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Sample records for bone disorder ckd-mbd

  1. Osteoporosis, bone mineral density and CKD-MBD complex (I): Diagnostic considerations.

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    Bover, Jordi; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Torregrosa, Josep-Vicent; Rodríguez-García, Minerva; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Górriz, José Luis; Laiz Alonso, Ana María; Cigarrán, Secundino; Benito, Silvia; López-Báez, Víctor; Lloret Cora, María Jesús; daSilva, Iara; Cannata-Andía, Jorge

    2018-04-24

    Osteoporosis (OP) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) independently influence bone and cardiovascular health. A considerable number of patients with CKD, especially those with stages 3a to 5D, have a significantly reduced bone mineral density leading to a high risk of fracture and a significant increase in associated morbidity and mortality. Independently of classic OP related to age and/or gender, the mechanical properties of bone are also affected by inherent risk factors for CKD ("uraemic OP"). In the first part of this review, we will analyse the general concepts regarding bone mineral density, OP and fractures, which have been largely undervalued until now by nephrologists due to the lack of evidence and diagnostic difficulties in the context of CKD. It has now been proven that a reduced bone mineral density is highly predictive of fracture risk in CKD patients, although it does not allow a distinction to be made between the causes which generate it (hyperparathyroidism, adynamic bone disease and/or senile osteoporosis, etc.). Therefore, in the second part, we will analyse the therapeutic indications in different CKD stages. In any case, the individual assessment of factors which represent a higher or lower risk of fracture, the quantification of this risk (i.e. using tools such as FRAX ® ) and the potential indications for densitometry in patients with CKD could represent an important first step pending new clinical guidelines based on randomised studies which do not exclude CKD patients, all the while avoiding therapeutic nihilism in an area of growing importance. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Circulating levels of sclerostin but not DKK1 associate with laboratory parameters of CKD-MBD.

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    Geert J Behets

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence indicates that a disturbed Wnt-β-catenin signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD. Data on the impact of CKD on circulating levels of the Wnt antagonists sclerostin and Dickkopf related protein 1 (DKK1 and the relationship with laboratory parameters of CKD-MBD are incomplete.We analyzed serum sclerostin and DKK1 in 308 patients across the stages of chronic kidney disease (kDOQI stage 1-2 n = 41; CKD stage 3 n = 54; CKD stage 4-5 n = 54; hemodialysis n = 100; peritoneal dialysis n = 59 as well as in 49 healthy controls. We investigated associations with demographics, renal function, parameters of mineral metabolism including 25(OH vitamin D, 1,25(OH2 vitamin D, biointact fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, and parathyroid hormone (PTH, and bone turnover markers.Serum sclerostin, but not DKK1, increases in more advanced stages of CKD and associates with PTH, phosphate, and 1,25(OH2 vitamin D concentrations. Bone turnover markers are highest in hemodialysis patients presenting the combination of high PTH with low sclerostin level. Serum DKK1 levels are lower in CKD patients than in controls and are not associated with laboratory parameters of mineral metabolism. Interestingly, a direct association between DKK1 and platelet count was observed.In CKD, serum levels of the Wnt inhibitors DKK1 and sclerostin are unrelated, indicating different sites of origin and/ or different regulatory mechanisms. Sclerostin, as opposed to DKK1, may qualify as a biomarker of CKD-MBD, particularly in dialysis patients. DKK1 serum levels, remarkably, correlate almost uniquely with blood platelet counts.

  3. Calcium as a cardiovascular toxin in CKD-MBD.

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    Moe, Sharon M

    2017-07-01

    Disordered calcium balance and homeostasis are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Such alterations are commonly associated with abnormal bone remodeling, directly and indirectly. Similarly, positive calcium balance may also be a factor in the pathogenesis of extra skeletal soft tissue and arterial calcification. Calcium may directly affect cardiac structure and function through direct effects to alter cell signaling due to abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis 2) extra-skeletal deposition of calcium and phosphate in the myocardium and small cardiac arterioles, 3) inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcium and hormone activation of NFAT signaling mechanisms, and 4) increased aorta calcification resulting in chronic increased afterload leading to hypertrophy. Similarly, calcium may alter vascular smooth muscle cell function and affect cell signaling which may predispose to a proliferative phenotype important in arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification. Thus, disorders of calcium balance and homeostasis due to CKD-MBD may play a role in the high cardiovascular burden observed in patients with CKD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Calciphylaxis: Beyond CKD-MBD.

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    Fernández, María; Morales, Enrique; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Polanco, Natalia; Hernández, Eduardo; Mérida, Eva; Praga, Manuel

    Calcific uraemic arteriolopathy (CUA), also called calciphylaxis, is a rare but potentially fatal vascular disorder that almost exclusively affects patients with chronic renal failure. The objective of this study was to analyse various risk factors for developing CUA and its subsequent clinical course according to the treatment received. A retrospective study that included patients diagnosed with CUA from December 1999 to December 2015. Various risk factors, clinical course and treatment options were analysed. A total of 28 patients (53.6% females) with a mean age of 67.2±11.8 (38-88) years were included. At the time of diagnosis, 53.6% were on haemodialysis, 25% were kidney transplant patients and 21.4% had normal renal function. The use of steroids (100%, P=.001) was the main risk factor in renal transplant patients. Skin lesions resolved in 60.7% (especially in those receiving multitargeted therapy). Patient survival at 12 months was 29% in transplant patients, 57% in haemodialysis patients and 100% in normal renal function patients (log-rank 6.88, P=.032). Chronic renal failure (P=.03) and hypoalbuminaemia (P=.02) were the main risk factor for CUA mortality. Although the incidence of CUA remains low, CUA mortality is very high, Special attention to its occurrence in kidney transplant patients and «non-renal» CUA forms is required. Oral anticoagulants and steroids appear to be the main risk factors, CUA is a challenge; a registry of patients and determining standard therapy are required. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The Evolving World of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral Bone Disorder

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    Antonio Bellasi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease – mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro and animal models suggest that phosphorous, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D abnormalities, mediate the cardiovascular and bone diseases that characterise CKD-MBD and increase the risk of death. Currently, mineral abnormalities are corrected through phosphorous restriction, phosphate binders, calcimimetics and vitamin D administration. Nonetheless, data in humans that support the use of these compounds are still scarce, mainly based on observational studies. Thus, a considerable number of doubts and questions still challenge clinicians dealing with CKD patients and mineral metabolism imbalances. We herein critically review clinical evidence that support the use of different drugs in CKD-MBD.

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

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    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient......, with its associated increased fracture risk, vascular calcification, and accelerated mortality fracture risk. Peritoneal dialysis, however, bears a lower risk than hemodialysis (HD). The approach to CKD-MBD prophylaxis and treatment in the elderly PD patient is similar to other CKD patients, with some...

  7. A critical appraisal of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders clinical practice guidelines using the AGREE II instrument.

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    Sekercioglu, Nigar; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Ewusie, Joycelyne Efua; Elias, Rosilene M; Thabane, Lehana; Busse, Jason W; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Iorio, Alfonso; Isayama, Tetsuya; Martínez, Juan Pablo Díaz; Florez, Ivan D; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) suffer high rates of morbidity and mortality, in particular related to bone and cardiovascular outcomes. The management of CKD-MBD remains challenging. The objective of this systematic survey is to critically appraise clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) addressing CKD-MBD. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guideline International Network and Turning Research into Practice up to May 2016. Teams of two reviewers, independently and in duplicate, screened titles and abstracts and potentially eligible full text reports to determine eligibility and subsequently appraised the guidelines using the Advancing Guideline Development, Reporting and Evaluation in Health Care instrument II (AGREE). Sixteen CPGs published from 2003 to 2015 addressing the diagnosis and management of CKD-MBD in adult patients (11 English, two Spanish, one Italian, one Portuguese and one Slovak) proved eligible. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline performed best with respect to AGREE II criteria; only three other CPGs warranted high scores on all domains. All other guidelines received scores of under 60% on one or more domains. Major discrepancies in recommendations were not, however, present, and we found no association between quality of CPGs which was not associated with resulting recommendations. Most guidelines assessing CKD-MBD suffer from serious shortcomings using AGREE criteria although limitations with respect to AGREE criteria do not necessarily lead to inappropriate recommendations.

  8. Report on 2012 ISN Nexus symposium: 'Bone and the kidney'

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    Drüeke, Tilman B; Olgaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    aspects of the bone-kidney axis was open to all participants. The numerous lectures given at the symposium addressed current knowledge and recent advances in kidney and bone physiology, as well as the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy of CKD-MBD, inspired by the intention to enhance the translation...... in the fascinating world of the many hormones and factors involved in mineral homeostasis, bone disease, and vascular calcification of patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The possibility of exchanging cutting-edge insights and discussing clinically relevant information on all...

  9. Impact of surgical parathyroidectomy on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Mugurel Apetrii

    Full Text Available For more than 6 decades, many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD have undergone surgical parathyroidectomy (sPTX for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT mainly based historical clinical practice patterns, but not on evidence of outcome.We aimed in this meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits and harms of sPTX in patients with SHPT. We searched MEDLINE (inception to October 2016, EMBASE and Cochrane Library (through Issue 10 of 12, October 2016 and website clinicaltrials.gov (October 2016 without language restriction. Eligible studies evaluated patients reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR, below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD 3-5 stages with hyperparathyroidism who underwent sPTX. Reviewers working independently and in duplicate extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The final analysis included 15 cohort studies, comprising 24,048 participants. Compared with standard treatment, sPTX significantly decreased all-cause mortality (RR 0.74 [95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83] in End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD patients with biochemical and / or clinical evidence of SHPT. sPTX was also associated with decreased cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.59 [95% CI, 0.46 to 0.76] in 6 observational studies that included almost 10,000 patients. The available evidence, mostly observational, is at moderate risk of bias, and limited by indirect comparisons and inconsistency in reporting for some outcomes (eg. short term adverse events, including documented voice change or episodes of severe hypocalcaemia needing admission or long-term adverse events, including undetectable PTH levels, risk of fractures etc.. Taken together, the results of this meta-analysis would suggest a clinically significant beneficial effect of sPTX on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients with SHPT. However, given the observational nature of the included studies, the case for a properly conducted, independent randomised controlled trial comparing surgery with medical therapy and featuring many different outcomes from mortality to quality of life (QoL is now very strong.

  10. Vitamin D, Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: A role in the pathogenesis and management of Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder

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    Damasiewicz, Matthew John

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by the presence of proteinuria or decreased kidney function, with a prevalence of 10-15% in the adult population. CKD can progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with progressive abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism, defined as CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The use of vitamin D in CKD, the optimal level for initiating treatment and the use of current and novel biomarkers in the management of ...

  11. The Kidney-Vascular-Bone Axis in the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

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    Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-03-01

    The last 25 years have been characterized by dramatic improvements in short-term patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Long-term patient and allograft survival remains limited by cardiovascular disease and chronic allograft injury, among other factors. Cardiovascular disease remains a significant contributor to mortality in native chronic kidney disease as well as cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease more than doubles that of the general population. The chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a syndrome recently coined to embody the biochemical, skeletal, and cardiovascular pathophysiology that results from disrupting the complex systems biology between the kidney, skeleton, and cardiovascular system in native and transplant kidney disease. The CKD-MBD is a unique kidney disease-specific syndrome containing novel cardiovascular risk factors, with an impact reaching far beyond traditional notions of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. This overview reviews current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including emerging concepts surrounding the importance of circulating pathogenic factors released from the injured kidney that directly cause cardiovascular disease in native and transplant chronic kidney disease, with potential application to mechanisms of chronic allograft injury and vasculopathy.

  12. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  13. A New Murine Model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder

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    Bianca Frauscher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with mineral and bone disorder (MBD, which is the main cause of the extensively increased cardiovascular mortality in the CKD population. We now aimed to establish a new murine experimental CKD-MBD model. Dilute brown non-Agouti (DBA/2 mice were fed with high-phosphate diet for 4 (HPD4 or 7 (HPD7 days, then with standard chow diet (SCD and subsequently followed until day 84. They were compared to DBA/2 mice maintained on SCD during the whole study period. Both 4 and 7 days HPD-fed mice developed phosphate nephropathy with tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and increased serum urea levels. The abdominal aorta of HPD-treated mice showed signs of media calcification. Histomorphometric analysis of HPD-treated mice showed decreased bone volume/tissue volume, low mineral apposition rate, and low bone formation rate as compared to SCD-fed mice, despite increased parathyroid hormone levels. Overall, the observed phenotype was more pronounced in the HPD7 group. In summary, we established a new, noninvasive, and therefore easy to perform reproducible CKD-MBD model, which showed media calcification, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and low-turnover bone disease.

