. Impaired bone healing The problem of impaired fracture healing is not new. As in other areas of human life, the roots of modern treatment of impaired bone healing lie in ancient medicine. A relatively high percentage of impaired bone healing, as well as unsatisfactory results of standard therapies of impaired bone healing and pseudoarthr...

  15. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    OpenAIRE

    Lui PPY; Zhang P; KM, Chan; Qin L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis") which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be ...

  16. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  17. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A., E-mail: kazimmer@vt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); LeBlanc, Jill M.; Sheets, Kevin T.; Fox, Robert W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  18. Mindful Processing in Psychotherapy - Facilitating Natural Healing Process within Attuned Therapeutic Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Žvelc

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness is non-judgmental, accepting awareness of what is going on in the present moment. The author proposes that mindfulness promotes natural healing of the organism, where the change comes spontaneously by acceptance and awareness of internal experience. Such process the author describes as 'mindful processing', because with mindful awareness disturbing experiences can be processed and integrated. The author's interest in how mindfulness can be systematically applied in psychotherapy l...

  19. Healing patterns of critical size bony defects in rats after grafting with bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: histological and histometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, N; Naaman, N; Nohra, J; Badawi, N

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the healing of critical size defects in calvarial bone. Defects were created in 24 Sprague Dawley rats. The rhBMP-2 was diluted to obtain a final concentration of 0.2mg/ml. Rats were divided into four groups and treated as follows: in the first group the defect was filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) and rhBMP-2, the second group was treated with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and rhBMP-2, and the third group was treated with autogenous bone (AUTO). In the control group the defects were left untreated. Animals were killed after 8weeks and calcified histological sections prepared. Histometric measurements showed that mean (SD) bone formation was 4.00 (1.69)mm(2) in the ABBM group, 2.56 (1.06)mm(2) in the FDBA group, and 2.30 (0.34)mm(2) in the AUTO group. The difference between the ABBM group and the other 3 groups was significant (p<0.0001) with a mean bone formation of 0.82 (0.25)mm(2) in the control group. There was no significant difference between the FDBA and the AUTO groups (p=0.96). Within the limits of this study we concluded that the addition of rhBMP-2 to bone substitutes was efficacious in regenerating bone in critical size bone defects in calveria in rats. PMID:22939894

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Postoperative Fracture Healing Process without Metal Artifact: A Preliminary Report of a Novel Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Guan, Yuheng; Yu, Guibo; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early radiological diagnosis and continual monitoring are of ultimate importance for timely treatment of delayed union, nonunion, and infection after bone fracture surgery. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide superior detailed images compared with X-ray and computed tomography (CT) without ionizing radiation, metal implants used for fracture fixation lead to abundant artifacts on MRI and thus prohibit accurate interpretation. The authors develop a novel intramedullary fixation model of rat femoral fracture using polyetheretherketone (PEEK) threaded rods and investigate its feasibility for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without artifact. Methods. Femoral fractures of 3 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed with intramedullary PEEK threaded rods. X-ray and MRI examinations were performed at day 7 postoperatively. Radiological images were analyzed for the existence of artifact interruption and postoperative changes in bone and peripheral soft tissue. Results. Postoperative plain film revealed no loss of reduction. MRI images illustrated the whole length of femur and peripheral tissue without artifact interruption, and the cortical bone, implanted PEEK rod, and soft tissue were clearly illustrated. Conclusion. This preliminary study introduced a novel rat model for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without metal artifact, by using intramedullary fixation of femur with PEEK threaded rod. PMID:27123442

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Postoperative Fracture Healing Process without Metal Artifact: A Preliminary Report of a Novel Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early radiological diagnosis and continual monitoring are of ultimate importance for timely treatment of delayed union, nonunion, and infection after bone fracture surgery. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI could provide superior detailed images compared with X-ray and computed tomography (CT without ionizing radiation, metal implants used for fracture fixation lead to abundant artifacts on MRI and thus prohibit accurate interpretation. The authors develop a novel intramedullary fixation model of rat femoral fracture using polyetheretherketone (PEEK threaded rods and investigate its feasibility for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without artifact. Methods. Femoral fractures of 3 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed with intramedullary PEEK threaded rods. X-ray and MRI examinations were performed at day 7 postoperatively. Radiological images were analyzed for the existence of artifact interruption and postoperative changes in bone and peripheral soft tissue. Results. Postoperative plain film revealed no loss of reduction. MRI images illustrated the whole length of femur and peripheral tissue without artifact interruption, and the cortical bone, implanted PEEK rod, and soft tissue were clearly illustrated. Conclusion. This preliminary study introduced a novel rat model for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without metal artifact, by using intramedullary fixation of femur with PEEK threaded rod.

  2. Healed or non-healed? computed tomography (CT) visualisation of morphology of bite trace ichnotaxa on a dinosaur bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Lauridsen, Henrik; Fiirgaard, Bente;

    2015-01-01

    stereomicroscopy and a radiologist analysed the CT scans. Sixteen different scanner settings were used to optimise the CT parameters and avoid signal at tenuation, in the form of hypointense artefacts in the central trabeculated part of the bone fragment. The use of CT scanning provided information on internal...

  3. Correlation between primary stability and bone healing of surface treated titanium implants in the femoral epiphyses of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, Julie; Hoornaert, Alain; Layrolle, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the stability and osseointegration of surface treated titanium implants in rabbit femurs. The implants were either grit-blasted and acid-etched (BE Group), calcium phosphate (CaP) coated by using the electrodeposition technique, or had bioactive molecules incorporated into the CaP coatings: either cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or dexamethasone (Dex). Twenty four cylindrical titanium implants (n = 6/group) were inserted bilaterally into the femoral epiphyses of New Zealand White, female, adult rabbits for 4 weeks. Implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) the day of implantation and 4 weeks later, and correlated to histomorphometric parameters, bone implant contact (BIC) and bone growth around the implants (BS/TS 0.5 mm). The BIC values for the four groups were not significantly different. That said, histology indicated that the CaP coatings improved bone growth around the implants. The incorporation of bioactive molecules (cAMP and Dex) into the CaP coatings did not improve bone growth compared to the BE group. Implant stability quotients (ISQ) increased in each group after 4 weeks of healing but were not significantly different between the groups. A good correlation was observed between ISQ and BS/TS 0.5 mm indicating that RFA is a non-invasive method that can be used to assess the osseointegration of implants. In conclusion, the CaP coating enhanced bone formation around the implants, which was correlated to stability measured by resonance frequency analysis. Furthers studies need to be conducted in order to explore the benefits of incorporating bioactive molecules into the coatings for peri-implant bone healing. PMID:24818874

  4. Demineralized Bone Matrix Add-On for Acceleration of Bone Healing in Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Consecutive Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulachote, Noratep; Sirisreetreerux, Norachart; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Fuangfa, Praman; Suphachatwong, Chanyut; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delayed union and nonunion are common complications in atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) despite having good fracture fixation. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a successfully proven method for enhancing fracture healing of the long bone fracture and nonunion and should be used in AFFs. This study aimed to compare the outcome after subtrochanteric AFFs (ST-AFFs) fixation with and without DBM. Materials and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 9 ST-AFFs patients using DBM (DBM group) during 2013-2014 and compared with a retrospective consecutive case series of ST-AFFs patients treated without DBM (2010–2012) (NDBM group, 9 patients). All patients were treated with the same standard guideline and followed up until fractures completely united. Postoperative outcomes were then compared. Results. DBM group showed a significant shorter healing time than NDBM group (28.1 ± 14.4 versus 57.9 ± 36.8 weeks, p = 0.04). Delayed union was found in 4 patients (44%) in DBM group compared with 7 patients (78%) in NDBM group (p > 0.05). No statistical difference of nonunion was demonstrated between both groups (DBM = 1 and NDBM = 2, p > 0.05). Neither postoperative infection nor severe local tissue reaction was found. Conclusions. DBM is safe and effective for accelerating the fracture healing in ST-AFFx and possibly reduces nonunion after fracture fixation. Trial registration number is TCTR20151021001. PMID:27022610

  5. Bone tissue regeneration indento-alveolar surgery : clinical and experimental studies on biomaterials and bone graft substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin-Platt, Annika

    2011-01-01

    Pathological processes in the alveolar and facial bones can lead to bone loss that may not heal with complete regeneration. Biomaterials can be used to facilitate the healing process and/or as a bone substitute, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Persistent leakage of bacteria/bacterial toxins, after root canal treatment, may lead to a residual bone defect. The healing is dependent on a placed dental biomaterial providing a tight seal. The composition of the filling material may als...

  6. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Bioactive Glass Powder for the Improvement of Rotator Cuff Tendon-to-Bone Healing in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that a platelet-rich plasma (PRP plus bioactive glass (BG mixture could shorten the tendon-bone healing process in rotator cuff tendon repair, thirty mature male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, Control, PRP, and PRP + BG. All groups underwent a surgical procedure to establish a rotator cuff tendon healing model. Mechanical examinations and histological assays were taken to verify the adhesion of the tendon-bone. Real-time PCR was adopted to analyze Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2. The maximum load-to-failure value in mechanical examinations was significantly higher in the PRP + BG group than that in the control group after six weeks (Control 38.73 ± 8.58, PRP 54.49 ± 8.72, PRP + BG 79.15 ± 7.62, p < 0.001, but it was not significantly different at 12 weeks (PRP 74.27 ± 7.74, PRP + BG 82.57 ± 6.63, p = 0.145. In histological assays, H&E (hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the interface between the tendon-bone integration was much sturdier in the PRP + BG group compared to the other two groups at each time point, and more ordered arranged tendon fibers can be seen at 12 weeks. At six weeks, the mRNA expression levels of BMP-2 in the PRP + BG group were higher than those in the other groups (PRP + BG 0.65 ± 0.11, PRP 2.284 ± 0.07, Control 0.12 ± 0.05, p < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of BMP-2 among the three groups at 12 weeks (p = 0.922, 0.067, 0.056. BMP-2 levels in PRP and PRP+BG groups were significantly lower at 12 weeks compared to six weeks (p = 0.006, <0.001.We found that the PRP + BG mixture could enhance tendon-bone healing in rotator cuff tendon repair.

  7. What is the effect of initial implant position on the crestal bone level in flap and flapless technique during healing period?

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim; Ab Rahman, Shaifulizan; Hassan, Akram; Bin Ismail, Ikmal Hisham; Tawfiq, Omar Farouq

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The level of the implant above the marginal bone and flap design have an effect on the bone resorption during the healing period. The aim of this study is to detect the relationship between the level of the implant at the implant placement and the bone level at the healing period in the mesial and distal side of implants placed with flapless (FL) and full-thickness flap (FT) methods. Methods Twenty-two nonsubmerged implants were placed with the FL and FT technique. Periapical radiogra...

  8. Bone healing and mineralization, implant corrosion, and trace metals after nickel-titanium shape memory metal intramedullary fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhänen, J; Kallioinen, M; Serlo, W; Perämäki, P; Junila, J; Sandvik, P; Niemelä, E; Tuukkanen, J

    1999-12-15

    Its shape memory effect, superelasticity, and good wear and damping properties make the NiTi shape memory alloy a material with fascinating potential for orthopedic surgery. It provides a possibility for making self-locking, self-expanding, and self-compressing implants. Problems, however, may arise because of its high nickel content. The purpose of this work was to determine the corrosion of NiTi in vivo and to evaluate the possible deleterious effects of NiTi on osteotomy healing, bone mineralization, and the remodeling response. Femoral osteotomies of 40 rats were fixed with either NiTi or stainless steel (StSt) intramedullary nails. The rats were killed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, and 60 weeks. Bone healing was examined with radiographs, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, (pQCT) and histologically. The corrosion of the retrieved implants was analyzed by electron microscopy (FESEM). Trace metals from several organs were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) or by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). There were more healed bone unions in the NiTi than in the StSt group at early (4 and 8 weeks) time points. Callus size was equal between the groups. The total and cortical bone mineral densities did not differ between the NiTi and StSt groups. Mineral density in both groups was lower in the osteotomy area than in the other areas along the nail. Density in the nail area was lower than in the proximal part of the operated femur or the contralateral femur. Bone contact to NiTi was close. A peri-implant lamellar bone sheet formed in the metaphyseal area after 8 weeks, indicating good tissue tolerance. The FESEM assessment showed surface corrosion changes to be more evident in the StSt implants. There were no statistically significant differences in nickel concentration between the NiTi and StSt groups in any of the organs. NiTi appears to be an appropriate material for further intramedullary use because it

  9. The science of ultrasound therapy for fracture healing

    OpenAIRE

    Della Rocca Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Fracture healing involves a complex interplay of cellular processes, culminating in bridging of a fracture gap with bone. Fracture healing can be compromised by numerous exogenous and endogenous patient factors, and intense research is currently going on to identify modalities that can increase the likelihood of successful healing. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been proposed as a modality that may have a benefit for increasing reliable fracture healing as well as perhaps increas...

  10. The healing process of intracorporeally and in situ devitalized distal femur by microwave in a dog model and its mechanical properties in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limb-salvage surgery has been well recognized as a standard treatment and alternative to amputation for patients with malignant bone tumors. Various limb-sparing techniques have been developed including tumor prosthesis, allograft, autograft and graft-prosthesis composite. However, each of these methods has short- and long-term disadvantages such as nonunion, mechanical failures and poor limb function. The technique of intracorporeal devitalization of tumor-bearing bone segment in situ by microwave-induced hyperthermia after separating it from surrounding normal tissues with a safe margin is a promising limb-salvage method, which may avoid some shortcomings encountered by the above-mentioned conventional techniques. The purpose of this study is to assess the healing process and revitalization potential of the devitalized bone segment by this method in a dog model. In addition, the immediate effect of microwave on the biomechanical properties of bone tissue was also explored in an in vitro experiment. METHODS: We applied the microwave-induced hyperthermia to devitalize the distal femurs of dogs in situ. Using a monopole microwave antenna, we could produce a necrotic bone of nearly 20 mm in length in distal femur. Radiography, bone scintigraphy, microangiography, histology and functional evaluation were performed at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively to assess the healing process. In a biomechanical study, two kinds of bone specimens, 3 and 6 cm in length, were used for compression and three-point bending test respectively immediately after extracorporeally devitalized by microwave. FINDINGS: An in vivo study showed that intracorporeally and in situ devitalized bone segment by microwave had great revitalization potential. An in vitro study revealed that the initial mechanical strength of the extracorporeally devitalized bone specimen may not be affected by microwave. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the

  11. Long-term effects of alendronate on fracture healing and bone remodeling of femoral shaft in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ling-jie; Tang, Ting-ting; Hao, Yong-qiang; Dai, Ke-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the long-term effects of alendronate (Aln), a widely used oral bisphosphonate, on fracture healing and bone remodeling in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Adult female SD rats underwent ovariectomy, and then bilateral femoral osteotomy at 12 weeks post-ovariectomy. From d 2 post-ovariectomy, the animals were divided into 3 groups, and treated with Aln (3 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 28 weeks (Aln/Aln), Aln for 12 weeks and saline for 16 weeks (Aln/Saline) or saline for 28 weeks (Sali...

  12. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Flegg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last thirty years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e. capillary sprout growth has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made towards the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  13. Histological Evaluation of Wound Healing Process after Photodynamic Therapy of Rat Oral Mucosal Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhimi, Parviz; Khademi, Heidar; Birang, Reza; Akhoondzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem When the body defense is compromised, wounds can act as a route for entrance and colonization of microorganisms in the body. Photodynamic therapy with methylene blue is known as a promising antimicrobial modality. Purpose The present study aimed to investigate the effects of this procedure on wound healing processes. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were recruited. Experimental wounds were surgically made on their buccal mucosa. Based on the treatment modality, they were divided into 3 groups (n=16) of control (CG), laser (LG), photosensitizer+ laser (PLG) by methylene blue (MB). The treatment procedure in the two latter groups was done in days 1-4 and 6-9. After sacrificing on 2, 4, 7 and 14-day follow-ups, the microscopic grade of healing of the wounds was assigned on each interval according to histological grading criteria. Results A qualitative result was obtained that showed a healing progression in PLG at day 2 of follow-up. At day 4 of follow-up, no difference was seen in healing stage among the groups. However on day 7 of follow-up, samples of the LG showed a lower degree of healing compared with the other two groups. Likewise, on day 14 of follow- up, both PLG and LG showed lower degree of healing than CG. Conclusion This study qualitatively showed that MB- mediated photodynamic therapy would have an inhibitory effect on healing process after 14 days of the wound creation. PMID:26966708

  14. Processing and performance of self-healing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two self-healing methods were implemented into composite materials with self-healing capabilities, using hollow glass fibres (HGF) and microencapsulated epoxy resin with mercaptan as the hardener. For the HGF approach, two perpendicular layers of HGF were put into an E-glass/epoxy composite, and were filled with coloured epoxy resin and hardener. The HGF samples had a novel ball indentation test method done on them. The samples were analysed using micro-CT scanning, confocal microscopy and penetrant dye. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy produced limited success, but their viability was established. Penetrant dye images showed resin obstructing flow of dye through damage regions, suggesting infiltration of resin into cracks. Three-point bend tests showed that overall performance could be affected by the flaws arising from embedding HGF in the material. For the microcapsule approach, samples were prepared for novel double-torsion tests used to generate large cracks. The samples were compared with pure resin samples by analysing them using photoelastic imaging and scanning electron microscope (SEM) on crack surfaces. Photoelastic imaging established the consolidation of cracks while SEM showed a wide spread of microcapsules with their distribution being affected by gravity. Further double-torsion testing showed that healing recovered approximately 24% of material strength.

  15. Processing and performance of self-healing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. S.; Zhang, M. Q.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2009-08-01

    Two self-healing methods were implemented into composite materials with self-healing capabilities, using hollow glass fibres (HGF) and microencapsulated epoxy resin with mercaptan as the hardener. For the HGF approach, two perpendicular layers of HGF were put into an E-glass/epoxy composite, and were filled with coloured epoxy resin and hardener. The HGF samples had a novel ball indentation test method done on them. The samples were analysed using micro-CT scanning, confocal microscopy and penetrant dye. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy produced limited success, but their viability was established. Penetrant dye images showed resin obstructing flow of dye through damage regions, suggesting infiltration of resin into cracks. Three-point bend tests showed that overall performance could be affected by the flaws arising from embedding HGF in the material. For the microcapsule approach, samples were prepared for novel double-torsion tests used to generate large cracks. The samples were compared with pure resin samples by analysing them using photoelastic imaging and scanning electron microscope (SEM) on crack surfaces. Photoelastic imaging established the consolidation of cracks while SEM showed a wide spread of microcapsules with their distribution being affected by gravity. Further double-torsion testing showed that healing recovered approximately 24% of material strength.

  16. Skeletal Self-Repair: Stress Fracture Healing by Rapid Formation and Densification of Woven Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Uthgenannt, Brian A.; Kramer, Michael H.; Hwu, Joyce A.; Wopenka, Brigitte; Silva, Matthew J.

    2007-01-01

    Stress fractures of varying severity were created using a rat model of skeletal fatigue loading. Periosteal woven bone formed in proportion to the level of bone damage, resulting in the rapid recovery of whole-bone strength independent of stress fracture severity.

  17. Nonsyndromic Isolated Temporal Bone Styloid Process Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Hamed; Dehghani, Nima; Aghdashi, Farzad; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fracture of the styloid process (SP) of the temporal bone is a rare traumatic injury in normal individuals who are not suffering from Eagle’s syndrome. Diagnosis and management of this problem requires comprehensive knowledge about its signs and symptoms. This study aimed to present an isolated styloid process fracture in a nonsyndromic patient. Case Presentation: A 50-year-old male patient was referred to our department with a complaint of sore throat. However, presentation of the problem resembled the symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). Fracture of the SP of the temporal bone was detected on the radiographs. Conservative treatment was undertaken for the patient. The symptoms diminished after about four months. Conclusions: Physicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of different pain sources to prevent misdiagnosis and maltreatment.

  18. In Vivo Study of Ligament-Bone Healing after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Autologous Tendons with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Affinity Peptide Conjugated Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning nanofibrous scaffold was commonly used in tissue regeneration recently. Nanofibers with specific topological characteristics were reported to be able to induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. In this in vivo study, autologous tendon grafts with lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold wrapping at two ends of autologous tendon were used to promote early stage of ligament-bone healing after rabbit ACL reconstruction. To utilize native MSCs from bone marrow, an MSCs specific affinity peptide E7 was conjugated to nanofibrous meshes. After 3 months, H-E assessment and specific staining of collagen type I, II, and III showed direct ligament-bone insertion with typical four zones (bone, calcified fibrocartilage, fibrocartilage, and ligament in bioactive scaffold reconstruction group. Diameters of bone tunnel were smaller in nanofibrous scaffold conjugated E7 peptide group than those in control group. The failure load of substitution complex also indicated a stronger ligament-bone insertion healing using bioactive scaffold. In conclusion, lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold with specific MSCs affinity peptide has great potential in promoting early stage of ligament-bone healing after ACL reconstruction.

  19. The effect of bone allografts combined with bone marrow stromal cells on the healing of segmental bone defects in a sheep model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marco Bernardo C; Guimarães, João Antônio Matheus; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos Santos; Gonçalves, Natalia N; Carlos E. Ambrósio; Rodrigues, Fernando; Pinto, Ana Carolina F; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The repair of large bone defects is a major orthopedic challenge because autologous bone grafts are not available in large amounts and because harvesting is often associated with donor-site morbidity. Considering that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) are responsible for the maintenance of bone turnover throughout life, we investigated bone repair at a site of a critically sized segmental defect in sheep tibia treated with BMSCs loaded onto allografts. The defect was created in the ...

  20. 5. Accelerated Fracture Healing Targeting Periosteal Cells: Possibility of Combined Therapy of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS), Bone Graft, and Growth Factor (bFGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kentaro; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Koji; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Inoue, Gen; Takaso, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the mechanism of fracture healing, and the effect of LIPUS, bone graft and growth factor on accelerating fracture healing. We present here the results of our research. To examine callus formation cells in fracture healing, we made marrow GFP chimera mice and a fracture model of marrow mesenchymal stem cell GFP chimera mice. It was demonstrated that periosteal cells were essential for callus formation. We focused on periosteal cells and examined the effect of LIPUS. In an in vitro experiment using a cultured part of the femur, LIPUS promoted ossification of the periosteal tissue. Further, LIPUS accelerated VEGF expression in the experiment using the femoral fracture model of mice. From these results, it was suggested that activation of periosteal cells might play a role in the fracture healing mechanism of LIPUS. Next, we discussed the possibility of combined therapy of LIPUS, bone graft and growth factor. Therapy involving the topical administration of bFGF using a controlled release system and bone graft could promote callus formation. In addition, LIPUS was able to promote membranaceous ossification after the bone graft. It was suggested that combined therapy of LIPUS, bone graft and bFGF could be a new option for treating fractures. PMID:27441766

  1. Effects of diclofenac and celecoxib on osteoclastogenesis during alveolar bone healing, in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily: Receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on the RANKL/OPG balance during the healing of the alveolar process. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, carried on 45 male Wistar rats (200 ± 25 g, 8-10 weeks old. After extraction of the right maxillary first molar, 15 rats received 5 mg/kg/day of diclofenac and 15 rats received 15 mg/kg/day of celecoxib and 15 rats received normal saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. The number of osteoclasts, OPG and RANKL messenger ribonucleic acid expression were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR respectively. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: On days 7, 14 and 21 the ratio of RANKL/OPG in the control group was higher than diclofenac and celecoxib groups. TRAP immunolabeling of the control group was more than diclofenac group on day 7 and was more than celecoxib group on day 14. On day 21, no significant differences were noted among the three studied groups. Conclusion: Both drugs affect RANKL/OPG gene expression and also osteoclastogenesis in alveolar socket during the experimental period of 21 days.

  2. Healing of experimentally created defects: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1995-01-01

    Within cranio-maxillofacial surgery and orthopedic surgery a bone graft or a bone substitute is required to recontour or assist bony healing in repair of osseous congenital deformities, or in repair of deformity due to trauma or to surgical excision after elimination of osseous disease processes ...

  3. Combination therapy with BMP-2 and BMSCs enhances bone healing efficacy of PCL scaffold fabricated using the 3D plotting system in a large segmental defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Woong; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Park, Su-A; Kim, Wan-Doo; Park, Mi-Su; Ko, You-Jin; Jang, Hyon-Seok; Park, Jung-Ho

    2012-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) plotting system is a rapidly-developing scaffold fabrication method for bone tissue engineering. It yields a highly porous and inter-connective structure without the use of cytotoxic solvents. However, the therapeutic effects of a scaffold fabricated using the 3D plotting system in a large segmental defect model have not yet been demonstrated. We have tested two hypotheses: whether the bone healing efficacy of scaffold fabricated using the 3D plotting system would be enhanced by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation; and whether the combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) administration and BMSC transplantation onto the scaffold would act synergistically to enhance bone regeneration in a large segmental defect model. The use of the combined therapy did increase bone regeneration further as compared to that with monotherapy in large segmental bone defects. PMID:22447098

  4. Self-Healing Efficiency of Cementitious Materials Containing Microcapsules Filled with Healing Adhesive: Mechanical Restoration and Healing Process Monitored by Water Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenting; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Zhenghong; Zhao, Nan; Yuan, Weizhong

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous crack healing of cementitious composite, a construction material that is susceptible to cracking, is of great significance to improve the serviceability and to prolong the longevity of concrete structures. In this study, the St-DVB microcapsules enclosing epoxy resins as the adhesive agent were embedded in cement paste to achieve self-healing capability. The self-healing efficiency was firstly assessed by mechanical restoration of the damaging specimens after being matured. The fle...

  5. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor by early wound healing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent 53-amino-acid residue polypeptide that has been implicated in normal wound healing. Although past studies have shown that locally applied EGF accelerates wound healing, these studies have not examined intracellular events related to the processing of the growth factor. The objective of this study was to characterize both initial and later postbinding intracellular processing of EGF by a responsive cell line (osteoblasts) that is important in the healing of wounds. Cloned mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MC-3TC-E1) were incubated with radiolabeled EGF, with and without preincubation with nonlabeled EGF, for specific time intervals. Cell-associated radioactivity was characterized by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that EGF is processed as three distinct species and that the relative proportions of these species are altered at later time periods when compared with initial processing. The patterns, similar to those reported for human fibroblasts, indicate a possible common pathway for the mitogenic signal in cells associated with the early events of wound healing. In addition, these data represent the first direct evidence that preexposure of cells to nonlabeled EGF alters the processing of radiolabeled EGF. This is significant, because cells must be exposed to EGF for 5 to 8 hours to elicit a growth response. Such data may help to explain the lag phase of wound healing

  6. Modulation of ROS levels in fibroblasts by altering mitochondria regulates the process of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Jaroslav; Nfonsam, Valentine; Calienes, Fernanda; Sligh, James E; Jandova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fibroblasts which are thought to be crucial regulators of wound healing with a potential to affect the expression of nuclear genes involved in this process. ROS generated by mitochondria are involved in all stages of tissue repair process but the regulation of ROS-generating system in fibroblasts still remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to better understand molecular mechanisms of how the regulation of ROS levels generated by mitochondria may influence the process of wound repair. Cybrid model system of mtDNA variations was used to study the functional consequences of altered ROS levels on wound healing responses in a uniform nuclear background of cultured ρ(0) fibroblasts. Mitochondrial ROS in cybrids were modulated by antioxidants that quench ROS to examine their ability to close the wound. Real-time PCR arrays were used to investigate whether ROS generated by specific mtDNA variants have the ability to alter expression of some key nuclear-encoded genes central to the wound healing response and oxidative stress. Our data suggest levels of mitochondrial ROS affect expression of some nuclear encoded genes central to wound healing response and oxidative stress and modulation of mitochondrial ROS by antioxidants positively affects in vitro process of wound closure. Thus, regulation of mitochondrial ROS-generating system in fibroblasts can be used as effective natural redox-based strategy to help treat non-healing wounds. PMID:26873374

  7. An experimental setup to evaluate innovative therapy options for the enhancement of bone healing using BMP as a benchmark – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Preininger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical or delayed bone healing in rat osteotomy (OT models is mostly achieved through large defects or instability. We aimed to design a rat OT model for impaired bone healing based on age, gender and parity. The outcome should be controllable through variations of the haematoma in the OT including a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 2 guided positive control.Using external fixation to stabilise femoral a 2 mm double OT in 12 month old, female Sprague Dawley rats after a minimum of 3 litters healing was characterised following in situ haematoma formation (ISH-group, transplantation of a BMP charged autologous blood clot (BMP-group and the artificial blood clot only (ABC-group into the OT-gap. In vivo micro-computer tomography (µCT scans were performed after 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks specimens underwent histological analyses.In µCT examinations and histological analyses no bony bridging was observed in all but one animal in the ISH-group. In the BMP group complete bridging was achieved in all animals. The ABC-group showed less mineralised tissue formation and smaller bridging scores during the course of healing than the ISH-group.In this pilot study we introduce a model for impaired bone healing taking the major biological risk factors into account. We could show that the in situ fracture haematoma is essential for bone regeneration. Using BMP as a positive control the presented experimental setup can serve to evaluate innovative therapeutical concepts in long bone application.

  8. ECM-based materials in cardiovascular applications: Inherent healing potential and augmentation of native regenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterina, Anna V; Cloonan, Aidan J; Meaney, Claire L; Davis, Laura M; Callanan, Anthony; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M

    2009-10-01

    The in vivo healing process of vascular grafts involves the interaction of many contributing factors. The ability of vascular grafts to provide an environment which allows successful accomplishment of this process is extremely difficult. Poor endothelisation, inflammation, infection, occlusion, thrombosis, hyperplasia and pseudoaneurysms are common issues with synthetic grafts in vivo. Advanced materials composed of decellularised extracellular matrices (ECM) have been shown to promote the healing process via modulation of the host immune response, resistance to bacterial infections, allowing re-innervation and reestablishing homeostasis in the healing region. The physiological balance within the newly developed vascular tissue is maintained via the recreation of correct biorheology and mechanotransduction factors including host immune response, infection control, homing and the attraction of progenitor cells and infiltration by host tissue. Here, we review the progress in this tissue engineering approach, the enhancement potential of ECM materials and future prospects to reach the clinical environment. PMID:20057951

  9. ECM-Based Materials in Cardiovascular Applications: Inherent Healing Potential and Augmentation of Native Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Callanan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo healing process of vascular grafts involves the interaction of many contributing factors. The ability of vascular grafts to provide an environment which allows successful accomplishment of this process is extremely difficult. Poor endothelisation, inflammation, infection, occlusion, thrombosis, hyperplasia and pseudoaneurysms are common issues with synthetic grafts in vivo. Advanced materials composed of decellularised extracellular matrices (ECM have been shown to promote the healing process via modulation of the host immune response, resistance to bacterial infections, allowing re-innervation and reestablishing homeostasis in the healing region. The physiological balance within the newly developed vascular tissue is maintained via the recreation of correct biorheology and mechanotransduction factors including host immune response, infection control, homing and the attraction of progenitor cells and infiltration by host tissue. Here, we review the progress in this tissue engineering approach, the enhancement potential of ECM materials and future prospects to reach the clinical environment.

  10. Monitoring the effect of low-level laser therapy in healing process of skin with second harmonic generation imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Yu, Biying; Weng, Cuncheng; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    The 632nm wavelength low intensity He-Ne laser was used to irradiated on 15 mice which had skin wound. The dynamic changes and wound healing processes were observed with nonlinear spectral imaging technology. We observed that:(1)The wound healing process was accelerated by the low-level laser therapy(LLLT);(2)The new tissues produced second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Collagen content and microstructure differed dramatically at different time pointed along the wound healing. Our observation shows that the low intensity He-Ne laser irradiation can accelerate the healing process of skin wound in mice, and SHG imaging technique can be used to observe wound healing process, which is useful for quantitative characterization of wound status during wound healing process.

  11. Role of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products on Osteoporotic Fracture Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azri Abd Jalil; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid; Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Popularly known as “the silent disease” since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases—hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near th...

  12. Quality assessment for processed and sterilized bone using Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takeaki; Uchida, Kentaro; Naruse, Kouji; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Urabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Suto, Kaori; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate the potential for infection, many tissue banks routinely process and terminally sterilize allografts prior to transplantation. A number of techniques, including the use of scanning electron microscopy, bone graft models, and mechanical property tests, are used to evaluate the properties of allograft bone. However, as these methods are time consuming and often destroy the bone sample, the quality assessment of allograft bones are not routinely performed after processing and steril...

  13. Histological evaluation of healing after transalveolar maxillary sinus augmentation with bioglass and autogenous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sima, Catalin; Sima, Andrea; Nyengaard, Jens; Karring, Thorkild; Sculean, Anton

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate histologically the outcome of a bioglass and autogenous bone (at 1 : 1 ratio) composite implantation for transalveolar sinus augmentation. METHODS: In 31 patients, during implant installation ca. 4 months after sinus augmentation, biopsies were harvested through...... inside the sinus and the transalveolar osteotomy, respectively, qualified for analysis. The tissue fractions occupied by newly formed bone (mineralized tissue+bone marrow), soft connective tissue, residual biomaterial+empty spaces, and debris inside the sinus cavity or the transalveolar osteotomy were...... estimated. RESULTS: Bone and connective tissue fraction in the newly formed tissues inside the sinus cavity averaged 23.4 ± 13.2% and 54.1 ± 23.5%, respectively. Residual biomaterial, empty spaces, and debris averaged 1.9 ± 3.5%, 10.5 ± 6.3%, and 8.4 ± 14.5%, respectively. In the transalveolar osteotomy...

  14. Collagenases and gelatinases in bone healing. The focus on mandibular fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzepa Jacek; Baran Marcin; Watroba Slawomir; Barud Malgorzata; Babula Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Due to high amount of collagen fibres in the structure of bone, the enzymes capable of collagen digestion play a key role in bone remodelling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), prevailing extracellular endopeptideses, can digest extracellularly located proteins, e.g. collagen, proteoglycans, elastin or fibronectin. Among MMPs, collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13) and gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) can cleave collagen particles to forms that are able to undergo further steps of catabolism int...