  14. The use of bone turnover markers in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders.

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    Chiang, Cherie

    2017-03-01

    Bone turnover markers assist in fracture risk prediction, management and monitoring of osteoporosis in patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD). The use in CKD-mineral bone disorder (MBD) has been limited as many of these markers and breakdown products are renally excreted, including the most commonly used and well standardized procollagen type I N propeptide and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen. Of the markers unaffected by renal function, bone specific alkaline phosphatase is associated with mortality and fracture rate in CKD subjects and is now available on several automated analysers. When used in combination with PTH, bone specific alkaline phosphatase as a bone formation marker correlated well with bone biopsy histomorphometry in predicting adynamic bone disease. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b is a resorption marker that is under development for automation. Both high and low bone turnover in CKD-MBD patients are associated with increased fracture and mortality risk. Bone biopsy as the gold standard to differentiate between adynamic bone disease and osteitis fibrosa is limited by availability and cost. Appropriate use of bone turnover markers is vital in the decision to commence anti-resorptive agents, and to monitor efficacy in order to avoid over suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to stress fractures. Further efforts are required to develop markers unaffected by renal function with standardized cut-off values and fracture as well as vascular calcification end-points. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

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    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  16. The consequences of chronic kidney disease on bone metabolism and growth in children.

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    Bacchetta, Justine; Harambat, Jérôme; Cochat, Pierre; Salusky, Isidro B; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2012-08-01

    Growth retardation, decreased final height and renal osteodystrophy (ROD) are common complications of childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting from a combination of abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH) axis, vitamin D deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, hypogonadism, inadequate nutrition, cachexia and drug toxicity. The impact of CKD-associated bone and mineral disorders (CKD-MBD) may be immediate (serum phosphate/calcium disequilibrium) or delayed (poor growth, ROD, fractures, vascular calcifications, increased morbidity and mortality). In 2012, the clinical management of CKD-MBD in children needs to focus on three main objectives: (i) to provide an optimal growth in order to maximize the final height with an early management with recombinant GH therapy when required, (ii) to equilibrate calcium/phosphate metabolism so as to obtain acceptable bone quality and cardiovascular status and (iii) to correct all metabolic and clinical abnormalities that can worsen bone disease, growth and cardiovascular disease, i.e. metabolic acidosis, anaemia, malnutrition and 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the mineral, bone and vascular abnormalities associated with CKD in children in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical management.

  17. Influence of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on biochemical markers of mineral bone disorders in South African patients with chronic kidney disease.

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    Waziri, Bala; Dix-Peek, Therese; Dickens, Caroline; Duarte, Raquel; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2018-02-07

    It remains unclear whether genetic factors may explain the reported variation in the levels of biochemical markers of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders (CKD- MBD) across ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms on secondary hyperparathyroidism and its association with vitamin D levels in black and white South African study participants. This was a cross sectional study involving 272 CKD stage 3- 5D patients and 90 healthy controls. The four major VDR polymorphisms (Bsm 1, Fok 1, Taq 1, and Apa1) were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR -RFLP) method. In addition, biochemical markers of CKD-MBD were measured to determine their associations with the four VDR polymorphisms. With the exception of Taq I polymorphism, the distribution of the VDR polymorphisms differed significantly between blacks and whites. In hemodialysis patients, the Bb genotype was significantly associated with moderate secondary hyperparathyroidism (OR, 3.88; 95 CI 1.13-13.25, p = 0.03) and severe hyperparathyroidism (OR, 2.54; 95 CI 1.08-5.96, p = 0.03). This was consistent with the observed higher levels of median parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 and mean phosphate in patients with Bb genotype. This candidate risk genotype (Bb) was over represented in blacks compared to whites (71.0% versus 55.6%, p kidney disease. In addition, study participants with FokFf genotype are at increased of developing severe 25 -hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency.

  18. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: A study from a tertiary care hospital in India

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    Sanjay Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered mineral metabolism is common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, there are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in Indian CKD population. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD over a period of 3 years. The biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, namely, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and 25-hydoxyvitamin Vitamin D3 (25OHD, were measured in newly diagnosed CKD Stage 3–5 and prevalent CKD Stage 5D adult patients. Results: A total of 462 patients of CKD Stage 3–5D were studied. The frequency of various biochemical abnormalities was hypocalcemia (23.8%, hypercalcemia (5.4%, hypophosphatemia (2.8%, hyperphosphatemia (55.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase (56.9%, secondary hyperparathyroidism (82.7%, and hypoparathyroidism (1.5%. 25OHD was done in 335 (72.5% patients and 90.4% were found to have Vitamin D deficiency. About 70.6% of the patients had iPTH levels were above kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI target range. Nondiabetic CKD as compared to diabetic CKD had a higher alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.016, a higher iPTH (P = 0.001 a higher proportion of patients with iPTH above KDOQI target range (P = 0.09, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004. The 25OHD levels were suggestive of severe Vitamin D deficiency in 33.7%, Vitamin D deficiency in 45.4%, and Vitamin D insufficiency in 11.3% patients. There was a significant positive correlation between iPTH with alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.572, P = 0.001, creatinine (r = 0.424, P = 0.001, and phosphorus (r = 0.241, P = 0.001 and a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin (r = −0.325, 0.001, age (r = −0.169, P = 0.002, and 25OHD (r = −0.126, P = 0.021. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an elevated alkaline phosphatase was a significant predictor of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 9.7, 95

  19. Klotho & Activin A in kidney injury Plasma Klotho is maintained in unilateral obstruction despite no upregulation of Klotho biosynthesis in contralateral kidney

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    Nordholm, Anders; Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva

    2018-01-01

    In a new paradigm of etiology related to Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) kidney injury may cause induction of factors in the injured kidney that are released into the circulation and thereby initiate and maintain renal fibrosis and CKD-MBD. Klotho is believed to amelior......In a new paradigm of etiology related to Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) kidney injury may cause induction of factors in the injured kidney that are released into the circulation and thereby initiate and maintain renal fibrosis and CKD-MBD. Klotho is believed...... to ameliorate renal fibrosis and CKD-MBD, while ActivinA might have detrimental effects. The unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model is used here to examine this concept by investigating early changes related to renal fibrosis in obstructed kidney, untouched contralateral kidney and vasculature, which might...

  20. Kidney transplantation restored uncoupled bone turnover in end-stage renal disease.

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    Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kido, Ryo; Nakajima, Ichiro; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Teraoka, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2012-07-01

    While kidney transplantation (KTx) reverses many disorders associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), patients who have received KTx often have chronic kidney disease and bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). However, it is unknown how bone metabolism changes by KTx. Living donor-KTx recipients (n = 34) at Tokyo Women's Medical University were prospectively recruited and the levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of Type 1 collagen (NTX) were measured before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation. Before KTx, serum BAP was within the reference range in more than half of patients while NTX was high in most patients. Serum NTX was higher in patients with longer dialysis durations compared to that with shorter durations before KTx. However, there was no difference in serum BAP between these patients. After KTx, BAP increased while NTX decreased along with the decline of PTH. In addition, the numbers of patients who showed high BAP and NTX were comparable after KTx. These results suggest that bone formation is suppressed and uncoupled with bone resorption in patients with ESRD and this uncoupling is restored by KTx. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism of bone uncoupling in patients with ESRD.

  1. Profile of chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorders in newly diagnosed advanced predialysis diabetic kidney disease patients: A hospital based cross-sectional study.

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    Ray, S; Beatrice, A M; Ghosh, A; Pramanik, S; Bhattacharjee, R; Ghosh, S; Raychaudhury, A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Chowdhury, S

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been poorly studied in pre-dialysis Indian CKD population. There are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in diabetic CKD patients. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out the profile of mineral bone disorders in T2DM patients with pre-dialysis CKD. In this cross-sectional design, diabetic patients with newly-diagnosed stage 4 and 5 CKD were evaluated. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 72 eligible patients participated (44 males, 28 females; age 54.2±11.7). Patients with CKD Stage 5 had a lower level of corrected serum calcium and significantly higher level of inorganic phosphorus, total ALP and iPTH as compared to stage 4 patients. Overall, 38.5% were hypocalcemic, 31.43% were hyperphosphatemic. 24.2% of CKD subjects were vitamin D deficient (110pg/ml) was detected in nearly 43% of patients. In stage 5, only 32% patients was found to have hyperparathyroidism (iPTH>300pg/ml). There was a good correlation between iPTH and total ALP (r=0.5, p=0.0001) in this cohort. 25 (OH) vitamin D was inversely correlated with ALP (r=-0.39, P=0.001) and showed negative correlation with urine ACR (r=-0.37, P=0.002). As a group, the osteoporotic CKD subjects exhibited higher iPTH (220.1±153.8 vs. 119±108pg/ml, p<0.05) as compared to those who were osteopenic or had normal bone density. There was significant correlation between BMD and iPTH (adjusted r=-0.436; P=0.001). In the multivariate regression model, we found intact PTH to predict BMD even after adjustment of all the confounders. The current study showed that adynamic bone disease is prevalent even in pre-dialysis CKD population. High bone turnover disease may not be the most prevalent type in diabetic CKD. However, it

  2. The consequences of pediatric renal transplantation on bone metabolism and growth.

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    Bacchetta, Justine; Ranchin, Bruno; Demède, Delphine; Allard, Lise

    2013-10-01

    During childhood, growth retardation, decreased final height and renal osteodystrophy are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). These problems remain present in patients undergoing renal transplantation, even though steroid-sparing strategies are more widely used. In this context, achieving normal height and growth in children after transplantation is a crucial issue for both quality of life and self-esteem. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of pathophysiology of CKD-mineral bone disorder (MBD) in children undergoing renal transplantation and to propose keypoints for its daily management. In adults, calcimimetics are effective for posttransplant hyperparathyroidism, but data are missing in the pediatric population. Fibroblast growth factor 23 levels are associated with increased risk of rejection, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. A recent meta-analysis also demonstrated the effectiveness of rhGH therapy in short transplanted children. In 2013, the daily clinical management of CKD-MBD in transplanted children should still focus on simple objectives: to optimize renal function, to develop and promote steroid-sparing strategies, to provide optimal nutritional support to maximize final height and avoid bone deformations, to equilibrate calcium/phosphate metabolism so as to provide acceptable bone quality and cardiovascular status, to correct all metabolic and clinical abnormalities that can worsen both bone and growth (mainly metabolic acidosis, anemia and malnutrition), promote good lifestyle habits (adequate calcium intake, regular physical activity, no sodas consumption, no tobacco exposure) and eventually to correct native vitamin D deficiency (target of 25-vitamin D >75 nmol/l).

  3. Various musculoskeletal manifestations of chronic renal insufficiency

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    Lim, C.Y.; Ong, K.O.

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal manifestations in chronic renal insufficiency are caused by complex bone metabolism alterations, now described under the umbrella term of chronic kidney disease mineral- and bone-related disorder (CKD-MBD), as well as iatrogenic processes related to renal replacement treatment. Radiological imaging remains the mainstay of disease assessment. This review aims to illustrate the radiological features of CKD-MBD, such as secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, soft-tissue calcifications; as well as features associated with renal replacement therapy, such as aluminium toxicity, secondary amyloidosis, destructive spondyloarthropathy, haemodialysis-related erosive arthropathy, tendon rupture, osteonecrosis, and infection

  4. Turning over renal osteodystrophy dogma: direct actions of FGF23 on osteoblast β-catenin pathway.

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    Schiavi, Susan C; Moysés, Rosa M A

    2016-07-01

    Although recognized as a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the pathophysiology of the CKD-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is not completely understood. Recently, the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteocytes by sclerostin has been shown to play a role in CKD-MBD. The study by Carrilo-Lopez et al. confirms this inhibition in an experimental model of CKD. Moreover, they describe direct actions of FGF23-Klotho on osteoblasts, increasing the expression of DKK1, another Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  6. Bone Health in Adrenal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Jun Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary osteoporosis resulting from specific clinical disorders may be potentially reversible, and thus continuous efforts to find and adequately treat the secondary causes of skeletal fragility are critical to ameliorate fracture risk and to avoid unnecessary treatment with anti-osteoporotic drugs. Among the hyperfunctional adrenal masses, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and primary aldosteronism are receiving particularly great attention due to their high morbidity and mortality mainly by increasing cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, there is accumulating experimental and clinical evidence that adrenal hormones may have direct detrimental effects on bone metabolism as well. Thus, the present review discusses the possibility of adrenal disorders, especially focusing on pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism, as secondary causes of osteoporosis.

  7. MR imaging of bone marrow disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Mano, I.; Yashiro, N.; Asai, S.; Lio, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author performed MR imaging in 89 patients with bone marrow disorders (29 with aplastic anemia, 20 with leukemia, 9 with postirradiation changes, 8 with hemosiderosis, 6 with primary bone tumors and metastases, and 17 with bone marrow disorders of other etiologies). They selected the thoracic and lumbar vertebral marrow as a target and used both T1-weighted spin-echo images and calculated T1 images. T1 was prolonged in bone marrow hyperplasia but shortened in hypoplasia. Bone marrow T1 values proved to depend on the number of fat cells (pathologic correlation). In aplastic anemia scattered islands of low signal intensity were seen within a background of high signal intensity in some typical cases. MR imaging patterns were used for staging aplastic anemia. T1 was prolonged in leukemia cells

  8. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari', C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio', I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudofractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease

  9. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari' , C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio' , I. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelone (Spain). Serv. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-09-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudo fractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease.

  10. [Mineral and bone disorders in renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Chapurlat, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The deregulation of bone and mineral metabolism during chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a daily challenge for physicians, its management aiming at decreasing the risk of both fractures and vascular calcifications. Renal transplantation in the context of CKD, with pre-existing renal osteodystrophy as well as nutritional impairment, chronic inflammation, hypogonadism and corticosteroids exposure, represents a major risk factor for bone impairment in the post-transplant period. The aim of this review is therefore to provide an update on the pathophysiology of mineral and bone disorders after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. PET in Benign Bone Marrow Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bruggen, Wouter; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    This review aims to describe the current status of benign bone marrow (BM) imaging using PET. BM imaging is important as the BM is not only involved in poiesis of different vital cell lines and. can be affected by primary BM disorders, but it is also frequently affected by several extramedullary

  12. Bone metabolism and arterial stiffness after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseprekál, Orsolya; Kis, Eva; Dégi, Arianna A; Kerti, Andrea; Szabó, Attila J; Reusz, György S

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between bone and vascular disease and its changes over time after renal transplantation. Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. Following transplantation (Tx), improvement in CV disease has been reported; however, data regarding changes in bone disease remain controversial. Bone turnover and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)) were assessed in 47 Tx patients (38 (3-191) months after Tx). Bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and beta-crosslaps were significantly higher in Tx patients, and decreased significantly after one year. There was a negative correlation between BALP, OC and steroid administered (r = -0.35; r = -0.36 respectively). PWV increased in the Tx group (1.15 SD). In patients with a follow up of bone turnover and arterial stiffness are present following kidney transplantation. While bone turnover decreases with time, arterial stiffness correlates initially with bone turnover, after which the influence of cholesterol becomes significant. Non-invasive estimation of bone metabolism and arterial stiffness may help to assess CKD-MBD following renal transplantation.

  13. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.G.; Irfan, M.; Shamsi, T.S.; Hussain, M.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  14. A New Data Analysis System to Quantify Associations between Biochemical Parameters of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Rodriguez

    Full Text Available In hemodialysis patients, deviations from KDIGO recommended values of individual parameters, phosphate, calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH, are associated with increased mortality. However, it is widely accepted that these parameters are not regulated independently of each other and that therapy aimed to correct one parameter often modifies the others. The aim of the present study is to quantify the degree of association between parameters of chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD.Data was extracted from a cohort of 1758 adult HD patients between January 2000 and June 2013 obtaining a total of 46.141 records (10 year follow-up. We used an advanced data analysis system called Random Forest (RF which is based on self-learning procedure with similar axioms to those utilized for the development of artificial intelligence. This new approach is particularly useful when the variables analyzed are closely dependent to each other.The analysis revealed a strong association between PTH and phosphate that was superior to that of PTH and Calcium. The classical linear regression analysis between PTH and phosphate shows a correlation coefficient is 0.27, p<0.001, the possibility to predict PTH changes from phosphate modification is marginal. Alternatively, RF assumes that changes in phosphate will cause modifications in other associated variables (calcium and others that may also affect PTH values. Using RF the correlation coefficient between changes in serum PTH and phosphate is 0.77, p<0.001; thus, the power of prediction is markedly increased. The effect of therapy on biochemical variables was also analyzed using this RF.Our results suggest that the analysis of the complex interactions between mineral metabolism parameters in CKD-MBD may demand a more advanced data analysis system such as RF.

  15. Prevalence of CKD-MBD in pre-dialysis patients using biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dialysis patients were sim- ilarly studied, it was found that blacks had significantly lower levels of 25(OH) D but higher levels of calcium, phosphorus and PTH. This high secondary hyperpar- athyroidism (SHPT) and 25(OH) D deficiency occurs.

  16. Regulation of bone-renal mineral and energy metabolism: the PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, MEPE ASARM pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter S N

    2012-01-01

    million years ago with the boney fish (i.e., teleosts) that do not contain SIBLING proteins. In terrestrial vertebrates, FGF23, like SIBLING proteins, is expressed in the osteocyte. The boney fish, however, are an-osteocytic, so a physiological bone-renal link with FGF23 and the SIBLINGs was cemented when life ventured from the oceans to the land during the Triassic period, approximately 300 million years ago. This link has been revealed by recent research that indicates a competitive displacement of a PHEX-DMP1 interaction by an ASARM peptide that leads to increased FGF23 expression. This review discusses the new discoveries that reveal a novel PHEX, DMP1, MEPE, ASARM peptide, and FGF23 bone-renal pathway. This pathway impacts not only bone formation, bone-renal mineralization, and renal phosphate homeostasis but also energy metabolism. The study of this new pathway is relevant for developing therapies for several diseases: bone-teeth mineral loss disorders, renal osteodystrophy, chronic kidney disease and bone mineralization disorders (CKD-MBD), end-stage renal diseases, ectopic arterial-calcification, cardiovascular disease renal calcification, diabetes, and obesity.

  17. Single-center open-label randomized study of anemia management improvement in ESRD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellasi Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether anemia and mineral bone abnormalities (chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder [CKD-MBD] are associated still remains to be elucidated. Both anemia and CKD-MBD have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome and poor quality of life. However, recent evidence suggests that use of large doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs to correct hemoglobin (Hb may be detrimental in CKD. The Optimal Anemia Treatment in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD (Optimal ESRD Treatment study will assess whether lowering of parathyroid hormone (PTH is associated with a reduction in ESA consumption. The Optimal ESRD Treatment study is a pilot single-center open-label study with blinded end point (a prospective randomized open blinded end-point [PROBE] design enrolling 50 patients on maintenance dialysis. Eligible patients with intact PTH (iPTH 300-540 pg/mL and Hb 10-11.5 g/dL will be randomized 1:1 to strict PTH control (150-300 pg/mL versus standard care (PTH range 300-540 pg/mL. Available drugs for CKD-MBD and anemia treatment will be managed by the attending physician to maintain the desired levels of PTH (according to study arm allocation and Hb (10-11.5 g/dL. Echocardiographic data for cardiac structure and function as well as arterial stiffness will be assessed at study inception and completion. The Optimal ESRD Treatment study should shed light on the complicated interplay of anemia and CKD-MBD and on the feasibility of clinical trials in this domain. The study results are expected in the spring of 2017.

  18. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

  19. Mineral & Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stages of CKD. Slowed bone growth leads to short stature, which may remain with a child into adulthood. ... and local anesthetic. The health care provider uses imaging techniques such as ultrasound or a computerized tomography ...

  20. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  1. Management of mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-07-01

    Mineral and bone disorders (MBDs), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease, occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about the clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on posttransplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, and the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities, often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed.

  2. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  3. Therapeutic actions of curcumin in bone disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rohanizadeh, Ramin; Deng, Yi; Verron, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is the active component of turmeric extract derived from the Curcuma longa plant. In the last decade, curcumin has raised a considerable interest in medicine owing to its negligible toxicity and multiple therapeutic actions including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. Among the various molecular targets of curcumin, some are involved in bone remodeling, which strongly suggests that curcumin can affect the skeletal system. The review sheds light on the curre...

  4. ROLE OF BONE MARROW ASPIRATION IN DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Nanwani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The bone marrow examination is an essential investigation for the diagnosis of disorders of the blood and bone marrow. This simple and relatively safe procedure is important, particularly in resource poor centres since access to adjuvant diagnostic techniques are often lacking or absent. MATERIALS AND METHODS 189 patients of all age groups were studied for haematological and non-haematological disorders by bone marrow aspiration in the Department of Pathology, MGM Medical College during the period of 2014 to 2016. RESULTS Majority of the patients who had bone marrow aspiration were aged 0-15 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.03. Most (97% of the marrow aspirate examined had definitive pathologic features, while 14 (7% were normal marrow elements. Out of 189 cases of bone marrow aspiration, acute leukaemia was the most common haematological disease diagnosed using this procedure. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was more common than acute myeloid leukaemia. Aplastic anaemia was seen in 16% cases. Megaloblastic anaemia occurred more commonly than other anaemias. Megaloblastic anaemia was seen in 13 cases (7% and microcytic anaemia was seen in 5 cases (3%. There were 10 cases (5% of Idiopathic Thrombocypenic Purpura. Myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma was seen in 7% and 2% cases respectively. Storage disorder was seen in 3 cases (2%, out of this 02 cases were Gaucher’s disease and one case was Niemann-Pick’s disease. CONCLUSION Bone marrow examination is an important step to arrive at the confirmatory diagnosis of many haematological disorders. This procedure remains a veritable tool in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of haematological diseases, especially in a resource poor centre.

  5. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period. Intestinal calcium absorption more than doubles during pregnancy, whereas the maternal skeleton resorbs to provide most of the calcium content of breast milk during lactation. These maternal adaptations also affect the presentation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. Although some women may experience fragility fractures as a consequence of pregnancy or lactation, for most women, parity and lactation do not affect the long-term risks of low bone density, osteoporosis, or fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Histone Deacetylases in Bone Development and Skeletal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) are conserved enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine side chains in histones and other proteins. Eleven of the 18 Hdacs encoded by the human and mouse genomes depend on Zn2+ for enzymatic activity, while the other 7, the sirtuins (Sirts), require NAD2+. Collectively, Hdacs and Sirts regulate numerous cellular and mitochondrial processes including gene transcription, DNA repair, protein stability, cytoskeletal dynamics, and signaling pathways to affect both development and aging. Of clinical relevance, Hdacs inhibitors are United States Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer therapeutics and are candidate therapies for other common diseases including arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, heart disease, HIV infection, neurodegeneration, and numerous aging-related disorders. Hdacs and Sirts influence skeletal development, maintenance of mineral density and bone strength by affecting intramembranous and endochondral ossification, as well as bone resorption. With few exceptions, inhibition of Hdac or Sirt activity though either loss-of-function mutations or prolonged chemical inhibition has negative and/or toxic effects on skeletal development and bone mineral density. Specifically, Hdac/Sirt suppression causes abnormalities in physiological development such as craniofacial dimorphisms, short stature, and bone fragility that are associated with several human syndromes or diseases. In contrast, activation of Sirts may protect the skeleton from aging and immobilization-related bone loss. This knowledge may prolong healthspan and prevent adverse events caused by epigenetic therapies that are entering the clinical realm at an unprecedented rate. In this review, we summarize the general properties of Hdacs/Sirts and the research that has revealed their essential functions in bone forming cells (e.g., osteoblasts and chondrocytes) and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Finally, we offer predictions on future research in this area and the utility of