  15. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  16. Expression of bone morphogenic protein 2/4, transforming growth factor-β1, and bone matrix protein expression in healing area between vascular tibia grafts and irradiated bone-experimental model of osteonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For the surgical treatment of osteoradionecrosis after multimodal therapy of head-and-neck cancers, free vascular bone grafts are used to reconstruct osseous structures in the previously irradiated graft bed. Reduced, or even absent osseous healing in the transition area between the vascular graft and the irradiated graft bed represents a clinical problem. Inflammatory changes and fibrosis lead to delayed healing, triggered by bone morphogentic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Given the well-known fibrosis-inducing activity of TGF-β1, an osteoinductive effect has been reported for BMP2/4. However, the influence of irradiation (RT) on this cytokine expression remains elusive. Therefore, the aim of the present in vivo study was to analyze the expression of BMP2/4, TGF-β1, collagen I, and osteocalcin in the transition area between the bone graft and the graft bed after RT. Methods and materials: Twenty Wistar rats (male, weight 300-500 g) were used in this study. A free vascular tibia graft was removed in all rats and maintained pedicled in the groin region. Ten rats underwent RT with 5 x 10 Gy to the right tibia, the remainder served as controls. After 4 weeks, the previously removed tibia grafts were regrafted into the irradiated (Group 1) and nonirradiated (Group 2) graft beds. The interval between RT and grafting was 4 weeks. After a 4-week osseous healing period, the bone grafts were removed, and the transition area between the nonirradiated graft and the irradiated osseous graft bed was examined histomorphometrically (National Institutes of Health imaging program) and immunohistochemically (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex) for the expression of BMP2/4, TGF-β1, collagen I, and osteocalcin. Results: Absent or incomplete osseous healing of the graft was found in 9 of 10 rats after RT with 50 Gy and in 1 of 10 of the rats with nonirradiated osseous grafts. Histomorphometrically, the proportion of osseous healing in the

  17. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming;

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyappatite-β-tricalciumphosphate (HA/β-TCP) was reinforced with poly(D,L)-lactic acid (PDLLA) to overcome its weak mechanical properties. Two substitutes with porosities of 77% and 81% HA/β-TCP reinforced with 12 wt % PDLLA were tested in compression. The effects of allograft, substitute (HA/β-TCP......, the sheep were sacrificed. Implants with surrounding bone were harvested and sectioned into two parts: one for microcomputed tomography scanning and push-out test, and one for histomorphometry. The 77% HA/β-TCP reinforced with PDLLA had similar mechanical properties to human cancellous bone...... and was significantly stronger than the HA/β-TCP without PDLLA. Microarchitecture of gap mass was significantly changed after implantation for all groups. Allograft had stronger shear mechanical properties than the other three groups, whereas there were no significant differences between the other three groups...

  18. Preliminary study on the effect of parenteral naloxone, alone and in association with calcium gluconate, on bone healing in an ovine "drill hole" model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhoff Jens D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several diseases affect bone healing and physiology. Many drugs that are commonly used in orthopaedics as "analgesics" or anti-inflammatory agents impair bone healing. Stressful conditions are associated with decreased serum osteocalcin concentration. High endorphin levels alter calcium metabolism, blocking the membrane channels by which calcium normally enters cells. The consequent decrease of intracellular calcium impairs the activities of calcium-related enzymes. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. Morphine-induced osteocalcin inhibition was abolished when osteoblasts were incubated with naloxone. Naloxone restored the altered cellular and tissue physiology by removing β-endorphins from specific receptors. However, this is only possible if the circulating Ca concentration is adequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral naloxone administration in inducing fast mineralization and callus remodelling in a group of sheep with a standardised bone lesion. Methods Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. Group A acted as control, group B received a solution of calcium gluconate, group C a solution of naloxone, and group D a solution of calcium gluconate and naloxone. A transverse hole was drilled in the left metacarpus, including both cortices, then parenteral treatment was administered intramuscularly, daily for four weeks. Healing was evaluated by weekly radiographic examination for eight weeks. For quantitative evaluation, the ratio of the radiographic bone density between the drill area and the adjacent cortical bone was calculated. After eight weeks the sheep were slaughtered and a sample of bone was collected for histopathology Results Group D showed a higher radiographic ratio than the other groups. Sheep not treated with naloxone showed a persistently lower ratio in the lateral than the medial cortex (P Conclusion A low-dose parenteral regimen of naloxone enhances

  19. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Erika; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Takita, Hiroko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Momose, Takehito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Murakami, Shusuke; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold were, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold and 1.4-fold greater than those of the control. Particularly, the infiltration of ED2-positive (M2) macrophages and blood vessels were prominent in the GO scaffold. Dog bone-formation tests showed that 1 µg/mL GO scaffold implantation enhanced bone formation. New bone formation following GO scaffold implantation was enhanced fivefold compared to that in control subjects. These results suggest that GO was biocompatible and had high bone-formation capability for the scaffold

  20. The Masquelet technique of induced membrane for healing of bone defects. A review of 8 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ulrik Kähler; Eckardt, Henrik; Bosemark, Per;

    2015-01-01

    grafting procedures and occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Time to full weight bearing seemed shorter in patients treated with nails. In two cases only partial radiographic consolidation was noted at the latest follow up visit. One patient needed secondary bone grafting and two limbs were malaligned....... There were no amputations, no persistent infections, and no implant failures. DISCUSSION: The induced membrane technique is a useful tool to substitute bone loss yet consolidation time is somewhat unpredictable and prolonged non-weight bearing is required. CONCLUSION: Nailing seems to improve outcome...

  1. Microtomographic imaging in the process of bone modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralph

    1999-09-01

    Micro-computed tomography ((mu) CT) is an emerging technique to nondestructively image and quantify trabecular bone in three dimensions. Where the early implementations of (mu) CT focused more on technical aspects of the systems and required equipment not normally available to the general public, a more recent development emphasized practical aspects of micro- tomographic imaging. That system is based on a compact fan- beam type of tomograph, also referred to as desktop (mu) CT. Desk-top (mu) CT has been used extensively for the investigation of osteoporosis related health problems gaining new insight into the organization of trabecular bone and the influence of osteoporotic bone loss on bone architecture and the competence of bone. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by excessive bone loss and deterioration in bone architecture. The reduced quality of bone increases the risk of fracture. Current imaging technologies do not allow accurate in vivo measurements of bone structure over several decades or the investigation of the local remodeling stimuli at the tissue level. Therefore, computer simulations and new experimental modeling procedures are necessary for determining the long-term effects of age, menopause, and osteoporosis on bone. Microstructural bone models allow us to study not only the effects of osteoporosis on the skeleton but also to assess and monitor the effectiveness of new treatment regimens. The basis for such approaches are realistic models of bone and a sound understanding of the underlying biological and mechanical processes in bone physiology. In this article, strategies for new approaches to bone modeling and simulation in the study and treatment of osteoporosis and age-related bone loss are presented. The focus is on the bioengineering and imaging aspects of osteoporosis research. With the introduction of desk-top (mu) CT, a new generation of imaging instruments has entered the arena allowing easy and relatively inexpensive access to

  2. Change in the mineralization of the healing bone callus after whole-body irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed consolidation of diaphysial long-bone fractures in mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation is expressed biochemically by a faulty mineralization of the repair callus. This deficiency is proportional to the irradiation intensity and is not corrected by previous administration of cycteamine

  3. Bioactivity and bone healing properties of biomimetic porous composite scaffold: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Francesca; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Guarino, Vincenzo; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Sandri, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Ambrosio, Luigi; Fini, Milena

    2015-09-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) represents a valid alternative to traditional surgical therapies for the management of bone defects that do not regenerate spontaneously. Scaffolds, one of the most important component of TE strategy, should be biocompatible, bioactive, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological properties and bone regeneration ability of a porous poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold, incorporating MgCO3 -doped hydroxyapatite particles, uncoated (PCL_MgCHA) or coated by apatite-like crystals via biomimetic treatment (PCL_MgCHAB). It was observed that both scaffolds are not cytotoxic and, even if cell viability was similar on both scaffolds, PCL_MgCHAB showed higher alkaline phosphatase and collagen I (COLL I) production at day 7. PCL_MgCHA induced more tumor necrosis factor-α release than PCL_MgCHAB, while osteocalcin was produced less by both scaffolds up to 7 days and no significant differences were observed for transforming growth factor-β synthesis. The percentage of new bone trabeculae growth in wide defects carried out in rabbit femoral distal epiphyses was significantly higher in PCL_MgCHAB in comparison with PCL_MgCHA at 4 weeks and even more at 12 weeks after implantation. This study highlighted the role of a biomimetic composite scaffold in bone regeneration and lays the foundations for its future employment in the clinical practice. PMID:25689266

  4. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Erika Nishida,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Akihito Kato,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Toshihiko Iwanaga,3 Takehito Momose,1 Kosuke Ogawa,1 Shusuke Murakami,1 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami11Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Support Section for Education and Research, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 3Laboratory of Histology and Cytology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Graphene oxide (GO consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1

  5. Long-term effects of alendronate on fracture healing and bone remodeling of femoral shaft in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-jie FU; Ting-ting TANG; Yong-qiang HAO; Ke-rong DAI

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the long-term effects of alendronate (Aln),a widely used oral bisphosphonate,on fracture healing and bone remodeling in ovariectomized rats.Methods:Adult female SD rats underwent ovariectomy,and then bilateral femoral osteotomy at 12 weeks post-ovariectomy.From d 2 post-ovariectomy,the animals were divided into 3 groups,and treated with Aln (3 mg·kg-1d-1,po) for 28 weeks (Aln/Aln),Aln for 12 weeks and saline for 16 weeks (Aln/Saline) or saline for 28 weeks (Saline/Saline).At 6 and 16 weeks post-fracture,the fracture calluses were examined with X-ray radiography,and biomechanical testing and histological analysis were performed.The calluses were labeled with tetracycline and calcein to evaluate the mineral apposition rate (MAR).Results:The fracture line was less distinct in the 2 Aln-treated groups at 6 weeks post-fracture,and disappeared in all the 3 groups at 16 weeks post-fracture.The size of the callus and radiographic density of the femora in the Aln/Aln group were the highest among the 3 groups at 6 and 16 weeks post-fracture.Similar results were observed in the ultimate load at failure and energy absorption.However,the treatment with Aln delayed endochondral ossification of the callus,and significantly increased the total sagittal-sectional area,percentage callus area and callus thickness,and decreased the MAR at 6 and 16 weeks post-fracture.Conclusion:In the ovariectomized rat model,Aln is beneficial for the mechanical properties of the callus,but delays callus remodeling by suppressing the remodeling of woven bone into lamellar bone.

  6. In vitro electrical-stimulated wound-healing chip for studying electric field-assisted wound-healing process

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yung-Shin; Peng, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The wound-healing assay is an easy and economical way to quantify cell migration under diverse stimuli. Traditional assays such as scratch assays and barrier assays are widely and commonly used, but neither of them can represent the complicated condition when a wound occurs. It has been suggested that wound-healing is related to electric fields, which were found to regulate wound re-epithelialization. As a wound occurs, the disruption of epithelial barrier short-circuits the trans-epithelial ...

  7. Mindful Processing in Psychotherapy - Facilitating Natural Healing Process within Attuned Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is non-judgmental, accepting awareness of what is going on in the present moment. The author proposes that mindfulness promotes natural healing of the organism, where the change comes spontaneously by acceptance and awareness of internal experience. Such process the author describes as ‘mindful processing’, because with mindful awareness disturbing experiences can be processed and integrated. The author’s interest in how mindfulness can be systematically applied in psychotherapy led to the development of the ‘mindful processing’ method, which invites the client to become aware of the moment-to-moment subjective experience. The method is used within attuned therapeutic relationship and thetheoretical framework of Integrative Psychotherapy. Mindful Processing is not goal-oriented and doesn’t strive to achieve a positive outcome. Such an outcome is a natural by-product of accepting awareness of both pleasant and unpleasant inner experience (body sensations, affects and/or thoughts. The method is illustrated with a transcript of a session with commentary.

  8. Impaired bone healing in multitrauma patients is associated with altered leukocyte kinetics after major trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian OW; Kuijer A; Koenderman L; Stellato RK; van Solinge WW; Leenen LPH; Blokhuis TJ

    2016-01-01

    Okan W Bastian,1 Anne Kuijer,1 Leo Koenderman,2 Rebecca K Stellato,3 Wouter W van Solinge,4 Luke PH Leenen,1 Taco J Blokhuis1 1Department of Traumatology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics and Research Support, Julius Center, 4Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Abstract: Animal studies have shown that the systemic inflammatory response to major injury impairs bone regeneration. It remain...

  9. Biomechanical models of damage and healing processes for voice health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados Corsellas, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    In voice-loading occupations employees are required to use their voice for continuous and large periods of time, which might lead to voice problems. In this work anomalous vocal-fold vibrations due to long-time high voice-load are investigated. Laryngeal endoscopic high-speed images within the...... vocal-fold plane are available. This data is used to improve existing continuum biomechanical models of the vocal-folds by analyzing the injury processes. The project is expected to result in methods that objectively demonstrate the impact of high voice-load on voice. A detailed description of the...... currently developing work will be presented, including a rigorous analysis of the hypothesized injury processes of the vocal folds. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America....

  10. Optimization of microencapsulation process for self-healing polymeric material

    OpenAIRE

    Then, S; Neon, G. S.; Abu Kasim, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) microcapsules filled with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) was successfully prepared by in situ polymerization. The effect of diverse process parameters and ingredients on the morphology of the microcapsules was observed by SEM, optical microscopy (OM) and digital microscopy. Different techniques for the characterization of the chemical structure and the core content were considered such as FT-IR and (1)H-NMR as well as the characterization of thermal propert...

  11. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui PPY

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis" which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed.

  12. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  13. Bone stimulation for fracture healing: What′s all the fuss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Galkowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of the 7.9 million annual fracture patients in the United States experience nonunion and/or delayed unions, which have a substantial economic and quality of life impact. A variety of devices are being marketed under the name of "bone growth stimulators." This article provides an overview of electrical and electromagnetic stimulation, ultrasound, and extracorporeal shock waves. More research is needed for knowledge of appropriate device configurations, advancement in the field, and encouragement in the initiation of new trials, particularly large multicenter trials and randomized control trials that have standardized device and protocol methods.

  14. Optimization of Microencapsulation Process for Self-Healing Polymeric Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) microcapsules filled with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) was successfully prepared by in situ polymerization. The effect of diverse process parameters and ingredients on the morphology of the microcapsules was observed by SEM, optical microscopy (OM) and digital microscopy. Different techniques for the characterization of the chemical structure and the core content were considered such as FT-IR and 1H-NMR as well as the characterization of thermal properties by DSC. High yields of free flowing powder of spherical microcapsules were produced. The synthesized microcapsules can be incorporated into another polymeric host material. In the event the host material cracks due to excessive stress or strong impact, the microcapsules would rupture to release the DCPD, which could polymerize to repair the crack. (author)

  15. Mineral deposition in bone transplants and fracture callus of the mouse during healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    85Sr uptake and ash-weights of the fracture callus of the tibia and of a heterotopic tibia graft in the same animal were measured in mice and followed up to 30 days after grafting and fracture. Growth and uptake of 85Sr was higher in the callus compared to the graft and reached a maximum at about 17 days post fracture. After this period 85Sr uptake of the callus decreased rapidly, whereas in the graft an initial increase of 85Sr uptake was followed by a slow decline after 17 days. Ash-weights of the grafts increased slightly up to day 11 and remained constant thereafter. A low 85Sr uptake of the uninjured tibia between days 2 and 4 post fracture compared to the data of the following period was assumed to be due to a transitory enhanced excretion of 85Sr along with Ca during this early period. Between 9 and 30 days the 85Sr uptake of the uninjured tibia remained unchanged. An influence of fracture repair or graft healing on the mineral uptake of the whole skeleton therefore cannot be confirmed by our data. (orig.)

  16. Microwave-assisted fabrication of titanium implants with controlled surface topography for rapid bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Muralithran G; De, Alok; Bhaduri, Sarit B; Yaghoubi, Alireza

    2014-08-27

    Morphological surface modifications have been reported to enhance the performance of biomedical implants. However, current methods of introducing graded porosity involves postprocessing techniques that lead to formation of microcracks, delamination, loss of fatigue strength, and, overall, poor mechanical properties. To address these issues, we developed a microwave sintering procedure whereby pure titanium powder can be readily densified into implants with graded porosity in a single step. Using this approach, surface topography of implants can be closely controlled to have a distinctive combination of surface area, pore size, and surface roughness. In this study, the effect of various surface topographies on in vitro response of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast in terms of attachment and proliferation is studied. Certain graded surfaces nearly double the chance of cell viability in early stages (∼one month) and are therefore expected to improve the rate of healing. On the other hand, while the osteoblast morphology significantly differs in each sample at different periods, there is no straightforward correlation between early proliferation and quantitative surface parameters such as average roughness or surface area. This indicates that the nature of cell-surface interactions likely depends on other factors, including spatial parameters. PMID:25095907

  17. Healing wounds - radiation processing technology for hydrogel dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uses of hydrogels are known and have several applications in medical field. Drug delivery devices, contact lenses, wound dressing, artificial cartilage's or membranes, vascular prosthesis, gel coated catheters etc., are some of the examples. Due to direct relevance to human health, scientists have been continuously exploring these systems. Generally, hydro (water) gels contain 30-90% of water entrapped in a three dimensional network structure of a hydrophilic polymer. The large water content makes them highly bio-compatible and therefore preferred for use as biomaterials. Some of the hydrophilic polymers used in these applications include poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (acrylic acid ). Depending upon the nature of application, the size of these hydrogel can vary from nanometers (nanogels, injectable hydrogels) to centimeters to meters (wound dressing, fire blankets, drug delivery devices and implants). BARC hydrogel dressings have been so far used for treating burns, leprosy ulcers, animal bites, diabetic foot ulcers, herpes, fresh scars, bullet injuries, boils, pimples, sun burns, abrasion, surgical wounds of breast cancer, as bolus for radiation therapy in cancer etc. The use of gels have shown excellent result in diabetic ulcers which definitely provides an alternate to expensive biotech products and relief to expanding population of diabetics in India. Its application and some of the examples are shown in the paper. Other hydrogel based products which are under development in the authors laboratory are radiation processed silver nano-particle hydrogels to treat infected wounds and fire blankets for whole body coverage for protection from fire for defense personnel and fire service people

  18. Creating Rigidly Stabilized Fractures for Assessing Intramembranous Ossification, Distraction Osteogenesis, or Healing of Critical Sized Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yan-yiu; Bahney, Chelsea; Hu, Diane; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Miclau,, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Assessing modes of skeletal repair is essential for developing therapies to be used clinically to treat fractures. Mechanical stability plays a large role in healing of bone injuries. In the worst-case scenario mechanical instability can lead to delayed or non-union in humans. However, motion can also stimulate the healing process. In fractures that have motion cartilage forms to stabilize the fracture bone ends, and this cartilage is gradually replaced by bone through recapitulation of the d...

  19. Healing process study in murine skin superficial wounds treated with the blue LED photocoagulator EMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Cicchi, Riccardo; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; Alfieri, Domenico; De Siena, Gaetano; Pavone, Francesco S.; Pini, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. In this work we present the results of an in vivo study, in a murine model. Two superficial wounds were produced on the back of 12 mice: one area was left untreated, the other one was treated with EMOLED. Healthy skin was used as a control. The animals were sacrificed 3 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 6 day after treatment. The treatment effects on back skin was monitored by visual observations, histopathological analysis, immuno-histochemical analysis, and nonlinear microscopic imaging performed at each follow up time, finding no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. In addition, a faster healing process, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a better-recovered skin morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. These morphological features were characterized by means of immuno-histochemical analysis, aimed at imaging fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and by SHG microscopy, aimed at characterizing collagen organization, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  20. Improvement of the healing process in superficial skin wounds after treatment with EMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Alfieri, Domenico; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-02-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. In this study, living animals were mechanically abraded in four regions of their back: two regions were left untreated, the other two were treated with EMOLED, healthy skin surrounding the wounds was used as a control. The treatment effect on skin was monitored by visual observations, histopathological analysis, immuno-histochemical analysis, and non-linear microscopic imaging performed 8 days after the treatment, finding no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. In addition, a faster healing process, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a better-recovered skin morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. These morphological features were characterized by means of immuno-histochemical analysis, aimed at imaging fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and by SHG microscopy, aimed at characterizing collagen organization, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  1. Bone scan in diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the foot bones in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide technique for early diagnosis of inflammatory process in the bones of the foot was developed for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The most important diagnostic criterion of the bone lesion in patients with DM is area asymmetry and total activity percentage between the lesion focus and symmetrical zone

  2. Antipyretic, wound healing and antimicrobial activity of processed shell of the marine mollusc Cypraea moneta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grasian Immanuel; Berkmans Jude Thaddaeus; Muthusamy Usha; Ramasamy Ramasubburayan; Santhiyagu Prakash; Arunachalam Palavesam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Some of the products derived from marine organisms have been recommended in alternative system of medicine especially Siddha medicine for several treatments. Among the marine molluscs, Cypraea moneta shell has been used as siddha medicine from ancient days. But no systematic study has been done on its efficacy as antipyretic, wound healing and as antimicrobial agent. In the present study, the protective action of processed shell powder of C. moneta was evaluated by us in an animal model for the above treatments. Methods: C. moneta shell powder was prepared by standard method described in Siddha medicine. Then the antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial effect of the processed powder was tested in Wister albino rats. Results: By the intravenous injection of yeast cell suspension into albino rats, the antipyretic effect of the shell powder given orally was studied by various concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml. The body temperature of the albino rat became normal within a short duration (3h). The wound healing effect of the shell powder was very effective. In the thigh region 2 cm wound was made and the different dosages of shell powder (C -Control, SD - Single dose, DD -Double dosage and TD -Triple dose/day) were applied externally as ointment. The scar was produced in eighth day onwards in DD and TD. Antimicrobial activity was studied in three different oppurtunistic human pathogens such as Micrococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris andSalmonella abory in different concentrations (2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of C. moneta shell powder extract. Among these, Proteus vulgaris showed the maximum zone of inhibition (15mm size) against 5% w/v concentration, followed by Micrococcus sp. (12mm) and S. abory (10mm) against the same concentration. Conclusions: The present observation suggested that, processed C. moneta shell powder can be used as an alternative medicine, and it has antipyretic, wound healing as well as antimicrobial properties.

  3. Combination therapy with BMP-2 and a systemic RANKL inhibitor enhances bone healing in a mouse critical-sized femoral defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougioukli, Sofia; Jain, Ashish; Sugiyama, Osamu; Tinsley, Brian A; Tang, Amy H; Tan, Matthew H; Adams, Douglas J; Kostenuik, Paul J; Lieberman, Jay R

    2016-03-01

    Recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) is a potent osteoinductive agent, but has been associated not only with bone formation, but also osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a RANKL inhibitor that blocks differentiation and function of osteoclasts. We hypothesized that the combination of local BMP-2 (recombinant protein or a product of gene therapy) plus systemic OPG-Fc is more effective than BMP-2 alone in promoting bone repair. To test this hypothesis we used a mouse critical-sized femoral defect model. Col2.3eGFP (osteoblastic marker) male mice were treated with rhBMP-2 (group I), rhBMP-2 and systemic OPG (group II), rhBMP-2 and delayed administration of OPG (group III), mouse BM cells transduced with a lentiviral vector containing the BMP-2 gene (LV-BMP-2; group IV), LV-BMP-2 and systemic OPG (group V), a carrier alone (group VI) and administration of OPG alone (group VII). All bone defects treated with BMP-2 (alone or combined with OPG) healed, whereas minimal bone formation was noted in animals treated with the carrier alone or OPG alone. MicroCT analysis showed that bone volume (BV) in rhBMP-2+OPG and LV-BMP-2+OPG groups was significantly higher compared to rhBMP-2 alone (p<0.01) and LV-BMP-2 alone (p<0.001). Similar results were observed in histomorphometry, with rhBMP-2 alone defects exhibiting significantly lower bone area (B.Ar) compared to rhBMP-2+OPG defects (p<0.005) and LV-BMP-2 defects having a significantly lower B.Ar compared to all BMP-2+OPG treated groups (p≤0.01). TRAP staining demonstrated a major osteoclast response in the groups that did not receive OPG (rhBMP-2, LV-BMP-2 and sponge alone) beginning as early as 7days post-operatively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that locally delivered BMP-2 (recombinant protein or gene therapy) in combination with systemically administered OPG improved bone healing compared to BMP-2 alone in a mouse critical-sized bone defect. These data indicate that osteoclasts can diminish

  4. Bone healing response to an injectable calcium phosphate cement with enhanced radiopacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, Oguz; Lehmicke, Michael; Aberman, Harold; Toms, Derek; Hollinger, Jeffrey O; Fulmer, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of barium sulfate on remodeling and regeneration in standard tibial defects in rabbits treated with the Norian skeletal repair system (SRS). Two formulations of SRS (with and without barium sulfate) were injected into the medullary canal of the tibia of New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Over the 2-year duration of the study, standard SRS and SRS with barium sulfate appeared to be biocompatible and osteoconductive with no evidence of either inflammation or fibrous tissue around the implant materials or at the bone-material interfaces. This outcome underscores the osteophilic property of the SRS. A difference we observed between the standard SRS and the SRS with barium sulfate was the appearance of acellular material contiguous to the SRS with barium sulfate. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was conducted and confirmed that the acellular material was barium sulfate. Pathological examination of additional tissues including regional lymph nodes revealed neither dissemination of calcium phosphate nor barium sulfate. We concluded that the residual barium sulfate detected by EDX was localized to the intramedullary canal of the tibia. PMID:18098201

  5. The Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition on Tendon-Bone Healing in an In Vitro Coculture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Schwarting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition following the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament remain unclear. We examined the effects of selective COX-2 and nonselective COX inhibition on bone-tendon integration in an in vitro model. We measured the dose-dependent effects of ibuprofen and parecoxib on the viability of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated and unstimulated mouse MC3T3-E1 and 3T3 cells, the influence on gene expression at the osteoblast, interface, and fibroblast regions measured by quantitative PCR, and cellular outgrowth assessed on histological sections. Ibuprofen led to a dose-dependent suppression of MC3T3 cell viability, while parecoxib reduced the viability of 3T3 cultures. Exposure to ibuprofen significantly suppressed expression of Alpl (P < 0.01, Bglap (P < 0.001, and Runx2 (P < 0.01, and although parecoxib reduced expression of Alpl (P < 0.001, Fmod (P < 0.001, and Runx2 (P < 0.01, the expression of Bglap was increased (P < 0.01. Microscopic analysis showed a reduction in cellular outgrowth in LPS-stimulated cultures following exposure to ibuprofen and parecoxib. Nonselective COX inhibition and the specific inhibition of COX-2 led to region-specific reductions in markers of calcification and cell viability. We suggest further in vitro and in vivo studies examining the biologic and biomechanical effects of selective and nonselective COX inhibition.

  6. Enhancing the healing processes of chemical burns with He-Ne radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process by which He-Ne laser radiation (λ = 632.8 nm) enhances the healing of cutaneous wounds, made by concentrated nitric acid on mice has been studied. The dose used was of the order of 2.7 Joule per day, till the day of complete wound closure. The wounds were irradiated at three points on its periphery so that to form a semitriangular pattern this method was adopted, because chemical burns involve the killing of both the epidermis and dermis. The influence of the laser on the healing was estimated quantitatively and statistically, with a significance of p<0.001 over the control (the unirradiated). (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC located in the coronoid process of the mandible in a 12-year-old girl is presented. Treatment consisted of excision of the lesion through preauricular, submandibular and intraoral approach. An access osteotomy distal to second molar region was required to gain access to medial side of the coronoid process. To our knowledge, this is the third case of an aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process of mandible. While examining a patient with a large expansile intrabony jaw cavity with thin peripheral bone, which is filled with blood without presence of bruit, thrills and pulse pressure, the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst should be on top of the differential diagnosis list. Seventy-four to eighty-five percent of aneurysmal bone cysts of jaws occur in 10-20 years age group. Therefore, a pediatric dentist may be the first person to see such a lesion.

  8. Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wiercigroch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H2 receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H3 receptor antagonist and H1 receptor agonist is used in the treatment of Ménière’s disease.Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results.Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H1 and H2 receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed.

  9. [Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercigroch, Marek; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H₁ receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H₂ receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H₃ receptor antagonist and H₁ receptor agonist) is used in the treatment of Ménière's disease. Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results. Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts). Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed. PMID:24018454

  10. Analyzing the behavior of a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66 composite for healing of bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yan Xiong,1 Cheng Ren,1 Bin Zhang,1 Hongsheng Yang,1 Yun Lang,1 Li Min,1 Wenli Zhang,1 Fuxing Pei,1 Yonggang Yan,2 Hong Li,2 Anchun Mo,3 Chongqi Tu,1 Hong Duan11Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, 2School of Physical Science and Technology, 3Department of Oral Implant, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66 composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%. Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society's (MSTS 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28–30 points and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In

  11. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  12. Concise Review: Insights from Normal Bone Remodeling and Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Bone Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Khosla, Sundeep; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Mödder, Ulrike I.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair. Since a major reason for normal bone remodeling is the removal of fatigue microcracks, advances in our understanding of this process may inform approaches to enhancing fracture healing. Increasing evidence now indicates that physiological bone remodeling occurs in close proximity to blood vessels and that these vessels carry perivascular stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts. Similarly, fracture healing i...

  13. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, Rogério; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  14. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, R. P.; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor expression during the process of fracture healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Tong-wei; LIU Yu-gang; WANG Zheng-guo; ZHU Pei-fang; LIU Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression regularity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the process of fracture healing, and the type of VEGF receptor expressed in the vascular endothelial cells of the fracture site.Methods: The fracture model was made in the middle part of left radius in 35 rabbits. The specimens from the fracture site were harvested at 8, 24, 72 hours and 1, 3, 5, 8 weeks, and then fixed, decalcified, and sectioned frozenly to detect the expression of VEGF and its receptor at the fracture site by in situ hybridization and immunochemical assays. Results: VEGF mRNA and VEGF expression was detected in many kinds of cells at the fracture site during 8hours to 8 weeks after fracture. Flt1 receptor of VEGF was found in the vascular endothelial cells at the fracture site during 8 hours to 8 weeks after fracture, and strong expression of flk1 receptor was detected from 3 days to 3 weeks after fracture. Conclusions: The expression of VEGF and flt1 receptor appears during the whole course of fracture healing, especially from 1 to 3 weeks. Flk1 receptor is highly expressed in a definite period after fracture. VEGF is proved to be involved in the vascular reconstruction and fracture healing.

  16. Effectiveness of Enteral Nutritional Therapy in the Healing Process of Pressure Ulcers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Blanc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutritional therapy (ENT in the healing process of pressure ulcers (PU in adults and the elderly. METHOD A systematic review whose studies were identified through the databases of Cochrane, MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and manual searches. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs without delimiting the period or language of publication, which addressed adults and elderly patients with pressure ulcers in a comparative treatment of enteral nutritional therapy and placebo or between enteral nutritional therapy with different compositions and dosages. RESULTS We included ten studies that considered different interventions. It resulted in more pressure ulcers healed in the groups that received the intervention. The included studies were heterogeneous with regard to patients, the type of intervention, the sample and the follow-up period, all of which made meta-analysis impossible. CONCLUSION Although the enteral nutritional therapy demonstrates a promotion of pressure ulcer healing, sufficient evidence to confirm the hypothesis was not found.

  17. Effect of discarded keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels on the wound healing process in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mira [Department of Organic Materials & Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Kyoung [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402–751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Suhk [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Jin; Kim, In-Shik [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Yong, E-mail: parkb@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Yong, E-mail: khy@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation (EBI) were examined in wound healing. As the EBI dose increased to 60 kGy, the tensile strength of the hydrogels increased, while the percentage of elongation of the hydrogels decreased. After 7 days, the dehydrated wool-based hydrogels show the highest mechanical properties (the % elongation of 1341 and the tensile strength of 6030 g/cm{sup 2} at an EBI dose of 30 kGy). Excision wound models were used to evaluate the effects of human hair-based hydrogels and wool-based hydrogels on various phases of healing. On post-wounding days 7 and 14, wounds treated with either human hair-based or wool-based hydrogels were greatly reduced in size compared to wounds that received other treatments, although the hydrocolloid wound dressing-treated wound also showed a pronounced reduction in size compared to an open wound as measured by a histological assay. On the 14th postoperative day, the cellular appearances were similar in the hydrocolloid wound dressing and wool-based hydrogel-treated wounds, and collagen fibers were substituted with fibroblasts and mixed with fibroblasts in the dermis. Furthermore, the wound treated with a human hair-based hydrogel showed almost complete epithelial regeneration, with the maturation of immature connective tissue and hair follicles and formation of a sebaceous gland. - Highlights: • Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels were examined for wound healing process. • Human hair-based hydrogel is superior to wool-based hydrogel in wound healing. • Discarded keratin-based hydrogels are expected more eco-friendly therapeutic agents.

  18. Effect of discarded keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels on the wound healing process in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation (EBI) were examined in wound healing. As the EBI dose increased to 60 kGy, the tensile strength of the hydrogels increased, while the percentage of elongation of the hydrogels decreased. After 7 days, the dehydrated wool-based hydrogels show the highest mechanical properties (the % elongation of 1341 and the tensile strength of 6030 g/cm2 at an EBI dose of 30 kGy). Excision wound models were used to evaluate the effects of human hair-based hydrogels and wool-based hydrogels on various phases of healing. On post-wounding days 7 and 14, wounds treated with either human hair-based or wool-based hydrogels were greatly reduced in size compared to wounds that received other treatments, although the hydrocolloid wound dressing-treated wound also showed a pronounced reduction in size compared to an open wound as measured by a histological assay. On the 14th postoperative day, the cellular appearances were similar in the hydrocolloid wound dressing and wool-based hydrogel-treated wounds, and collagen fibers were substituted with fibroblasts and mixed with fibroblasts in the dermis. Furthermore, the wound treated with a human hair-based hydrogel showed almost complete epithelial regeneration, with the maturation of immature connective tissue and hair follicles and formation of a sebaceous gland. - Highlights: • Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels were examined for wound healing process. • Human hair-based hydrogel is superior to wool-based hydrogel in wound healing. • Discarded keratin-based hydrogels are expected more eco-friendly therapeutic agents

  19. Dynamic photophysical processes in laser irradiated human cortical skull bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna

    2009-02-01

    Modulated luminescence (LUM) technique was applied to analyze photophysical processes in the cortical layer of human skull bones. The theoretical interpretation of the results was based on the optical excitation and decay rate equations of the fluorophore and on the molecular interaction parameter with the photon field density in the matrix of the bone. Using comparisons of the theory with the frequency response of dental LUM it was concluded that the optically active molecular species (fluorophore) in the bones is hydroxyapatite. An effective relaxation lifetime of skull cortical bone was derived theoretically and was found to depend on the intrinsic fluorophore decay lifetime, on the photon field density, and on the thickness of the bone. The experimentally measured dependencies were in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. The theory was able to yield measurements of the optical scattering coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, and mean coupling coefficient. These results show that the quantitative LUM can be used as a sensitive method to measure optical properties of the active fluorophore in cortical skull bones and the optical-field-induced molecular interaction parameter. When calibrated vs. laser intensity, the modulated luminescence can also be used to measure human skull thickness. These traits can be applied to monitor the bone mineral density (BMD) and, ultimately can be used as potential markers of bone health or disease, such as osteoporosis or bone cancer.