  7. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  8. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-03-27

    To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Pharmacoepidemiological study. In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. We identified four distinct trajectory groups: 'rapid PTH drop' experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), 'gradual PTH decrease' experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), 'slow PTH decrease with high phosphate' experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and 'uncontrolled SHPT' with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the 'uncontrolled SHPT' group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the 'rapid PTH drop' and at month 24 in the 'uncontrolled SHPT' groups. Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the lowest PTH at the end of the follow-up tended to receive more often cinacalcet. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02888639, post results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Bone Density Characteristics and Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Mendes, Nara; Russell, Melissa; Herzog, David B.; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common during adolescence, a time period characterized by rapid bone mineral accrual. MDD has recently been associated with lower bone mineral density in adults. Our objective was to determine whether MDD is associated with bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, vitamin D and gonadal steroids in adolescents. Methods Sixty five adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (32 boys: 16 with MDD and 16 controls, and 33 girls: 17 with MDD and 16 controls) were included in a cross-sectional study. BMD and body composition were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Estradiol, testosterone, 25-OH vitamin D levels and P1NP, a marker of bone formation, and CTX, a marker of bone resorption, were measured. Results Boys with MDD had significantly lower BMD at the hip (Mean [SD] of 0.99 [0.17] vs. 1.04 [0.18] g/cm2; BMI-adjusted p=0.005) and femoral neck (0.92 [0.17] vs. 0.94 [0.17] g/cm2; adjusted; BMI-adjusted p=0.024) compared to healthy controls after adjusting for BMI. This significant finding was maintained after also adjusting for lean mass and bone age (hip: p=0.007; femoral neck: p=0.020). In girls, there were no significant differences in BMD between the girls with MDD and the controls after adjusting for BMI (p-values>.17). Conclusions Male adolescents with MDD have significantly lower BMD as compared to healthy controls after adjusting for body mass and maturity. This association is not observed in girls. PMID:23362498

  10. BONE MARROW BIOPSY IN EVALUATION OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Rani Sahoo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy (BMTB and aspiration is critical for diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and monitoring therapeutic response. BMTB is of greater value in assessing cellularity, degree of fibrosis, marrow architecture and especially when aspiration is dry tap. At the same time, it provides sample for immunohistochemistry. MATERIALSAND METHODS It is a single centre observational study conducted from July 2014 to July 2016 in Department of Pathology, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, which included both cell block and touch imprint along with trephine biopsy. Cases selected where lymphoma studied for pattern and extent of infiltration. Aspiration with dry tap and selected cases of myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome, leukaemia (both acute and chronic, anaemia, multiple myeloma were studied. Jamshidi needle was used for biopsy. Samples obtained were formalin preserved, kept in decalcification solution (Hammersmith protocol and H and E slides prepared. Special stain-like reticulin and Masson’s trichrome were used for grading of fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry was done on selected cases of lymphoma. RESULTS Out of total 100 cases studied, 60 were of haematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms, 12 anaemia, 20 secondary metastasis, 8 miscellaneous (1 haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytic disease, 1 storage disease, 1 granulomatous and 5 ITP. CONCLUSION The study was conducted to establish the advantage of bone marrow biopsy in inadequate and failed aspiration, but both are complementary to each other and together provide a comprehensive evaluation of the bone marrow. Bone marrow fibrosis are well accessed and increased detection of tumour cells in suspected secondary metastasis. Special stains, IHC, cytogenetic study can be done over biopsy block.

  11. [Aging and homeostasis. Management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    Disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging are based on secondary hyperparathyroidism due to impaired intestinal calcium absorption caused by insufficient vitamin D actions and augmented bone resorption due to sex hormone deficiency. Both of them are involved in the development of osteoporosis that increases risk of fractures. Therefore, the most important thing for management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging is to prevent fractures with appropriate drugs for osteoporosis.

  12. Do the Drugs Used to Treat Rheumatic Disorders Induce Bone Fragility? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Súsanna við Streym; Vestergaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatic disorders are linked to immuno-logical processes in the body; therefore, drugs used to treat these disorders may interfere with the immune system. The immune system shares several signaling mechanisms with bone cells, both directly via cytokines and prostaglandins, and indirectly via...... vitamin D, which is also an active immunological substance. As a result, drugs used to modulate the immune response may interfere with bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanical competence, and the risk of fractures [1–3]....

  13. PA21, a novel phosphate binder, improves renal osteodystrophy in rats with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Atsushi; Tatemichi, Satoshi; Takeda, Hiroo; Kobayashi, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    The effects of PA21, a novel iron-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binder, on hyperphosphatemia and its accompanying bone abnormality in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) were evaluated. Rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) were prepared by feeding them an adenine-containing diet for four weeks. They were also freely fed a diet that contained PA21 (0.5, 1.5, and 5%), sevelamer hydrochloride (0.6 and 2%) or lanthanum carbonate hydrate (0.6 and 2%) for four weeks. Blood biochemical parameters were measured and bone histomorphometry was performed for femurs, which were isolated after drug treatment. Serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were higher in the CRF rats. Administration of phosphate binders for four weeks decreased serum phosphorus and PTH levels in a dose-dependent manner and there were significant decreases in the AUC0-28 day of these parameters in 5% PA21, 2% sevelamer hydrochloride, and 2% lanthanum carbonate hydrate groups compared with that in the CRF control group. Moreover, osteoid volume improved significantly in 5% of the PA21 group, and fibrosis volume and cortical porosity were ameliorated in 5% PA21, 2% sevelamer hydrochloride, and 2% lanthanum carbonate hydrate groups. These results suggest that PA21 is effective against hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and bone abnormalities in CKD-MBD as sevelamer hydrochloride and lanthanum carbonate hydrate are, and that PA21 is a new potential alternative to phosphate binders.

  14. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  15. Utility of simultaneous assessment of bone marrow aspirates and trephine biopsy sections in various haematological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Puri

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Bone marrow aspiration alone is sufficient for the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia and most of the hematological malignancies. Bone marrow biopsy is more appropriate for detection of disorders with focal marrow involvement such as lymphoproliferative disorders, metastatic cancer, focal blast crisis in CML, granulomatous lesions, and hypoplastic marrow. However, it is strongly recommended that both should be reviewed simultaneously to ensure maximum diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Late taste disorders in bone marrow transplantation: clinical evaluation with taste solutions in autologous and allogeneic bone marrow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, M G; Rizzoni, D; Ferremi, P; Rossi, G; Izzi, T; Brusotti, C

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the type and the significance of taste disorders in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. In a retrospective study the taste threshold of a cohort of 15 allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients, 4-51 months after transplantation (mean: 30.6 +/- 15.8), was compared to the taste threshold of 8 autologous bone marrow recipients, 4-48 months after transplantation (mean: 24.12 +/- 12.18), and to the taste threshold of a group of 20 consecutive normal subjects. Allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients showed a significant hypogeusia for salt (Pearson's chi square p = 0.0002; Yates' correction p = 0.0007) and sour (Pearson's chi square p = 0.001; Yates' correction p = 0.008). No significant variations were observed for sweet and bitter. Autologous bone marrow recipients did not show any significant variation of taste acuity for sweet, salt or sour; a constant reduction of the taste threshold for bitter was observed, but the values were not significantly different from normal (Pearson's chi square p = 0.47; Yates' correction p = 0.83). So, late and selective taste disorders are observed in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. Since the severity of the disorders is not strictly related to the severity of chronic oral G.V.H.D., taste analysis could discover the slightest, clinically undetectable cases of chronic oral G.V.H.D. The mechanism of immune aggression on the sensorial taste cells is poorly understood. Further trials are needed to define variations of taste acuity not only after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but also in systemic immune diseases.

  17. A study of changes in bone metabolism in cases of gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Yoon Taek; Oda, Hiromi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing estrogen and decreasing androgen in males and increasing androgen and decreasing estrogen in females on bone metabolism in patients with gender identity disorder (GID). We measured and examined bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers retrospectively in GID patients who were treated in our hospital. In addition, we studied the effects of treatment on those who had osteoporosis. Patients who underwent a change from male to female (MtF) showed inhibition of bone resorption and increased L2-4 BMD whereas those who underwent a change from female to male (FtM) had increased bone resorption and decreased L2-4 BMD. Six months after administration of risedronate to FtM patients with osteoporosis, L2-4 BMD increased and bone resorption markers decreased. These results indicate that estrogen is an important element with regard to bone metabolism in males.

  18. DIAGNOSTICS OF BONE METABOLISM DISORDERS IN ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Apolikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the most significant bone complications of cancer. About 1.5 million cancer patients worldwide have bone metastases. Patients with myeloma, breast cancer, prostate, thyroid, bladder and lung have very high risk of development of bone lesions and related complications. Currently, osteodensitometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. In recent years we frequently use the innovative imaging techniques for bone metastases, such as CT, MRI, PET/CT. Unfortunately, the diagnostic value of these methods is that it is not always possible to identify abnormalities of bone metabolism in cancer, especially in the early stages. This review shows the world experience of usage of biochemical markers of bone resorption (calcium, hydroxyproline, NTX, CTX, PYD, DPD, TRAP-5b, bone sialoprotein - BSP and markers of bone synthesis (osteocalcin, CSF, ACF, Karlovy vary IFF, their advantages and disadvantages. The level of these markers is increased in most patients with osteoporosis and bone metastases, it is suggesting a potential role in early diagnosis of bone metastases.

  19. Optimal management of bone mineral disorders in chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Andrew L; Nigwekar, Sagar U

    2016-03-01

    The review summarizes recent studies on chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders, with a focus on new developments in disease management. The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has come to describe an increasingly complex network of alterations in minerals and skeletal disorders that contribute to the significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Clinical studies continue to suggest associations with clinical outcomes, yet current clinical trials have failed to support causality. Variability in practice exists as current guidelines for management of mineral bone disorders are often based on weak evidence. Recent studies implicate novel pathways for therapeutic intervention in clinical trials. Mineral bone disorders in chronic kidney disease arise from alterations in a number of molecules in an increasingly complex physiological network interconnecting bone and the cardiovascular system. Despite extensive associations with improved outcomes in a number of molecules, clinical trials have yet to prove causality and there is an absence of new therapies available to improve patient outcomes. Additional clinical trials that can incorporate the complexity of mineral bone disorders, and with the ability to intervene on more than one pathway, are needed to advance patient care.

  20. A clinical study of temporomandibular disorder. The value of bone scintigraphy as an aid to diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Masashi [Nippon Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata

    2000-07-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is still not defined with respect to the point of an entity, terminological problems, and clinical classification and gradings. Moreover, diagnostic problems of internal deranegement and osteodeformity at the temporomandibular joint such as type IV and mechanism of bone remodeling at condylar head are also still not clear. In this investigation, we tried to classify the severity and progressive grading according to the symptoms and objective laboratory data taken from soft tissues such as muscles related to mastication, discs and ligaments, and hard tissues such as condylar head and temporal bone changes around the temporomandibular joint. Preliminary diagnostic clinical tool of the assessment of temporomandibular joint by maens of bone scintigraphy was attributed to the additional diagnostic procedure and research for the bone remodeling for the temporomandibular disorder because this can be defined between subjective and objective symptoms in this disorder. Bone scintigraphy will solve many problems concerning undefined degenerative bone changes in TMD, enable more accurate diagnosis, and the selection of treatment and prognosis in future investigation. Also, it is believed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear bone imaging is a highly accurate diagnostic method for craniomandibular disorders. (author)

  1. A clinical study of temporomandibular disorder. The value of bone scintigraphy as an aid to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Masashi

    2000-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is still not defined with respect to the point of an entity, terminological problems, and clinical classification and gradings. Moreover, diagnostic problems of internal deranegement and osteodeformity at the temporomandibular joint such as type IV and mechanism of bone remodeling at condylar head are also still not clear. In this investigation, we tried to classify the severity and progressive grading according to the symptoms and objective laboratory data taken from soft tissues such as muscles related to mastication, discs and ligaments, and hard tissues such as condylar head and temporal bone changes around the temporomandibular joint. Preliminary diagnostic clinical tool of the assessment of temporomandibular joint by maens of bone scintigraphy was attributed to the additional diagnostic procedure and research for the bone remodeling for the temporomandibular disorder because this can be defined between subjective and objective symptoms in this disorder. Bone scintigraphy will solve many problems concerning undefined degenerative bone changes in TMD, enable more accurate diagnosis, and the selection of treatment and prognosis in future investigation. Also, it is believed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear bone imaging is a highly accurate diagnostic method for craniomandibular disorders. (author)

  2. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremerius, U.