  20. X radiation effects on the wound healing process after tooth extraction. Histological study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X radiation effects on the wound healing process after teeth extractions are studied histologically. Albino rats are employed. After their right upper incisors were extracted, they were divided into groups of 20 animals each. With exception of the group I (control), 24 hours after teeth extractions the groups II, III and IV received X radiation, respectively, in the dosage of 75,125 and 175 R. The rats were sacrificed in group of 4, at 3, 6, 9,15 and 21 postoperative days and a histological study is done. (M.A.C.)

  1. Bone scintigraphy as a process control with hemi-alloarthroplasty of the hip joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the diagnostic of prosthesis complications in the treatment of femur fractures near the hip joint ('intermediate prostheses') 216 skeletal scintigrams with 99mTc MDP were made of 143 patients from 1977 to 1982, partially retrospective and partially prospective. The evaluation of the photoscan was achieved visually and photodensitometrically and divided into 10 intensity levels with the following results: 1. Increased activity concentration in the acetabulum is pathological (activated arthrosis); 2. Increased activity concentration-temporary or also continuous - in the trochanter region is pathological (loosening process); 3. Non-pathological metabolic activity as a result of the bone healing process may last longer than 1 year postoperatively; 4. Heterotopic ossification, non-fixed bone fragments and pseudoarthrosis cause continuous or newly appearing concentrations; 5. Skeletal scintigraphy is an important supplement to radiological diagnostic and a sensitive method for the recognition of metabolic activities in bone. It is recommended for progress control after hemi-alloarthrosculpture of the hip joint. (orig./TRV)

  2. Analyzing the behavior of a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite for healing of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Ren, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hongsheng; Lang, Yun; Min, Li; Zhang, Wenli; Pei, Fuxing; Yan, Yonggang; Li, Hong; Mo, Anchun; Tu, Chongqi; Duan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T)16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%). Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society's (MSTS) 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28-30 points) and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In conclusion, this study indicated that the porous n-HA/PA66 composite had biological safety, and good biocompatibility, osteoinduction, and osseointegration. Thus, the porous n-HA/PA66 composite is an ideal artificial bone substitute and worthy of promotion in the field. PMID:24531621

  3. The effect of the plasma needle on the human keratinocytes related to the wound healing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolov, Ihor; Fazekas, Barbara; Széll, Márta; Kemény, Lajos; Kutasi, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aim to verify the influence of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma on the wound healing process. In this process the major contributors are the keratinocytes, which migrate to fill in the gap created by the wound. Therefore, we performed the direct treatment of HPV-immortalized human keratinocytes, protected by a layer of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, with the glow discharge generated in flowing helium by a plasma needle. To mimick a wound, a 4 mm scratch was performed on the cell culture (scratch assay). We conducted two types of experiments: (i) cell proliferation and (ii) wound-healing model experiments. The plasma needle configuration, the plasma treatment conditions and the thickness of the protecting PBS layer were set based on viability experiments. The proliferation studies showed that short, 5-10 s, and low power treatments, such as 18 W and 20 W input power, could positively influence the cell proliferation when keratinocytes were protected by PBS. On the other hand, the plasma treatment of cell medium covered keratinocytes resulted in the decrease of proliferation. The wound-healing model (scratch assay) studies showed, that there was a maximum in the wound reduction as a function of the input power and treatment time, namely, at 18 W and 5 s. Furthermore, the wound reduction strongly depended on the treated cell—PBS interaction time. To mimic an infected wound, the scratch assay was covered with a 1× {{10}9} cfu ml-1 Propionibacterium acnes suspension. The plasma treatment of this infected assay resulted in closing of the scratch, while in the non-treated assay the wound did not close at all.

  4. A Comparative Histological Study of Bone Healing in Rat Calvarial Defect Using the Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser and Rotary Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Jin, Seung-Chan; Lee, Sook-Young; Jang, Eun-Sook; Piao, Zheng-Gang; Lim, Sung-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers have been used in dentistry for cutting bone and removal of caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone healing in a skull defect prepared in rats using various instruments including Er:YAG laser. The 7 mm calvarial defects were created in 45 rats and 45 rats were divided into three groups (n = 15): a high-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), a low-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), and an Er:YAG laser. Specimens obtained after 3 days or 4 or 8 weeks were submitted for histological analysis. Three days after surgery, no bone formation had occurred in any of the groups. Four weeks after surgery, 90 ±8.16% new bone formation was observed in the high-speed group, and 8 weeks after surgery, 100 ±0% new bone formation was observed in the low- and high-speed groups. There were significant differences among the periods after surgery, but no significant differences were observed among final results with in different device groups.

  5. Monitoring of bone regeneration process by means of texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image analysis method is proposed for the monitoring of the regeneration of the tibial bone. For this purpose, 130 digitized radiographs of 13 patients, who had undergone tibial lengthening by the Ilizarov method, were studied. For each patient, 10 radiographs, taken at an equal number of postoperative successive time moments, were available. Employing available software, 3 Regions Of Interest (ROIs), corresponding to the: (a) upper, (b) central, and (c) lower aspect of the gap, where bone regeneration was expected to occur, were determined on each radiograph. Employing custom developed algorithms: (i) a number of textural features were generated from each of the ROIs, and (ii) a texture-feature based regression model was designed for the quantitative monitoring of the bone regeneration process. Statistically significant differences (p 2 = 0.9, p < 0.001). The suggested method may contribute to the monitoring of the tibial bone regeneration process.

  6. Bone Scintigraphy and CT Findings in Transverse Process Apophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Sumeet G; Ali, Amjad

    2016-07-01

    A 14-year-old avid gymnast presented with recent onset of increasing lower thoracic back pain. Clinical examination revealed point tenderness at about T10 level. Focal uptake was seen to the left of the midline on a bone scan ordered to exclude stress fracture. Spine CT when read in conjunction with the bone scan revealed apophysitis of the transverse process. Apophysitis of the posterior elements of the vertebrae is a rare cause of back pain in adolescents. PMID:26914575

  7. 大鼠关节外骨隧道-游离肌腱移植模型的建立%Establishment of a novel rat extra-articular tendon-to-bone transplanting healing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆军; Ray Vanderby Jr

    2014-01-01

    process by histologic, biomechanical and radiological analysis. Methods Musculus flexor digitorum superficialis harvested from the left hind legs of 28 male Wistar rats were prepared as free autografts. Each autograft was implanted into a bone tunnel of 1.2 mm diameter created at ipsilateral proximal tibial metaphysis. The healing process of the tendon-to-bone interface tissuewas analyzed at week 1, 2, 4and 6 (n=4) after the transplantation. Biomechanical test including maximum anti-pullout strength and failure mode were evaluated at week 2 and 6 (n=6) after transplantation. Immediately after the biomechanical test, the samples were also taken by the high-resolu-tion radiography to observe the bone remodeling around the tunnel. Results At week 1, the interface between tendon graft and bone was primarily composed of a layer of amorphous fibrous granulation tissue. The thickness of the interface tissue decreased with the passage of time. This thinning tissue was gradually replaced by the newly formed bone tissue around the tunnel. The inter-face tissue almost disappeared at week 6 with a bunch of anchor fibers connecting the tendon with bone. The failure load-to-tunnel length ratio was significantly higher at week 6[(1.00 ± 0.30) N/mm]than that at week 2[(0.35 ± 0.17) N/mm]. The specimens of the tendon-to-bone complex failed by pull-out of the tendon from the bone tunnel at week 2, which translated into a break of the tendon at week 6. High-resolution X-ray imaging shows a clear gap around the bone tunnel at week 2. At week 6, the interface gap became blurred and the bone density at the tunnel site was similar to the surrounding bone tissue. Conclusion The healing pro-cess of a free tendon grant in an extra-articular bone tunnel is similar to that of the intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament recon-struction model. With simple surgical procedure and minimal influence to the postoperative activity, this tendon-to-bone healing model is of particular significance for

  8. Processing and Damage Tolerance of Continuous Carbon Fiber Composites Containing Puncture Self-Healing Thermoplastic Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Gordon, Keith L.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) has identified several commercially available thermoplastic polymers that self-heal after ballistic impact and through-penetration. One of these resins, polybutadiene graft copolymer (PB(sub g)), was processed with unsized IM7 carbon fibers to fabricate reinforced composite material for further evaluation. Temperature dependent characteristics, such as the degradation point, glass transition (T(sub g)), and viscosity of the PBg polymer were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic parallel plate rheology. The PBg resin was processed into approximately equal to 22.0 cm wide unidirectional prepreg tape in the NASA LaRC Advanced Composites Processing Research Laboratory. Data from polymer thermal characterization guided the determination of a processing cycle used to fabricate quasi-isotropic 32-ply laminate panels in various dimensions up to 30.5cm x 30.5cm in a vacuum press. The consolidation quality of these panels was analyzed by optical microscopy and acid digestion. The process cycle was further optimized based on these results and quasi-isotropic, [45/0/-45/90]4S, 15.24cm x 15.24cm laminate panels were fabricated for mechanical property characterization. The compression strength after impact (CAI) of the IM7/pBG composites was measured both before and after an elevated temperature and pressure healing cycle. The results of the processing development effort of this composite material as well as the results of the mechanical property characterization are presented in this paper.

  9. Non-union of an undisplaced radial styloid fracture in a heavy smoker: revisiting the association of smoking and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraf, Khaled M; Tavare, Aniket; Somashekar, Naresh; Langstaff, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    Isolated radial styloid fractures occur relatively infrequently, with non-union of such fractures, especially when undisplaced, being highly unusual. Smoking of tobacco, a common habit which is decreasing in prevalence in the developed world, has been proven to exert many adverse effects on tissue healing including bone union. We present a case of non-union of an undisplaced radial styloid fracture in the dominant hand of a young and healthy heavy smoker, emphasising the negative impact of tobacco smoke and its association with bone repair. We suggest that heavy tobacco users should also be followed up more vigilantly with this complication in mind, with smoking cessation modalities being offered on presentation. PMID:21348035

  10. Using feedback control to actively regulate the healing rate of a self-healing process subjected to low cycle dynamic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuponu, O. S.; Kadirkamanathan, V.; Bhattacharya, B.; Pope, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic self-healing approaches through which materials can be healed generally suffer from several problems. One key problem is that to ensure effective healing and to minimise the propagation of a fault, the healing rate needs to be matched to the damage rate. This requirement is usually not met with passive approaches. An alternative to passive healing is active self-healing, whereby the healing mechanism and in particular the healing rate, is controlled in the face of uncertainty and varying conditions. Active self-healing takes advantage of sensing and added external energy to achieve a desired healing rate. To demonstrate active self-healing, an electrochemical material based on the principles of piezoelectricity and electrolysis is modelled and adaptive feedback control is implemented. The adaptive feedback control compensates for the insufficient piezo-induced voltage and guarantees a response that meets the desired healing rate. Importantly, fault propagation can be eliminated or minimised by attaining a match between the healing and damage rate quicker than can be achieved with the equivalent passive system. The desired healing rate is a function of the fault propagation and is assumed known in this paper, but can be estimated in practice through established prognostic techniques.

  11. The effects of smoking on fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, A; Hussain, I; Maqsood, M; Eremin, O; El-Sheemy, M

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most avoidable cause of premature death worldwide. In fracture healing, it has been found to be a contributory factor to delayed union, and smokers are significantly disadvantaged, as healing times are often prolonged. The orthopaedic surgeon is likely to be knowledgeable about the detrimental effects of smoking on healing bones, as the problem has been known for some time. Smoking adversely affects bone mineral density, lumbar disc degeneration, the incidences of hip fractures and the dynamics of bone and wound healing. Clinical trials and demographic studies have been more widespread than biochemical analyses, and have reported poor prognosis for fracture patients who smoke. Scientific research has elucidated some of the negative impacts of tobacco use and investigations involving several animal models in cellular and humoral analyses have shown damage caused by various toxicological processes. Cessation of the habit perioperatively, therefore, is routinely advised to improve outcomes for patients. The current review describes some of the consequences of tobacco smoking in fracture healing. PMID:20303894

  12. Psychoactive ubulawu spiritual medicines and healing dynamics in the initiation process of Southern Bantu diviners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    The use of psychoactive plants by traditional healers in southern Africa appears to be a neglected area of ethnobotanical research. This article explores the healing dynamics involved in the use of popular psychoactive plant preparations known as ubulawu in the initiation rituals of Southern Bantu diviners. Research methods include a review of the literature, fieldwork interviews with Southern Bantu diviners, and an analysis of experiential accounts from diverse informants on their use of ubulawu. Findings reveal that there is widespread reliance on ubulawu as psychoactive spiritual medicines by the indigenous people of southern Africa to communicate with their ancestral spirits--so as to bring luck, and to treat mental disturbances. In the case of the Southern Bantu diviners, ubulawu used in a ritual initiation process acts as a mnemonic aid and medicine to familiarize the initiates with enhanced states of awareness and related psychospiritual phenomena such as enhanced intuition and dreams of the ancestral spirits, who teach the initiates how to find and use medicinal plants. The progression of the latter phenomena indicates the steady success of the initiates' own healing integration. Various factors such as psychological attitude and familiarization, correct plant combinations/synergy and a compatible healer-initiate relationship influence ubulawu responsiveness. PMID:23061321

  13. Effects of coffee intake and intraperitoneal caffeine on bone repair process--a histologic and histometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Rander Moreira; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida de

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that caffeine acts on bone promoting an increase of calcium excretion, inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and delay in tissue repair process, raising the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, periodontal disease and affecting the success of bone reconstructive procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze histomorphometrically the process of alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats subjected to daily intake of boiled coffee or intraperitoneal administration of caffeine. Forty-five male rats were divided according to the treatment in Control group (C); Coffee group (CO) - treated with coffee since birth; and Caffeine (CAF) - intraperitoneal injection of aqueous solution of caffeine 1.5% (0.2 mL/100g body weight) for 30 days. When weighing between 250-300 g they were anesthetized, subjected to extraction of the maxillary right incisor, and euthanized 7, 21 and 42 days after surgery for histological assessments of bone volume and the quality of formed bone in the dental socket. The qualitative results demonstrated larger amounts of blood clot and immature bone in animals under treatment of pure caffeine compared to coffee and control. Histometric analysis revealed that coffee treatment led to a 40% drop in bone formation, and caffeine a 60% drop in comparison to control animals (ANOVA p≤0.01). It was concluded that both the daily ingestion of coffee and the intraperitoneal administration of caffeine in rats delayed the alveolar bone reparative process after tooth extraction, and this effect was more aggressive when pure caffeine was used. PMID:25831110

  14. Self-healing of Micro-cracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanto B.; Wilson S.A.; McCarter W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of an Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) to self-heal micro-cracks under a controlled laboratory environment is presented. Ten dog-bone shaped samples were prepared; five of them were preloaded to known strains and then left to heal in water in a temperature-controlled laboratory. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurements were undertaken to monitor the crack-healing process. It was found that all samples exhibited recoveries in UPV and were able to recover to betwee...

  15. Effect of plaster external fixation on the histomorphological changes for bone-tendon junction healing%石膏外固定修复兔髌骨-腱连接点断裂的组织形态学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖; 张朝跃; 谭财福

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plaster external fixation has a positive effect on bone-tendon junction healing, but there is no in-depth study on the repair mechanism.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of plaster external fixation on the histomorphological changes for bone-tendon junction healing.METHODS: The bone-tendon junction healing models were established by cutting off the junction between the patellar tip and the patellar tendon as well as the distal part of the patella. The models were divided into experimental group and model group. The models in the experimental group were performed with plaster external fixation and those in the model group were without fixation. Each group got the sample at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after operation.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Safranin'O staining, macrophages immunohistochemistry staining and integral absorbance showed that the tissue edema and adhesion at the bone-tendon junction in the experimental group were better than those in the model group, cartilage cells and bone tissue formation and differentiation in the experimental group were significantly better those those in the model group, and degree of the inflammation in the experimental group was light and disappeared quickly. External fixation can accelerate the process of bone-tendon repair and promote the healing.%背景 石膏外固定对髌骨-腱连接点断裂的治疗作用肯定,但相关修复机制一直未有深入研究.目的 观察石膏外固定对髌骨-腱连接点断裂修复的组织形态学改变.方法 切断髌尖与髌腱连接处并切除远端部分髌骨建立兔髌骨-腱连接点损伤模型,实验组在造模的基础上给予石膏外固定,模型组不予固定,分别在造模后2,4,8 周取材.结果与结论 苏木精-伊红染色、Safranin'O 染色和巨噬细胞免疫组化染色及其积分吸光度检测均显示实验组造模后骨-腱结合部组织修复快,软骨细胞及骨组织的形成、分化明显优于模型组,

  16. Surface modification of PCL-TCP scaffolds in rabbit calvaria defects: Evaluation of scaffold degradation profile, biomechanical properties and bone healing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Alvin; Wong, Wah Jie; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2010-06-15

    Traditionally, polycaprolactone (PCL) based scaffolds tend to degrade at a slow rate. Pretreatment of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds under alkaline conditions can be utilized to increase the degradation rate and improve mechanical properties. Three groups of PCL-TCP scaffolds with varying pretreatment exposures with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were studied in a rabbit calvaria defect model and analyzed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. (Group A: Untreated, Group B: 3 M NaOH/ 48 h and Group C: 3 M NaOH/96 h). Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that scaffolds with increased surface roughness (Groups B and C) showed a greater impact on the overall volume loss during the early healing period between 2 and 8 weeks as compared to the untreated group. In addition, greater bone formation was detected in NaOH treated scaffolds as compared to the untreated group throughout the experiment. Scaffolds with increased surface roughness generally reported higher push out test and compressive strength values from 4 to 8 weeks of early healing. Interestingly, the mechanical properties displayed a decline in values from 12 weeks onwards in the modified groups suggesting a favorable breakdown or weakening of PCL-TCP scaffolds tailored for replacement by new bone formation. PMID:19911382

  17. Healing of segmental ulnar defects in dog using bioresorbable calcium phosphate cement added with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohura, K.; Hamanishi, C. [Kinki Univ. School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Irie, H. [Olympus Optical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Bioresorbable calcium phosphate cement (BCPC) cylinders soaked with 100 {mu}g of rhBMP-2 were implanted into 21 mm segmental ulnar defects in dogs. New bone induced around cylinders united both bone segments in 3 weeks. As the cylinder dissolved, the induced bone was remodeled into the compact bone by 9 weeks. However, the cement cylinder implanted without BMP did not dissolve and that defect did not recover bone continuity in 9 weeks. Mechanical test at 9 weeks showed that the BMP group achieved 71% union and 63% of bone strength compared to normal ulna. However, other two groups, the implantation of the cylinder alone and no implantation, did not unite any case. The implantation of thin cylinders of BCPC soaked with small amount of rhBMP-2 repaired large bone defects of high mammal fast. Added with more BMP, it will be possible to apply this biocompatible composite even in clinical cases. (orig.)

  18. SPEED UP THE PROCESS OF HEALING THE OPEN WOUNDS BY LOW POWER HE-NE LASER RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N TAKZARE

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing pain and enhancement of wound healing have several advantages. Wound healing is a complicated but regular process that includes synchronized and organized phenomena such as paranchyma cells migration, proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Rate of wound healing is affected by various factors. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of low power He-Ne laser radiation (630 nm, on metabolic process, cellular proliferation and finally wound repairment. Methods: In our research, about 50 healthy and mature rats were studied by experimental method. After shaving, small cuts (10 mm were made at the neck. Then they were divided randomly into control and case groups. The rats of the case group were radiated by He-Ne laser in the wounds about 4 minutes each day. After a week, we did wound autopsy of both groups and all the specimens were studied microscopically. Results: The findings showed that there were significant increase in the fibroblasts and connective tissue fibers and also vascularisation in the case group compared with the control group. Discussion: Wound healing in the case group was accelerated and wound diameter was smaller significantly. So, low power He-Ne laser radiation accelerates wound healing process.

  19. The influence of different loads on the remodeling process of a bone and bioresorbable material mixture with voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Ivan; Andreaus, Ugo; Madeo, Angela

    2016-03-01

    A model of a mixture of bone tissue and bioresorbable material with voids was used to numerically analyze the physiological balance between the processes of bone growth and resorption and artificial material resorption in a plate-like sample. The adopted model was derived from a theory for the behavior of porous solids in which the matrix material is linearly elastic and the interstices are void of material. The specimen—constituted by a region of bone living tissue and one of bioresorbable material—was acted by different in-plane loading conditions, namely pure bending and shear. Ranges of load magnitudes were identified within which physiological states become possible. Furthermore, the consequences of applying different loading conditions are examined at the end of the remodeling process. In particular, maximum value of bone and material mass densities, and extensions of the zones where bone is reconstructed were identified and compared in the two different load conditions. From the practical view point, during surgery planning and later rehabilitation, some choice of the following parameters is given: porosity of the graft, material characteristics of the graft, and adjustment of initial mixture tissue/bioresorbable material and later, during healing and remodeling, optimal loading conditions.

  20. Ultrasonography of the healing process during a 3-month follow-up after a splenic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Rafailidis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a 14-year-old boy with a grade III splenic injury due to a bicycle accident, who was treated conservatively. The boy’s medical history included splenomegaly due to thalassemia. The splenic lesion was initially investigated with computed tomography (CT and then, was followed by ultrasonography for 3 months. CT revealed a large intraparenchymal hematoma which appeared hyperechoic on ultrasonography. During follow-up, the hematoma developed a more complex echogenicity and became gradually hypoechoic. The hematoma increased in size during the first week but then, started decreasing until it eventually resolved completely. The patient had an uneventful full recovery. In this report, we discuss the ultrasonographic changes of the hematoma throughout the healing process.

  1. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.borkowski@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Polkowska, Izabela [Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin (Poland); Belcarz, Anna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Karpiński, Mirosław [Department of Companion and Wildlife Animals, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Słowik, Tymoteusz [Independent Radiology Unit at Lublin Small Animals Medical Centre, Stefczyka 11, 20-151 Lublin (Poland); Matuszewski, Łukasz [Children' s Orthopaedic Clinic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 2, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Ślósarczyk, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Ginalska, Grażyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration.

  2. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration

  3. Effects of calcium phosphate/chitosan composite on bone healing in rats: calcium phosphate induces osteon formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tulio; Olave, Gilberto; Valencia, Carlos H; Arce, Sandra; Quinn, Julian M W; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qi-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Vascularization of an artificial graft represents one of the most significant challenges facing the field of bone tissue engineering. Over the past decade, strategies to vascularize artificial scaffolds have been intensively evaluated using osteoinductive calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials in animal models. In this work, we observed that CaP-based biomaterials implanted into rat calvarial defects showed remarkably accelerated formation and mineralization of new woven bone in defects in the initial stages, at a rate of ∼60 μm/day (0.8 mg/day), which was considerably higher than normal bone growth rates (several μm/day, 0.1 mg/day) in implant-free controls of the same age. Surprisingly, we also observed histological evidence of primary osteon formation, indicated by blood vessels in early-region fibrous tissue, which was encapsulated by lamellar osteocyte structures. These were later fully replaced by compact bone, indicating complete regeneration of calvarial bone. Thus, the CaP biomaterial used here is not only osteoinductive, but vasculogenic, and it may have contributed to the bone regeneration, despite an absence of osteons in normal rat calvaria. Further investigation will involve how this strategy can regulate formation of vascularized cortical bone such as by control of degradation rate, and use of models of long, dense bones, to more closely approximate repair of human cortical bone. PMID:24460696

  4. 可降解止血粉对家兔颅骨愈合的影响%Effects of Absorbable Hemostatic Powder on bone healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宗苗; 周春梅; 刘继平; 张恩户

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究可降解止血粉对家兔颅骨愈合的影响。方法:取新西兰兔,麻醉后在颅骨同一位置处用骨钻钻2个圆形缺损孔洞,造成骨缺损模型,造模成功后,随机分成空白组、可降解止血粉组及骨蜡组。除空白组外其余两组分别给予50 m g相同剂量的可降解止血粉、骨蜡完全覆盖。分别于处死动物前间隔7d耳缘静脉注射钙黄绿素和四环素做两次标记,6周后处死,取原缺损边缘扩展2.0cm 范围的颅骨,进行骨质愈合情况评分,然后制作不脱钙骨切片,行组织病理学及荧光观察。结果:可降解止血粉组骨愈合效果明显优于空白对照组(P<0.05),骨蜡组明显差于空白对照组(P<0.05)。组织病理学结果显示,可降解止血粉组矿物质沉积速度明显高于空白对照组(P<0.05),骨蜡组明显低于空白对照组(P<0.05);可降解止血粉组骨小梁面积比和矿化骨面积率较大,空白对照组次之,骨蜡组最小,而缺损面积比大小与骨小梁面积比呈现相反趋势,各组比较均有显著性差异。结论:可降解止血粉能促进颅骨愈合,而骨蜡则阻碍骨质生长。%Objective:Study on the effect of the Absorbable Hemostatic Powder on the healing of rabbit skull . Methods :After anesthesia ,2 circular defect cavities were drilled at the same location in the same position of the skull . The bone defect model and the model of the bone defect were randomly divided into two groups .The defects in each group were completely covered with the same dose of 50mg and the Absorbable Hemostatic Powder at the same dose ,and the negative control group was not used in any of the materials .The rats were sacrificed respectively before the interval 7d ear vein injection of tetracycline and calcein labeled two times .After feeding for six weeks .Take the original defect edge ex‐tended range of 2 .0 cm skull ,gross

  5. Photothermal triggering of self-healing processes applied to the reparation of bio-based polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, F. I.; Antonacci, J.; Arenas, G. F.; Pettarin, V.; Hoppe, C. E.; Williams, R. J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Green laser irradiation successfully activated self-healing processes in epoxy-acid networks modified with low amounts of gold nanoparticles (NPs). A bio-based polymer matrix, obtained by crosslinking epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with an aqueous citric acid (CA) solution, was self-healed through molecular rearrangements produced by transesterification reactions of β-hydroxyester groups generated in the polymerization reaction. The temperature increase required for the triggering of these thermally activated reactions was attained by green light irradiation of the damaged area. Compression force needed to assure a good contact between crack faces was achieved by volume dilatation generated by the same temperature rise. Gold NPs dispersed in the polymer efficiently generated heat in the presence of electromagnetic radiation under plasmon resonance, acting as nanometric heating sources and allowing remote activation of the self-healing in the crosslinked polymer.

  6. 组织工程修复肩袖损伤促进腱骨愈合的研究进展%Progress in tissue-engineering for tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 王蕾

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff injury, considered as a resource of pain, disability and dyssomnia to serious decline in the quality of life, is a common disorder of the shoulder joint. Basic principles of rotator cuff repair aim at achieving high initial ifxation strength, maintaining mechanical stability and restoring the anatomic healing of the cuff tendon. After the routine surgical procedure for rotator cuff repair, the biology and histology of the normal enthesis are not restored. Tendon-to-bone healing occurs with a ifbrovascular scar tissue interface that is mechanically inferior to the native insertion site, which may lead to high re-rupture rate. For these reasons, new approaches are required to improve structural healing. Tissue engineering strategies have been suggested to improve the biological environment around the bone-tendon interface and to promote regeneration of the native insertion site. Although experimental applications of growth factors and scaffolds on animal models demonstrate promising results, techniques which can be used in human rotator cuff repair are still very limited. Tissue engineering to improve tendon-to-bone healing has bright future and requires more research before its clinical applications. This review will outline therapies of growth factors, scaffolds and stem cells in tendon healing and rotator cuff repair.

  7. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two...

  8. Enhanced healing of rabbit segmental radius defects with surface-coated calcium phosphate cement/bone morphogenetic protein-2 scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large osseous defects remain a difficult clinical problem in orthopedic surgery owing to the limited effective therapeutic options, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is useful for its potent osteoinductive properties in bone regeneration. Here we build a strategy to achieve prolonged duration time and help inducting new bone formation by using water-soluble polymers as a protective film. In this study, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were prepared as the matrix and combined with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) respectively to protect from the digestion of rhBMP-2. After being implanted in the mouse thigh muscles, the surface-modified composite scaffolds evidently induced ectopic bone formation. In addition, we further evaluated the in vivo effects of surface-modified scaffolds in a rabbit radius critical defect by radiography, three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging, synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomographic (SRμCT) imaging, histological analysis, and biomechanical measurement. The HPMC-modified CPC scaffold was regarded as the best combination for segmental bone regeneration in rabbit radius. - Highlights: • A simple surface-coating method was used to fabricate composite scaffolds. • Growth factor was protected from rapid depletion via superficial coating. • Significant promotion of bone regeneration was achieved. • HPMC-modification displayed optimal effect of bone regeneration

  9. Enhanced healing of rabbit segmental radius defects with surface-coated calcium phosphate cement/bone morphogenetic protein-2 scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi; Hou, Juan; Yin, ManLi [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: biomatwj@163.com [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, ChangSheng, E-mail: csliu@sh163.net [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Large osseous defects remain a difficult clinical problem in orthopedic surgery owing to the limited effective therapeutic options, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is useful for its potent osteoinductive properties in bone regeneration. Here we build a strategy to achieve prolonged duration time and help inducting new bone formation by using water-soluble polymers as a protective film. In this study, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were prepared as the matrix and combined with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) respectively to protect from the digestion of rhBMP-2. After being implanted in the mouse thigh muscles, the surface-modified composite scaffolds evidently induced ectopic bone formation. In addition, we further evaluated the in vivo effects of surface-modified scaffolds in a rabbit radius critical defect by radiography, three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging, synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomographic (SRμCT) imaging, histological analysis, and biomechanical measurement. The HPMC-modified CPC scaffold was regarded as the best combination for segmental bone regeneration in rabbit radius. - Highlights: • A simple surface-coating method was used to fabricate composite scaffolds. • Growth factor was protected from rapid depletion via superficial coating. • Significant promotion of bone regeneration was achieved. • HPMC-modification displayed optimal effect of bone regeneration.

  10. Selfrac: experiments and conclusions on fracturing and self-healing processes in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste must be managed and disposed off in ways that ensure the protection of people and environment, now and in the future. In assessing the performance of a deep HLW disposal, the long term prediction of disturbances in the surrounding rock mass induced by the construction and the operation of a waste repository is essential. A key issue in this field is the evolution of the Excavated Damage d Zone (EDZ) with time, since its presence could result in altered transport characteristics of the host rock adjacent to the galleries. This is precisely the goal of SELFRAC: characterise properly the EDZ and asses its evolution with time. SELFRAC (Dec 2001 - Nov 2004) covers two topics: the origin of fractures on the one hand and the occurrence of self-healing and self-sealing processes on the other hand. The main objective is to better understand and quantify these processes and to assess their impact on the performance of radioactive waste disposal sites. Two argillaceous rocks are investigated: the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri (Switzerland ) and the Boom Clay of HADES (Belgium). The SELFRAC project is coordinated by the EIG EURIDICE (European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of radioactive waste In a Clay Environment). The other partners are NAGRA (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste), L3 S (Laboratoire Sols, Solides, Structures), G3S (Groupement Structures Souterraines de Stockage), KUL (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven), EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne) and SOLEXPERTS. A first task was to define a clear terminology since no international consensus existed and to draw up a state of the art report. The experimental research comprised both laboratory testing and in-situ testing. Fracturing and self-healing processes were studied on both clays by means of flow properties, acoustic measurements and constitutive modelling. in-situ experiments were performed both at Mont Terri (Switzerland) and at HADES (Belgium

  11. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. P. van Gestel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis.

  12. The Study of Barrier Function of Collagen Membrane “Osteoplast” in Healing Bone Defects in an Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov S.Y.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to study barrier properties of collagen membrane “Osteoplast” (“Vitaform”, Russia in closing critical bone defect in an experiment. Materials and Methods. The experiments have been carried out on 20 rabbits of “chinchilla” breed. Results. “Osteoplast”, a membrane made on the basis of bone collagen, is reabsorbed and serves as a safe barrier for fibroblasts migration into bone defect area. Its application enables to protect the defect area from fibrous tissue penetrating and initiate bone regeneration. Osseous tissue beneath a membrane goes few differentiation stages, has classical structure including all structural elements (osteons, lacunes, blood vessels that provides its perfect strength characteristics.

  13. Biomechanical testing on tendon bone healing promoted by bone marrow mononuclearcell%骨髓单个核细胞促进腱骨愈合的生物力学测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 张义龙; 李淑英; 李志怀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of autologous bone marrow mononuclearcells, which were transplanted in the tendon bone interface in reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament,on enhancing the healing potential. Methods Bilateral anterior cruciate ligaments of 24 New Zealand rabbits were removed and reconstructed with autogeneic tendons of semitendinosus muscles. The autologous bone marrow mononuclearcells were injected into the bone tunnel of one side of each animal randomly as the experimental group. The other side was not injected as control. Specimens were collected at 2,4 ,8,12 weeks after surgery respectively for biome-chanical test. The maximal pull-out loads and sites of break were recorded. Results The sites of break were all in the bone tunnels of bilateral tibia in postoperative 2,4,8 weeks. There were 3 cases of break in tendons and 3 cases of break in bone tunnels in the experimental group,and there were 1 case of break in tendon and 5 cases of break in bone tunnels in the control group. The difference of the pull-out loads between the two groups had statistical significance (P<0. 05) in postoperative 4,8,12 weeks,while there was no statistical significance of pull-out loads between the two groups in postoperative 2 weeks. Conclusion Autologous bone marrow mononuclearcells can enhance the tensile strength of interface of tendon and bone and benefit tendon-bone healing.%目的 采用自体骨髓单个核细胞植于前交叉韧带重建术中的腱-骨界面,观察其增强腱-骨愈合强度的能力.方法 24只新西兰大白兔行双侧膝关节半腱肌肌腱前交叉韧带重建术,随机选取一侧膝关节作为实验侧,胫骨侧腱-骨界面植入自体骨髓单个核细胞,对侧不植入骨髓单个核细胞作为对照侧.于术后2、4、8、12周取材,测试移植肌腱的腱-骨界面抗拉伸强度,记录拉脱或断裂负荷及重建韧带的断裂部位.结果 在术后2、4、8周,重建韧带断裂部位均

  14. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S; DiPietro, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  15. Angiogenesis & Vasculogenesis: Inducing the growth of new blood vessels and wound healing by stimulation of Bone Marrow Derived Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Omaida C.

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, the vasculature is among the first organs to form and is in charge of maintaining metabolic homeostasis by supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing waste products. As one would expect, blood vessels are critical not only for organ growth in the embryo, but also for repair of wounded tissue in the adult. An imbalance in ‘Angiogenesis’ (a time-honored term that globally refers to the growth of new blood vessels) contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischemic, infectious, immune, and wound healing disorders. In this review, we will focus on the central role of the growth of new blood vessels in ischemic and diabetic wound healing. We define the most current nomenclature that describes the neovascularization process in wounds. There are now two well defined, distinct, yet interrelated processes for the formation of post-natal new blood vessels, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We review recent new data on vasculogenesis that promises to advance the field of wound healing. PMID:17544023

  16. Nestin Positive Bone Marrow Derived Cells Responded to Injury Mobilize into Peripheral Circulation and Participate in Skin Defect Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yajie; He, Tao; An, Yulin; Tang, Zhangui; Deng, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Exogenously infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to migrate to injury site through peripheral blood stream and participate in tissue repair. However, whether and how endogenous bone marrow MSCs mobilized to circulating and targeted to tissue injury has raised some controversy, and related studies were restricted by the difficulty of MSCs identifying in vivo. Nestin, a kind of intermediate filament protein initially identified in neuroepithelial stem cells, was recently reported as a credible criteria for MSCs in bone marrow. In this study, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled bone marrow replacement model to trace the nestin positive bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) of skin defected-mice. We found that after skin injured, numbers of nestin+ cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow both increased. A remarkable concentration of nestin+ BMDCs around skin wound was detected, while few of these cells could be observed in uninjured skin or other organs. This recruitment effect could not be promoted by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), suggests a different mobilization mechanism from ones G-CSF takes effect on hematopoietic cells. Our results proposed nestin+ BMDCs as mobilized candidates in skin injury repair, which provide a new insight of endogenous MSCs therapy. PMID:26633897

  17. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

  18. The science of ultrasound therapy for fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Rocca Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing involves a complex interplay of cellular processes, culminating in bridging of a fracture gap with bone. Fracture healing can be compromised by numerous exogenous and endogenous patient factors, and intense research is currently going on to identify modalities that can increase the likelihood of successful healing. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proposed as a modality that may have a benefit for increasing reliable fracture healing as well as perhaps increasing the rate of fracture healing. We conducted a review to establish basic scince evidence of therapeutic role of lipus in fracture healing. An electronic search without language restrictions was accomplished of three databases (PubMed, Embase, Cinahl for ultrasound-related research in osteocyte and chondrocyte cell culture and in animal fracture models, published from inception of the databases through December, 2008. Studies deemed to be most relevant were included in this review. Multiple in vitro and animal in vivo studies were identified. An extensive body of literature exists which delineates the mechanism of action for ultrasound on cellular and tissue signaling systems that may be related to fracture healing. Research on LIPUS in animal fracture models has demonstrated promising results for acceleration of fracture healing and for promotion of fracture healing in compromised tissue beds. A large body of cellular and animal research exists which reveals that LIPUS may be beneficial for accelerating normal fracture healing or for promoting fracture healing in compromised tissue beds. Further investigation of the effects of LIPUS in human fracture healing is warranted for this promising new therapy.

  19. Osseointegration of zirconia dental implants modified by femtosecond laser vs. zirconia implants in healed bone: a histomorphometric study in dogs with three-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Calvo-Guirado

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the stability and osseointegration of zirconia dental implants modified by femtosecond laser vs. zirconia implants with sandblasted surface.Materials and methods A total of 48 dental implants were used in this study. After the extraction of premolars (P2, P3, P4 and molars (M1, and 2-months healing period, implants were randomly inserted in both sides of the lower jaw of 6 American Foxhound dogs: 16 zirconia implants with sandblasted surface on endosseous portion (Control Group, 16 zirconia implants with sandblasting and laser modification of the endosseous neck portion only (Test Group A, and 16 zirconia implants with sandblasting and laser modification over the whole endosseous portion (Test Group B. Stability was evaluated by Periotest, while osseointegration was evaluated by Bone-to-implant contact (BIC assessed by histomorphometry at 1 and 3 months after surgery.Results All implants were stable; Periotest® values (PTV for Control Group were -5.75 ± 0.22; for Group A -6.125 ± 0.26 and for Group B -7.625 ± 0.27. BIC was greater for group B implants at both 1 and 3 months. No differences between the Control Group and Group A over the examined time periods were detected.Conclusion The present results suggested that the surface treatment of zirconium implants by femtosecond laser increases implant stability and bone to implant contact.

  20. Effect of a freeze-dried CMC/PLGA microsphere matrix of rhBMP-2 on bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, Jay A.; Fink, Betsy F.; Rodgers, Janet B.; Vasconez, Henry C; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis of this research was that implants of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and distributed in a freeze-dried carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) matrix would produce more new bone than would matrix implants of non-protein-loaded microspheres or matrix implants of only CMC. To test this hypothesis it was necessary to fashion microsphere-loaded CMC implants that were simple to insert, fit precisely into a defect, and would not...

  1. Specific Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Nanotopographies Enhance Osteoblastic Differentiation and Bone Graft Osteointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Alayna E.; Wei, Lai; Faryad, Muhammad; Paul, Emmanuel M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Gao, Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-01-01

    Impaired healing of cortical bone grafts represents a significant clinical problem. Cadaveric bone grafts undergo extensive chemical processing to decrease the risk of disease transmission; however, these processing techniques alter the bone surface and decrease the osteogenic potential of cells at the healing site. Extensive work has been done to optimize the surface of bone grafts, and hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanotopography both increase osteoblastic differentiation. HAP is the main mineral component of bone and can enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone implant healing in vivo, while nanotopography can enhance osteoblastic differentiation, adhesion, and proliferation. This is the first study to test the combined effects of HAP and nanotopographies on bone graft healing. With the goal of identifying the optimized surface features to improve bone graft healing, we tested the hypothesis that HAP-based nanotopographic resurfacing of bone grafts improves integration of cortical bone grafts by enhancing osteoblastic differentiation. Here we show that osteoblastic cells cultured on processed bones coated with specific-scale (50–60 nm) HAP nanotopographies display increased osteoblastic differentiation compared to cells on uncoated bone, bones coated with poly-l-lactic acid nanotopographies, or other HAP nanotopographies. Further, bone grafts coated with 50–60-nm HAP exhibited increased formation of new bone and improved healing, with mechanical properties equivalent to live autografts. These data indicate the potential for specific HAP nanotopographies to not only increase osteoblastic differentiation but also improve bone graft incorporation, which could significantly increase patient quality of life after traumatic bone injuries or resection of an osteosarcoma. PMID:23510012

  2. Evaluating of bone healing around porous coated titanium implant and potential systematic bias on the traditional sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    could be affected by the various quality and quantity of bone in the local environment. Thus, implant fixation in one part might differ from the other part of the implant. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the sampling method on data evaluation. Material and methods: Titanium alloy implants...

  3. Observation of an improved healing process in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with a blue-LED haemostatic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Alfieri, Domenico; Bacci, Stefano; Tatini, Francesca; De Siena, Gaetano; Paroli, Gaia; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S

    2016-06-01

    The healing process of superficial skin wounds treated with a blue-LED haemostatic device is studied. Four mechanical abrasions are produced on the back of 10 Sprague Dawley rats: two are treated with the blue-LED device, while the other two are left to naturally recover. Visual observations, non-linear microscopic imaging, as well as histology and immunofluorescence analyses are performed 8 days after the treatment, demonstrating no adverse reactions neither thermal damages in both abraded areas and surrounding tissue. A faster healing process and a better-recovered skin morphology are observed: the treated wounds show a reduced inflammatory response and a higher collagen content. Blue LED induced photothermal effect on superficial abrasions. PMID:26756549

  4. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE HEALING PROCESS OF ORAL SOFT TISSUE SURGICAL WOUNDS STIMULATED BY LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY.

    OpenAIRE

    Hristina Lalabonova; Elena M. Ilieva

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades laser therapy gained much popularity in clinical practice. Low-level lasers offer alternative solutions to numerous problems in oral surgery.Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate clinically the healing process of soft tissue surgical wounds in the oral cavity stimulated by low-level laser therapy (LLLT).Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty surgical wounds were assigned to three groups: Group I included 40 patients who underwent red spectrum ...

  5. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE HEALING PROCESS OF ORAL SOFT TISSUE SURGICAL WOUNDS STIMULATED BY LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Lalabonova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades laser therapy gained much popularity in clinical practice. Low-level lasers offer alternative solutions to numerous problems in oral surgery.Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate clinically the healing process of soft tissue surgical wounds in the oral cavity stimulated by low-level laser therapy (LLLT.Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty surgical wounds were assigned to three groups: Group I included 40 patients who underwent red spectrum LLLT with wavelength (λ of 658 nm;Group ІІ – 40 patients treated with infra-red LLLT with λ of 904 nm;Group ІІІ (control group - 40 patients without LLLT. In Group І and ІІ the LLLT procedures were applied 1 day before, in the day of and 1 day after the operation. Distant emission with a focused beam through an angled conical probe 3 mm in diameter (ø3mm was used. The irradiated area is 0,5 cm2. The area of impact is the surgical wound zone and the neighboring 0,5-1,0 cm of the adjacent oral mucosa.Results and discussion: The evaluation of the healing process included the following criteria: pain, edema, hyperemia, time for wound closure, postoperative complications.Conclusions: LLLT applied with the offered treatment modality accelerates the healing process of soft tissue surgical wounds in the oral cavity, reduces treatment time and restores patients’ comfort.

  6. The relationship between suture number and the healing process of end-to-end arterial anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston B Yoshida

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the grate experience accumulated in vascular repairing, the ideal number of sutures for vascular anastomosis remains controversial. It is generally thought that the more stitches applied in a vascular anastomosis, the lesser resistant the anastomosis will be. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in 20 rabbits, in which both carotid arteries were cross sectioned and repaired by end-to-end anastomosis with 8 interrupted sutures in one side (G1 and 16 in the other side (G2. After 3 and 15 days, the animals were randomly allocated for tensile strength, hydroxyproline determination (7 animals and for histologic analysis of the anastomosis (3 animals. Conventional staining procedures (hematoxylin-eosin and Masson methods and the picrosirius red polarization (PSP technique for collagen type determination were used. From 3 to 15 days, the tensile strength increased in both groups, from 265.0±-44.4g to 391.2±-49.0g in G1 and from 310.0±-71.5g to 348.7±-84.0g in G2 (p<0.005, with no statistical difference between the groups in each period of study. The hydroxyproline content, expressed as hydroxyproline/protein ratio, varied from 0.04±-0.01 to 0.05±-0.02 in G1 and from 0.05±-0.01 to 0.05±-0.02 in G2, with no significant difference between periods and groups. The histology showed similar inflammatory and reparative aspects in both groups. In both groups and periods the PSP technique demonstrated predominantly type I collagen in relation to type III collagen in the anastomosis. We concluded that even doubling the number of stitches, the healing process and strength did not change in the arterial anastomosis.

  7. The Influence of Peracetic Acid Sterilization on Tendon Bone Healing of Soft-Tissue Allografts in ACL Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Tassilo

    2010-01-01

    Allogenic tissue has become an important graft option for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Recent reports of disease transmission following ACL reconstruction with fresh-frozen non-sterilized allografts have highlighted the need for new sterilization techniques that do not impair the mechanical or biological properties as it was shown for most of the current sterilization techniques. Peracetic acid (PAA) has been successfully used to sterilize bone allografts without thes...

  8. 9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../bone separation machinery; process control. 318.24 Section 318.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD.../bone separation machinery; process control. (a) General. Meat, as defined in § 301.2 of this subchapter... this subchapter, using advances in mechanical meat/bone separation machinery (i.e., AMR systems)...

  9. An experimental study of the effect of Co-60 irradiation on the healing process of extraction wounds in white rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the development of rampant caries, osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis that occur after radiation therapy of oral cancers, extraction of teeth at or near the malignant lesion has been done in the past. Few, however, have studied the radiation effect on the healing of extraction wounds. The study is concerned with the effect of Co-60 irradiation on the healing process of extraction wounds in rats. Fifty six, male, Sprague-Dawley rats are used. The right first molar of the mandible is extracted from all animals. They are divided into three experimental groups of 14 each and a control group of 14. There experimental groups are irradiated respectively with 200 rad, 400 rad and 600 rad and a pair of rats in each group are killed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after irradiation. Two animals from the control group are killed on the day when the experimental rats are killed. The irradiated hemimandibles are fixed in 10% neutral formalin, decalcified in 5% trichloroacetic acid, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. The sections are stained in hematoxylin and eosin, van Gison, Masson's trichrome or silver nitrate. Results show that in general radiation effects on healing extraction wounds are dose dependent; i.e., the higher is the dose, the greater is the histologic changes observed: 1. Irradiation tends to retard blood clot organization and epithelial regeneration. 2. An increase in the number of giant cells and osteoclasts is noted after irradiation. 3. Formation of regenerating connective tissues around and within the extraction site is compromised, and a clear reduction of primitive mesenchymal type connective cells is noted. 4. The healing process begins along the lateral aspect of the extraction socket in the control, while irregular histologic appearances of the trabecular pattern is present in the experimental rats.

  10. Chemically modified RNA induces osteogenesis of stem cells and human tissue explants as well as accelerates bone healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Geiger, Johannes P; Aneja, Manish K; Berezhanskyy, Taras; Utzinger, Maximilian; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Limitations associated to the use of growth factors represent a major hurdle to musculoskeletal regeneration. On the one hand, they are needed to induce neo-tissue formation for the substitution of a necrotic or missing tissue. On the other hand, these factors are used in supraphysiological concentrations, are short lived and expensive and result in many side effects. Here we develop a gene transfer strategy based on the use of chemically modified mRNA (cmRNA) coding for human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP-2) that is non-immunogenic and highly stable when compared to unmodified mRNA. Transfected stem cells secrete hBMP-2, show elevated alkaline phosphatase levels and upregulated expression of RunX2, ALP, Osterix, Osteocalcin, Osteopontin and Collagen Type I genes. Mineralization was induced as seen by positive Alizarin red staining. hBMP-2 cmRNA transfected human fat tissue also yielded an osteogenic response in vitro as indicated by expression of hBMP-2, RunX2, ALP and Collagen Type I. Delivering hBMP-2 cmRNA to a femur defect in a rat model results in new bone tissue formation as early as 2 weeks after application of very low doses. Overall, our studies demonstrate the feasibility and therapeutic potential of a new cmRNA-based gene therapy strategy that is safe and efficient. When applied clinically, this approach could overcome BMP-2 growth factor associated limitations in bone regeneration. PMID:26923361

  11. Concise review: Insights from normal bone remodeling and stem cell-based therapies for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sundeep; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Mödder, Ulrike I

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in the use of mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair. As a major reason for normal bone remodeling is the removal of fatigue microcracks, advances in our understanding of this process may inform approaches to enhance fracture healing. Increasing evidence now indicates that physiological bone remodeling occurs in close proximity to blood vessels and that these vessels carry perivascular stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts. Similarly, fracture healing is critically dependent on the ingrowth of blood vessels not only for a nutrient supply but also for the influx of osteoblasts. A number of animal and human studies have now shown the potential benefit of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in enhancing bone repair. However, as in other tissues, the question of whether these cells improve fracture healing directly by differentiating into osteoblasts or indirectly by secreting paracrine factors that recruit blood vessels and the accompanying perivascular stem cells remains a major unresolved issue. Moreover, CD34+ cells, which are enriched for endothelial/hematopoietic cells, have also shown efficacy in various bone repair models, at least in part due to the induction of angiogenesis and recruitment of host progenitor cells. Thus, mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are attractive options for bone repair. It is possible that they contribute directly to bone repair, but it is also likely that they express paracrine factors in the appropriate amounts and combinations that promote and sustain the healing process. PMID:20960512

  12. Role of medicinal plants and natural products on osteoporotic fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

    2012-01-01

    Popularly known as "the silent disease" since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases-hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

  13. Role of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products on Osteoporotic Fracture Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azri Abd Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popularly known as “the silent disease” since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases—hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world’s largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah, and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing.

  14. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  15. Young coconut juice can accelerate the healing process of cutaneous wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenahmad Nisaudah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen has been reported to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. This research studies the effect of young coconut juice (YCJ, presumably containing estrogen-like substances, on cutaneous wound healing in ovairectomized rats. Methods Four groups of female rats (6 in each group were included in this study. These included sham-operated, ovariectomized (ovx, ovx receiving estradiol benzoate (EB injections intraperitoneally, and ovx receiving YCJ orally. Two equidistant 1-cm full-thickness skin incisional wounds were made two weeks after ovariectomy. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the third and the fourth week of the study, and their serum estradiol (E2 level was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. The skin was excised and examined in histological sections stained with H&E, and immunostained using anti-estrogen receptor (ER-α an ER-β antibodies. Results Wound healing was accelerated in ovx rats receiving YCJ, as compared to controls. This was associated with significantly higher density of immunostaining for ER-α an ER-β in keratinocytes, fibroblasts, white blood cells, fat cells, sebaceous gland, skeletal muscles, and hair shafts and follicles. This was also associated with thicker epidermis and dermis, but with thinner hypodermis. In addition, the number and size of immunoreactive hair follicles for both ER-α and ER-β were the highest in the ovx+YCJ group, as compared to the ovx+EB group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that YCJ has estrogen-like characteristics, which in turn seem to have beneficial effects on cutaneous wound healing.

  16. Light attenuation in rat skin following low level laser therapy on burn healing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Silva, Daniela Fátima; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used to accelerate wound healing. Besides, the technique of imaging the light distribution inside biological tissues permits us to understand several effects about light-tissue interaction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative attenuation coefficient of the light intensity in healthy and burned skin rats during cutaneous repair following LLLT or not. Two burns about 6mm in diameter were cryogenerated using liquid N2 on the back of 15 rats. Lesion L was irradiated by a He-Ne laser (λ= 632.8nm) and fluence 1.0J/cm2; Lesion C was control and received sham irradiation. A healthy skin area (H) was also analyzed. The lesions were irradiated at days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-burning. The animals were euthanized at days 3, 10 and 31 and skin samples were carefully removed and placed between two microscope slides, spaced by z= 1mm. A laser beam irradiated the sandwiched tissue from epidermis to dermis. A CCD camera was placed orthogonal to the beam path and it photographed the distribution of the scattered light. The light decay occurred according to the Beer's Law. Significance was accepted at p skin samples presented decay significantly faster than healthy skin samples. Besides, attenuation coefficient changed during burning healing comparing treated and control lesions. These findings suggest that the relative attenuation coefficient is a suitable parameter to optimize LLLT during wound healing.

  17. Comparison between different methods for biomechanical assessment of ex vivo fracture callus stiffness in small animal bone healing studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Steiner

    Full Text Available For ex vivo measurements of fracture callus stiffness in small animals, different test methods, such as torsion or bending tests, are established. Each method provides advantages and disadvantages, and it is still debated which of those is most sensitive to experimental conditions (i.e. specimen alignment, directional dependency, asymmetric behavior. The aim of this study was to experimentally compare six different testing methods regarding their robustness against experimental errors. Therefore, standardized specimens were created by selective laser sintering (SLS, mimicking size, directional behavior, and embedding variations of respective rat long bone specimens. For the latter, five different geometries were created which show shifted or tilted specimen alignments. The mechanical tests included three-point bending, four-point bending, cantilever bending, axial compression, constrained torsion, and unconstrained torsion. All three different bending tests showed the same principal behavior. They were highly dependent on the rotational direction of the maximum fracture callus expansion relative to the loading direction (creating experimental errors of more than 60%, however small angular deviations (<15° were negligible. Differences in the experimental results between the bending tests originate in their respective location of maximal bending moment induction. Compared to four-point bending, three-point bending is easier to apply on small rat and mouse bones under realistic testing conditions and yields robust measurements, provided low variation of the callus shape among the tested specimens. Axial compressive testing was highly sensitive to embedding variations, and therefore cannot be recommended. Although it is experimentally difficult to realize, unconstrained torsion testing was found to be the most robust method, since it was independent of both rotational alignment and embedding uncertainties. Constrained torsional testing showed small

  18. Comparison between different methods for biomechanical assessment of ex vivo fracture callus stiffness in small animal bone healing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Malte; Volkheimer, David; Meyers, Nicholaus; Wehner, Tim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2015-01-01

    For ex vivo measurements of fracture callus stiffness in small animals, different test methods, such as torsion or bending tests, are established. Each method provides advantages and disadvantages, and it is still debated which of those is most sensitive to experimental conditions (i.e. specimen alignment, directional dependency, asymmetric behavior). The aim of this study was to experimentally compare six different testing methods regarding their robustness against experimental errors. Therefore, standardized specimens were created by selective laser sintering (SLS), mimicking size, directional behavior, and embedding variations of respective rat long bone specimens. For the latter, five different geometries were created which show shifted or tilted specimen alignments. The mechanical tests included three-point bending, four-point bending, cantilever bending, axial compression, constrained torsion, and unconstrained torsion. All three different bending tests showed the same principal behavior. They were highly dependent on the rotational direction of the maximum fracture callus expansion relative to the loading direction (creating experimental errors of more than 60%), however small angular deviations (tests originate in their respective location of maximal bending moment induction. Compared to four-point bending, three-point bending is easier to apply on small rat and mouse bones under realistic testing conditions and yields robust measurements, provided low variation of the callus shape among the tested specimens. Axial compressive testing was highly sensitive to embedding variations, and therefore cannot be recommended. Although it is experimentally difficult to realize, unconstrained torsion testing was found to be the most robust method, since it was independent of both rotational alignment and embedding uncertainties. Constrained torsional testing showed small errors (up to 16.8%, compared to corresponding alignment under unconstrained torsion) due to a

  19. Initial endosseous healing response to lactide/glycolide copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César ZIELAK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The search for less invasive treatments, with fast and effective bone regeneration, has lead to the development of synthetic bioresorbable alternatives for bone graft. The commercial product FisiograftTM gel (Ghimas Spa, Italy, based on lactide-glycolide copolymer, is used as an injectable biocompatible and bioresorbable material for filling bone defects in dental surgery applications. These polymers are also used in the production of suture threads, pins and plates for bone fixation, and barriers for guided tissue regeneration. Objective: The main objective of this pilot study was to observe the initial bone healing response after the application of polylactide-glycolide graft material in adult animals. Material and methods: Bone defects were prepared in right and left femora of 12 month-old male Wistar rats. The defects in one leg received the synthetic graft material and the contra-lateral defects did not receive any treatment. After four days, the animals were subjected to euthanasia, the femora were removed, and tissue blocks were prepared for histological analysis. Results: Blood clot remained in the centre of control defects with initial connective tissue organization on the edges. The graft material was observed in the centre of the treated defects, restricted to the area where it was applied, with neovascularization next to the graft material. The pattern of bone healing did not differ between groups, starting from the margins of the defects and from bone fragments, with neovascularization followed by deposition of non-mineralized bone matrix towards the centre. Conclusion: The results indicate that the lactide-glycolide copolymer gel was effective as a filling and osteoconductive material, allowing tissue healing during its resorption process. Additional studies are necessary to verify its capacity to promote bone regeneration.

  20. Bilirubin modulated cytokines, growth factors and angiogenesis to improve cutaneous wound healing process in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Mahendra; Singh, Vishakha; Kumawat, Sanjay; Kant, Vinay; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin has shown cutaneous wound healing potential in some preliminary studies. Here we hypothesize that bilirubin facilitates wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating important healing factors/candidates and antioxidant parameters in a time-dependent manner. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin. In all diabetic rats wounds were created under pentobarbitone anesthesia. All the rats were divided into two groups, of which one (control) was treated with ointment base and other with bilirubin ointment (0.3%). Wound closer measurement and tissue collection were done on days 3, 7, 14 and 19 post-wounding. The relative expressions of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1()), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and proteins and the mRNA of interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and matrix metalloprteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined in the wound tissues. CD-31 staining and collagen content were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and picrosirius red staining, respectively. Histopathological changes were assessed by H&E staining. The per cent wound closer was significantly higher from day 7 onwards in bilirubin-treated rats. HIF-1α, VEGF, SDF-1α, TGF-β1, IL-10 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher on days 3, 7 and 14 in bilirubin-treated rats. The mRNA expression and protein level of TNF-α and the mRNA of IL-1β and MMP-9 were progressively and markedly reduced in bilirubin-treated rats. The collagen deposition and formation of blood vessels were greater in bilirubin-treated rats. Bilirubin markedly facilitated cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating growth factors, cytokines, neovasculogenesis and collagen contents to the wound site. Topical application of bilirubin ointment might be of great use in cutaneous wound healing in diabetic patients. PMID:26679676

  1. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time. PMID:23053906

  2. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  3. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Minkwitz

    Full Text Available Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  4. A literature review and case series of accelerating fracture healing in postmenopausal osteoporotic working women

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Srinivas K; Rao, Anitha P.

    2014-01-01

    Majority of fractures do not cause significant long-term morbidity and mortality. A 10% of these fractures result in impaired fracture healing, drastically affecting quality of life in affected patients. Satisfactory healing of these osteoporotic fractures are critically important to functional recovery, morbidity, and quality of life. Some therapies for osteoporosis may affect the processes associated with bone repair. For example, bisphosphonates in experimental models are associated with i...

  5. Histomorphometric analysis of microcrack healing after the installation of mini-implants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Soobin; Park, Pan-Soo; Baek, Seung-Hak; Yang, Il-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the histomorphometric characteristics of the healing process of microcracks in the cortical bone after the installation of mini-implants (MIs). Methods Self-drilling MIs were inserted into the tibial diaphysis of twelve adult male New Zealand rabbits. Four MIs per rabbit were placed randomly. The animals were divided into four groups according to the length of the healing period: group A was sacrificed immediately, group B was sacrificed after...

  6. Platelet-Rich Plasma and Skeletal Muscle Healing: A Molecular Analysis of the Early Phases of the Regeneration Process in an Experimental Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Dimauro; Loredana Grasso; Simona Fittipaldi; Cristina Fantini; Neri Mercatelli; Silvia Racca; Stefano Geuna; Alessia Di Gianfrancesco; Daniela Caporossi; Fabio Pigozzi; Paolo Borrione

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages o...

  7. Polarized light (400-2000 nm) and non-ablative laser (685 nm): a description of the wound healing process using immunohistochemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Luis Pinheiro; Daniel Pozza; Marília Gehardt de Oliveira; Ruben Weissmann; Luciana Ramalho

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe, through morphologic and cytochemical analysis, the healing process of wounds submitted (or not) to laser therapy (lambda685 nm) or polarized light (lambda400-2000 nm).BACKGROUND DATA: There are many reports on different effects of several types of phototherapies on the treatment of distinct conditions, amongst them, on wound healing. Laser therapy and the use of polarized light are still controversial despite successive reports on their positive effect...

  8. Updates in biological therapies for knee injuries: bone

    OpenAIRE

    Kfuri, Mauricio; de Freitas, Rafael Lara; Batista, Bruno Bellaguarda; Salim, Rodrigo; Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; Tavares, Ricardo Antonio; Araújo, Paulo Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a unique tissue because of its mechanical properties, ability for self-repair, and enrollment in different metabolic processes such as calcium homeostasis and hematopoietic cell production. Bone barely tolerates deformation and tends to fail when overloaded. Fracture healing is a complex process that in particular cases is impaired. Osteoprogenitor cells proliferation, growth factors, and a sound tridimensional scaffold at fracture site are key elements for new bone formation and depo...

  9. Vascularization of bone regeneration products in acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 119 rabbits with acute radiation sickness the vascularization process in bone regeneration products was studied by microangiography. The formation of arteries and of bone structures was retarded in irradiated animals. The deficient formation of veins and capillaries did not cause conditions for venous blood circulation and resulted in a slow resorption of newly formed bone structures and gristle. That is one of the reasons for an extended healing process of fractures and for formation of false articulations in irradiated animals. (author)

  10. Investigating effects of atmospheric-pressure plasma on the process of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Shahram; Shokri, Asana; Khani, Mohammad Reza; Bigdeli, Mohammadreza; Shokri, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJ) have excellent applications in biomedicine. Advantages of APPJ include lack of need for vacuum systems, capability of operation for a long time, and safe to be directly touched by living tissues such as a human body. In this study, an APPJ was generated by a dielectric barrier and applied for the treatment of chemical wounds. This APPJ worked with argon and was driven by high-voltage pulses. This paper compares the spontaneous healing of wounds and a stimulated healing using daily APPJ treatment. Biological data, such as hematological, biochemical, and histological parameters, were remarked. The mortality and morbidity of the untreated samples were reported after 20 days in comparison with the plasma-treated samples, which were alive after these days. Experimental results demonstrated that an increase in the oxidative stress could result in the decreased destruction of lesions by controlling the infection growth. These results were related to the presence of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the plasma volume, which were detected by optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25758659

  11. Computational characterization of fracture healing under reduced gravity loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Benjamin C; Lerner, Zachary F; Browning, Raymond C; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-07-01

    The literature is deficient with regard to how the localized mechanical environment of skeletal tissue is altered during reduced gravitational loading and how these alterations affect fracture healing. Thus, a finite element model of the ovine hindlimb was created to characterize the local mechanical environment responsible for the inhibited fracture healing observed under experimental simulated hypogravity conditions. Following convergence and verification studies, hydrostatic pressure and strain within a diaphyseal fracture of the metatarsus were evaluated for models under both 1 and 0.25 g loading environments and compared to results of a related in vivo study. Results of the study suggest that reductions in hydrostatic pressure and strain of the healing fracture for animals exposed to reduced gravitational loading conditions contributed to an inhibited healing process, with animals exposed to the simulated hypogravity environment subsequently initiating an intramembranous bone formation process rather than the typical endochondral ossification healing process experienced by animals healing in a 1 g gravitational environment. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1206-1215, 2016. PMID:26704186

  12. How wounds heal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2010: chap. 7. Richardson M. Acute wounds: an overview of the physiological healing process. Nursing Times . 2004; 100(4): 50. Von Der Heyde RL, Evans RB. Wound classification ...

  13. Biostimulation effect of low-level laser on healing process after third molar surgery, based on biochemical markers in saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroulikova, Veronika; Dostálová, Tatjana; Podzimek, Stepan

    2015-02-01

    Third molar extractions in general anesthesia have become a standard procedure in dentistry. There is an effort to shorten healing time and decrease the number of complications as well as increase comfort after the treatment. Low-level lasers are known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and stimulatory effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser after surgery in general anesthesia reducing the patient's discomfort, i.e. mainly pain, and also, to monitor the biostimulation process. Our study included 79 patients treated at the Department of Maxilofacial Surgery, diagnosed with third molar retention. Diode low-level laser radiation (wavelength 830 nm, output power 270 mW, probe aperture of 6.4 mm2) with dose ~ 3 mJ was applied. The control group was treated by using placebo - red light. The exposure time was 11 seconds immediately after the suture; the treatment was repeated every day for the following 3 days. To evaluate the effect of laser biostimulation, the objective markers for immunological determination of healing - sIgA and lysozyme in non-stimulated saliva of patients - were used. The sIgA decreases after laser application from 546.91 mg/l to 304. 91mg/l and in the control group from 602.25mg/l to 425.62 mg/l. The results were statistically significant. The level of lysozyme decreases from 54.27 mg/l to 2.45mg/l after laser biostimulation, from 304.371mg/l to 11.08mg/l after placebo effect. The study has confirmed a low-level laser healing effect not directly related to pain.

  14. Application of multiple magnification roentgenography for the control of reparative process in carpal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the first experience in using direct magnification roentgenography for diagnosis of navicular bone fracture and for evaluation of dynamics of reparative processes in carpal bones. Roentgenograms were made by portable X-ray apparatus REIS-D with 9-fold direct magnification. The use of the given type of roentgenography demonstrated its ample scope for both diagnosis of navicular bone fractures and for evaluation of the process of their adhesion

  15. The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparins on Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Demesticha, Theano; Demetriou, Thespis

    2015-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism is a serious complication in the trauma patient. The most commonly studied and used anticoagulant treatment in prophylaxis of thrombosis is heparin. The prolonged use of unfractionated heparin has been connected with increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Low molecular-weight-heparins (LMWHs) have been the golden rule in antithrombotic therapy during the previous two decades as a way to overcome the major drawbacks of unfractioned heparin. However there are few studies reporting the effects of LMWHs on bone repair after fractures. This review presents the studies about the effects of LMWHs on bone biology (bone cells and bone metabolism) and underlying the mechanisms by which LMWHs may impair fracture healing process. The authors’ research based on literature concluded that there are no facts and statistics for the role of LMWHs on fracture healing process in humans and the main body of evidence of their role comes from in vitro and animal studies. Further large clinical studies designed to compare different types of LMWHs, in different dosages and in different patient or animal models are needed for exploring the effects of LMWHs on fracture healing process. PMID:26161162

  16. Self-healing electrical insulating coating processes for vanadium alloy-lithium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing technological approaches for the formation of nitride- and oxide-based self-healing electrical insulating coatings for vanadium alloy-lithium systems are considered. The results of the property study of coatings applied from liquid lithium containing Al, N, Si, B additions on various modes are considered. The formation conditions of AlN-based coatings with scale specific electrical resistivity (∼50 Ω m) on the V-4Ti-4Cr vanadium alloy are determined. The results of formation and stability research of coatings on the V-4Ti-4Cr vanadium alloy in convectional and forced circulating lithium with Al and N additions in the homogeneous and heterogeneous lithium systems are discussed

  17. No effect of platelet-rich plasma with frozen or processed bone allograft around noncemented implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T B; Rahbek, O; Overgaard, S; Søballe, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    We compared processed morselized bone allograft with fresh-frozen bone graft around noncemented titanium implants. Also, the influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in combination with bone allograft was evaluated. Analysis was based on implant fixation and histomorphometry. PRP was prepared by...... isolating the buffy coat from autologous blood samples. Bone allograft was used fresh-frozen or processed by defatting, freeze drying, and irradiation. Cylindrical hydroxyapatite-coated titanium implants were inserted bilaterally in the femoral condyles of eight dogs. Each implant was surrounded by a 2.5-mm...... bone allograft processing. Even though the level of platelet in PRP was 7.7 times that found in whole blood, we found no improvement of bone formation or implant fixation by adding PRP....