    1997-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.) [de

  3. Wormian bones in osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremin, B.; Goodman, H.; Spranger, J.; Beighton, P.

    1982-01-01

    When are Wormian bones significant is not an easy question to answer, but its relevance is important in relation to bone dysplasias such as osteogenesis imperfecta. Recognition will differ with age of patient, radiographic objectivity, and personal subjectivity. In order to attempt an answer, the skull radiographs of 81 cases of osteogenesis imperfecta of varying ages were examined for the presence of Wormian bones. These were compared against the incidence of Wormian bones in 500 skull radiographs of normal children. Significant Wormian bones as against normal developmental variants were considered to be those more than 10 in number, measuring greater than 6 mm by 4 mm, and arranged in a general mosaic pattern. They were found in all the cases of osteogenesis imperfecta but not in the normal skulls. The occurrence of significant Wormian bones in other bone dysplasias from our material and that of the literature was recorded. Other incidental findings in the skulls of the cases of osteogenesis imperfecta were also appraised. (orig.)

  4. Effects of the Use of Non-Calcium Phosphate Binders in the Control and Outcome of Vascular Calcifications: A Review of Clinical Trials on CKD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    Vascular calcifications produce a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates in patients affected by chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Effects are manifested from the more advanced stages of CKD (stages 3-4), particularly in patients undergoing dialysis (CKD5D). In recent years, a large number of therapeutic options have been successfully used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), despite eliciting less marked effects on nonbone calcifications associated with CKD-MBD. In addition to the use of Vitamin D and analogues, more recently treatment with calcimimetic drugs has also been undertaken. The present paper aims to analyze comparative and efficacy studies undertaken to assess particularly the impact on morbidity and mortality rates of non-calcium phosphate binders. Moreover, the mechanism of action underlying the depositing of calcium and phosphate along blood vessel walls, irrespective of the specific contribution provided in reducing the typical phosphate levels observed in CKD largely at more advanced stages of the disease, will be investigated. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate which phosphate binders are characterised by the above action and the mechanisms through which these are manifested.

  5. Effects of the Use of Non-Calcium Phosphate Binders in the Control and Outcome of Vascular Calcifications: A Review of Clinical Trials on CKD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiorgio Bolasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcifications produce a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates in patients affected by chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD. Effects are manifested from the more advanced stages of CKD (stages 3-4, particularly in patients undergoing dialysis (CKD5D. In recent years, a large number of therapeutic options have been successfully used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT, despite eliciting less marked effects on nonbone calcifications associated with CKD-MBD. In addition to the use of Vitamin D and analogues, more recently treatment with calcimimetic drugs has also been undertaken. The present paper aims to analyze comparative and efficacy studies undertaken to assess particularly the impact on morbidity and mortality rates of non-calcium phosphate binders. Moreover, the mechanism of action underlying the depositing of calcium and phosphate along blood vessel walls, irrespective of the specific contribution provided in reducing the typical phosphate levels observed in CKD largely at more advanced stages of the disease, will be investigated. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate which phosphate binders are characterised by the above action and the mechanisms through which these are manifested.

  6. Emerging drugs for secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mario; Tomlinson, James; Walsh, Liron; Bellasi, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a common, serious, and progressive complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and mineral metabolism abnormalities. These disturbances may result in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), which is associated with poor quality of life and short life expectancy. The goal of SHPT treatment is to maintain PTH, calcium, and phosphorus within accepted targeted ranges. This review highlights the pathogenesis of SHPT and current SHPT therapeutic approaches, including the use of low-phosphate diets, phosphate binders, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and its analogs, calcimimetics, and parathyroidectomy in addition to discussing emerging drugs in development for SHPT. Numerous studies indicate that mineral abnormalities occur early in the course of CKD, are prevalent by the time patients enter dialysis, and foreshadow a risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Several newly developed compounds may potentially overcome the limitations of current SHPT therapies. If emerging therapies can reduce PTH, normalize mineral metabolism, promote treatment adherence, and reduce the risk of side effects, they may provide the requisite features for improving long-term outcomes in patients with SHPT receiving dialysis and reduce the risks of CKD-MBD.

  7. Intensive Hemodialysis, Mineral and Bone Disorder, and Phosphate Binder Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Weinhandl, Eric D; McCullough, Peter A; Morfin, Jose A

    2016-11-01

    Mineral and bone disorder is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. Notably, hyperphosphatemia likely promotes calcification of the myocardium, valves, and arteries. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity along a gradient beginning at 5.0mg/dL. Among contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean serum phosphorus level is 5.2mg/dL, although 25% of patients have serum phosphorus levels of 5.5 to 6.9mg/dL; and 13%, >7.0mg/dL. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is burdensome. Dialysis patients consume a mean of 19 pills per day, half of which are phosphate binders. Medicare Part D expenditures on binders for dialysis patients approached $700 million in 2013. Phosphorus removal with thrice-weekly HD (4 hours per session) is ∼3,000mg/wk. However, clearance is unlikely to counterbalance dietary intake, which varies around a mean of 7,000mg/wk. Dietary restriction and phosphate binders are important interventions, but each has limitations. Dietary control is complicated by limited access to healthy food choices and unclear labeling. Meanwhile, adherence to phosphate binders is poor, especially in younger patients and those with high pill burden. Multiple randomized clinical trials show that intensive HD reduces serum phosphorus levels. In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trial, short daily and nocturnal schedules reduced serum phosphorus levels by 0.6 and 1.6mg/dL, respectively, relative to 3 sessions per week. A similar effect of nocturnal HD was observed in an earlier trial. In the daily arm of the FHN trial, intensive HD significantly lowered estimated phosphate binder dose per day, whereas in the nocturnal arm, intensive HD led to binder discontinuation in 75% of patients. However, intensive HD appears to have no meaningful effects on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. In conclusion, intensive HD, especially nocturnal HD, lowers serum phosphorus levels and decreases the need for

  8. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In multiple-logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for developing hyperpara- thyroidism with ... Materials and methods ... 2009 to April 2016) at two dialysis centers in Johannes- ... gestive of high turnover bone disease, was present in 47.3.

  9. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /L) suggestive of high turnover bone disease, was present in 47.3 % of the study population. In multiple-logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for developing hyperparathyroidism with hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were 5.32 ...

  10. Molecular, Phenotypic Aspects and Therapeutic Horizons of Rare Genetic Bone Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Faruqi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare disease afflicts less than 200,000 individuals, according to the National Organization for Rare Diseases (NORD of the United States. Over 6,000 rare disorders affect approximately 1 in 10 Americans. Rare genetic bone disorders remain the major causes of disability in US patients. These rare bone disorders also represent a therapeutic challenge for clinicians, due to lack of understanding of underlying mechanisms. This systematic review explored current literature on therapeutic directions for the following rare genetic bone disorders: fibrous dysplasia, Gorham-Stout syndrome, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, melorheostosis, multiple hereditary exostosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, achondroplasia, and hypophosphatasia. The disease mechanisms of Gorham-Stout disease, melorheostosis, and multiple hereditary exostosis are not fully elucidated. Inhibitors of the ACVR1/ALK2 pathway may serve as possible therapeutic intervention for FOP. The use of bisphosphonates and IL-6 inhibitors has been explored to be useful in the treatment of fibrous dysplasia, but more research is warranted. Cell therapy, bisphosphonate polytherapy, and human growth hormone may avert the pathology in osteogenesis imperfecta, but further studies are needed. There are still no current effective treatments for these bone disorders; however, significant promising advances in therapeutic modalities were developed that will limit patient suffering and treat their skeletal disabilities.

  11. X-ray imaging characterization of femoral bones in aging mice with osteopetrotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Huang, Hong-Wen; Chang, Wei-Jeng

    2015-04-01

    Aging mice with a rare osteopetrotic disorder in which the entire space of femoral bones are filled with trabecular bones are used as our research platform. A complete study is conducted with a micro computed tomography (CT) system to characterize the bone abnormality. Technical assessment of femoral bones includes geometric structure, biomechanical strength, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC). Normal aging mice of similar ages are included for comparisons. In our imaging work, we model the trabecular bone as a cylindrical rod and new quantitative which are not previously discussed are developed for advanced analysis, including trabecular segment length, trabecular segment radius, connecting node number, and distribution of trabecular segment radius. We then identified a geometric characteristic in which there are local maximums (0.0049, 0.0119, and 0.0147 mm) in the structure of trabecular segment radius. Our calculations show 343% higher in percent trabecular bone volume at distal-metaphysis; 38% higher in cortical thickness at mid-diaphysis; 11% higher in cortical cross-sectional moment of inertia at mid-diaphysis; 42% higher in cortical thickness at femur neck; 26% higher in cortical cross-sectional moment of inertia at femur neck; 31% and 395% higher in trabecular BMD and BMC at distal-metaphysis; 17% and 27% higher in cortical BMD and BMC at distal-metaphysis; 9% and 53% higher in cortical BMD and BMC at mid-diaphysis; 25% and 64% higher in cortical BMD and BMC at femur neck. Our new quantitative parameters and findings may be extended to evaluate the treatment response for other similar bone disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Utility of bone Scan in the Diagnosis of Temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Joo; Kang, Yang Ho; Son, Seok Man; Lee, Kyoung Seog; Lee, Jae Bok; Kim, Yong Ki; Seo, Bong Jik; Park, June Sang; Park, June Sang; Ko, Myung Yun; Son, Seong Pyo

    1995-01-01

    Bone scan is a very sensitive diagnostic imaging test for detecting bone and joint disorders. So it might be useful in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders of the joint origin. Thus, the effectiveness of bone scan for detecting temporomandibular joint(TMJ) diseases and differentiating the TMJ disc displacement from the TMJ arthritis was evaluated. Bone scan was done in 21 patients with TMJ disc displacement (I3 unilaterally affected, 8 bilaterally affected), 26 patients with TMJ arthritis (23 unilateral, 3 bilateral), and 39 volunteers with no signs, symptoms, or history of TMJ disease TMJ simple uptake rate(SUR) and difference of both TMJ SUR were calculated from the 100,000 count lateral image of head and neck region in 99m Tc MDP bone scan. Transcranial and panorama X-ray examination was also done in all patients. TMJ SUR(%) were 1.67 ±0.606 in TMJs affected with arthritis, 1.350±0.351 in TMJs affected with disc displacement, and 1.084±0.172 in TMJs of controls Significant differences were demonstrated among them(p mean+2SD of controls) in unilateral TMJ arthritis patients were significantly higher than those in patients with unilateral TMJ disc displacement(69.6% and 87% vs 23.1% and 23%). Conclusively, bone scan may help to detect TMJ disease and differentiate TMJ disc displacement from TMJ arthritis.