  18. Screening of bacteria for self-healing of concrete cracks and optimization of the microbial calcium precipitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J L; Wu, R S; Li, Y M; Zhong, J Y; Deng, X; Liu, B; Han, N X; Xing, F

    2016-08-01

    A novel high-throughput strategy was developed to determine the calcium precipitation activity (CPA) of mineralization bacteria used for self-healing of concrete cracks. A bacterial strain designated as H4 with the highest CPA of 94.8 % was screened and identified as a Bacillus species based on 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis. Furthermore, the effects of certain influential factors on the microbial calcium precipitation process of H4 were evaluated. The results showed that lactate and nitrate are the best carbon and nitrogen sources, with optimal concentrations of approximately 25 and 18 mM, respectively. The H4 strain is able to maintain a high CPA in the pH range of 9.5-11.0, and a suitable initial spore concentration is 4.0 × 10(7) spores/ml. Moreover, an ambient Ca(2+) concentration greater than 60 mM resulted in a serious adverse impact not only on the CPA but also on the growth of H4, suggesting that the maintenance of the Ca(2+) concentration at a low level is necessary for microbial self-healing of concrete cracks. PMID:26883348

  19. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhaou Medical College, Guangzhaou, China during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had shamoperation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 shamoperated rats served as control group. After the fracture rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (p<0.05), and presented with stronger callus formation, shorter fracture healing time and faster normalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase in osteoporotic bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fractured osteoporotic bone. (author)

  20. Diabetes and wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Rikke; Irakunda, Gloire; Knudsen List, Karoline Cecilie; Sønderstup-Jensen, Marie; Hölmich Rosca, Mette Maria

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a disease where the glucose level in the blood is high, due to either insulin resistance, impaired insulin sensitivity or no insulin production. The high glucose level causes several complications, one of them being an impaired wound healing process, which might lead to chronic wounds, ulcers. Several factors play a role in the development of ulcers, and recent research indicates that microRNA might play a significant role in skin development and wound healing. The purpose of this...

  1. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  2. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  3. Acceleration of bone formation during fracture healing by poly(pro-hyp-gly)10 and basic fibroblast growth factor containing polycystic kidney disease and collagen-binding domains from Clostridium histolyticum collagenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Kentaro; Inoue, Gen; Matsushita, Osamu; Saito, Wataru; Aikawa, Jun; Tanaka, Keisuke; Fujimaki, Hisako; Miyagi, Masayuki; Takaso, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Growth factor delivered in combination with animal-derived collagen materials has been used to accelerate bone fracture healing in human patients. However, the introduction of bovine proteins into humans carries the risk of zoonotic and immunologic complications. Here, we developed a collagen-like polypeptide-based bone formation system consisting of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)10 , which mimics the triple helical conformation of collagen, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) fused to the polycystic kidney disease (PKD) domain and collagen-binding domain (CBD) of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. Circular dichroism spectral analysis showed that when pepsin-soluble bovine type I collagen was treated at 50°C, a positive signal corresponding to the collagen triple helix at 220 nm was not detected. In contrast, poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)10 retained the 220-nm positive peak, even when treated at 80°C. The combination of the collagen binding-bFGF fusion protein (bFGF-PKD-CBD) with poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)10 induced greater bone formation compared to bFGF alone in mice bone fracture models. Taken together, these properties suggest that the bFGF-PKD-CBD/poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)10 composite is a promising material for bone repair in the clinical setting. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1372-1378, 2016. PMID:26833780

  4. Study of treating tibial large bone defect with migration of lengthened bone segment in goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG liu; LI Qi-hong; ZHOU Zhong-an; TAN Zu-jian; PENG Yi-liang

    2001-01-01

    To study the effects of migration of lengthened bone segment (MLBS) on the blood circulation and repair remodeling process at the ends of large bone defect of a long bone. Methods: A total of 18 adult goats were used and more than 35% of the original length of their left tibia was resected. Upper metaphysiotomy to lengthen upper part of the tibia was done and the lengthened bone segment was migrated to repair the large bone defect. The results were observed with X-ray films, Chinese-ink permeated transparent sections and histological study. Results: After MLBS, the defect ends of the tibia were supplied with abundant blood circulation which resulted in rapid and solid long bone healing. Conclusion: Repair of large bone defect of long bones with MLBS provides a new method for clinical practice.

  5. The acceleration of garlic (Allium sativum L ethanolic extract on gingival wound healing process in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Bramanti Ngatidjan Setyo Purwono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L is a medicinal plant traditionally used to relieve pain. Garlic’s active constituents, allicin and triacremonone, have been proven to have antibacterial and antiinflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic ethanolic extract gel in gingival wound healing process of rats. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks with with body weight 200-250 g were subjected in this study. Rats were divided randomly into five groups with six rats in each group. Group I as negative control was given sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC base gel. Group II as positive control was given Benzydamine® gel and Group IV-V were given garlic ethanolic extract gel at dose of 20, 40 and 80%, respectively. Each group was subdivided into two sub groups of three rats according to the decapitation period which were 5th (D-5 and 7th (D-7 day after the garlic extract gel application. Excisional wounds using punch biopsy, 2.5 mm in diameter, were created at the mandibular labial gingiva between right and left incisor teeth of the rats. The garlic extract gel of each preparation dose was then applied on the wound three times a day, starting at 0 day until 7th day. The decapitation was conducted on the D-5 and D-7. Histological slides of wounded tissue were prepared. Epithelial thickness, new blood vessel, and number of fibroblast were examined. The results showed that the epithelial thickness of garlic ethanolic extract gel groups was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05, especially after 5thday application. However, the number of new blood vessels and the amount of fibroblast of those groups were not significantly higher than control group (p>0.05. In conclusion, topical application of garlic ethanolic extract gel accelerates the gingival wound healing process in rats by increasing epithelial thickness.     Keywords: garlic ethanolic extract - gingival wound healing - epithelium thickness

  6. The role of sensorial processes in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: A case study of depression and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B

    2016-02-01

    Theory and research on the healing practices of Indigenous communities around the globe have often been influenced by models of "symbolic healing" that privilege the way patients consciously interpret or derive meaning from a healing encounter. In our work with a group of Q'eqchi' Maya healers in southern Belize, these aspects of "symbolic healing" are not always present. Such empirical observations force us to reach beyond models of symbolic healing to understand how healing might prove effective. Through the extended analysis of a single case study of rahil ch'ool or "depression," we propose to advance understanding of forms of healing which are not dependent on a shared "mythic" or "assumptive world" between patient and healer or where therapeutic efficacy does not rely on the patient's ability to "believe" in or consciously "know" what is occurring during treatment. In this we demonstrate how the body, as a site of experience, transformation, and communication, becomes the therapeutic locus in healing encounters of this kind and argue that embodied mediums of sensorial experience be considered central in attempts to understand healing efficacy. PMID:26337478

  7. Anti-microRNA-378a Enhances Wound Healing Process by Upregulating Integrin Beta-3 and Vimentin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haoran; Chang, Leslie; Du, William W.; Gupta, Shaan; Khorshidi, Azam; Sefton, Michael; Yang, Burton B.

    2014-01-01

    Delayed or impaired wound healing is a major public health issue worldwide, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus and vascular atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs have been identified as key regulators of wound healing. Here, we show that miR-Pirate378a transgenic mice (and thus have inhibited miR-378a-5p function) display enhanced wound healing. Expression of vimentin and β3 integrin, two important modulators of wound healing, is markedly elevated in the transgenic mice. MiR-Pirate378a-transf...

  8. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  9. Action of diode laser (830 nm) on cutaneous wound healing process: biometrical and histological study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, it was analyzed the acceleration of the healing process of cutaneous lesions in mice, using a diode laser emitting in 830 nm. The 64 selected animals in this study were randomically divided into four groups of 16 animals each (G1, G2, G3 and G4). Biometric and histological comparisons were accomplished in the following periods: 3, 7 and 14 days after the surgery and laser application. Three laser irradiation configurations were used: a punctual contact (G2) and two non-contact and uniform (G3 and G4). For group G2, the laser intensity was 428 mW/cm2 , and for groups G3 and G4 it was 53 mW/cm2. The total doses were D = 3 J/cm2 for groups G2 and G4, and D = 1,3 J/cm2 for G3. The first group, G1, was considered control and thus not submitted to any treatment after the surgery. All irradiated lesions presented acceleration of the healing process with regard to the control group. However, our results clearly indicate that the smaller laser intensity (uniform irradiation) leaded to the best results. On the other hand, the smaller used dose also leaded to the more significant and expressive results. The combination of the intensity value of 53 mW/cm2 and the dose of 1,3 J/cm2 leaded to optimal results, regarding the Biometric and histological analysis, presenting faster lesion contraction, quicker neoformation of epithelial and conjunctive tissue (with more collagen fibers ). (author)

  10. Advances in allogenic bone graft processing and usage: preparation and evaluation of chitosan-demineralized cancellous bone powder composite scaffolds as a bone graft substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is currently used by surgeons. It usually exists as a lyophilized powder which is difficult to handle and operated. In this study, we try to improve these disadvantages by combining DBM with a biomaterial. It focuses on a natural biodegradable polymer, chitosan, to act as a temporary matrix for bone growth that easily prepare in any size and shape by using tissue engineering knowledge to get a proper temporary matrix. Thus, the development of chitosan-demineralized bone powder composite scaffold is an alternative way. Polymeric scaffold has been demonstrated to have great potential for tissue engineering because the scaffold or three dimension (3D) construct provides the necessary support for cells to proliferate, extracellular matrix deposition and vascularization of neo-tissue. Moreover, chitosan, a natural cationic polymer which its structural is similar to extracellular matrix glycosaminoblycans, is biodegradable, biocompatible, non-antigenic and biofunctional. It can enhance osteoblast cells proliferation and mineral matrix deposition in culture. The first study was to fabricate and analyze composite scaffold composed of either chitosan-demineralized cancellous bone powders or chitosan-demineralized cancellous cartilage bone powders in a ratio 50:50 and 70:30 w/w (chitosan : bone powders) based on physical properties composing of average pore diameter, mechanical integrity and swelling property. Secondly, scaffolds were evaluated in term of biological properties composing of their ability to support neo osteogenesis, including assessments of cell attachment and viability, cell morphology, and the biosynthesis of extracellular matrix. Results indicated that chitosan-demineralized cancellous bone powder composite scaffolds possessing an interconnecting, porous structure could be easily created through a simple freezing and lyophilization process. (Author)

  11. Osteogenetic activity in composite grafts of demineralized compact bone and marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a composite graft of autologous marrow and demineralized autologous compact bone on the healing of a surgically created bone defect were observed in adult rabbits. A segment of the radius was bilaterally resected, demineralized, and replaced. On one side the bone graft was supplemented with autologous marrow. The new bone formation was measured 14 and 28 days after operation by roentgenography, including planimetry with scintigraphy and autoradiography using /sup 99m/Tc-labelled MDP. The composite graft, i.e., demineralized compact bone and marrow, had a significantly higher (p less than 0.01) bone formation rate 14 days after operation compared with the graft with demineralized compact bone in the opposite radius. At 28 days, however, there were no differences between the sides. Viable autologous marrow cells and demineralized autologous compact bone graft accelerate the rate of osteogenesis, but only at the beginning of the healing process

  12. Processing of gamma irradiated bone allografts for treatment of injuries in a nuclear scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone allografts fill an important void in the surgical practice of orthopaedic surgery, and their use to replace and reconstruct musculoskeletal structures following injury or disease has gained increasing acceptance by orthopaedic surgeons. Serious mechanical injuries in a nuclear scenario involving compression, displacement and missile hit will lead to high incidence of various kinds of bone fractures, spinal injuries and joint injuries apart from lethality, lung damage and eardrum rupture. Bone allografts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Autologous bone grafts, though ideal, have the drawback of secondary surgery for autograft retrieval, complications of infection and donor site morbidity. Bone allografts eliminate additional incision necessary for acquiring an autograft and consequently reduce operating time, blood loss as well as hospital and medical costs. However, disease transmission and bacterial infection in bone allograft transplantation is of significant concern. Sterilization by gamma irradiation is a definitive method for eliminating microorganisms and can prevent life-threatening allograft associated infections. The present study was carried out with the aim of bioburden assessment, radiation sterilization and clinical evaluation of bone allografts processed from femoral heads obtained from living donors. Femoral heads were obtained during surgery at Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, SN Medical College, Jodhpur and processed as freeze-dried bone allografts. Bioburden of bone allografts was found to be in the range of 2.26 to 3.59 log CFU/g. Verification dose for different batches of processing was 7.24±1.27 kGy. Radiological data of processed gamma irradiated bone grafts used in clinical cases of trauma surgery was recorded and has shown successful graft incorporation in allogenic recipients. (author)

  13. Holistic Medicine IV: Principles of Existential Holistic Group Therapy and the Holistic Process of Healing in a Group Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person�s wholeness. This includes the body, the person�s philosophy of life, and often also love, purpose of life, and the spiritual dimension, to the same extent as it addresses the emotional psyche and sexuality, and it is thus much broader than traditional psychotherapy.Where existential psychotherapy is rather depressing concerning the fundamental human condition, existential holistic therapy conceives life to be basically good. The fundamentals in existential holistic therapy are that everybody has the potential for healing themselves to become loving, joyful, sexually attractive, strong, and gifted, which is a message that most patients welcome. While the patient is suffering and fighting to get through life, the most important job for the holistic therapist is to keep a positive perspective of life. In accordance with these fundamentals, many participants in holistic group therapy will have positive emotional experiences, often of an unknown intensity, and these experiences appear to transform their lives within only a few days or weeks of therapy.An important idea of the course is Bohm�s concept of �holo-movement� in the group, resulting from intense coherence between the group members. When the group comes together, the individual will be linked to the totality and the great movement forward towards love, consciousness, and happiness will happen collectively � if it happens at all. This gives the individual the feeling that everything that happens is right, important, and valuable for all the participants at the same time. Native Americans and other premodern people refer to this

  14. Healing singing

    OpenAIRE

    Gretsch, Renate

    2013-01-01

    This study confirms the hypothesis that healing singing leads to positive emotional experiences in relation to other people through social resonance and a strong shared bond. People who have had negative interpersonal relationship experiences that have led to depression and fear respond favourably to healing singing, because it makes a positive encounter possible. Even if their resonance ability is limited by their illness, they can be reached through music, which allows them to slowly start ...

  15. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of the effect of lactoferrin combined with anorganic bovine bone on healing of experimentally induced bony defects on rabbit calvaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Paknejad; Amir Reza Rokn; Ali Akbar Sabur Yaraghi; Flora Elhami; Mohammad Javad Kharazifard; Neda Moslemi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that lactoferrin promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Anorganic bovine bone (ABB) graft has been extensively used as an osteoconductive material in the bone reconstructive surgeries. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the combination of lactoferrin with Bio-Oss would improve ossification in experimentally induced bone defects in rabbit calvaria. Materials and Meth...

  16. Continuum Damage-healing Mechanics with Application to Self-healing Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero, Ever J; Greco, Fabrizio; Lonetti, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The general behavior of self-healing materials is modeled including both irreversible and healing processes. A constitutive model, based on a continuum thermodynamic framework, is proposed to predict the general response of self-healing materials. The self-healing materials? response produces a reduction in size of microcracks and voids, opposite to damage. The constitutive model, developed in the ...

  17. Instrumental and laboratory assessment of stressful remodelling processes in bone tissue at total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Karjakina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to estimate stressful remodelling features of bone tissue according to the densitometry data and to the level of biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation in total hip replacement (THR. Bone tissue mineral density (BTMD, condition of calcium-phosphoric metabolism and biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase and resorption (С-terminal bodypeptide of the I type collagen have been determined in 52 patients with coxarthrosis of ll-lll stages with marked joint dysfunction before and after THR. The control group included 24 donors. The data were considered to be reliable when the probability index was р<0,05. The reliable (р<0,05 change of BTMD was determined only in 3-6 months after the operation, whereas the change of biochemical markers of remodeling had already been done after 1,5-3 months, allowing to define the group of patients with obvious negative bone balance: strong predominance of resorption processes without compensation of the subsequent adequate osteogenesis, that subsequently could lead to significant bone tissue deficiency in the area adjacent to the endoprosthesis. Changes of indices of calcium-phosphoric metabolism were not certain during the investigation term. ln conclusion it is to state that biochemical markers of remodeling in comparison with BTMD allow to estimate objectively features of adaptive bone tissue remodeling after THR in earlier periods and to define group of patients with sharp intensification of metabolism and obvious negative bone balance

  18. Spatially offset raman spectroscopy for non-invasive assessment of fracture healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Lu, Guijin; West, Christopher; Gogola, Gloria; Kellam, James; Ambrose, Catherine; Bi, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    Fracture non-unions and bone re-fracture are common challenges for post-fracture management. To achieve better prognosis and treatment evaluation, it is important to be able to assess the quality of callus over the time course of healing. This study evaluated the potential of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for assessing the fracture healing process in situ. We investigated a rat model of fracture healing at two weeks and 4 weeks post fracture with a fractured femur and a contralateral control in each animal. Raman spectra were collected from the depilated thighs on both sides transcutaneously in situ with various source/detection offsets. Bone signals were recovered from SORS spectra, and then compared with those collected from bare bones. The relative intensity of mineral from fractured bone was markedly decreased compared to the control. The fractured bones demonstrated lower mineral and carbonate level and higher collagen content in the callus at the early time point. Compared to week 2, collagen mineralization and mineral carbonation increased at 4 weeks post fracture. Similarly, the material properties of callus determined by reference point indentation also increased in the 4-week group, indicating improved callus quality with time. The results from Raman analysis are in agreement with radiographic and material testing, indicating the potential of this technique in assessing fracture healing in vivo.

  19. TGFβ-2 signaling is essential for osteoblast migration and differentiation during fracture healing in medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Inohaya, Keiji; Kudo, Akira

    2016-05-01

    TGFβ is known as a canonical coupling factor based on its effects on bone formation and bone resorption. There are 3 different isoforms of it related to bone metabolism in mammals. TGFβ function in vivo is complicated, and each isoform shows a different function. Since TGFβs are secreted during inflammation accompanied by the release of latent TGFβ from inside of the bones where they are stored in the extracellular matrix, TGFβ function is potentially related to fracture healing. Although a few reports examined the TGFβ expression during fracture healing, the function of TGFβ in this process is poorly understood. To investigate TGFβ function during fracture healing in vivo, we used the fracture healing model of the medaka fish, which enabled us to observe the behavior and function of living cells in response to a bone-specific injury. RNA in-situ hybridization analysis showed that only tgfβ-2 of the 4 TGFβ isoforms in medaka was expressed in the bone-forming region. To examine the TGFβ-2 function for bone formation by osteoblasts, we used a medaka transgenic line, Tg (type X collagen: GFP); and the results revealed that type X collagen-positive immature osteoblasts migrated to the fracture site and differentiated to osterix-positive osteoblasts. However, only a few type X collagen-positive osteoblasts exhibited BrdU incorporation after the fracture. Then we inhibited TGFβ signaling by using a chemical TGFβ receptor kinase inhibitor (SB431542), and demonstrated that inhibition of TGFβ strongly impaired osteoblast migration and differentiation. In addition, this TGFβ inhibitor reduced the RANKL expression and caused a delay of osteoclast differentiation. Our findings thus demonstrated that TGFβ-2 functioned specifically during fracture healing to stimulate the migration of osteoblasts as well as the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:26947892

  20. Assessment of bone healing on tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis associated or not with infrared laser light and biphasic ceramic bone graft (HATCP) and guided bone regeneration (GBR): Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu S.; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Nunes dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through Raman spectroscopy, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with wire osteosynthesis - WO, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ 780nm, 50mW, CW) associated or not to the use of HATCP and GBR. Surgical fractures were created under general anesthesia (Ketamine 0.4ml/Kg IP and Xilazine 0.2ml/Kg IP), on the tibia of 15 rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with WO. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite + GBR technique. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16J/cm2, 4 x 4J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death the specimens were kept in liquid nitrogen for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed significant differences between groups (p<0.001). It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite.

  1. Effect of GH/IGF-1 on Bone Metabolism and Osteoporsosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Locatelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 are fundamental in skeletal growth during puberty and bone health throughout life. GH increases tissue formation by acting directly and indirectly on target cells; IGF-1 is a critical mediator of bone growth. Clinical studies reporting the use of GH and IGF-1 in osteoporosis and fracture healing are outlined. Methods. A Pubmed search revealed 39 clinical studies reporting the effects of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone metabolism in osteopenic and osteoporotic human subjects and on bone healing in operated patients with normal GH secretion. Eighteen clinical studies considered the effect with GH treatment, fourteen studies reported the clinical effects with IGF-1 administration, and seven related to the GH/IGF-1 effect on bone healing. Results. Both GH and IGF-1 administration significantly increased bone resorption and bone formation in the most studies. GH/IGF-1 administration in patients with hip or tibial fractures resulted in increased bone healing, rapid clinical improvements. Some conflicting results were evidenced. Conclusions. GH and IGF-1 therapy has a significant anabolic effect. GH administration for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone fractures may greatly improve clinical outcome. GH interacts with sex steroids in the anabolic process. GH resistance process is considered.

  2. Usefulness of spatially adaptive noise reduction processing in computer-assisted diagnosis system for bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Pixon-processed images in comparison with raw images for computer-assisted interpretation of bone scintigraphy (BONENAVI). Whole-body scans of 57 patients with prostate cancer who had undergone bone scintigraphy for suspected bone metastases were obtained approximately 3 h after intravenous injection of 740 MBq 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. We obtained two image sets: raw images and images processed using the Pixon method. Artificial neural network (ANN) values, bone scan index (BSI), number of hotspots and regional ANN value of two images set were automatically calculated by the BONENAVI software. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated in patient-based and lesion-based analyses. In ten cases with bone metastases, ANN, BSI and number of hotspots for processed images were equivalent to those in the raw images. However, in 47 cases without bone metastases, ANN, BSI and number of hotspots for processed images showed significantly lower values than those for the raw images (p < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the raw images were 90.2, 44.7 and 65.9%, and those of the processed images were 90.2, 57.4 and 72.7%, respectively. The AUC for processed images was equivalent to that for raw images. Specificity and accuracy in the detection of bone metastases showed the Pixon-processed images to have high diagnostic performance. We conclude that the precision of computer-assisted interpretation of bone scintigraphy can be enhanced by using Pixon processing. (author)

  3. Effect of osteoporosis medications on fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, V; Jo, J E; Andreopoulou, P; Lane, J M

    2016-03-01

    Antiosteoporotic medications are often used to concurrently treat a patient's fragility fractures and underlying osteoporosis. This review evaluates the existing literature from animal and clinical models to determine these drugs' effects on fracture healing. The data suggest that these medications may enhance bone healing, yet more thorough prospective studies are warranted. Pharmacologic agents that influence bone remodeling are an essential component of osteoporosis management. Because many patients are first diagnosed with osteoporosis when presenting with a fragility fracture, it is critical to understand how osteoporotic medications influence fracture healing. Vitamin D and its analogs are essential for the mineralization of the callus and may also play a role in callus formation and remodeling that enhances biomechanical strength. In animal models, antiresorptive medications, including bisphosphonates, denosumab, calcitonin, estrogen, and raloxifene, do not impede endochondral fracture healing but may delay repair due to impaired remodeling. Although bisphosphonates and denosumab delay callus remodeling, they increase callus volume and result in unaltered biomechanical properties. Calcitonin increases cartilage formation and callus maturation, resulting in improved biomechanical properties. Parathyroid hormone, an anabolic agent, has demonstrated promise in animal models, resulting in accelerated healing with increased callus volume and density, more rapid remodeling to mature bone, and improved biomechanical properties. Clinical data with parathyroid hormone have demonstrated enhanced healing in distal radius and pelvic fractures as well as postoperatively following spine surgery. Strontium ranelate, which may have both antiresorptive and anabolic properties, affects fracture healing differently in normal and osteoporotic bone. While there is no effect in normal bone, in osteoporotic bone, strontium ranelate increases callus bone formation, maturity, and

  4. Absence of positive effect of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on fracture healing in osteopenic rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, Leila; Daub, Florian; Sehmisch, Stephan; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Tezval, Mohammed; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2010-12-01

    The healing of predominantly metaphyseal fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis is delayed and comparatively poor. Due to the potential side effects of HRT, natural alternatives are appealing. The aim of this study was to determine whether Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 improves metaphyseal fracture healing in severe osteopenic bone in rats. Thirty-three 12-week-old female rats developed severe osteopenia during 10 weeks after ovariectomy. After metaphyseal tibial-osteotomy and standardized T-plate-osteosynthesis, the healing periods in ovariectomized rats (C), 17-α-estradiol (E) and Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) supplemented diets were assessed for 35 days. Changes in callus morphology were evaluated qualitatively by biomechanical testing and quantitatively in microradiographies and fluorochrome-labeled histological sections. The CR-supplementation slightly improved callus quality and trabecular bone formation. It significantly enhanced the endosteal callus density compared to C group (Cl.Dn.e C: 59.08 ± 21.89, E: 45.95 ± 18.39, CR: 60.85 ± 18.66*), though most of the other morphological parameters examined showed no improvement. The time course of fracture healing did not change due to CR. Estrogen-supplementation enhanced the biomechanical properties of the fracture site. Trabecular bone was improved indicating the physiological endosteal healing process. The CR-supplementation did not exhibit positive effects in severe (senile) osteopenic fracture healing as seen in early (postmenopausal) osteoporosis in rats. Callus formation was slightly improved under CR. Estrogen improved fracture healing in severe osteopenic bone, while the extent of callus formation played a minor role. PMID:20564511

  5. Effects of Using Different Healing Agents on Healing Efficiency in Solid State Self-Healing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-healing polymers possess the ability to heal in response to damage using resources inherently available to the system. The solid-state self-healing system was obtained by blending thermoplastic polymers into epoxy resin matrix. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polymer healing efficiency by using different thermoplastic polymers as healing agents which were poly (bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin) (PDGEBA), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). The bonding formed in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Healing was achieved by heating the fractured specimen to a specific temperature, above their glass transition temperature (Tg) to mobilize the polymeric chains of the healing agent. The Tg for each specimen was obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). From the Izod impact test it was found that healable resin with PDGEBA has the highest healing efficiency followed by PP and PE, with 63 %, 31 % and 24 % of average percentage healing efficiencies, respectively. These results were due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. The morphological properties and the fracture-healing process of the resins were then observed using optical microscope. (author)

  6. Music Healing Rituals in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussakorn Binson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the music healing rituals from North, Northeast and Southern Thailand. In general, these healing rituals bring together supportive elements from the family, the community and spiritual entities with the shaman as a conductor. Shaman utilizes music in corporate the community as a whole including elicits the support from the spiritual entitles. Traditional music healing process played the role as enticement to recruit spirits, distract the patients from experiencing unpleasant in their body. Even in today’s modern society these healing rituals have persisted, as they are inseparable from these regions’ animistic beliefs system.

  7. Use of Spongious Bone Chips and Fascia Temporalis in Alveolar Bone Defects

    OpenAIRE

    TÜZ, Hakan H.; AKAL, Ümit K.; CAMBAZOĞLU, Mine; KİŞNİŞCİ, Reha Ş.

    2004-01-01

    Graft materials are used for inducement of regeneration in bone defects. Organic and synthetic bone graft materials facilitate remodelation or healing of the bone and induce new bone formation in the area of bone resorption caused by pathological, traumatic, and physiological reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of spongious allogenic bone graft and fascia temporalis membranous collagen tissue on the healing of bone defects clinically and radiologically. The study was c...

  8. Betulinic acid synergically enhances BMP2-induced bone formation via stimulating Smad 1/5/8 and p38 pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyuck; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kook, Min-Suk; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background Healing of bone defects is a dynamic and orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a key growth factor for bone healing, which stimulates mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. Betulinic acid (BetA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid from plants. This study aimed to examine combinatory effects of BetA and BMP2 on ectopic bone generation in mice. Results In MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture, ...

  9. The effect of the glycolipoprotein extract (G-90) from earthworm Eisenia foetida on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Golnaz; Qujeq, Durdi; Elmi, Maryam M; Feizi, Farideh; Fathai, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem. The number of patients is estimated to increase to over 439 million cases by 2030. One of the major health clinical problems in patients with diabetes patients is impaired wound healing. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus in 12 to 25% of patients, which increases the risk of damage in the limbs or amputation. The earthworm Eisenia foetida glycolipoprotein (as known G-90) is a blend of macromolecules with some biological properties including mitogenicity, anticoagulation, fibrinolysis, bacteriostatic and antioxidatiaon. Given the biological properties of G-90, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of extract obtained from the homogenate of Eisenia foetida (G-90) on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment by using G-90 can speed up the wound healing process, which is exactly similar to the effect of D-panthenol treatment in rats. These findings also demonstrated that G-90 treatment decreases the risk of infection in the wound site compared with D-panthenol treatment. In addition, histological analysis indicated that a better extracellular matrix formation with increased fibroblast proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis and early epithelial layer formation was observed in G-90 treated group. Therefore, the G-90 could be considered as a new wound healing agent introducing promising therapeutic approaches in both human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27112508

  10. BDNF and its TrkB receptor in human fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Olaf; Hartmann, Sonja; Dongowski, Nicole; Karnati, Srikanth; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas; Schnettler, Reinhard; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Fracture healing is a physiological process of repair which proceeds in stages, each characterized by a different predominant tissue in the fracture gap. Matrix reorganization is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. Neurotrophins and their receptors might be of importance to osteoblasts and endothelial cells during fracture healing. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) during human fracture healing. BDNF and TrkB were investigated in samples from human fracture gaps and cultured cells using RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Endothelial cells and osteoblastic cell lines demonstrated a cytoplasmic staining pattern of BDNF and TrkB in vitro. At the mRNA level, BDNF and TrkB were expressed in the initial and osteoid formation phase of human fracture healing. In the granulation tissue of fracture gap, both proteins--BDNF and TrkB--are concentrated in endothelial and osteoblastic cells at the margins of woven bone suggesting their involvement in the formation of new vessels. There was no evidence of BDNF or TrkB during fracture healing in chondrocytes of human enchondral tissue. Furthermore, BDNF is absent in mature bone. Taken together, BDNF and TrkB are involved in vessel formation and osteogenic processes during human fracture healing. The detection of BDNF and its TrkB receptor during various stages of the bone formation process in human fracture gap tissue were shown for the first time. The current study reveals that both proteins are up-regulated in human osteoblasts and endothelial cells in fracture healing. PMID:24984919

  11. Effect of process variables on the preparation of artificial bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas; Nele, M., E-mail: nele@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2013-10-15

    The present work concerns the preparation of bone cements based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), used mainly for prosthesis fixation and cavity filling for correction of human bone failures. A typical bone cement recipe contains methyl methacrylate, which polymerizes in situ during cement application. An inherent problem of this reaction is the large amount of heat released during the cement preparation, which may lead to irreparable damage of living tissues. Optimization of PMMA-based bone cement recipes is thus an important step towards safe and reliable clinical usage of these materials. Important process variables related to the reaction temperature profile and the mixing of the recipe constituents were studied in order to allow for the adequate production of bone cements. It is shown that the average molar mass and size of the PMMA particles used in the production of the bone cement, as well as incorporation of radiopaque contrast, co-monomers and fillers into the bone recipe play fundamental roles in the course of the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, the injection vessel geometry may interfere dramatically with the temperature profile and the time for its occurrence. Finally, it has been observed that the morphology of the PMMA particles strongly affects the mixing of the bone cement components. (author)

  12. Effect of process variables on the preparation of artificial bone cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work concerns the preparation of bone cements based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), used mainly for prosthesis fixation and cavity filling for correction of human bone failures. A typical bone cement recipe contains methyl methacrylate, which polymerizes in situ during cement application. An inherent problem of this reaction is the large amount of heat released during the cement preparation, which may lead to irreparable damage of living tissues. Optimization of PMMA-based bone cement recipes is thus an important step towards safe and reliable clinical usage of these materials. Important process variables related to the reaction temperature profile and the mixing of the recipe constituents were studied in order to allow for the adequate production of bone cements. It is shown that the average molar mass and size of the PMMA particles used in the production of the bone cement, as well as incorporation of radiopaque contrast, co-monomers and fillers into the bone recipe play fundamental roles in the course of the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, the injection vessel geometry may interfere dramatically with the temperature profile and the time for its occurrence. Finally, it has been observed that the morphology of the PMMA particles strongly affects the mixing of the bone cement components. (author)

  13. The Healing Power of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Anthos, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    This teacher believes that art has the power to heal, or at least aid in the healing process. After the terrorist attacks on 9/11, her students needed some way to express the injustice they felt. They discussed the attacks, and had some free drawing to release it from their system. They even did some patriotic-themed projects to boost their…

  14. Using Songwriting to Assist the Healing Process of Victims of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Rebecca Marie

    2012-01-01

    Utah State University’s Music Therapy Program has a close association with the Community Abuse Prevention Services Agency (CAPSA) located in Logan, UT. CAPSA provides a variety of services to victims of domestic violence and sexual assault including a fourteen-week women’s support group designed to help victims work through the therapeutic process of naming, accepting, and moving forward from the abuse. Fourteen modules have currently been written and compiled into a manual for these sessions...

  15. Enhancement of chest radiographs obtained in the intensive care unit through bone suppression and consistent processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Zhong, Sikai; Yao, Liping; Shang, Yanfeng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Portable chest radiographs (CXRs) are commonly used in the intensive care unit (ICU) to detect subtle pathological changes. However, exposure settings or patient and apparatus positioning deteriorate image quality in the ICU. Chest x-rays of patients in the ICU are often hazy and show low contrast and increased noise. To aid clinicians in detecting subtle pathological changes, we proposed a consistent processing and bone structure suppression method to decrease variations in image appearance and improve the diagnostic quality of images. We applied a region of interest-based look-up table to process original ICU CXRs such that they appeared consistent with each other and the standard CXRs. Then, an artificial neural network was trained by standard CXRs and the corresponding dual-energy bone images for the generation of a bone image. Once the neural network was trained, the real dual-energy image was no longer necessary, and the trained neural network was applied to the consistent processed ICU CXR to output the bone image. Finally, a gray level-based morphological method was applied to enhance the bone image by smoothing other structures on this image. This enhanced image was subtracted from the consistent, processed ICU CXR to produce a soft tissue image. This method was tested for 20 patients with a total of 87 CXRs. The findings indicated that our method suppressed bone structures on ICU CXRs and standard CXRs, simultaneously maintaining subtle pathological changes.

  16. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  17. Assessment of global morphological and topological changes in trabecular structure under the bone resorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Baum, Thomas; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmueller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent skeletal disease characterised both by loss of bone mineral mass and deterioration of cancellous bone micro-architecture. It can be caused by mechanical disuse, estrogen deficiency or natural age-related resorption process. Numerical analysis of high-resolution images of the trabecular network is recognised as a powerful tool for assessment of structural characteristics. Using μCT images of 73 thoracic and 78 lumbar human vertebral specimens in vitro with isotropic resolution of 26μm we simulate bone atrophy as random resorption of bone surface voxels. Global morphological and topological characteristics provided by four Minkowski Functionals (MF) are calculated for two numerical resorption models with and without conservation of global topological connectivity of the trabecular network, which simulates different types of bone loss in osteoporosis, as it has been described in males and females. Diagnostic performance of morphological and topological characteristics as a function of relative bone loss is evaluated by a correlation analysis with respect to experimentally measured Maximum Compressive Strength (MCS). In both resorption models the second MF, which coincides with bone surface fraction BS/TV, demonstrates almost constant value of Pearson's correlation coefficient with respect to the relative bone loss ▵BV/TV. This morphological characteristic does not vary considerably under age-related random resorption and can be used for predicting bone strength in the elderly. The third and fourth MF demonstrate an increasing correlation coefficients with MCS after applying random bone surface thinning without preserving topological connectivity, what can be used for improvement of evaluation of the current state of the structure.

  18. Self-healing of Micro-cracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC to self-heal micro-cracks under a controlled laboratory environment is presented. Ten dog-bone shaped samples were prepared; five of them were preloaded to known strains and then left to heal in water in a temperature-controlled laboratory. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV measurements were undertaken to monitor the crack-healing process. It was found that all samples exhibited recoveries in UPV and were able to recover to between 96.6% and 98% of their pre-test UPV values over a period of four weeks. An accelerated rate of healing was observed in the initial two-day period immediately following the preloading test.

  19. Bone marrow segmentation based on a combined consideration of transverse relaxation processes and Dixon oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Mukund; Jarrett, Delma Y; Mulkern, Robert V

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that gradient-echo sampling of single spin echoes can be used to isolate the signal from trabecular bone marrow, with high-quality segmentation and surface reconstructions resulting from the application of simple post-processing strategies. Theoretical expressions of the time-domain single-spin-echo signal were used to simulate signals from bone marrow, non-bone fatty deposits and muscle. These simulations were compared with and used to interpret signals obtained by the application of the gradient-echo sampling of a spin-echo sequence to image the knee and surrounding tissues at 1.5 T. Trabecular bone marrow has a much higher reversible transverse relaxation rate than surrounding non-bone fatty deposits and other musculoskeletal tissues. This observation, combined with a choice of gradient-echo spacing that accentuates Dixon-type oscillations from chemical-shift interference effects, enabled the isolation of bone marrow signal from surrounding tissues through the use of simple image subtraction and thresholding. Three-dimensional renderings of the marrow surface were then readily generated with this approach - renderings that may prove useful for bone morphology assessment, e.g. for the measurement of femoral anteversion. In conclusion, understanding the behavior of signals from bone marrow and surrounding tissue as a function of time through a spin echo facilitates the segmentation and reconstruction of bone marrow surfaces using straightforward post-processing strategies that are typically available on modern radiology workstations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26866627

  20. Enhanced healing of rat calvarial defects with sulfated chitosan-coated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/bone morphogenetic protein 2 scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Shen, Gang; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiuli; Ye, Dongxia; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Xinquan

    2012-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), which are widely used in bone regeneration, possess good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity and have been demonstrated to be candidate carriers for bone growth factors. However, limited release of growth factors from CPCs and slow degradation of the materials are not desirable for certain clinical applications. Previous studies have shown that calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) from CPCs presents more rapid degradation rate than CPCs. In this study, a hybrid growth factor delivery system was prepared by using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) loaded CDHA porous scaffold with sulfated chitosan (SCS) coating for improved release profile. We tested the BMP-2 release characteristic of CDHA/BMP-2/SCS composite in vitro and its ability to repair rat calvarial bone defects. A higher percentage of BMP-2 was released when sulfated chitosan coating was present compared with CDHA/BMP-2 group. Eight weeks postoperation, the repaired crania were evaluated by microcomputed tomography, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis, and immunohistochemistry. CDHA/BMP-2/SCS group promoted the most extensive new bone formation than CDHA/BMP-2 and CDHA groups. Our observations suggest that sulfated chitosan coating could enhance the release profile of CDHA/BMP-2 composite in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The hybrid CDHA/BMP-2/SCS system is a promising growth factor delivery strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:21830854

  1. Effects of 660 nm low-level laser therapy on muscle healing process after cryolesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Rodrigues, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 660 nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT on muscle regeneration after cryolesion in rat tibialis anterior muscle. Sixty-three Wistar rats were divided into a control group, 10 J/cm2 laser-treated group, and 50 J/cm2 laser-treated group. Each group formed three subgroups (n = 7 per group, and the animals were sacrificed 7, 14, or 21 d after lesion. Histopathological findings revealed a lower inflammatory process in the laser-treated groups after 7 d. After 14 d, irradiated animals at both fluences showed higher granulation tissue, new muscle fibers, and organized muscle structure. After 21 d, full tissue repair was observed in all groups. Moreover, irradiated animals at both fluences showed smaller necrosis area in the first experimental period evaluated. MyoD immunoexpression was observed in both treated groups 7 d postinjury. Myogenin immunoexpression was detected after 7 and 14 d. The higher fluence increased the number of blood vessels after 14 and 21 d. These results suggest that LLLT, at both fluences, positively affects injured skeletal muscle in rats, accelerating the muscle-regeneration proce

  2. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (Irel). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  3. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Caroline M., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB), Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/LIN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de, E-mail: sferraz@ensp.fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca

    2013-07-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I{sub rel}). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  4. Effects of microstructure and water on the electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Matsukawa, M., E-mail: mmatsuka@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Wave Electronics Research Center, Laboratory of Ultrasonic Electronics, Doshisha University, 1-3, Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Mizuno, K. [Underwater Technology Collaborative Research Center, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yanagitani, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-16

    The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced electrical potentials in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced electrical potentials changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The potentials of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.

  5. Role of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in monitoring fracture healing in a rat femoral fracture model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHAO Guang-feng; XU Shao-wen; WANG Jian-wei; ZHOU Yi-fei; LIU Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To dynamically monitor the bone mineral density (BMD) and the histomorphological changes during fracture healing in a rat femoral fracture model and to explore the role of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in evaluating bone fracture healing. Methods: Sixty three-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were used to establish right femoral fracture models. The BMD of the callus of the fractured right femur were scanned by DEXA at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after operation, respectively. A light microscope was used to evaluate the callus of each rat at the same time. The corresponding segment of the left femur was taken as a control.Results: The BMD at the fractured site increased significantly during the process of facture healing, which shows an obvious healing trend. The callus BMDs were 29.5%, 48.3%, 85.3%, and 105.2% of the BMD of the control limb at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after fracture, respectively. There was a significantly difference between the groups. A compatibility on time was found between the BMD and the histomorphological characteristics at the fractured site during the process of fracture healing. The fracture healing was almost completed at 8 weeks after fracture as assessed by its histomorphological characteristics when the callus BMD reached to 105.2% of the BMD of the control limb. The BMD of the distal metaphysis decreased until 12 weeks after fracture. Conclusions: DEXA can evaluate the mineralization of the callus during the facture healing process accurately and quantitatively and is more sensitive than plain radiography in detecting impaired bone unions, which indicates that it may play an important role in monitoring fracture healing.

  6. Impaired Angiogenesis during Fracture Healing in GPCR Kinase 2 Interacting Protein-1 (GIT1) Knock Out Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Guoyong Yin; Tzong-Jen Sheu; Prashanthi Menon; Jinjiang Pang; Hsin-Chiu Ho; Shanshan Shi; Chao Xie; Elaine Smolock; Chen Yan; Zuscik, Michael J.; Berk, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) interacting protein-1 (GIT1), is a scaffold protein that plays an important role in angiogenesis and osteoclast activity. We have previously demonstrated that GIT1 knockout (GIT1 KO) mice have impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated osteoclast podosome formation leading to a reduction in the bone resorbing ability of these cells. Since both angiogenesis and osteoclast-mediated bone remodeling are involved in the fracture healing process, we hypothesiz...

  7. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of the effect of lactoferrin combined with anorganic bovine bone on healing of experimentally induced bony defects on rabbit calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on results of this study, the combination of lactoferrin and ABB did not show any significant improvement in bone regeneration compared with ABB alone in surgically induced bony defects in rabbit calvaria.

  8. Different healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects by endoscopic mucosal dissection between with and without steroid injection in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Ban, Shinichi; Aikawa, Masayasu; Akimoto, Naoe; Koyama, Isamu; Kita, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Background Stricture formation is one of the major complications after endoscopic removal of large superficial squamous cell neoplasms of the esophagus, and local steroid injections have been adopted to prevent it. However, fundamental pathological alterations related to them have not been well analyzed so far. The aim of this study was to analyze the time course of the healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects resulting in stricture formation and its modification by local steroid i...

  9. Impacts of Bushen Qianggu Decoction on the Healing of Bone Fracture in Rabbits%补肾强骨汤对家兔骨折愈合的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛; 童药安; 邹季; 康丽洁; 刘哲; 罗文君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impact of the experienced Chinese medicine, bushen qianggu decoction on the healing of bone fracture in rabbits. Methods 21 male rabbits, weighted 2. 0 to 2. 5 kg were selected and prepared into the models of the left radial fracture. They were randomized into 3 groups, named Chinese medicine experiment group,Chinese medicine control group and natural healing group,7 rabbits in each one. In Chinese medicine experimental group,bushen qianggu decoction was prescribed for oral administration. In Chinese medicine control group, sanqi tablets were prescribed for oral administration. In the natural healing group, no any treatment was administered. The main observation indexes: separately, in the 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks after modeling, the contents of serum alkaline phosphatase( AKP ), blood calcium and blood phosphorus were detected. The front - view X - ray film was done for the experiment rabbits in each group. The blind-film-reading method was adopted. The semiquantitation was performed with 5-score assessment to measure the external calluses and fracture lines. Afterward, the situations of the external calluses and fracture lines were assessed during the fracture healing. Results After modeling, in view of the blood biochemical test and X - ray examination, there were no statistically significant differences between Chinese medicine control group and the natural healing group( P >0. 05 ). The differences were significant statistically in the comparison of Chinese medicine experiment group with the other two groups( P < 0.05 ). The differences were significant statistically between Chinese medicine experiment group and the natural healing group ( P < 0. 01 ). The differences were significant statistically between Chinese medicine experiment group and Chinese medicine control group( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Bushen qianggu decoction promotes the fracture healing.%目的 探讨中药验方"补肾强骨汤"对家兔骨折愈合的影响.方法 将21

  10. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  11. The effect of cell-based bone tissue engineering in a goat transverse process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Moyo C.; Wilson, Clayton E.; Bruijn, de Joost D.; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Oner, Cumhur F.; Verbout, Abraham J.; Dhert, Wouter J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A disadvantage of traditional posterolateral spinal fusion models is that they are highly inefficient for screening multiple conditions. We developed a multiple-condition model that concentrates on the initial process of bone formation from the transverse process and not on a functional fusion. The

  12. Alveolar process fractures in the permanent dentition. Part 2. The risk of healing complications in teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk of pulp canal obliteration (PCO), pulp necrosis (PN), repair-related resorption (RRR), infection-related resorption (IRR), ankylosis-related resorption (ARR), marginal bone loss (MBL), and tooth loss (TL) for teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture and to identify...... possible risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 91 patients with 223 traumatized teeth. STATISTICS: The risks of PCO, PN, RRR, IRR, ARR, MBL, and TL were analyzed separately for teeth with immature and mature root development using Kaplan-Meier and Aalen-Johansen methods. Possible risk factors for...

  13. Synthetic Self-Healing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Given enough time, pressure, temperature fluctuation, and stress any material will fail. Currently, synthesized materials make up a large part of our everyday lives, and are used in a number of important applications such as; space travel, under water devices, precise instrumentation, transportation, and infrastructure. Structural failure of these material scan lead to expensive and dangerous consequences. In an attempt to prolong the life spans of specific materials and reduce efforts put into repairing them, biologically inspired, self-healing systems have been extensively investigated. The current review explores recent advances in three methods of synthesized self-healing: capsule based, vascular, and intrinsic. Ideally, self-healing materials require no human intervention to promote healing, are capable of surviving all the steps of polymer processing, and heal the same location repeatedly. Only the vascular method holds up to all of these idealities.

  14. Image acquisitions, processing and analysis in the process of obtaining characteristics of horse navicular bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowicz, M.; Włodarek, J.; Przybylak, A.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Czekała, W.; Ludwiczak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Przybył, J.; Skwarcz, J.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the possibility of using methods of computer image analysis for the assessment and classification of morphological variability and the state of health of horse navicular bone. Assumption was that the classification based on information contained in the graphical form two-dimensional digital images of navicular bone and information of horse health. The first step in the research was define the classes of analyzed bones, and then using methods of computer image analysis for obtaining characteristics from these images. This characteristics were correlated with data concerning the animal, such as: side of hooves, number of navicular syndrome (scale 0-3), type, sex, age, weight, information about lace, information about heel. This paper shows the introduction to the study of use the neural image analysis in the diagnosis of navicular bone syndrome. Prepared method can provide an introduction to the study of non-invasive way to assess the condition of the horse navicular bone.

  15. Healing agent for self-healing cementious material

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkers, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the production of a cementious material. The process comprises mixing cement starting materials and a particulate healing agent to provide the cementious material. The healing agent comprises coated particles, wherein the coated particles comprise bacterial material and additive. The bacterial material is selected from the group consisting of a bacterium, a lyophilized bacterium and a bacterial spore of a bacterium. The present invention solves these probl...

  16. 糖尿病对大鼠牙槽骨缺损修复中骨形态发生蛋白-2表达影响的研究%Effects of diabetes on expression of BMP-2 during bone healing of alveolar defect in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂莹; 张志宏; 袁晟; 鲍军燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of diabetes on the expression of bone morphogenetic protein - 2 (BMP-2) during the various bone healing periods of alveolar defect. Methods 48 male SD rats were randomly divided into diabetes group ( n = 24) and control group( n=24). Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) ,and alveolar defect was created through the diabetic duration time. 6 rats in each group were scarified respectively at the lth ,2th ,4th ,8th week ,then the alveolar bone were processed for histological examination. The expression of BMP-2 in different periods( 1,2,4,8 weeks)of alveolar defect healing of rats was investigated through immunohistochemistry method. The optical density (OD) of BMP-2 was analysed and compared between groups. Results Osteopenia in diabetes group were observed. The OD of BMP - 2 in the control group was statistically greater than that in the test group 1 and 2 weeks after alveolar defect. After 4 and 8 weeks, the expression of BMP-2 in the control group decreased,and no statistical difference was found in BMP -2 expression between these two groups. Conclusions Diabetes may affect the formation of BMP-2 ,leading to a reduction in bone healing. Diabetes is able to affect the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells,leading to less osseointegration. Therefore, primary stability was decreased.%目的 观察糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)对实验性大鼠牙槽骨缺损修复过程中不同时期骨形态发生蛋白-2(bone morphogenetic protein-2,BMP-2)表达的影响.方法 将48 只雄性SD大鼠随机分为DM组和对照组,每组24 只,DM组大鼠经腹腔注射链脲佐菌素造成DM大鼠模型,建模成功后行大鼠牙槽骨骨缺损制备,2 组均分别于骨缺损制备后1、2、4、8 周各取6 只大鼠处死,取术区组织.苏木精-伊红染色(hematoxylin-eosin staining,HE染色)镜下观察缺损区内新生骨样组织形成情况;用免疫组化法检测术后1、2、4

  17. Critical-Size Calvarial Bone Defects Healing in a Mouse Model with Silk Scaffolds and SATB2- Modified iPSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jin-Hai; Xu, Yuan-Jin; Gao, Jun; Yan, Shi-Guo; Zhao, Jun; Tu, Qisheng; Zhang, Jin; Duan, Xue-Jing; Sommer, Cesar A.; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Kaplan, David; Wu, Yu-Nong; Zhang, Chen-Ping; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jake

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into mineralizing cells and thus have a great potential in application in engineered bone substitutes with bioactive scaffolds in regeneration medicine. In the current study we characterized and demonstrated the pluripotency and osteogenic differentiation of mouse iPSCs. To enhance the osteogenic differentiation of iPSCs, we then transduced the iPSCs with the potent transcription factor, nuclear matrix protein SATB2. We observed that in SATB2-overexpressing iPSCs there were increased mineral nodule formation and elevated mRNA levels of key osteogenic genes, osterix (OSX), Runx2, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Moreover, the mRNA levels of HoxA2 was reduced after SATB2 overexpression in iPSCs. The SATB2-overexpressing iPSCs were then combined with silk scaffolds and transplanted into critical-size calvarial bone defects created in nude mice. Five weeks post-surgery, radiological and micro-CT analysis revealed enhanced new bone formation in calvarial defects in SATB2 group. Histological analysis also showed increased new bone formation and mineralization in the SATB2 group. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that SATB2 facilitates the differentiation of iPSCs towards osteoblast-lineage cells by repressing HoxA2 and augmenting the functions of the osteoblast determinants Runx2, BSP and OCN. PMID:21492931

  18. Mucopolysaccharide in healing process of gastric ulcer with special reference to 35SO4 autoradiographic findings and amount of hexosamine within mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents protective mechanism of the mucous membrane with our main emphasis on mucopolysaccharides within the mucous membrane at varying stages of gastric ulcer. If we look at the findings based on 35SO4 autoradiography, an increase in uptake of 35SO4 by the epithelial cells of the active stage (A2) and a peak is exhibited during the initial half of the healing stage (H1). If the amount of hexosamine within the mucous membrane is determined, a movement similar to the 35SO4 autoradiographic findings is exhibited with a peak occurring from the A2 to the H1 stage. In summary, it is conceivable that based on the mucopolysaccharide metabolism during the varying stages of gastric ulcer, formation of a mucous barrier is quite rapidly initiated after ulceration and the importance of a protective factor in healing process of gastric ulcer is suggested. (author)

  19. Avaliação do efeito da glicosamina e condroitina na consolidação de fratura: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluating the effects of glucosamine and chondroitin in bone healing: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guarniero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da administração da condroitina e da glicosamina na consolidação de fratura em modelo animal. MÉTODOS: Este estudo experimental envolveu a utilização de 40 ratos machos adultos da raça Lewis. Os animais foram randomicamente divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, assim constituídos: grupo I, com administração de glicosamina; grupo II, com administração de condroitina; grupo III, administração da associação de glicosamina e condroitina; grupo IV, administração de água destilada (grupo controle. Realizou-se uma fratura fechada médio-diafisária da tíbia e fíbula direitas em cada animal, seguida da administração diária das drogas de acordo com o grupo, durante 30 dias. Após esse período, os animais foram sacrificados para estudo dos calos ósseos formados. Os critérios de avaliação foram a avaliação clínica da consolidação óssea, mensuração da densidade mineral do calo ósseo utilizando-se a densitometria óssea e cálculo da área do calo formado por meio de planigrafia. Os dados coletados foram avaliados com a técnica da análise de variância (ANOVA para verificar diferenças entre as médias nos quatro grupos estudados e com o teste de Tukey para comparação das médias duas a duas. Adotou-se nível de significância de 5% (alfa = 0,05. RESULTADOS: A utilização da condroitina e da glicosamina, tanto de maneira isolada quanto associadas, não resultou em aumento da área do calo ósseo ou da sua densidade mineral óssea, e não havendo melhora clínica da consolidação óssea. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de condroitina e glicosamina, neste estudo, não influenciou - quer de maneira positiva ou negativa - a consolidação de fraturas experimentais em ratos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of administering chondroitin and glucosamine for bone healing in an animal model. METHODS: This experimental study involved the use of 50 male adult Lewis rats. The animals were

  20. A Feasibility study on Monitoring of Fracture Healing by Electric Stimulation-A study on 2 tibial fracture cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumaravel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sufferings associated with broken limbs have been on an exponential increase in India, mainly due to road accidents. Conventional healing and uniting methods takes any where between 1 ½ to 6 months depending on the nature of the fracture and the speed of reporting for medical care .In an effort to speed up the healing process low voltage electric stimulation has been tried and has been found to cut down the healing time by nearly 30% depending on the fracture-history. Also the course of fracture healing has been traced and definite trends during the process identified.Two case studies of fractures of the leg bone through electric stimulation indicate identical trends in the healingprocess.

  1. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, Pue. (Mexico); Universidad de la Sierra Sur, C. P. 70800, Miahuatlan, Oax. (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  2. A COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF UNCINATE PROCESS OF ETHMOID BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vinay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uncinate process is an important landmark in the anatomy of osteo-meatal complex of frontal recess which also plays a vital role in the ventilation of middle meatus and sinuses. Its superior attachment shows great anatomic variability. The aim of this study was to observe and classify superior attachment and presence of pneumatisation in uncinate process. Materials and methods: Computed tomographic images of paranasal region from 100 patients were studied retrospectively. In 100 patients, 54 belonged to male and 46 female and were in the age group of 11 to 75 years with an average of 32.7 years. The superior attachment of uncinate process was observed and tabulated according to Landsberg and Friedman classification and pneumatisation of uncinate process was also noted. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The superior attachment of uncinate process was observed in 200 sides out of 100 patients and its attachment to the agger nasi cells (type - 2 was found in 36% while its attachment to lamina papyracea (type – 1 and to middle turbinate (type – 6 were found in 19% and 20% respectively. Uncinate process ending at the junction of middle turbinate with cribriform plate (type – 4, at the ethmoid skull base (type – 5, bifurcating towards lamina papyracea and junction of middle turbinate with cribriform plate (type – 3 were seen in 2%, 8% and 5% respectively. In 11%, the superior end showed no attachment to surrounding structures. The uncinate process was pneumatised in 34 of 200 sides (17%, among which 45.5% was unilateral and 54.5% bilateral. Conclusion: Preoperatively evaluating variations of uncinate process and its pneumatisation helps to avoid intraoperative damage to surrounding structures. The detailed knowledge of extent of uncinate process may also help to deduce the reason for refractory chronic sinusitis.

  3. Effect of He-Ne Laser and CO2 Laser on Bone Fracture Healing%He-Ne激光与扩束CO2激光照射对骨折愈合的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建胜; 章萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较相同剂量的He-Ne激光与CO激光照射对骨折的疗效.方法 36只健康雄性兔制成骨折模型,随机分为三组,每组12只.He-Ne激光组:He-Ne激光扩束照射骨折区;CO激光组:CO激光扩束照射骨折组;对照组:常规治疗.通过X片,观察骨折愈合情况,测定骨痂中钙和胶原含量及生物力学抗扭性能,比较三组的疗效.结果 (1)骨折愈合效果:两激光组均优于对照组(P激光组优于He-Ne激光组(P激光组好于He-Ne激光组(P)和瞬间扭矩(T)均高于对照组(P激光组T高于He-Ne激光组.结论 He-Ne激光与CO激光照射对骨折愈合均有促进作用,且CO激光更好于He-Ne激光.%Objective To obsere and compare the discrepancy of curative effect of He-Ne laser and CO2 laser irradiation under the same dosage.Methods The bone fracture pattern was made to 36 healthy male rabbits, who were randomly divided into 3 groups ( each 12) : He-Ne laser group: expanding a bunch of the He-Ne laser project light upon the bone fracture zone, CO2 laser group: expanding a bunch of the CO2 laser irradiation, and matched control group:the routine cures.The different therapy impact was observed on the bone fracture healing.Observed X-ray, detected the contents of collagen and calcium in the callus, and measured the biomechanics anti-torsion strength to evaluate curative effect.Results ( 1 ) Fracture healing effect: the two laser groups were better than the control group (P <0.05 or <0.01 ), and 25 days after treatment, CO2 laser group was better than He-Ne laser group ( P < 0.04 ).(2) Collagen and calcium content: two laser groups were higher than control group (P < 0.05), and CO2 laser group was better than He-Ne laser group ( P < 0.05 ).(3) Biomechanics anti-torsion strength: the minimum torque ( T8°) and instantaneous torque (Tmax) of both laser groups were higher than that of control group (P <0.01 ), and the Tmax of CO2 laser group was higher than that of He-Ne laser group

  4. Avaliação do efeito do ibandronato na consolidação de fratura: estudo experimental em coelhos Evaluation of ibandronate effects in bone healing: experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guarniero

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a presença de efeito favorável do ibandronato de sódio na consolidação óssea, contribuindo assim para estudos futuros visando sua utilização terapêutica no tratamento de fraturas e pseudartroses. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Albino foram submetidos à osteotomia transversa mediodiafisária da fíbula direita e divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos com 10 animais cada. Os animais do grupo I receberam 2ml de solução contendo ibandronato de sódio e água destilada; os animais do grupo II receberam somente água destilada (grupo controle. Os coelhos foram sacrificados após 30 dias. Os calos ósseos formados no local das osteotomias foram avaliados por densitometria e histomorfometria. Utilizou-se na avaliação estatística dos resultados o teste t para a inferência sobre a diferença das médias de amostras paramétricas e a prova de Mann-Whitney para as amostras não paramétricas. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que a quantidade relativa de osso foi maior e a quantidade relativa de fibrose foi menor nos calos ósseos formados no grupo medicado com ibandronato do que no grupo controle. Não houve diferença na quantidade relativa de cartilagem e na densidade mineral dos calos ósseos comparando-se os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Neste experimento a administração do ibandronato de sódio favoreceu a consolidação de osteotomias da fíbula em coelhos, aumentando a quantidade relativa de osso nos calos ósseos formados e diminuindo a quantidade de fibrose.OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of a favorable sodium ibandronate effect in bone healing, thus contributing for future studies of its clinical use in the treatment of fractures and pseudoarthroses. METHODS: 20 New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to transverse mid-diaphysis osteotomy of the right fibula and divided at random into two groups of 10 animals each. Animals in group I were given 2 ml of a

  5. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

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    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  6. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on the healing of intrabony defects treated with an anorganic bovine bone mineral and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dori, F.; Huszar, T.; Nikolidakis, D.; Arweiler, N.B.; Gera, I.; Sculean, A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regenerative periodontal therapy with a combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) + an anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to result in significantly higher probing depth reductions and clinical attachment level gains compared to treatme

  7. Mimicking the Nanostructure of Bone: Comparison of Polymeric Process-Directing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie B. Gower

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanostructure of bone has been replicated using a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP mineralization process. This polymer-mediated crystallization process yields intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen with uniaxially-oriented hydroxyapatite crystals. The process-directing agent, an anionic polymer which we propose mimics the acidic non-collagenous proteins associated with bone formation, sequesters calcium and phosphate ions to form amorphous precursor droplets that can infiltrate the interstices of collagen fibrils. In search of a polymeric agent that produces the highest mineral content in the shortest time, we have studied the influence of various acidic polymers on the in vitro mineralization of collagen scaffolds via the PILP process. Among the polymers investigated were poly-L-aspartic acid (PASP, poly-L-glutamic acid (PGLU, polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA, and polyacrylic acid (PAA. Our data indicate that PASP and the combination of PGLU/PASP formed stable mineralization solutions, and yielded nano-structured composites with the highest mineral content. Such studies contribute to our goal of preparing biomimetic bone graft substitutes with composition and structure that mimic bone.

  8. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  9. Preparation and characterisation of Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract loaded chitosan-collagen-starch membrane: role in wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, B; Veena, B; Jayachandran, V P; Shilpa, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Engineered scaffolds made from natural biomaterials are crucial elements in tissue engineering strategies. In this study, biological scaffold like chitosan-collagen-starch membrane (CCSM) loaded with the antibacterial agent, Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract was explored for enhanced regeneration of epithelial tissue during wound healing. Collagen was extracted from Rachycentron canadum fish skin. Membranous scaffold was prepared by mixing collagen, starch and chitosan in a fixed proportion, loaded with aqueous extract of P. granatum and its anti-pseudomonal activity was studied. Morphological characterization by SEM and mechanical property like tensile strength of the membrane were studied. Excision wound of 2 cm(2) size was induced in Guinea pig and the effect of P. granatum extract loaded CCSM in wound healing was studied. The SEM image showed deep pores in the membrane and also possessed good tensile strength. Wound surface area was reduced prominently in the experimental group with P. granatum extract loaded CCSM when compared to the group with unloaded membrane and the one with no membrane. Punica granatum extract loaded CCSM has antipseudomonal property and supported enhanced epithelial cell proliferation without leaving a scar after wound healing. This has significant therapeutic application in membranous scaffold mediated skin repair and regeneration. PMID:25893391

  10. Development of meat-bone separator for small scale fish processing

    OpenAIRE

    Bibwe, Bhushan R.; Hiregoudar, Sharanakumar; Nidoni, Udaykumar R.; Anantachar, M.; Shrestha, Bijay

    2011-01-01

    The belt and drum type meat-bone separator was developed for small-scale fish processing and evaluated using Tilapia fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) in terms of capacity, yield, percentage yield, bone content, colour and power consumption. It consists of a perforated drum (3 mm), single phase electric motor, speed reduction gear box and drive system. The machine was evaluated using two food grade belt viz., natural rubber (Belt A-35 shore) and canvas belt (Belt B-65 shore) for three drum speed...

  11. 兔股骨节段缺损模型研究磷酸钙骨水泥骨愈合性能%Bone Healing Capacity of Calcium Phosphate Cement Cylinder in a Rabbit Femur Segmental Defect Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大伟; 潘朝晖; 赵玉祥; 栾兆新

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the bone healing capacity of calcium phosphate cement ( CPC) cylinder in a rabbit femur seg-mental defect model by comparing the influence of muscle or periosteum as wrapping material.Methods: Pre-hardened CPC cylinder was prepared.Three specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize its microstructure and chemical composition.Sixty adult rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups,then received a defect size of 15 mm osteotomy within the femurs.The 8-hole plate was fixed with three screws in the proximal and distal part of the defect, respectively.In group A, the fem-oral defects were left alone;in group B, the defects with retained periosteum; in group C, the defects were grafted with CPC cylinder wrapped by muscle;and in group D, the defects were grafted with CPC cylinder wrapped by periosteum.Five rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively.The samples were evaluated with radiological, biomechanical and histological meth-ods.Results:Irregular particles were seen on the surface of specimens, the pore size was approximately 10 μm.The peak locations for the hydroxyapatite were seen in the X-ray diffraction patterns of the specimens.Group A showed a few radiographic evidence of new bone formation within the boundary of the defect at 4 weeks.Three bone defects bridged at 8 weeks and 4 bone defects bridged at 12 weeks. Group B showed radiographic evidence of new bone formation at 4 weeks.Four bone defects bridged at 8 weeks and 5 bone defects bridged at 12 weeks.Group C showed discernable interface between the CPC cylinder and both femoral cut ends at 4 weeks, which became invisi-ble at 8 weeks.Defects bridged by continuous callus beside the CPC cylinder in 4 rabbits and completely surrounded in 1 rabbit at 12 weeks.Group D showed better quality of new bone formation, the CPC cylinders were surrounded by new bone at 12 weeks.However, all CPCs retained their

  12. Progress in corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-11-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  13. Bone healing response to a synthetic calcium sulfate/β-tricalcium phosphate graft material in a sheep vertebral body defect model

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, H. L.; Zhu, X S; Chen, L.; Chen, C. M.; Mangham, D C; Coulton, L A; Aiken, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of a material able to promote osteogenesis and remodelling activity in a clinically relevant time frame in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures may have patient benefit. We report the in-vivo performance of a biphasic synthetic bone graft material (Genex Paste, Biocomposites, UK) [test material], composed of calcium sulfate and β-tricalcium phosphate, implanted into a sheep vertebral defect model. Cavities drilled into 4 adjacent vertebrae (L2 to L5) of 24 skele...

  14. Radiographic features of teriparatide-induced healing of femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngwoo Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide is a drug that is used to increase bone remodeling, formation, and density for the treatment of osteoporosis. We present three cases of patients with a femoral insufficiency fracture. The patients were administered teripatatide in an attempt to treat severe osteoporosis and to enhance fracture healing. We found several radiographic features around the femoral fractures during the healing period. 1 Callus formation was found at a very early stage in the treatment. Teriparatide substantially increased the unusually abundant callus formation around the fracture site at 2 weeks. Moreover, this callus formation continued for 8 weeks and led to healing of the fracture. 2 Abundant callus formation was found circumferentially around the cortex with a ‘cloud-like’ appearance. 3 Remodeling of the teriparatide-induced callus formation was found to be part of the normal fracture healing process. After 1 year, normal remodeling was observed on plain radiographs. These findings indicate that teriparatide can be used as an adjuvant therapy in the management of femoral insufficiency fractures.