  13. Use of nuclear medicine and imaging techniques in disorders of the bone system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Falcon, Daylin; Marrero Riveron, Luis Oscar; Ledea Lozano, Oscar E

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that deals with clinical diagnosis, treatment and research through the use of isotopes as open sources. Bone diseases such as osteoporosis, primary bone cancer, bone metastases, arthrosis and arthritis are common among the population. The objective of this review was to present international and national statistics, and evaluate the incidence of these disorders. Additionally, a review was conducted of various clinical studies to identify the radiopharmaceuticals most frequently used to diagnose and treat bone disease, and their combination with the most common imaging techniques. A presentation was made of the usefulness of bone gammagraphy and the confirmation of the disorders studied. Reference was also made to the use of new techniques such as single photon emission tomography or positron emission tomography. It was found that the radioisotope most commonly used to diagnose diseases of the bone system was 99m Tc, due to its physical and chemical characteristics, whereas 186 Re, 188 Re, 153 Sm, 177 Lu, 32 P, 89 Sr, 85 Sr, 117m Sn are used for therapeutic purposes, depending on the type, location and magnitude of the lesions and the availability of the radioisotope. At present, radiopharmaceutical development centers on combining these radioisotopes with various biomolecules to improve their properties and broaden their field of application

  14. Bone Density in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhlaspour, Laya; Baskaran, Charumathi; Campoverde, Karen Joanie; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Neumeyer, Ann M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for fracture, and peri-pubertal boys with ASD have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than controls. Data are lacking regarding BMD in older adolescents with ASD. We compared BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 9 adolescents/young adults with ASD against 9 typically…

  15. Brief Report: Bone Fractures in Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; O'Rourke, Julia A.; Massa, Alexandra; Lee, Hang; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Peripubertal boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than typically developing controls. However, it is not clear whether lower BMD in ASD results in an increased fracture rate. This study examined the rate of fractures in children and adults with and without ASD using a national database of emergency room…

  16. The risk of eating disorders and bone health in young adults: the mediating role of body composition and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Miguel, Miriam; Torres-Costoso, Ana; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-11-13

    To analyze the independent relationship between the risk of eating disorders and bone health and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). In this cross-sectional study, bone-related variables, lean mass, fat mass (by DXA), risk of eating disorders (SCOFF questionnaire), height, weight, waist circumference and CRF were measured in 487 university students aged 18-30 years from the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. ANCOVA models were estimated to test mean differences in bone mass categorized by body composition, CRF or risk of eating disorders. Subsequently, linear regression models were fitted according to Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation analysis. The marginal estimated mean ± SE values of total body bone mineral density for the categories "no risk of eating disorders" and "risk of eating disorders" were 1.239 ± 0.126 eating disorders and bone health in young adults. Body composition and CRF mediate the association between the risk of eating disorders and bone health. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a healthy weight and good CRF for the prevention of the development of eating disorders and for the maintenance of good bone health in young adults. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  17. Studies on 99Tcm-sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Zhang Yifan; Jia Fangxian; Kang Fu; Jian Shiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the imaging features and changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) as well as its clinical significance. Methods: Bone marrow scintigraphy using 99 Tc m -sulfur colloid 370-550 MBq was performed on 85 MPD patients, including 40 cases of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), 15 of polycythemia vera (PV), 5 of essential thrombocythaemia (ET), 30 of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Also, 40 cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were observed in this study. Results: Abnormal bone marrow imaging was found in 88.2% of the 85 patients. The suppression rate of central bone marrow (CBM) and expansion rate of peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in these MPD patients were 61.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The imaging patterns was classified into three types according to the distribution and activity of bone marrow. 1) reduced imaging (31.8%); 2) increased and expanded imaging (27.1%); 3) depressed and expanded imaging (29.4%). Splenomegaly with minimal residual marrow activity was typical for late stages of MPD. Expansion of PBM was the further feature, but of no major importance for improving hematopoiesis of MPD, and it tended to retract during clinical recovery in chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). With expanding PBM, unmatched peripheral blood decreasing was found in MDS. The expansion pattern of PBM in different MPD was of relatively definite features. Conclusions: The imaging pattern of bone marrow was correlated with blood work-up data and clinical course or stages of MPD. Bone marrow scintigraphy may be proven useful in differential diagnosis and evaluation of clinical staging and prognosis of MPD

  18. Diagnostic values of bone scintigram for painful disorders of the hand and the wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuhisa; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kusunose, Koichi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Honjou, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    From April 1993 to April 1997, 43 patients underwent bone scintigraphic examination for various painful conditions in the hand and the wrist joint. Three hours after an intravenous injection of 740 MBq of TC-99m HMDP, wrist scintigram was obtained. Of 18 patients with ulnar wrist pain, 12 patients had positive scan. The accumulation pattern in the five cases of ulnocarpal abutment syndrome showed different patterns. Slight difference of the accumulation between the ulnar head and the ulnar styloid process was well differentiated. Each carpal bone could be well identified, but when two bones were overlapping as in the triquetrum and the pisiform, additional physical findings were helpful. Six patients showed negative scan. The two patients with positive triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tear but with negative bone scan showed no bony involvement, whereas those with TFC tear and positive scan were the ones having some bony disorders such as ulnocarpal abutment syndrome. Of 25 patients with wrist pain other than ulnar pain, 14 patients had positive scan. The remaining 11 patients who had negative scan included three patients with occult ganglion, two with wrist sprain and six with various disorders. (K.H.)

  19. Diagnostic values of bone scintigram for painful disorders of the hand and the wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Kazuhisa; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kusunose, Koichi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Honjou, Yuji [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    From April 1993 to April 1997, 43 patients underwent bone scintigraphic examination for various painful conditions in the hand and the wrist joint. Three hours after an intravenous injection of 740 MBq of TC-99m HMDP, wrist scintigram was obtained. Of 18 patients with ulnar wrist pain, 12 patients had positive scan. The accumulation pattern in the five cases of ulnocarpal abutment syndrome showed different patterns. Slight difference of the accumulation between the ulnar head and the ulnar styloid process was well differentiated. Each carpal bone could be well identified, but when two bones were overlapping as in the triquetrum and the pisiform, additional physical findings were helpful. Six patients showed negative scan. The two patients with positive triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tear but with negative bone scan showed no bony involvement, whereas those with TFC tear and positive scan were the ones having some bony disorders such as ulnocarpal abutment syndrome. Of 25 patients with wrist pain other than ulnar pain, 14 patients had positive scan. The remaining 11 patients who had negative scan included three patients with occult ganglion, two with wrist sprain and six with various disorders. (K.H.)

  20. Busulfan and total body irradiation as antihematopoietic stem cell agents in the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, R.; Rappeport, J.M.; Hellman, S.; Lipton, J.; Smith, B.; Geha, R.; Nathan, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The capacity of busulfan and total body irradiation to ablate hematopoietic stem cells as preparation for the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders was studied. Fourteen patients received 18 transplants; busulfan was used in the preparatory regimen of eight transplants and total body irradiation in the regimens of six transplants. Sustained hematopoietic ablation was achieved in six of eight patients prepared with busulfan and in all six patients prepared with total body irradiation. Three patients prepared with total body irradiation died with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, whereas no patients receiving busulfan developed interstitial pneumonitis. The optimal antihematopoietic stem cell agent to be used for the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorder for bone marrow transplantation is not certain

  1. Use of Calcium and Alendronic Acid Preparations in Correction of Structural and Functional Disorders of Bone Tissue in Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Oliynyk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impact of calcium and alendronic acid preparations on disorders of structural and functional state of bone tissue in experimental animals at exogenic thyrotoxicosis was studied. It was defined that introduction of calcium preparations reduces bone mineral density loss in female rats with drug thyrotoxicosis, and combined use of calcium and alendronic acid prevents bone tissue loss regardless of thyrotoxicosis duration and presence of ovariectomy.

  2. Paracrystalline Disorder from Phosphate Ion Orientation and Substitution in Synthetic Bone Mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Mary E; Zhou, Shiliang; Melot, Brent C; Peaslee, Graham F; Neilson, James R

    2016-12-05

    Hydroxyapatite is an inorganic mineral closely resembling the mineral phase in bone. However, as a biological mineral, it is highly disordered, and its composition and atomistic structure remain poorly understood. Here, synchrotron X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis methods provide insight into the nature of atomistic disorder in a synthetic bone mineral analogue, chemically substituted hydroxyapatite. By varying the effective hydrolysis rate and/or carbonate concentration during growth of the mineral, compounds with varied degrees of paracrystallinity are prepared. From advanced simulations constrained by the experimental pair distribution function and density functional theory, the paracrystalline disorder prevalent in these materials appears to result from accommodation of carbonate in the lattice through random displacement of the phosphate groups. Though many substitution modalities are likely to occur in concert, the most predominant substitution places carbonate into the mirror plane of an ideal phosphate site. Understanding the mineralogical imperfections of a biologically analogous hydroxyapatite is important not only to potential bone grafting applications but also to biological mineralization processes themselves.

  3. Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus ( 32 P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32 P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32 P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32 P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32 P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32 P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32 P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32 P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

  4. Risk factors associated with keel bone and foot pad disorders in laying hens housed in aviary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, J.L.T.; Delezie, E.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Kempen, I.; Zoons, J.; Ampe, B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aviary systems for laying hens offer space and opportunities to perform natural behaviors. However, hen welfare can be impaired due to increased risk for keel bone and foot pad disorders in those systems. This cross-sectional study (N = 47 flocks) aimed to assess prevalences of keel bone and foot

  5. Reduced bone mineral density in adult women diagnosed with menstrual disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiksten-Almströmer, Marianne; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindën; Hagenfeldt, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in their adolescence. Prospective follow-up study six years after the initial investigation. A youth clinic that is part of the school health system in Stockholm. Eighty-seven women diagnosed with secondary amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea in adolescence. Subjects underwent gynecological examination, evaluation of eating behavior and physical activity. Whole body Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD. BMD. The overall frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 52%, and three girls had osteoporosis. Women with previous secondary amenorrhea had significantly lower BMD in the pelvis and lumbar spine than those with previous oligomenorrhea. The strongest predictor of low BMD was a restrictive eating disorder in adolescence and the most important counteraction was high physical activity at follow-up and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 22. Persistent menstrual dysfunction at follow-up was associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and lower frequency of osteopenia. This clinical follow-up study has demonstrated a high frequency of osteopenia in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in adolescence. Previous anorectic behavior was the strongest negative predictor of BMD. It is important to pay attention to an underlying eating disorder in young women with menstrual dysfunction in order to promote bone health.

  6. Parental consent for bone marrow transplantation in the case of genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prows, C A; McCain, G C

    1997-01-01

    To describe the responses of mothers and fathers who were offered bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for their children with genetic disorders. Qualitative. Private hospital rooms/offices. Six mothers and 4 fathers of children with genetic disorders. The basic social-psychological problem confronting the parents was the conflicting alternatives of life versus death for their children. It was certain that these children would die from their genetic disorders but without having to endure the pain and suffering of a BMT. The BMT would be difficult, possibly resulting in death, but with a chance of survival. Parents believed that BMT was the only chance of survival for their children, leaving them no choice except to pursue the BMT treatment.

  7. Use of Bone Marrow derived Stem Cells in patients with Cardiovascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end stage heart failure have very few treatment options. The long waiting times for transplant and the complications associated with immunosuppression has led to the search for alternatives. Subsequent to the isolation and characterization of stem cells, tremendous advances have been made and the safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow derived stem cells has been proven in preclinical studies. Clinical studies have also shown mobilized cells repair the infracted heart, improving function and survival. We have started a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of bone marrow derived stem cells. Bone-marrow was aspirated from the right iliac crest and the stem cells were isolated by density gradient method and suspended according to the mode of delivery.From Jan 2007 till date 10 patients (8 adults, 2 children, age with end stage cardiovascular disorder of varied etiology (Ischemic left ventricular dysfunction - 6 patients, Primary pulmonary hypertension - 2 patients, Dilated cardiomyopathy -1 patient, Biventricular non-compaction -1 patient underwent stem cell therapy. All patients were evaluated and cardiac function was measured by using echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy. There were no procedure related complications. These patients are being regularly followed-up and one patient who has completed 6-month follow-up has shown improvement in perfusion as well as increase in ejection fraction of 10%. Stem cell therapy in patients with end-stage cardiovascular disorder might be a promising tool by means of angiogenesis and other paracrine mechanisms.