  15. A specific groove design for individualized healing in a canine partial sternal defect model by a polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffold coated with bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yiwen; Tang, Hua; Wu, Bin; Ding, Xinyu; Lu, Zhongyuan; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhifei

    2014-10-01

    The reconstruction of sternal defects remains clinically challenging for thoracic surgeons. Here we aimed to explore the individualized reconstruction of partial sternal defects with new biodegradable material in a large animal model. We used the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique to manufacture polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) tissue scaffolds with individualized grooves to repair the sternal defect. The defects were surgically created in a sternocostal joint of eighteen Beagle dogs. The animals were separated into three groups (n = 6): Blank group, PCL/HA group, and PCL/HA/BMSCs group. Radiographic examination, histological, and histomorphometric analyses were performed to evaluate the result. In the blank group, the defect site couldn't maintain its original integrity due to no bone union. In the PCL/HA group and PCL/HA/BMSCs group, it was observed that the scaffolds retained their shapes without significant degradation at 12 weeks. Both groups could observe new bone-union by radiographic and histological examination. And PCL/HA/BMSCs would be more mineralized tissue area at implant sites (p PCL/HA scaffolds with specific grooves could repair the sternal defect satisfactorily. Furthermore the scaffolds with BMSCs-seeded could enhance the amount of bone ingrowth and seemed to be more promising. PMID:24142768

  16. [Reconstructive surgery in war injuries of the bones and joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzinek, K

    1992-01-01

    The basic problems of bone-and-joint surgery with special emphasis on war injuries and the role of reconstructive surgery in relieving the gravest consequences of war injuries are discussed. Since bone and joint injuries rank high among the war injuries with a share of over 70% including more than 30% of fractures, they pose not only a serious medical and surgical but also a major public health problem. The economic and social consequences of these injuries are further aggravated by the necessity for prolonged treatment and multiple surgical interventions. The basic preconditions which must be fulfilled for bone healing to take place are discussed in the light of the ultimate goal of all therapeutic efforts. i.e. restoration of full functional ability of the injured extremity. The importance of bone fragment immobilization for the process of bone healing is emphasized. Impaired bone healing, resulting from insufficient immobilization or inadequate reposition of bone fragments, is a common problem with war fractures, mainly because of the great forces involved and extensive destruction of bone and all other surrounding tissues. One of the main features of war fractures is delayed bone healing caused by massive circulatory defects in the injured bone. Some special problems attending war injuries, such as pseudarthroses and associated defects, soft tissue infections and defects, may only be effectively solved by cooperation with a plastic-vascular- or neurosurgeon. In one and joint surgery profound understanding of the physiology, pathophysiology and biomechanics of bone healing, knowledge of modern methods of osteosynthesis, skill in the management of bone and other infections as well as knowledge of the latest developments in postoperative care are essential for achieving satisfactory therapeutic results. Availability of various implants and a wide range of surgical instruments is a precondition which needs no further discussion. It is only in this way that the most

  17. Self-Healing Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured, reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  18. Experimental study of bone defect repair process with different sizes of β-TCP granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, bone defects were repaired by filling different sizes of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, and observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), light microscope (LM), and micro-CT. We extracted bilateral mandibular molars of 8 crabeating monkeys, and used β-TCP granules in two granular sizes, large (type L) and small (type S). Three months after extraction, bone defects had formed in the sites of the extracted molars, and type L or type S granules were then filled into those sites. The animals were euthanized at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. Bone specimens and histological slides of 4 monkeys were prepared, which were observed by SEM and LM, respectively. Those of the remaining 4 monkeys were fixed with 10% formalin for micro-CT examinations with three-dimensional image processing software. Based on the results of image analysis, the volume ratio of opaque images was obtained. SEM, LM and micro-CT findings revealed that the bone defects were filled with trabecular bone from 4 to 8 weeks after operation in the type L group. Granules were seen in some superficial areas at those time points, however, none were observed at 12 weeks. In the type S group, the repair process was not as extensive at 4 weeks and the presence of granules was confirmed. However, after 8 weeks, the findings in the type S group were the same as those in the type L group. The opaque images in micro-CT contained trabecular bone and β-TCP granules. Image analysis results showed that the volume ratio of the opaque images reached the maximum at 4 weeks and then declined from 8 to 12 weeks in the type L group, while in the type S group, the ratio gradually declined from 2 to 12 weeks. In conclusion, bone repair progressed at a faster rate in the type L group than in the type S group at 4 weeks. However, both experimental groups had nearly the same level of osteogenesis after 12 weeks. Further, granule size did not influence the bone defect repair. In addition, it was

  19. Histological evaluation of the effects of LLLT on the epithelial, connective and osseous tissue healing: experimental study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Enio Marcos da SILVA; Shaiene Patrícia GOMES; Lucienne Miranda ULBRICH; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Wound healing is a physiological process of live tissues. Researcheshave been made in order to improve this process and establish a fastpatient rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate thehistological effects of LLLT AsGaAl (λ λ λ λ λ = 660nm, 780nm; W = 10mW;= 7,5; 15J/cm2; t = 5 min) on the epithelial, connective and bone tissue healing, on an alveolar model. Rats were submitted to thesurgical creation of an alveolus between the lower incisor and the first mandibular molar,...

  20. Living donor bone banking: processing and discarding--from procurement to therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanyecz, Paula; Lorenti, Alicia; Lucero, José Manuel Juan; Gorla, Adrián; Castiglioni, Alejandro Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle and osteoarticular tissue banks are responsible to procure, process, store and distribute tissues, from living and cadaveric donors. The procedures involve the application of protocols covering all aspects of the banking, ensuring the best tissue quality and maximum safety for the recipient. An analysis on the causes of bone tissue discarded by Biotar Tissue Bank between January 2005 and December 2012 was carried. Bone tissue was obtained from both hip and knee replacement (femoral heads and tibial plateau respectively) in living donors treated at different medical-surgical institutions in Argentina. These tissues were processed at the Bank to produce both frozen and lyophilized cancellous bone. Out of 3413 donated bones received by the Bank, 77.55 % resulted in final product, while the remaining 22.44 % was discarded in compliance with the quality standards of both the Bank and the regulatory authority. Comparing the last and the first year of the studied period, the number of discarded tissue increased 3.6 times, while the number of collected bones was approximately 10 times higher. Related to total disposed tissue, reactive serology was the most frequent cause (62.14 %), followed by inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample (30.81 %). A progressive reduction in the percentages of total discard was observed, and this was proportional to inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample. No significant differences were found in the discard rates due to positive serology throughout all the years studied. The success of a tissue bank requires full commitment of all the personnel especially the team members responsible for donor selection and the processing of allografts. It is important to critically screen donors in the early stages of donor recruitment. All of the procedures carried out by the tissue bank are parts of the quality control system which must be strictly carried out. Biotar Tissue Bank is continuously committed to ensure

  1. Observation of 99mTc-MDP-bone scan findings in traumatic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan using 99mTc-MDP is the most accurate and reliable method for the early detection of fracture, and give the most accurate information about the healing process of fractured bone. Recent days, the medicolegal problem about the injured time is frequently provoked in vertebral fracture patient by trauma. The authors analyzed the bone scan of vertebral fracture patients from March to December, 1983. The Authors obtained results as follows: 1. The minimum time for a fracture to return to normal on a bone scan was 4 month in cervical spine. 2. It was 12 month in thoracic spine. 3. It was 6 month in lumbar spine. 4. Surrounding soft tissue injury was healed within 10 days after trauma in our cases. 5. Focal hot uptake is persisted in case of callus deposition on plain film, although very small in amount. 6. Healing time is delayed in case of severely compressed vertebral body, belowed the half than normal height. 7. With bone scan, it is possible to differentiate the fresh fracture from old healed fracture, impossible by plain film. 8. Healing time is delayed in old age

  2. Inhibition of β-Catenin Signaling in Chondrocytes Induces Delayed Fracture Healing in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoling; Du, Kewei; Yang, Fei; Shi, Yu; Huang, Jingang; TANG, TINGTING; Chen, Di; DAI, KERONG

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate and controlled chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification play fundamental roles in the fracture healing cascade, a regenerative process involved in highly coordinated biological events, including the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. To examine the role and importance of this pathway in chondrocytes, we studied bone repair of closed tibias fractures in Col2a1-ICAT transgenic mice, in which the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is specially inhibited in chondrocytes. Radiological, ...

  3. Comparison of removal torques of SLActive® implant and blasted, laser-treated titanium implant in rabbit tibia bone healed with concentrated growth factor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hun; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the removal torques of a chemically modified SLActive implant and a blasted, laser-treated (BLT) implant, which were soaked in saline for 2 weeks after their surface modifications. The removal torques of the two implants were measured 4 weeks after their implantation into the bone defect area in rabbit tibias with concentrated growth factor (CGF) application. MATERIALS AND METHODS To make artificial bone defects in the cortical layers of both tibias, an 8-mm diameter trephine bur was used. Then, prepared CGF was applied to the bony defect of the left tibia, and the bony defect of the right tibia was left unfilled. Four weeks later, the surgical sites of 16 rabbits were re-exposed. For 8 rabbits, the SLActive implants (Straumann, Switzerland) were inserted in the left tibia, and the BLT implants (CSM implant, Daegu, Korea) were inserted in the right tibia. For other rabbits, the BLT implants were inserted in the left tibia, and the SLActive implants were inserted in the right. Four weeks afger the insertion, torque removal was measured from 4 rabbits exterminated via CO2 inhalation. RESULTS No significant difference was observed between removal torques of the BLT implant and the SLActive implant (P>.05). CONCLUSION It was found that BLT surface modification exhibited excellent osseointegration. In addition, CGF application did not affect the insertion and removal torque of the implants. PMID:27141254

  4. Evaluation of the Larval Therapy in the Healing Process of Infected Wounds with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. During the last two decadesthe larval therapy has reemerged as a safe andreliable alternative for the healing of cutaneousulcers that do not respond to the conventionaltreatments.Objective. To evaluate the use of the larvaeof Lucilia sericata as a treatment for infectedwounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ananimal model.Materials and methods. Twelve rabbits wererandomly distributed in 3 groups: the firstgroup was treated with larval therapy; the secondwas treated with antibiotics therapy and to thethird no treatment was applied, therefore wasestablished as a control group. To each animala wound was artificially induced, and then asuspension of P. aeruginosa was inoculated intothe lesion. Finally, every rabbit was evaluateduntil the infection development was recognizedand treatment was set up for the first twogroups according with the protocols mentionedabove. Macroscopic evaluation of the woundswas based on the presence of edema, exudates,bad odor, inflammation around the wound andthe presence of granulation tissue. The healingprocess was evaluated by monitoring histologicalchanges in the dermal tissue.Results. Differences in the time requiredfor wound healing were observed between thefirst group treated with larval therapy (10 daysand the second group treated with conventionalantibiotics therapy (20 days.Conclusion. The L. sericata larva is and efficienttool as a therapy for infected wounds withP. aeruginosa.

  5. IL-1 & IL-6 in Bone: Local Translators in Cell-to-Cell Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Angky Soekanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6 which are produced in bone marrow cells and bone cells play an important roles as local mediators between cells in the bone microenvironment. These interleukin of osteotropic cytokines have important regulatory roles in many organ processes, such as embryogenesis, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, wound healing, and immune responses. The major targets of these cytokines in the bone is progenitor cells, and in particular, hematopoietic precursors of osteoclasts, are strongly influenced by these cytokines. Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts are modulated by IL-1 and IL-6 through autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms. IL-1 and IL-6 both have the action on bone formation and resorption in normal and pathologic bone turnover. However, it seems almost impossible to clearly elucidate their roles. Further investigation are needed to give more information on the role of osteotropic cytokines in bone cell function that will advance bone research.

  6. Studies of the processes of incorporation of calcium, strontium, barium and radium into bone tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline earth elements incorporation into bone tissue are investigated. The study is aimed at collecting the data on improvement of metabolism model of these elements. The study includes kinetics of calcium, strontium, barium and radium - carried out on 120 rats of Wistar strain: incorporation processes of light and heavy alkaline earth elements (strontium and barium) as a function of age of the organism - carried out on 30 rabbits of Chinchilla strain in different age groups, as well as the rate of incorporation of calcium and barium into different bone tissue areas - carried out on 68 rabbits of the same strain in one age group. The main investigative techniques are: radiochemical methods, whole-body counting technique, quantitative autoradiography and microradiography, ''tetracycline test'', computer calculation methods. The following conclusions are reached: incorporation of alkaline earth elements into bone tissue is differentiated and depends on whether or not it is a light element (Ca, Sr) or heavy one (Ba, Ra), it depends also on the area of bone tissue in which the incorporation occurs

  7. 非甾体类抗炎药物对骨折愈合影响的研究进展%The Effect of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Bone Fracture Healing Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 李义凯; 张佩

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs)are widely used in clinical,especial y selective cyclo-oxygenase-2(COX-2) inhibitors,having less gastrointestinal adverse effects.However,recently some studies showing the drugs may delay the bone frature healing progress have raised concerns.Use of NSAIDs in the treatment of pain, heterotopic ossification,ankylosing spondylitis should be cautious,keeping in mind its benefits and adverse.The purpose of the present review article is thorough review and analysis the animal studies and clinical trials.%非甾体类抗炎药物在临床上广泛应用,特别是对胃肠道副作用小的环氧化酶-2(COX-2)抑制剂,但近年一些研究显示,其可能会延缓骨折的愈合过程,引起了临床医生的注意,镇痛、异位骨化、强直性脊柱炎的治疗策略可能会发生改变。本文通过文献回顾,就目前可获得动物或者临床观察数据结果作一综述。

  8. Amorphous polyphosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate implant material with enhanced bone healing efficacy in a critical-size defect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Ackermann, Maximilian; Wang, Shunfeng; Tolba, Emad; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) microparticles and amorphous calcium polyphosphate (polyP) microparticles (termed aCa-polyP-MP) on bone mineral forming cells/tissue was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The ACC particles (termed ACC-P10-MP) were prepared in the presence of Na-polyP. Only the combinations of polyP and ACC microparticles enhanced the proliferation rate of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Gene expression studies revealed that ACC causes an upregulation of the expression of the cell membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX; formation of ACC), while the transcript level of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP; liberation of orthophosphate from polyP) changes only relatively little. In contrast, aCa-polyP-MP primarily induces ALP expression. If both components are applied together a strong stimulation of expression of both marker genes is observed. In order to investigate whether ACC also enhances bone regeneration induced by polyP in vivo, the particles were encapsulated into PLGA (poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)) microspheres (diameter ~800 μm) and implanted into rat critical-size calvarial defects. The studies revealed that animals that received aCa-polyP-MP microspheres showed an increased rate of regeneration compared to β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) controls. This effect is even accelerated if microspheres with both aCa-polyP-MP and ACC-P10-MP (1 : 1 weight ratio) are applied, resulting in an almost complete restoration of the defect area after 12 weeks. qRT-PCR analyses of tissue sections through the regeneration zone with microspheres containing both aCa-polyP-MP and ACC-P10-MP revealed a significantly higher upregulation of expression of the marker genes compared to each of the components alone. The Young's moduli for microspheres containing aCa-polyP-MP (1.74 MPa) and aCa-polyP-MP/ACC-P10-MP (2.38 MPa) were markedly higher compared to β-TCP-controls (0.63 mPa). Our results show that the combined

  9. Continuous Digital Light Processing (cDLP): Highly Accurate Additive Manufacturing of Tissue Engineered Bone Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, David; Wallace, Jonathan; Siblani, Ali; Wang, Martha O.; Kim, Kyobum; Mikos, Antonios G.; Fisher, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly accurate rendering of the external and internal geometry of bone tissue engineering scaffolds effects fit at the defect site, loading of internal pore spaces with cells, bioreactor-delivered nutrient and growth factor circulation, and scaffold resorption. It may be necessary to render resorbable polymer scaffolds with 50 μm or less accuracy to achieve these goals. This level of accuracy is available using Continuous Digital Light processing (cDLP) which utilizes a DLP® (Texas Instrumen...

  10. Desenvolvimento e desempenho de um fixador flexível na consolidação de fraturas diafisárias transversais provocadas iatrogênicamente na tíbia de carneiros Development and performance of a flexible fixator on bone healing of transverse diaphyseal fracture caused iatrogenically in the sheep tibiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Barbieri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo experimental sobre o desenvolvimento e desempenho de um fixador externo flexível no processo de consolidação de tíbias de carneiros submetidas à osteotomia transversa mediodiafisária. Foram empregados no estudo 20 carneiros da raça Santa Inês, com massa corporal média de 37kg, divididos em diferentes grupos conforme o período de observação pós-operatória, de 30, 45, 60 e 90 dias. Ao final, os animais sofreram a eutanásia e as tíbias foram removidas para estudo de volumetria transversal do calo ósseo por tomografia computadorizada e ensaio mecânico destrutivo. Os resultados mostraram que ocorreu a formação de calo ósseo volumoso, caracterizando assim a ocorrência de deslocamento de carga axial para o foco da osteotomia, promovida pelo fixador externo utilizado. No ensaio mecânico, observou-se que as comparações entre os grupos respectivos intactos e operados foram significantemente diferentes (PAn experimental study was carried out to verify the development and performance of a flexible external fixator on the bone healing process of the tibia of sheep submitted to a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. It was used twenty Santa Inês sheep with average weigh of 37kg divided in groups, according to the period of postoperative observation of 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. At the end, the animals were sacrificed and the tibiae were removed for study of transverse callus volumetric by computed tomography and destructive mechanical testing. The results had shown that the formation of voluminous callus occurred, thus characterizing the occurrence of displacement of axial load to the focus of the osteotomy, promoted by the used external fixator used. The mechanical testing showed that the comparisons between the respective intact and operated groups were significantly different (P<0.05 except for the group with 90 days, which demonstrated equivalent stiffness when compared to normal bone. In none of the animals

  11. Wound healing and infection in surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2012-01-01

    : The aim was to clarify how smoking and nicotine affects wound healing processes and to establish if smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy reverse the mechanisms involved.......: The aim was to clarify how smoking and nicotine affects wound healing processes and to establish if smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy reverse the mechanisms involved....

  12. "Healing is a Done Deal": Temporality and Metabolic Healing Among Evangelical Christians in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in independent Samoa, in this article, I analyze the temporal dimensions of evangelical Christian healing of metabolic disorders. I explore how those suffering with metabolic disorders draw from multiple time-based notions of healing, drawing attention to the limits of biomedicine in contrast with the effectiveness of Divine healing. By simultaneously engaging evangelical and biomedical temporalities, I argue that evangelical Christians create wellness despite sickness and, in turn, re-signify chronic suffering as a long-term process of Christian healing. Positioning biomedical temporality and evangelical temporality as parallel yet distinctive ways of practicing healing, therefore, influences health care choices. PMID:26436693

  13. Intermittent negative pressure affects tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction%间歇性负压干预前交叉韧带重建后的腱-骨愈合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙正明; 凌鸣; 冯伟楼; 董向辉; 刘时璋; 易智

    2013-01-01

    背景:间歇性负压被证实可以促进软组织修复及骨愈合,但其对交叉韧带重建后腱-骨愈合的影响尚未见报道。  目的:观察间歇性负压对兔前交叉韧带重建后腱-骨愈合及肌腱移植物生物力学的影响。  方法:取24只新西兰大白兔制备自体半腱肌前交叉韧带重建模型,随机取一侧后腿作为负压侧,负压侧关节通过引流管接微型负压吸引器,并维持低强度、间歇性负压;对侧后腿作为对照,接普通引流管。5d后两侧同时拔除吸引管。造模后6周,取关节液检测白细胞介素1β的表达水平;取股骨-韧带-胫骨复合体行肌腱移植物拉力测定和腱-骨界面组织学观察。  结果与结论:1只兔关节感染,最终23只兔进入结果分析。拉力测定结果显示,负压组完全断裂所需拉力显著大于对照组(P OBJECTIVE:To research the effect of intermittent negative pressure on tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and on the biomechanics of tendon grafts. METHODS:A total of 24 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly selected to establish the models of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of autogenous semitendinosus. The hind leg of one side was selected randomly as the negative pressure group, and the joint of the negative pressure side was connected with the micro-negative pressure aspirator through drainage tube and maintained a low-intensity and intermittent negative pressure;the contralateral hind leg was as the control and connected with ordinary drainage tube. Drainage tubes of both sides were removed at the same time after 5 days. At 6 weeks after modeling, the joint fluid was drawn to detect the expression levels of interleukin-1β;femur-ligament-tibia complex was used for tension measurement of tendon graft, and histological observation of tendon-bone interface. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:One rabbit had joint infection, and final y 23

  14. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and tendon healing: animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Renouf, Julien; Pascon, Frédéric; Libertiaux, Vincent; Colige, Alain; Le Goff, Caroline; Lambert, Charles; Nusgens, Betty; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The tendon is a tissue which does not heal easily. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of platelets on the healing process of tendons. A local injection of platelet–rich plasma (PRP), which releases in situ many growth factors, has the potentiality to enhance the tendon healing process. The aim of our experiment was to ascertain by an original mechanical measure whether the use of PRP was of interest for accelerating the healing process of rats’ Achi...

  15. Vasculogenic Cytokines in Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds represent a growing healthcare burden that particularly afflicts aged, diabetic, vasculopathic, and obese patients. Studies have shown that nonhealing wounds are characterized by dysregulated cytokine networks that impair blood vessel formation. Two distinct forms of neovascularization have been described: vasculogenesis (driven by bone-marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenesis (local endothelial cell sprouting from existing vasculature. Researchers have traditionally focused on angiogenesis but defects in vasculogenesis are increasingly recognized to impact diseases including wound healing. A more comprehensive understanding of vasculogenic cytokine networks may facilitate the development of novel strategies to treat recalcitrant wounds. Further, the clinical success of endothelial progenitor cell-based therapies will depend not only on the delivery of the cells themselves but also on the appropriate cytokine milieu to promote tissue regeneration. This paper will highlight major cytokines involved in vasculogenesis within the context of cutaneous wound healing.

  16. Non-invasive real-time monitoring by alamarBlue® during in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered bone constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaohua; Holsbeeks, Inge; Impens, Saartje; Sonnaert, Maarten; Bloemen, Veerle; Luyten, Frank Prosper; Schrooten, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Bone Tissue Engineering (TE) aims to develop reproducible and predictive three-dimensional (3D) TE constructs, defined as cell-seeded scaffolds produced by a controlled in vitro process, to heal or replace damaged and non-functional bone. To control and assure the quality of the bone TE constructs, a prerequisite for regulatory authorization, there is a need to develop non-invasive analysis techniques to evaluate TE constructs and to monitor their behavior in real time during in vitro culturi...

  17. Noninvasive Real-Time Monitoring by AlamarBlue® During In Vitro Culture of Three-Dimensional Tissue-Engineered Bone Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaohua; Holsbeeks, Inge; Impens, Saartje; Sonnaert, Maarten; Bloemen, Veerle; Luyten, Frank; Schrooten, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering (TE) aims to develop reproducible and predictive three-dimensional (3D) TE constructs, defined as cell-seeded scaffolds produced by a controlled in vitro process, to heal or replace damaged and nonfunctional bone. To control and assure the quality of the bone TE constructs, a prerequisite for regulatory authorization, there is a need to develop noninvasive analysis techniques to evaluate TE constructs and to monitor their behavior in real time during in vitro culturing...

  18. Effect of the sterilization process on physical and mechanical properties of the bonacryl bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of bone cements of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fix artificial prosthesis to the human body is a habitual method in orthopedic surgery. The hip and the knee joints have a very complex biomechanics and support high loads, for these reasons, acrylic bone cements have to comply with international standards in order to secure the biofuncionality and durability of the implant. In this work we report the effect of sterilization by ethylene oxide or gamma radiation on the BONACRYL Cuban cement. We determined how sterilization methods affect the molecular weight of the polymer as well as its quasi-static mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the gamma radiation modifies the molecular weight of the PMMA although the compression and bending strength were not affected by the sterilization process applied. (authors)

  19. Bone graft substitutes and bone morphogenetic proteins for osteoporotic fractures: What is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); V. Alt (Volker)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite improvements in implants and surgical techniques, osteoporotic fractures remain challenging to treat. Among other major risk factors, decreased expression of morphogenetic proteins has been identified for impaired fracture healing in osteoporosis. Bone grafts or bone graft substi

  20. Biophysical stimulation of bone fracture repair, regeneration and remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao E. Y.S.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical stimulation to enhance bone fracture repair and bone regenerate maturation to restore its structural strength must rely on both the biological and biomechanical principle according to the local tissue environment and the type of mechanical stress to be born by the skeletal joint system. This paper reviews the possible interactions between biophysical stimuli and cellular responses in healing bone fractures and proceeds to speculate the prospects and limitations of different experimental models in evaluating and optimising such non-invasive interventions. It is important to realize that bone fracture repair has several pathways with various combinations of bone formation mechanisms, but there may only be one bone remodeling principle regulated by the hypothesis proposed by Wolff. There are different mechanical and biophysical stimuli that could provide effective augmentation of fracture healing and bone regenerate maturation. The key requirements of establishing these positive interactions are to define the precise cellular response to the stimulation signal in an in vitro environment and to use well-established animal models to quantify and optimise the therapeutic regimen in a time-dependent manner. This can only be achieved through research collaboration among different disciplines using scientific methodologies. In addition, the specific forms of biophysical stimulation and its dose effect and application timing must be carefully determined and validated. Technological advances in achieving focalized stimulus delivery with adjustable signal type and intensity, in the ability to monitor healing callus mechanical property non-invasively, and in the establishment of a robust knowledgebase to develop effective and reliable treatment protocols are the essential pre-requisites to make biophysical stimulation acceptable in the main arena of health care. Finally, it is important to bear in mind that successful fracture repair or bone

  1. [Healing "booster" dressings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Téot, Luc; Meaume, Sylvie

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between the dressing and the wound is vital to clinical effectiveness. The more-or-less standard wound-surface coverings have been replaced with initial dressings, referred to as modern dressings, which contain an oily and sticky compound. They provide a moist medium by applying the basic mechanistic principles (liquid absorption and release). Other types of products and techniques modify the behaviour of wound cells by acting directly through irritation, biochemical stimulation or genetic modification of the cells, which accelerates the healing process. PMID:22003786

  2. Hyperbaric Hyperoxia Accelerates Fracture Healing in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Shigeo; Wada, Eiji; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxygen tension influences bone metabolism. This study comprised two main experiments: one aimed to determine the bone mineral apposition and bone formation rates in vivo under hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO), and the other aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to HBO on fracture healing. In experiment 1, male mice were exposed to HBO [90 min/day at 90% O2 at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 5 days]. In experiment 2, an open femur fracture model was created in mice, followed by exposu...

  3. Hyperbaric hyperoxia accelerates fracture healing in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Kawada

    Full Text Available Increased oxygen tension influences bone metabolism. This study comprised two main experiments: one aimed to determine the bone mineral apposition and bone formation rates in vivo under hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO, and the other aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to HBO on fracture healing. In experiment 1, male mice were exposed to HBO [90 min/day at 90% O₂ at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA for 5 days]. In experiment 2, an open femur fracture model was created in mice, followed by exposure to HBO 5 times/week (90 min/day at 90% O₂ at 2 ATA for 6 weeks after surgery. In experiment 1, HBO treatment significantly increased the mineral apposition and bone formation rates in the lumbar vertebra and femur and type 1 collagen alpha 1 and alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression in the lumbar vertebra. In experiment 2, at 2 weeks after fracture, the fracture callus was significantly larger in the HBO group than in the non-HBO group. Furthermore, at 4 and 6 weeks after fracture, radiographic findings showed accelerated fracture healing in the HBO group. At 6 weeks after fracture, femur stiffness and maximum load were significantly higher in the HBO group than in the non-HBO group. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and plasma calcium concentrations were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that exposure to HBO enhances bone anabolism and accelerates fracture healing without causing oxidative DNA damage or disruption of plasma calcium homeostasis.

  4. Effect of tripeptide-copper complexes on the process of skin wound healing and on cultured fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoni, F; Pino, R; Dal Pozzo, A

    1995-01-01

    The effects of Gly-His-Lys-Cu and of three synthetic analogues (I, II and III) on wound healing of the guinea-pig dorsal skin, as well as on cultured fibroblasts, were examined. Gly-His-Lys-Cu and peptide I-Cu were tested in vivo. Hydroxyproline, proteins, DNA and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, with a high affinity for benzylamine, were measured, and the histology of the wounds was observed after staining with hematoxylin/eosin. Another set of wounds was treated in parallel with equivalent amounts of copper acetate. Gly-His-Lys-Cu and the analogues caused a decrease of the activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, with a high affinity for benzylamine, 4-8 days after surgery, followed by an increase on day 11 that was higher than in the control group. No significant difference was found between the two peptides. A slower reorganization of the skin and a delayed activation of fibroblasts are the main effects observed with these peptides-Cu complexes. Preliminary studies on cultured fibroblasts were monitored to see whether these peptides had a direct effect on fibroblasts. The products studied at a concentration of 10(-7) M, decreased cell reproduction and increased collagen expression. PMID:8836453

  5. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide 6 Enhances the Healing Process and Improves the Esthetic Outcome of the Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yssel Mendoza Marí

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its cytoprotective effects, growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6 proved to reduce liver fibrotic induration. CD36 as one of the GHRP-6 receptors appears abundantly represented in cutaneous wounds granulation tissue. The healing response in a scenario of CD36 agonistic stimulation had not been previously investigated. Excisional full-thickness wounds (6 mmØ were created in the dorsum of Wistar rats and topically treated twice a day for 5 days. The universal model of rabbit’s ears hypertrophic scars was implemented and the animals were treated daily for 30 days. Treatments for both species were based on a CMC jelly composition containing GHRP-6 400 μg/mL. Wounds response characterization included closure dynamic, RT-PCR transcriptional profile, histology, and histomorphometric procedures. The rats experiment indicated that GHRP-6 pharmacodynamics involves attenuation of immunoinflammatory mediators, their effector cells, and the reduction of the expression of fibrotic cytokines. Importantly, in the hypertrophic scars rabbit’s model, GHRP-6 intervention dramatically reduced the onset of exuberant scars by activating PPARγ and reducing the expression of fibrogenic cytokines. GHRP-6 showed no effect on the reversion of consolidated lesions. This evidence supports the notion that CD36 is an active and pharmacologically approachable receptor to attenuate wound inflammation and accelerate its closure so as to improve wound esthetic.

  6. Posterolateral spinal fusion in a rabbit model using a collagen–mineral composite bone graft substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, William Robert; Vizesi, F.; Cornwall, G. B.; Bell, D; Oliver, R.; Yu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Choosing the appropriate graft material to participate in the healing process in posterolateral spinal fusion continues to be a challenge. Combining synthetic graft materials with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and autograft is a reasonable treatment option for surgeons to potentially reduce or replace the need for autograft. FormaGraft, a bone graft material comprising 12% bovine-derived collagen and 88% ceramic in the form of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was evalua...

  7. Automated method for measuring alveolar bone resorption by three-dimensional image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a method for estimating regions of alveolar bone resorption and automatically measuring resorption depth using dental 3-D CT images by applying 3-D image processing techniques. The depth of alveolar bone resorption is an important index of the severity of periodontitis. Conventional methods for evaluating alveolar bone resorption have suffered from the limitations of not permitting inspection on the interproximal sides and not providing a 3-D description of resorption. In our proposed method, dental 3-D X-ray CT images are used to estimate the region of resorption and to automatically measure the resorption depth around the tooth of interest. Detailed information concerning the distribution of resorption can be obtained using this method. Regions of resorption are estimated using morphological operations and labeling. Limits are established by fitting convex hulls to the region of the target tooth before searching for the lowest points of resorption. The resorption depth is calculated as the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the lowest point of resorption. The experimental results and comparison of these results against measurements obtained by experts using cross-sectional CT images and the findings of clinical examination showed that the proposed method can be used to measure the resorption depth around the entire tooth automatically. (author)

  8. Biofilm formation on titanium alloy and anatase-Bactercline® coated titanium healing screws: an in vivo human study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scarano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Bacterial adherence to implants is considered to be an important event in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In fact, this infection process is a first stage of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, and a positive correlation has been found between oral hygiene and marginal bone loss around implants in the edentulous mandible. Surface properties of transgingival implant components are important determinants in bacterial adhesion. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biofilm formation, in vivo, on healing screws made of titanium alloy or coated with a combination of anatase and Bactercline® product. Materials and methods Twenty-five patients, between 21- 37 years, in excellent systemic health, participated in this study. In each of the 25 participants, one anatase-Bactercline® coated healing screw (Test and one titanium alloy (TI6Al4V healing screw (Control were adapted to two different implants. Quantitative and qualitative biofilm formation on healing abutments was analyzed by culture method.Results Bacterial adherence to the two different healing screws used in this study were compared. Statistically significant differences were found between the Control and the Test group for both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts (p<0,05. The microflora consisted both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and displayed a high variability. The anaerobic S. intermedius, potentially “pathogenic”, was isolated only from the Control group. Both healing screws harbored primarily Gram-positive rods as Actinomyces spp, A. naeslundii, A. viscosus and the Gram-negative rods (Fusobacterium spp, Prevotella spp, Capnocythophaga spp were mostly found on the Control healing screws.Conclusion Anatase-Bactercline® coated healing screws reduce the number of initially adhering bacteria, formed mainly of Gram-positive microorgnisms, while, on the contrary, the microflora covering the titanium alloy healing screws was, for the

  9. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Caiwen; Zhou Huifang; Fu Yao; Gu Ping; Fan Xianqun [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu Guangpeng [Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhang Peng [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science (China); Hou Hongliang; Tang Tingting, E-mail: drfanxianqun@126.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  10. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  11. Suplementação de vitamina C não acelera o processo de consolidação de fratura da tíbia em ratos Supplementary vitamin C does not accelerate bone healing in a rat tibia fracture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Giordano

    2012-01-01

    manually, they were not stabilized, and unprotected weight-bearing was allowed. At two, four, and six weeks post-fracture, the rats in both groups were anesthetized and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Callus tissue was dissected, prepared, and analyzed histologically. Histomorphological analysis was performed at six weeks post-fracture and the extent of fracture healing was determined using a five-point scale. RESULTS: There were no histological and histomorphological differences between drug-treated animals and the shamin the three different stages studied. By six weeks post-fracture, the five animals of each group had a complete bone union. CONCLUSION: Under the studied conditions, intraperitoneal Vitamin C supplementation does not accelerate the fracture healing process after experimental tibia fracture in rats. Level of evidence: Level 2, individual study with experimental design.