  8. Utility of bone scintigraphy in the study of hereditary disorders of the connective tissues (HDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, J.F; Arteaga M P; Coelho, L

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Collagen fiber genetic alterations predispose to pain and instability of joints, with a tendency to osteoarthritis, and may also cause fragility of other tissues. Objective: To demonstrate that Bone Scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissues (HDCT). Material and methods: We studied the scintigraphic changes of wrists, carpal bones and hands of 22 adult patients with HDCT who were diagnosed clinically using both the Brighton Criteria(1), as well as own criteria**. We compared them to 22 controls with similar age and sex, who had a bone scintigram done for other purposes. Results: Statistically significant scintigraphic positivity was found in the areas studied in the patients as compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05), with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 73%. There was no correlation of the degree of positivity with age, sex or type of HDCT studied. A scintigraphic positivity was seen both in patients with lax joints, as well as in those with a lesser degree of joint mobility. Conclusions: We concluded that bone scintigraphic studies are useful in the diagnosis of adult HDCT patients (including Benign Joint Hyper mobility Syndrome (BJHS) and other forms of Ehlers-Danlos). We suggest that not only hypermobility of joints, but also cartilage fragility are important pathogenic factors in the genesis of these alterations. We formulate a new hypothesis of the importance of low folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a cause for mutations that would give rise to HDCT (Au)

  9. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  10. Utility of bone scintigraphy in the study of hereditary disorders of the connective tissues (HDCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, J F; P, Arteaga M; Coelho, L [Departments of Rheumatology and Nuclear Medicine. Clinica Arauco. Santiago (Chile)

    2003-10-01

    Introduction: Collagen fiber genetic alterations predispose to pain and instability of joints, with a tendency to osteoarthritis, and may also cause fragility of other tissues. Objective: To demonstrate that Bone Scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissues (HDCT). Material and methods: We studied the scintigraphic changes of wrists, carpal bones and hands of 22 adult patients with HDCT who were diagnosed clinically using both the Brighton Criteria(1), as well as own criteria**. We compared them to 22 controls with similar age and sex, who had a bone scintigram done for other purposes. Results: Statistically significant scintigraphic positivity was found in the areas studied in the patients as compared to controls (p {<=} 0.05), with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 73%. There was no correlation of the degree of positivity with age, sex or type of HDCT studied. A scintigraphic positivity was seen both in patients with lax joints, as well as in those with a lesser degree of joint mobility. Conclusions: We concluded that bone scintigraphic studies are useful in the diagnosis of adult HDCT patients (including Benign Joint Hyper mobility Syndrome (BJHS) and other forms of Ehlers-Danlos). We suggest that not only hypermobility of joints, but also cartilage fragility are important pathogenic factors in the genesis of these alterations. We formulate a new hypothesis of the importance of low folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a cause for mutations that would give rise to HDCT (Au)

  11. Prediction of Splint Therapy Efficacy Using Bone Scan in Patients with Unilateral Temporomandibular Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Mi; Lee, Won Woo; Yun, Pil Young; Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2009-01-01

    It is not known whether bone scan is useful for the prediction of the prognosis of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of the present study was to identify useful prognostic markers on bone scan for the pre-therapeutic assessment of patients with unilateral TMD. Between January 2005 and July 2007, 55 patients (M:F=9:46; mean age, 34.7±14.1 y) with unilateral TMD that underwent a pre-therapeutic bone scan were enrolled. Uptake of Tc-99m HDP in each temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was quantitated using a 13X13 pixel-square region-of-interest over TMJ and parietal skull area as background. TMJ uptake ratios and asymmetric indices were calculated. TMD patients were classified as improved or not improved and the bone scan findings associated with each group were investigated. Forty-six patients were improved, whereas 9 patients were not improved. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients regarding the TMJ uptake ratio of the involved joint, the TMJ uptake ratio of the non-involved joint, and the asymmetric index (p>0.05). However, in a subgroup analysis, the patients with an increased uptake of Tc-99m HDP at the disease-involved TMJ, by visual assessment, could be easily identified by the asymmetric index; the patients that improved had a higher asymmetric index than the patients that did not improve (1.32±0.35 vs. 1.08±0.04, p=0.023), The Tc-99m HDP bone scan may help predict the prognosis of patients with unilateral TMD after splint therapy when the TMD-involved joint reveals increased uptake by visual assessment

  12. Prediction of Splint Therapy Efficacy Using Bone Scan in Patients with Unilateral Temporomandibular Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Mi; Lee, Won Woo; Yun, Pil Young; Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is not known whether bone scan is useful for the prediction of the prognosis of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of the present study was to identify useful prognostic markers on bone scan for the pre-therapeutic assessment of patients with unilateral TMD. Between January 2005 and July 2007, 55 patients (M:F=9:46; mean age, 34.7{+-}14.1 y) with unilateral TMD that underwent a pre-therapeutic bone scan were enrolled. Uptake of Tc-99m HDP in each temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was quantitated using a 13X13 pixel-square region-of-interest over TMJ and parietal skull area as background. TMJ uptake ratios and asymmetric indices were calculated. TMD patients were classified as improved or not improved and the bone scan findings associated with each group were investigated. Forty-six patients were improved, whereas 9 patients were not improved. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients regarding the TMJ uptake ratio of the involved joint, the TMJ uptake ratio of the non-involved joint, and the asymmetric index (p>0.05). However, in a subgroup analysis, the patients with an increased uptake of Tc-99m HDP at the disease-involved TMJ, by visual assessment, could be easily identified by the asymmetric index; the patients that improved had a higher asymmetric index than the patients that did not improve (1.32{+-}0.35 vs. 1.08{+-}0.04, p=0.023), The Tc-99m HDP bone scan may help predict the prognosis of patients with unilateral TMD after splint therapy when the TMD-involved joint reveals increased uptake by visual assessment.

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency in HIV Infection: Not Only a Bone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Mansueto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D is a worldwide disorder, with a high prevalence in the general population of both Western and developing countries. In HIV patients, several studies have linked vitamin D status with bone disease, neurocognitive impairment, depression, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infections, autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. In this review, we focus on the most recent epidemiological and experimental data dealing with the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and HIV infection. We analysed the extent of the problem, pathogenic mechanisms, clinical implications, and potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in HIV-infected subjects.

  14. Usefulness of bone window CT images parallel to the transnasal surgical route for pituitary disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Kunii, N.; Ikeda, H.; Izumiyama, H.; Asahina, N.

    2003-01-01

    Before operating on 130 patients with pituitary disorders, we evaluated their bone window CT images sliced parallel to the trans nasal surgical route to assess the surgical anatomy of the nasal cavity for trans nasal surgery. High resolution bone window CT was performed in 3- to 5-mm slices parallel to the imaginary line connecting the inferior margin of the piriform aperture and the top of the sellar floor, parallel to the trans nasal surgical route. This CT angle was useful in evaluating the width and depth of the operative hold, the bony components of the nasal conchas, deviation of the nasal septum, the bony structure and mucosa in the sphenoid sinus, and the condition of the sellar floor. In patients requiring repeat surgery, the location of thin or thick nasal mucosa, residual bony septum, and inadequate sellar floor opening were easily detected. Bone window CT images sliced parallel to the trans nasal surgical route provide direct visualization of the nasal anatomy for the trans nasal approach. This method is helpful in determining how far to remove the sellar floor laterally, especially in cases requiring repeat surgery. (author)

  15. Management of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder: Korean working group recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunah Hwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For Korean dialysis patients, chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder is a serious burden because of cardiovascular calcification and mortality. However, recent epidemiologic data have demonstrated that many patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis are out of the target ranges of serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone. Thus, we felt the necessity for the development of practical recommendations to treat abnormal serum phosphorus, calcium, and iPTH in dialysis patients. In this paper, we briefly comment on the measurement of serum calcium, phosphorus, iPTH, dialysate calcium concentration, dietary phosphorus restriction, use of phosphate binders, and medical and surgical options to correct secondary hyperparathyroidism. In particular, for the optimal management of secondary hyperparathyroidism, we suggest a simplified medication adjustment according to certain ranges of serum phosphorus and calcium. Large-scale, well-designed clinical studies are required to support our strategies to control chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder in this country. Based on such data, our practice guidelines could be established and better long-term outcomes should be anticipated in our dialysis patients.

  16. Nephrolithiasis, kidney failure and bone disorders in Dent disease patients with and without CLCN5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglani, Franca; D'Angelo, Angela; Bertizzolo, Luisa Maria; Tosetto, Enrica; Ceol, Monica; Cremasco, Daniela; Bonfante, Luciana; Addis, Maria Antonietta; Del Prete, Dorella

    2015-01-01

    Dent disease (DD) is a rare X-linked recessive renal tubulopathy characterised by low-molecular-weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis. DD is caused by mutations in both the CLCN5 and OCRL genes. CLCN5 encodes the electrogenic chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5 which is involved in the tubular reabsorption of albumin and LMW proteins, OCRL encodes the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, and was initially associated with Lowe syndrome. In approximately 25 % of patients, no CLCN5 and OCRL mutations were detected. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether calcium phosphate metabolism disorders and their clinical complications are differently distributed among DD patients with and without CLCN5 mutations. Sixty-four male subjects were studied and classified into three groups: Group I (with CLCN5 mutations), Group II (without CLCN5 mutations) and Group III (family members with the same CLCN5 mutation). LMWP, hypercalciuria and phosphaturic tubulopathy and the consequent clinical complications nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, bone disorders, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were considered present or absent in each patient. We found that the distribution of nephrolithiasis, bone disorders and CKD differs among patients with and without CLCN5 mutations. Only in patients harbouring CLCN5 mutations was age-independent nephrolithiasis associated with hypercalciuria, suggesting that nephrolithiasis is linked to altered proximal tubular function caused by a loss of ClC-5 function, in agreement with ClC-5 KO animal models. Similarly, only in patients harbouring CLCN5 mutations was age-independent kidney failure associated with nephrocalcinosis, suggesting that kidney failure is the consequence of a ClC-5 dysfunction, as in ClC-5 KO animal models. Bone disorders are a relevant feature of DD phenotype, as patients were mainly young males and this complication occurred independently of age. The triad of symptoms, LMWP

  17. Assessment of lumbar trabecular bone density by means of single energy quantitative CT in hospital control children and bone metabolic disorders, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akie; Imai, Kaoru; Mochizuki, Yumiko; Hayashi, Kitami; Mitsuishi, Yoichi; Fukuyama, Yukio; Kohno, Atsushi; Shigeta, Teiko

    1990-01-01

    We studied the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone mineral density in 59 cross-sectional pictures of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with CaCO 3 phantom for 28 hospital control children and 30 cases of suspected bone metabolic disorders. The QCT value of bone mineral density of control children showed neither age dependency nor sexual difference before puberty: for males was 221.8±30.2 mg CaCO 3 /cm 3 (Mean±SD) under 4 years, 218.1±39.7 at 5∼9 years and 217.2±30.9 at 10∼15 years; and for females 220.9±18.3 under 4 years and 240.0±29.4 at 5∼9 years. The QCT values of bone mineral density in bed-ridden patients, children receiving glucocorticoids, and children receiving anticonvulsants were significantly lower than that in control children (p<0.005). The QCT value of bone mineral density of bed-ridden patients was significantly lower than that of children receiving glucocorticoids and of children receiving anticonvulsants (p<0.05, p<0.005 respectively). Our study confirmed that single energy quantitative CT was very useful in pediatric clinical application. (author)

  18. Assessment of lumbar trabecular bone density by means of single energy quantitative CT in hospital control children and bone metabolic disorders, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akie; Imai, Kaoru; Mochizuki, Yumiko; Hayashi, Kitami; Mitsuishi, Yoichi; Fukuyama, Yukio; Kohno, Atsushi; Shigeta, Teiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    We studied the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone mineral density in 59 cross-sectional pictures of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with CaCO{sub 3} phantom for 28 hospital control children and 30 cases of suspected bone metabolic disorders. The QCT value of bone mineral density of control children showed neither age dependency nor sexual difference before puberty: for males was 221.8{plus minus}30.2 mg CaCO{sub 3}/cm{sup 3} (Mean{plus minus}SD) under 4 years, 218.1{plus minus}39.7 at 5{approx}9 years and 217.2{plus minus}30.9 at 10{approx}15 years; and for females 220.9{plus minus}18.3 under 4 years and 240.0{plus minus}29.4 at 5{approx}9 years. The QCT values of bone mineral density in bed-ridden patients, children receiving glucocorticoids, and children receiving anticonvulsants were significantly lower than that in control children (p<0.005). The QCT value of bone mineral density of bed-ridden patients was significantly lower than that of children receiving glucocorticoids and of children receiving anticonvulsants (p<0.05, p<0.005 respectively). Our study confirmed that single energy quantitative CT was very useful in pediatric clinical application. (author).