  12. Stress and Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Lisa M.; Graham, Jennifer E.; Padgett, David A.; Glaser, Ronald; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become clear that stress can significantly slow wound healing: stressors ranging in magnitude and duration impair healing in humans and animals. For example, in humans, the chronic stress of caregiving as well as the relatively brief stress of academic examinations impedes healing. Similarly, restraint stress slows healing in mice. The interactive effects of glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol and corticosterone) and proinflammatory cytokines [e.g. interleukin-1β (IL-1β...

  13. Platelet-rich plasma and skeletal muscle healing: a molecular analysis of the early phases of the regeneration process in an experimental animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimauro

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages of the muscle regeneration process. The right flexor sublimis muscle of anesthetized Wistar rats was mechanically injured and either treated with PRP or received no treatment. At day 2 and 5 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and the muscle samples evaluated at molecular levels. PRP treatment increased significantly the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and TGF-β1. This phenomenon induced an increased expression at mRNA and/or protein levels of several myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD1, Myf5 and Pax7, as well as the muscular isoform of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1Eb. No effect was detected with respect to VEGF-A expression. In addition, PRP application modulated the expression of miR-133a together with its known target serum response factor (SRF; increased the phosphorylation of αB-cristallin, with a significant improvement in several apoptotic parameters (NF-κB-p65 and caspase 3, indexes of augmented cell survival. The results of the present study indicates that the effect of PRP in skeletal muscle injury repair is due both to the modulation of the molecular mediators of the inflammatory and myogenic pathways, and to the control of secondary pathways such as those regulated by myomiRNAs and heat shock proteins, which contribute to proper and effective tissue regeneration.

  14. Histological evaluation of the effects of LLLT on the epithelial, connective and osseous tissue healing: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marcos da SILVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a physiological process of live tissues. Researcheshave been made in order to improve this process and establish a fastpatient rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate thehistological effects of LLLT AsGaAl (λ λ λ λ λ = 660nm, 780nm; W = 10mW;= 7,5; 15J/cm2; t = 5 min on the epithelial, connective and bone tissue healing, on an alveolar model. Rats were submitted to thesurgical creation of an alveolus between the lower incisor and the first mandibular molar, on both sides. After LLLT application, they were sacrificed on 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The results showed epithelial and connective tissues with accelerated growth during LLLTapplication; osseous tissue with accelerated neoformation, howeverfollowing normal patterns. Thus, epithelial and connective tissuesresponded to LLLT by means of steady cellular renewal; osseous tissueshowed accelerated healing, similar to the normal growth patterns.

  15. Coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis by a specific vessel subtype in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The mammalian skeletal system harbours a hierarchical system of mesenchymal stem cells, osteoprogenitors and osteoblasts sustaining lifelong bone formation. Osteogenesis is indispensable for the homeostatic renewal of bone as well as regenerative fracture healing, but these processes frequently decline in ageing organisms leading to loss of bone mass and increased fracture incidence. There is evidence indicating that the growth of blood vessels in bone and osteogenesis are coupled, but relatively little is known about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Here we identify a new capillary subtype in the murine skeletal system with distinct morphological, molecular and functional properties. These vessels are found in specific locations, mediate growth of the bone vasculature, generate distinct metabolic and molecular microenvironments, maintain perivascular osteoprogenitors, and couple angiogenesis to osteogenesis. The abundance of these vessels and associated osteoprogenitors was strongly reduced in bone from aged animals, which was pharmacologically reversible to restore bone mass. PMID:24646994

  16. In Vivo Gait Analysis During Bone Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Macías, J; Reina-Romo, E; Morgaz, J; Domínguez, J

    2015-09-01

    The load bearing characteristics of the intervened limb over time in vivo are important to know in distraction osteogenesis and bone healing for the characterization of the bone maturation process. Gait analyses were performed for a group of sheep in which bone transport was carried out. The ground reaction force was measured by means of a force platform, and the gait parameters (i.e., the peak, the mean vertical ground reaction force and the impulse) were calculated during the stance phase for each limb. The results showed that these gait parameters decreased in the intervened limb and interestingly increased in the other limbs due to the implantation of the fixator. Additionally, during the process, the gait parameters exponentially approached the values for healthy animals. Corresponding radiographies showed an increasing level of ossification in the callus. This study shows, as a preliminary approach to be confirmed with more experiments, that gait analysis could be used as an alternative method to control distraction osteogenesis or bone healing. For example, these analyses could determine the appropriate time to remove the fixator. Furthermore, gait analysis has advantages over other methods because it provides quantitative data and does not require instrumented fixators. PMID:25650097

  17. Self healing of defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For electronics applications, defects in graphene are usually undesirable because of their ability to scatter charge carriers, thereby reduce the carrier mobility. It would be extremely useful if the damage can be repaired. In this work, we employ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements to study defects in graphene introduced by argon plasma bombardment. We have found that majority of these defects can be cured by a simple thermal annealing process. The self-healing is attributed to recombination of mobile carbon adatoms with vacancies. With increasing level of plasma induced damage, the self-healing becomes less effective.

  18. Reverse micelle mediated synthesis, processing, mechanical and biological characterization of hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone graft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ashis

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used bioceramic material in bone graft applications because of its compositional similarity with natural bone. However, synthetic HA does not show similar mechanical and biological properties to the inorganic component of bone. Properties of ceramic material depend on starting materials, processing techniques, densification and microstructure of the final product. The objective of this research was to process HA whisker reinforced HA composite using HA nanopowders and whiskers. HA nanopowders with different length scale and morphology were synthesized by reverse micelle system using NP5 and NP12 as surfactants and cyclohexane as organic solvent. The lowest average aspect ratio was 1.357+/-0.39 with average particle size of 66 nm and the highest average aspect ratio was 7.277+/-3.227 with average length of 150 nm and width of 20 nm, were synthesized. Micron sized HA whiskers with aspect ratio between 20 and 50, average particle length of 15 mum and width of 400 nm was synthesized using urea as a precipitating agent. Desired microstructure was obtained after sintering with spherical HA nanopowder and whiskers along with dopants. Addition of whiskers decreased density of the sintered compacts. However, at 10 wt% whisker content sample showed microhardness and fracture toughness of 3.6 GPa and 1.5 MPa.m1/2, respectively, and a compressive strength of 80 MPa was obtained. Mineralization study in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed formation of apatite layer on the dense HA compacts indicating a good tendency of bond formation with natural bone. Cytotoxicity results showed excellent cell attachment on the HA surface. In the Appendices, 3 journal articles have been attached which describe synthesis, processing and characterization of undoped and doped PZT nanopowders. Free standing and agglomerated PZT nanopowders were synthesized by the sucrose templated method and the citrate nitrate autocombustion method. Particle size in the range

  19. Chemokines and diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Oscar; Torres, Francis M; Shireman, Paula K

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines are critical for white blood cell recruitment to injured tissues and play an important role in normal wound healing processes. In contrast, impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is accompanied by decreased early inflammatory cell infiltration but persistence of neutrophils and macrophages in the chronic, nonhealing wounds. These changes in inflammatory cell recruitment occur in conjunction with alterations in chemokine and growth factor expression. In addition to leukocyte trafficking, many different cell types, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes, produce and respond to chemokines, and these interactions are altered in diabetic wounds. Thus, the chemokine system may have both direct and inflammatory-mediated effects on many different aspects of diabetic wound healing. The potential roles of chemokines and inflammatory or immune cells in nonhealing diabetic wounds, including impairments in growth factor expression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix formation, and reepithelialization, are examined. PMID:18053419

  20. Characteristics of Bone Gelatin Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Processed by Using Hydrolysis With Phosphoric Acid and Papain Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Gugun Hidayat; Eko Nurcahya Dewi; Laras Rianingsih

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoric acid and papain enzyme able to hydrolyzing collagen from Tilapia into gelatin . The purpose of this research was to determine the best concentration of phosphoric acid and papain enzyme and to determine the physicochemical characteristic gelatin to from Tilapia fish bone which processed with phosphoric acid and papain enzyme. The first research phase was making bone gelatin tilapia using phosphoric acid at concentration of 4%, 5% and 6%, and the papain enzyme 0.5%, 1% a...

  1. Detection of diagenetic processes in bones: the case of Arkoudospilia cave, N. Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisi, Nikoleta; Dotsika, Elissavet; Tsoukala, Evangelia; Psomiadis, David

    2010-05-01

    Diagenesis of bone material over geological time is a highly complex phenomenon involving the physical, chemical, histological and mechanical alterations that occur at different time scales from the time of death to present and depend on the local geochemical conditions. The significance of diagenesis and the information that can provide its decoding, led to its study by a variety of physicochemical techniques. Despite serious research efforts, a detailed scenario of bone diagenesis remains elusive. The δ18O of the carbonate material of hydroxyapatite of the bones is though to be a good indicator of the δ18O of the local water precipitation and therefore can be used for palaeoclimatic reconstraction, while δ13C is used for definition of palaeodiet habits. The study of isotopic composition requires the detection of the diagenetic degree, because both δ18O and δ13C can be contaminated by these processes. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope values (δ13C, δ18O) were obtained for structural carbonate in the hydroxy-apatite of bear bones from Arkoudospilia Cave, Pella, N. Greece. The age range of the fossil layers is from 32ka BP to a maximum of 38ka BP (radiocarbon dating). The findings belong to Ursus ingressus, an extinct cave bear. The difficulty in studying an extinct species lies to the fact that it cannot be easily correlated with a present one, so it is impossible to determine the diagenesis by the analytical deviation. However, in order to include the environmental and climatic differences of the past and modern bear habitats, the isotopic composition of the water should be also included in the study. Cave bears are considered to be endemic in Europe. The shortage of data in literature concerning cave bears isotopic analyses in combination with the burden of the difficulties in spotting and sampling such rare materials makes difficult to compare the results of a study. The diet and the physiology of this species are not well known. However the morphology of

  2. Towards optimization of the silanization process of hydroxyapatite for its use in bone cement formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros-Pineda, Olga G.; Herrera Kao, Wilberth; Loría-Bastarrachea, María I. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Veranes-Pantoja, Yaymarilis [Centro de Biomateriales, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida Universidad, s/n, e/G y Ronda, C.P. 10600 C. de La Habana (Cuba); Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Cervantes-Uc, José M., E-mail: manceruc@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to provide some fundamental information for optimization of silanization of hydroxyapatite intended for bone cement formulations. The effect of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) concentration and solvent system (acetone/water or methanol/water mixtures) during HA silanization was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis. The effect of silanized HA on the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cements is also reported. It was found that the silanization process rendered hydroxyapatite with lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. Through EDX, it was observed that the silicon concentration in the HA particles was higher for acetone–water than that obtained for methanol–water system, although the mechanical performance of cements prepared with these particles exhibited the opposite behavior. Taking all these results together, it is concluded that methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results during silanization process of HA. - Highlights: • Effect of MPS concentration and solvents during HA silanization was studied. • Silanization rendered HA has lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. • Silicon concentration was higher for acetone than that obtained using methanol. • Methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results.

  3. Effects of extracorporeal shock waves on the healing of bone nonunion in animals%体外冲击波对动物骨不连愈合的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟俊; 李家元; 明江华; 彭昊; 刘世清; 王以强; 夏良波

    2006-01-01

    treatment. At 6 weeks after the treatment,nonunion in 6 rabbits of the treatment group (6/14) healed, and that in 12 animals (12/12) healed on the 12th week. However, only the nonunion in one rabbit (1/12) healed in the control group on the 12th week. Test of fourfold-table exact probability demonstrated that the healing status of nonunion in the treatment group was better than the control group, and the differences were remarkable (P<0.001).②Examination under light microscope: large quantity of osteoblasts and mesenchymal cells assembled and were active in proliferation on the 2nd week of treatment in the treatment group, and plentiful bone trabeculae formed on the 6th week, and the nonunion healed on the 12th week of treatment. However, there were chronic inflammation and few trabeculae in the control group. ③TEM examination: the osteoblasts in the treatment group proliferated on the 2nd week of treatment, and there were abundant chondrosomes in the intracytoplasm,which could secrete collagen fibers with periodical transverse lines. On the 6th week, large amount of bone lacunas formed. However, little visible cells could be seen in the control group, and osteoclasts were found in act.CONCLUSION: The effect of ESW on hypertrophic nonunion is satisfactory, which may become a reliable and non-invasive treatment of nonunion.%背景:骨不连的治疗一直是骨科一个较难解决的问题,部分骨不连经多次手术治疗仍不能愈合,非手术方法效果都不太理想.体外冲击波治疗骨不连是一种近年在国外兴起的骨不连非手术治疗方法.目的:应用体外冲击波治疗骨不连,了解其对骨不连愈合的影响,并对体外冲击波治疗骨不连的机制作初步探讨.设计:随机分组设计,动物实验.单位:武汉大学人民医院骨科.材料:实验于1997-09/1999-03在武汉大学医学部动物实验中心完成.选择健康雄性日本大耳白兔40只,制作骨不连模型,以肥大型骨

  4. Words that heal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  5. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Giles T. S. Kirby; Stuart J. Mills; Cowin, Allison J.; Smith, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase...

  6. Development of meat-bone separator for small scale fish processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibwe, Bhushan R; Hiregoudar, Sharanakumar; Nidoni, Udaykumar R; Anantachar, M; Shrestha, Bijay

    2013-08-01

    The belt and drum type meat-bone separator was developed for small-scale fish processing and evaluated using Tilapia fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) in terms of capacity, yield, percentage yield, bone content, colour and power consumption. It consists of a perforated drum (3 mm), single phase electric motor, speed reduction gear box and drive system. The machine was evaluated using two food grade belt viz., natural rubber (Belt A-35 shore) and canvas belt (Belt B-65 shore) for three drum speeds. The machine capacity was in the range of 45.59 to 68.54 kg h(-1) for belt A with a yield of 1.148, 1.069 and 1.066 kg, and 49.13 to 78.13 kg h(-1) for belt B with a yield of 1.253, 1.312 and 1.269 kg at drum speeds of 14, 20 and 24 rpm, respectively. For belt A, the highest yield (1.148 kg) was obtained at 14 rpm drum speed which was 63.78% on dressed weight basis and for belt B, the highest yield (1.312 kg) was obtained at 20 rpm drum speed which was 72.89% on dressed weight basis. The increased number of passes for meat recovery increased the chances of insertion of bone fragments into minced meat and decreased the colour values (L-a-b). The total energy consumption did not vary significantly. PMID:24425979

  7. Development of electrospun bone-mimetic matrices for bone regenerative applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Matthew Christopher

    Although bone has a dramatic capacity for regeneration, certain injuries and procedures present defects that are unable to heal properly, requiring surgical intervention to induce and support osteoregeneration. Our research group has hypothesized that the development of a biodegradable material that mimics the natural composition and architecture of bone extracellular matrix has the potential to provide therapeutic benefit to these patients. Utilizing a process known as electrospinning, our lab has developed a bone-mimetic matrix (BMM) consisting of composite nanofibers of the mechanically sta-ble polymer polycaprolactone (PCL), and the natural bone matrix molecules type-I colla-gen and hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA). We herein show that BMMs supported great-er adhesion, proliferation, and integrin activation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the multipotent bone-progenitor cells within bone marrow and the periosteum, in comparison to electrospun PCL alone. These cellular responses, which are essential early steps in the process of bone regeneration, highlight the benefits of presenting cells with natural bone molecules. Subsequently, evaluation of new bone formation in a rat cortical tibia defect showed that BMMs are highly osteoconductive. However, these studies also revealed the inability of endogenous cells to migrate within electrospun matrices due to the inherently small pore sizes. To address this limitation, which will negatively impact the rate of scaf-fold-to-bone turnover and inhibit vascularization, sacrificial fibers were added to the ma-trix. The removal of these fibers after fabrication resulted in BMMs with larger pores, leading to increased infiltration of MSCs and endogenous bone cells. Lastly, we evaluat-ed the potential of our matrices to stimulate the recruitment of MSCs, a vital step in bone healing, through the sustained delivery of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). BMMs were found to adsorb and subsequently release greater

  8. Bone Formation Process of β-TCP Ceramics with Tetracycline Tracing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hong-lian; LI Shi-pu; LU Xu-hui; WANG Xin-yu

    2004-01-01

    To study the new bone formation in the bone defect area after implantation, the tetracycline tracing method was used. The results show that new bone formed in 1 month, and the formation rate of new bone was very high (8.164μm/day),considerably faster than that of control groups (3.219μm/day).The new bone grew up quickly and βTCP particles were surrounded by double fluorescence bands which became more obvious. The new bone formation rate was maximal at 2 months, and then gradually reduced. The rate was steady at 4 months, and then reduced to resembling as the normal physiologic metabolism of bone, which indicated the implanted materials were completely replaced by bone. Calcium phosphatematerials had the ability of osteoconduction.

  9. Recent advances in bone regeneration using adult stemcells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadar Zigdon-Giladi; Utai Rudich; Gal Michaeli Geller; Ayelet Evron

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue reliant on theclose spatial and temporal association between bloodvessels and bone cells. Therefore, cells that participatein vasculogenesis and osteogenesis play a pivotalrole in bone formation during prenatal and postnatalperiods. Nevertheless, spontaneous healing of bonefracture is occasionally impaired due to insufficientblood and cellular supply to the site of injury. In thesecases, bone regeneration process is interrupted, whichmight result in delayed union or even nonunion ofthe fracture. Nonunion fracture is difficult to treatand have a high financial impact. In the last decade,numerous technological advancements in bone tissueengineering and cell-therapy opened new horizon inthe field of bone regeneration. This review starts withpresentation of the biological processes involved inbone development, bone remodeling, fracture healingprocess and the microenvironment at bone healingsites. Then, we discuss the rationale for using adultstem cells and listed the characteristics of the availablecells for bone regeneration. The mechanism of actionand epigenetic regulations for osteogenic differentiationare also described. Finally, we review the literature fortranslational and clinical trials that investigated the useof adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelialprogenitor cells and CD34+ blood progenitors) for boneregeneration.

  10. Skeletal Cell Fate Decisions Within Periosteum and Bone Marrow During Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Colnot, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results...

  11. Bone stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications

  12. Anterior plate internal fixation and autologous iliac bone graft fusion in the repair of thoracic spinal tuberculosis:bone healing%前路钢板置入内固定与自体髂骨植骨融合修复胸椎结核的骨愈合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江; 李小峰; 杨渊

    2014-01-01

    focus and achieve a good internal fixation, but this treatment needs to cut the rid. The surgeon discovered in years of clinical practice that distraction of intercostal space without cutting off the ribs could completely remove the focus and achieve fixation and fusion. OBJECTIVE:To explore the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages of anterior plate fixation and autologous bone graft fusion in the repair of thoracic spinal tuberculosis. METHODA total of 30 cases of thoracic spinal tuberculosis were enrol ed. On the base of traditional thoracic spinal anterior surgical approach, the rib was reserved. Anterior distraction device was used to open the ribs for clearance and to move the focus of thoracic spinal tuberculosis. Autologous ilium was obtained and subjected to fusion and anterior plate fixation. Visual Analog Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Frankel grade and Bridwel bone healing rating were used before and after treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A total of 30 patients were fol owed up for 3-60 months. The bone healing (class A) was seen, but no fistula formation was visible. Nerve compression symptoms were improved, without aggravating cases. Postoperatively, the average Cobb angle correction was 10.32°. After 6 months, imaging revealed bone fusion of affected vertebral body. After 18 months, the vertebral height was not lost obviously, no recurrence of vertebral tuberculosis. These results indicated that anterior intercostal space without cutting ribs exposed clearly, showing a large space, where can meet the requirement of first-stage debridement fixation and fusion in the repair of thoracic tuberculosis. The pathological changes were visibly clear;the focus was thoroughly removed, and the ribs were reserved. The outcomes are identical to rib resection. Simultaneously, autogenous iliac trilateral cortex has good supporting effects. Loose cancellous bone mesh has good osteogenesis and is helpful to bone healing.

  13. The influence of fibrin sealant on the healing colonic anastomosis : an experimental study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, A.C. van der

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe experiments described in this thesis were performed in order to find methods to influence and improve colonic anastomotic wound healing. It is known that inflammation may affect the healing of colonic anastomoses. Eicosanoids are known mediators of the inflammatory process, being a part of the healing process. In order to influence the healing process anti inflammatory drugs may be used. To evaluate the possible role of eicosanoids in uncomplicated healing of colon anastomosis...

  14. Healing pathways through energy work in the perianesthesia care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C E

    2000-11-01

    Energy-medicine therapy such as healing touch is a powerful way to promote relaxation and enhance the healing process. Healing touch is a sacred healing art and a way of caring in which practitioners use their hands as channels to assess and balance the energy field that encircles the body in order to promote the innate ability to heal. A collection of energy-based treatment modalities are used to assess and treat the human energy system. The energy system that is life is influenced by healing touch, which is used extensively in the nursing profession. This energy-medicine therapy is used in all areas of nursing. This article discusses the concepts of healing touch, the human energy field, and applications of healing touch in professional practice in the perianesthesia setting. PMID:11866025

  15. Classification of Jaw Bone Cysts and Necrosis via the Processing of Orthopantomograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mikulka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the design of a method for automatized evaluation of parameters in orthopantomographic images capturing pathological tissues developed in human jaw bones. The main problem affecting the applied medical diagnostic procedures consists in low repeatability of the performed evaluation. This condition is caused by two aspects, namely subjective approach of the involved medical specialists and the related exclusion of image processing instruments from the evaluation scheme. The paper contains a description of the utilized database containing images of cystic jaw bones; this description is further complemented with appropriate schematic repre¬sentation. Moreover, the authors present the results of fast automatized segmentation realized via the live-wire method and compare the obtained data with the results provided by other segmentation techniques. The shape parameters and the basic statistical quantities related to the distribution of intensities in the segmented areas are selected. The evaluation results are provided in the final section of the study; the authors correlate these values with the subjective assessment carried out by radiologists. Interestingly, the paper also comprises a discussion presenting the possibility of using selected parameters or their combinations to execute automatic classification of cysts and osteonecrosis. In this context, a comparison of various classifiers is performed, including the Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, Neural Network, k-NN, SVM, and LDA classifica¬tion tools. Within this comparison, the highest degree of accuracy (85% on the average can be attributed to the Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, and Neural Network classifiers

  16. A comprehensive review of advanced biopolymeric wound healing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Naeema; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2014-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involves the mediation of many initiators effective during the healing process such as cytokines, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, the defence mechanism of the body undergoes a step-by-step but continuous process known as the wound healing cascade to ensure optimal healing. Thus, when designing a wound healing system or dressing, it is pivotal that key factors such as optimal gaseous exchange, a moist wound environment, prevention of microbial activity and absorption of exudates are considered. A variety of wound dressings are available, however, not all meet the specific requirements of an ideal wound healing system to consider every aspect within the wound healing cascade. Recent research has focussed on the development of smart polymeric materials. Combining biopolymers that are crucial for wound healing may provide opportunities to synthesise matrices that are inductive to cells and that stimulate and trigger target cell responses crucial to the wound healing process. This review therefore outlines the processes involved in skin regeneration, optimal management and care required for wound treatment. It also assimilates, explores and discusses wound healing drug-delivery systems and nanotechnologies utilised for enhanced wound healing applications. PMID:24985412

  17. Exploration of computerized image processing in underexposed and overexposed X-rays of bones and joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao-chen; ZHANG You-jun; FENG Cheng-qiang; ZHU Yuan-zhong; YAN Shi-yi; LIU Yu-jin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effective computerized image processing of underexposed and overexposed X-rays of bones and joints. Methods: Ninety-nine conventional X-ray images (82 were overexposed and 17 were underexposed),scanned by an UMAX Astra 4000U Scanner, were converted into digital images on the basis of their analog images. A computerized imaging processing program consisting of five functional modules such as Contrast Stretch, Fast Flourier Transform (FFT), Image Smoothing Modules, Inverse Fast Flourier Transform (IFFT) and Nonlinear Transform performed image contrast stretch and smoothing. Three senior doctors from hospital image sections made their evaluation of all the processed images. Results: Of 82 overexposed films, 71 met the clinical requirements after image processing, and 11 were unable to be applied to clinical diagnosis, accounting for 87% and 13% respectively. Of the other 17 underexposed X-ray images, 11 met the clinical requirements while 6 were not, making a percentage of 64 and 35. Conclusion: Image contrast stretch and smoothing processing are significantly effective on conventional X-ray images which were inappropriately exposed, and can avoid more X-ray radiation caused by handling of radiological photograph again. This method can decrease hospital cost and provide acute and effective X-ray examinations for the treatment and cure for critical patients.

  18. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  19. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  20. Assessment of the viability of microvascularized bone grafts after mandibular reconstruction by means of bone SPET and semiquantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of bone scintigraphy including single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and semiquantitative analysis for the assessment of graft viability following microvascularized bone transplantation. We evaluated 60 scintigraphic studies of 36 patients with 39 bone grafts. Thirty-four investigations were performed 6-11 days (early bone scans) and 26 up to 11 months (late bone scans) after mandibular reconstruction. After administration of 550 MBq technetium-99 m methylene diphosphonate, planar scintigrams and a SPET study were performed. The data were reconstructed iteratively. Scans were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively by a region of interest technique using the ratio between transplant and cranium (T/C). Patients with uncomplicated healing showed a T/C ratio >1.0 in early and late bone scans. In cases with necrosis, the T/C ratio was below 1.0 when performing early bone scans. However, in late bone scans, some patients with necrosis showed a slightly increased uptake and a T/C ratio >1.0. The data demonstrate that as early as 6-11 days after mandibular reconstruction, increased tracer uptake proves that the surgery has been successful and indicates a normal healing process. Especially in the early bone scans no false-positive or false-negative results were observed and the T/C ratio clearly differentiated between vital and non-vital bone grafts. At later times false-positive findings could be observed; these were, however, rare because of the significantly higher tracer uptake of the healthy grafts when compared with completely or partially necrotic transplants. (orig.)

  1. Mechanobiology of healing and regeneration of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, Andreas Christian

    2010-01-01

    Knochen ist ein multifunktionales Organ und zugleich ein biologisches Material. In dieser Arbeit wird der Heilungsverlauf eines Knochenbruchs (als biologisches Material) näher untersucht mit Hilfe von Computermodellen. Im menschlichen Körper kommt es nach einem Bruch zu einer vollständigen Regeneration des Knochens, ohne dass eine Narbe nach der Heilung zurückbleibt. In grob 10% der Frakturen kommt es jedoch zu Komplikationen bis zu einem Nicht-Heilen des Bruches. Das Ziel von intensiver inte...

  2. Hard tissue regeneration using bone substitutes: an update on innovations in materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byong Taek

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a unique organ composed of mineralized hard tissue, unlike any other body part. The unique manner in which bone can constantly undergo self-remodeling has created interesting clinical approaches to the healing of damaged bone. Healing of large bone defects is achieved using implant materials that gradually integrate with the body after healing is completed. Such strategies require a multidisciplinary approach by material scientists, biological scientists, and clinicians. Development o...

  3. A comparative study of calcium sulfate artificial bone graft versus allograft in the reconstruction of bone defect after tumor curettage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yongkun; Niu Xiaohui; Zhang Qing; Hao Lin; Ding Yi; Xu Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cavity reconstruction after benign bone tumor removal is varied and controversial.AIIograft is widely used but is associated with complications.New bone substitutes,such as calcium sulfate artificial bone,have been introduced for bone tumor operation.However,the bone healing response of artificial bone has not been compared with allograft bone.We therefore compared calcium sulfate grafts (study group) with bone allografts (control group) for the treatment of benign bone tumors.Methods We retrospectively reviewed 50 patients who underwent calcium sulfate reconstruction and 50 patients who underwent allograft cancellous bone reconstruction.The two groups were well matched.The mean follow-up time of the study group was 19.9 (12-55) months.We investigated bone healing response,complications,and factors affecting bone healing.Results At the last follow-up,84% (42/50) of cases in the study group and 62% (31/50) of cases in the control group had achieved clinical healing (P=0.013).The initial healing rate showed no significant difference between the two groups (100% vs.96%,P=0.153).The mean healing times for calcium sulfate and allograft bone were 9.6 (3-42) months and 13.8 (3-36) months,respectively (P <0.01).Complications in the study group were minor and resolved.Implant volume was a significant factor affecting bone healing.Conclusion The calcium sulfate bone substitute showed a satisfactory healing outcome and safety profile in reconstruction of bone defects after benign bone tumor curettage,especially in smaller cavities.

  4. Mechanism of wound healing in annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Grdisa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All animals possess some type of tissue repair mechanism. In some species, the capacity to repair tissues is limited to the healing of wounds, but others posses a striking repair capability to replace the entire organs. It has been reported that some mechanisms, namely extracellular matrix remodeling, appear to occur in most repair processes. However, it remains unclear to what extent the process of wound healing is similar to organ regeneration.

  5. The use of implantable bone stimulators in nonunion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael S; Anglen, Jeffrey O

    2010-03-01

    Delayed or failure of bone healing in fracture, osteotomy, and arthrodesis patients continues to be a clinical dilemma. Electromagnetic stimulation is 1 modality demonstrated in many studies to aid bone healing; however, relatively few studies depict the use and complications associated with direct current implantable bone stimulators. Over a 9-year period, we studied a consecutive series of 120 adult patients who underwent implantation of a direct current bone stimulator. The goals of this study were to determine the time until healing, the presence of infection, and the need for additional nonunion surgery or salvage procedure following internal bone stimulator placement for nonunion treatment. Of the factors affecting the time until healing, tobacco smoking was a significant factor associated with increased time until healing. Tobacco smoking and duration of nonunion prior to implantable bone stimulator placement were both significant factors in the need for revision nonunion surgery or salvage procedure after implantable bone stimulator placement. Deep soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis was a significant factor predicting prolonged time to healing, subsequent infection following implantable bone stimulator placement, and the need for revision or salvage surgery. With the relative lack of complications directly attributable to electromagnetic implantable bone stimulators, their use may be an effective adjuvant to stable internal fixation and autogenous bone grafting in healing nonunions. However, the use of implantable bone stimulators in patients with nonunion prior to deep soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis exhibited an increased rate of postoperative infection in this study. PMID:20349861

  6. Pneumatization of the zygomatic process of temporal bone on computed tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Viezens, Liska; Grzyska, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Zygomatic air cells (ZAC) are a variant of temporal bone pneumatization that needs no treatment. However, ZAC can have an impact on surgical procedures in the temporo-mandibular joint region. Recent reports suggest that computed tomography will disclose more ZAC than can be diagnosed on panoramic radiography. The aim of this study was to analyze ZAC prevalence on CT in a population that was not pre-selected by admission to a dental clinic. Furthermore, an extensive literature review was performed to assess the prevalence of ZAC and to address the impact of imaging technique on the definition of the item. Material and methods: Digitalized cranial CTs of 2007 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The Frankfort horizontal was used to define a ZAC on sagittal CTs. Results: In this study group, 806 were female (40.16%) and 1,201 were male (59.84%). Mean age was 49.96 years in the whole group (female: 55.83 years, male: 46.01 years). A ZAC was diagnosed in 152 patients (female: 66, male: 86). Unilateral ZAC surpasses bilateral findings (115 vs. 37 patients). ZAC were diagnosed in children 5 years of age and older. Sectional imaging techniques show a better visualization of the region of interest. However, presently an increase of ZAC prevalence attributable to imaging technique cannot conclusively be derived from the current literature. The normal finding of a ZAC on radiograms is a sharply defined homogenous transparent lesion restricted to the zygomatic process of the temporal bone that has no volume effect on the shape of the process. Conclusion: ZAC is an anatomical variant of the temporal bone that has come into focus of maxillofacial radiology due to its noticeable aspect on panoramic radiograms. The harmless variant can be expected in about one in thirteen individuals undergoing facial radiology. Panoramic radiograms appear to be sufficient to present ZAC of relevant size. However, in preparation for surgical procedures affecting the articular eminence

  7. Application of new optical coherence elastography to monitor the mineralization processing in bone tissue engineering constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guangying; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Yang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Generation of functional tissue in vitro through tissue engineering technique is a promising direction to repair and replace malfunctioned organ and tissue in the modern medicine for various diseases which could not been treated well by conventional therapy. Similar to the embryo development, the generation of tissue in vitro is a highly dynamic processing. Obtaining the feedback of the processing real time is highly demanded. In this study, a new methodology has been explored aiming to monitor the morphological and mechanical property alteration of bone tissue engineering constructs simultaneously. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) equipped with a LDS V201 permanent magnet shaker and a modulated acoustic radiation force (ARF) to provide a vibration signal, has been used for the real time and non-destructive monitoring. A phantom construct system has been used to optimize the measurement conditions in which agar hydrogel with concentration from 0, 0.75 to 2% with/without hydroxyappatite particles have been injected to 3D porous poly (lactic acid) scaffolds to simulate the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and mineralized ECM. The structural and elastography images of the constructs have clearly demonstrated the linear relation with the increased mechanical property versus the increase of agar concentration within the pores of the scaffolds. The MG63 bone cells seeded in the scaffolds and cultured for 4 weeks have been monitored by the established protocol exhibiting the increased mechanical strength in the pore wall where the ECM or mineralized ECM was assumed to be formed in comparison to empty pores. This study confirms that OCE-ARF could become a valuable tool in regenerative medicine to assess the biological events during in vitro culture and conditioning.

  8. Post Processing and Biological Evaluation of the Titanium Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wysocki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, post-surgical or post-accidental bone loss can be substituted by custom-made scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM methods from metallic powders. However, the partially melted powder particles must be removed in a post-process chemical treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the chemical polishing with various a