  19. Use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, the trabecular bone score and quantitative computed tomography in the evaluation of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    In subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who suffer a minimal trauma fracture, the problem is to differentiate between osteoporosis and the various forms of renal bone disease associated with CKD-mineral and bone disorder. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that renal osteodystrophy may coexist with osteoporosis. The World Health Organization's bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteopenia ( -2.5 < T-score < -1.0) and osteoporosis (a T-score ≤ -2.5) may be used in patients with CKD stages 1-3. In CKD stages 4-5, BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is less predictive and may underestimate fracture risk. The development of absolute fracture risk (AFR) algorithms, such as FRAX® and the Garvan absolute fracture risk calculator, to predict risk of fracture over a given time (usually 10 years) aims to incorporate non-BMD risk factors into the clinical assessment. FRAX® has been shown to be useful to assess fracture risk in CKD but may underestimate fracture risk in advanced CKD. The trabecular bone score is a measure of grey scale homogeneity obtained from spine DXA, which correlates to trabecular microarchitecture and is an independent risk factor for fracture. Recent data demonstrate the potential utility of the trabecular bone score adjustment of AFR through the FRAX® algorithm in subjects with CKD. Parameters of bone microarchitecture using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or high-resolution pQCT are also able to discriminate fracture status in subjects with CKD. However, there are at present no convincing data that the addition of pQCT or high-resolution pQCT parameters to DXA BMD improves fracture discrimination. More advanced estimates of bone strength derived from measurements of micro-architecture, by QCT-derived finite element analysis may be incorporated into AFR algorithms in the future. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Bone changes in the condylar head and mandibular fossa in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Helical CT observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimahara, Satoru; Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Shimahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether bone changes are present in sites impossible to observe by panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination, namely the medial of the condylar head and mandibular fossa, in patients with type IV temporomandibular joint disorders. We observed the articular fossa using computed tomography, which is able to obtain detailed 3-dimensional information, in patients with type IV temporomandibular disorders. We examined 120 joints of 60 patiens who visited the Department of Oral Surgery, Osaka Medical College Hospital. Each condylar head was clearly visualized in panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination findings, and shown to have possible changes unilaterally. Each joint was diagnosed as type IV, according to the diagnostic guidelines set by Japanese Society for Temporomandibular Joint, and further examined using helical CT. Changes in condylar head; We concluded that bone changes were present with considerable probability in the medial of condylar head in a manner similar to those found in the lateral and center of joints with type IV temporomandibular disorders. Changes in mandibular fossa; The bone changes occurred in various locations of the mandibular fossa, while they appeared significantly more frequently in the condylar head. We think that our finding will contribute to development of treatment strategies for temporomandibular disorders, as they clarify bone changes in sites previously unreported. (author)

  1. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

  2. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  3. From "Kidneys Govern Bones" to Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Bone Disorder: A Crosstalk between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Zou, Xin-Rong; Zhang, Yuan Clare

    2016-01-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of "Kidneys Govern Bones." Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. Two signaling pathways essential for calcium-phosphate metabolism can mediate the effect of kidneys in bone homeostasis, one requiring renal production of bioactive vitamin D and the other involving an endocrine axis based on kidney-expressed Klotho and bone-secreted fibroblast growth factor 23. Disruption of either pathway can lead to calcium-phosphate imbalance and vascular calcification, accelerating metabolic bone disorder. Chinese herbal medicine is an adjunct therapy widely used for treating CKD and diabetes. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a Chinese herbal formulation, Shen-An extracts, in diabetic nephropathy and renal osteodystrophy. We believe that the smart combination of Eastern and Western concepts holds great promise for inspiring new ideas and therapies for preventing and treating complications of CKD and diabetes.

  4. Evaluation with fat-suppression fast spin-echo T2-weighted images for bone and soft tissue disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Watanabe, Katsushi; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Shimizu, Tokiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four magnetic resonance (MR) studies of bone or soft tissue disorders were evaluated with T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) imaging and T2-weighted fat-suppressed FSE (FS-FSE) imaging. Fifty-two patients with bone contusion of the knee were also evaluated with conventional T2-weighted SE imaging and T2-weighted FS-FSE imaging. In 50 of 71 patients (70.4%), areas of high signal intensity in bone marrow were more clearly demonstrated on T2-weighted FS-FSE images than on T2-weighted FSE image. Edema or inflammation of soft tissues were also clearly revealed on T2-weighted FS-FSE images. In 27 of 32 patients (84%), bone contusions were more apparently shown on T2-weighted FS-FSE images than on conventional T2-weighted SE image. T2-weighted FS-FSE imaging is a sensitive method of evaluating the long T2 lesions of bone or soft tissue disorders. (author)

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Phosphate Binders in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Sekercioglu

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD has been linked to poor health outcomes, including diminished quality and length of life. This condition is characterized by high phosphate levels and requires phosphate-lowering agents-phosphate binders. The objective of this systematic review is to compare the effects of available phosphate binders on patient-important outcomes in patients with CKD-MBD.Data sources included MEDLINE and EMBASE Trials from 1996 to February 2016. We also searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to April 2016. Teams of two reviewers, independently and in duplicate, screened titles and abstracts and potentially eligible full text reports to determine eligibility, and subsequently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias in eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Eligible trials enrolled patients with CKD-MBD, randomized them to receive calcium (delivered as calcium acetate, calcium citrate or calcium carbonate, non-calcium-based phosphate binders (NCBPB (sevelamer hydrochloride, sevelamer carbonate, lanthanum carbonate, sucroferric oxyhydroxide and ferric citrate, phosphorus restricted diet, placebo or no treatment, and reported effects on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization at ≥4 weeks follow-up. We performed network meta-analyses (NMA for all cause-mortality for individual agents (seven-node analysis and conventional meta-analysis of calcium vs. NCBPBs for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization. In the NMAs, we calculated the effect estimates for direct, indirect and network meta-analysis estimates; for both NMA and conventional meta-analysis, we pooled treatment effects as risk ratios (RR and calculated 95% confidence intervals (CIs using random effect models. We used the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the quality of evidence for each paired comparison.Our search

  6. Living with the unknown: Posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskıran, Gülseren; Sürer Adanır, Aslı; Özatalay, Esin

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat children with various hematologic, oncologic, and metabolic diseases. Although the treatment can be lifesaving, it is also physically and psychologically demanding for both the child and caregivers. In previous studies, BMT is found to be related with anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and psychosocial problems both in children and parents. The aim of this study was to investigate PTSD in pediatric BMT survivors and their mothers compared with the healthy controls. Twenty-seven BMT survivors and their mothers and 28 healthy peers and their mothers were recruited as the study group and as the comparison group, respectively. All children were interviewed using Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) for assessing posttraumatic stress responses. As for mothers, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was used. In healthy children and mothers, instead of BMT, the most important traumatic event reported by them was included. All data were analyzed by a neutral statistician from the Department of Biostatistics of the university. The BMT group, both children and mothers, obtained significantly higher PTSD rates than the control group (66.5% and 17.8%, respectively, in children; 57.6% and 7%, respectively, in mothers). However, there was a weak correlation between survivors' and mothers' posttraumatic stress responses. These findings suggest that BMT is a significant stressor for both children and mothers. Clinicians should be aware of psychiatric symptoms of children who underwent such a life-threatening condition. Combination of medical treatment with psychosocial support is imperative.

  7. Association of Parameters of Mineral Bone Disorder with Mortality in Patients on Hemodialysis according to Level of Residual Kidney Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjing; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Lau, Wei Ling; Chen, Jing; Hao, Chuanming; Hamano, Takayuki; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-07-07

    The relationship between mineral and bone disorders and survival according to residual kidney function status has not been previously studied in patients on hemodialysis. We hypothesized that residual kidney function, defined by renal urea clearance, modifies the association between mineral and bone disorder parameters and mortality. The associations of serum phosphorus, albumin-corrected calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase with all-cause mortality were examined across three strata (kidney function modified the mortality risk associated with serum phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone among incident hemodialysis patients. Future studies are needed to examine whether taking account for residual kidney function into the assessment of mortality risk associated with serum phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone improves patient management and clinical outcomes in the hemodialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. The association between major depressive disorder, use of antidepressants and bone mineral density (BMD) in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauma, P H; Pasco, J A; Berk, M; Stuart, A L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Honkanen, R J; Hodge, J M; Williams, L J

    2015-06-01

    Both depression and use of antidepressants have been negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) but mainly in studies among postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate these relationships in men. Between 2006 and 2011, 928 men (aged 24-98 years) from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study completed a comprehensive questionnaire, clinical measurements and had BMD assessments at the forearm, spine, total hip and total body. Major depressive disorder (MDD) was identified using a structured clinical interview (SCID-I/NP). The cross-sectional associations between BMD and both MDD and antidepressant use were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Of the study population, 84 (9.1%) men had a single MDD episode, 50 (5.4%) had recurrent episodes and 65 (7.0%) were using antidepressants at the time of assessment. Following adjustments, recurrent MDD was associated with lower BMD at the forearm and total body (-6.5%, P=0.033 and -2.5%, P=0.033, respectively compared to men with no history of MDD), while single MDD episodes were associated with higher BMD at the total hip (+3.4%, P=0.030). Antidepressant use was associated with lower BMD only in lower-weight men (depression and use of antidepressants should be taken into account as possible risk factors for osteoporosis in men.

  9. Associations among Epstein-Barr virus subtypes, human leukocyte antigen class I alleles, and the development of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in bone marrow transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görzer, Irene; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; van Esser, Joost W J; Niesters, Hubert G M; Cornelissen, Jan J

    2007-01-01

    The association between Epstein-Barr virus subtype, human leukocyte antigen class I alleles, and the development of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder was examined in a group of 25 bone marrow transplant recipients. A highly statistically significant correlation was observed between

  10. The Use of Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs to Identify Osteoclast Defects in Rare Genetic Bone Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ping Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 500 rare genetic bone disorders have been described, but for many of them only limited treatment options are available. Challenges for studying these bone diseases come from a lack of suitable animal models and unavailability of skeletal tissues for studies. Effectors for skeletal abnormalities of bone disorders may be abnormal bone formation directed by osteoblasts or anomalous bone resorption by osteoclasts, or both. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells of various tissue sources and in theory can be differentiated into any desired cell type. However, successful differentiation of hiPSCs into functional bone cells is still a challenge. Our group focuses on the use of human iPSCs (hiPSCs to identify osteoclast defects in craniometaphyseal dysplasia. In this review, we describe the impact of stem cell technology on research for better treatment of such disorders, the generation of hiPSCs from patients with rare genetic bone disorders and current protocols for differentiating hiPSCs into osteoclasts.

  11. Recent Changes in Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorders and Associated Fractures After Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Peggy; Kiener, Clotilde; Javier, Rose-Marie; Braun, Laura; Cognard, Noelle; Gautier-Vargas, Gabriela; Heibel, Francoise; Muller, Clotilde; Olagne, Jerome; Moulin, Bruno; Ohlmann, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    The management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders has recently changed. We investigated the modifications of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder with a special focus on the incidence of fractures in the first year after kidney transplantation (KT). We retrospectively compared 2 groups of patients who consecutively underwent transplantation at our center 5 years from each other. Group 1 consisted of patients (n = 152) transplanted between 2004 and 2006, whereas patients in group 2 (n = 137) underwent KT between 2009 and 2011. During the end-stage renal disease phase at the time of transplant, cinacalcet, and native vitamin D were used significantly more frequently in group 2. Median intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower and severe hyperparathyroidism decreased significantly. Vitamin D deficiency dropped from 64% to 20%. After transplantation, persistent hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone > 130 ng/L) and bone turnover markers were significantly reduced in group 2. Native vitamin D supplementation increased over time, whereas the use of active vitamin D was unchanged. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly higher. The fracture incidence at 1 year decreased significantly (3.1% vs 9.1%; P = 0.047). No steroid sparing was observed in group 2. Bisphosphonates after KT were more frequently used in group 2. Recent changes in clinical practice are associated with reductions in pretransplant and posttransplant hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and fracture risk after KT.

  12. Disorders of bone-mineral metabolism and their correction with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Shelestova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes in bone-mineral metabolism provide normal course of pregnancy, labour and fetus development, women with body weight deficiency are at risk reduction of bone tissue mineral density, progressing of osteopenia and osteoporosis. This shows the necessity of medical and preventive measures that have the aim to correct calcium- phosphorus and bone metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency. Aim. To elaborate and to evaluate medical and preventive measures that have the aim to correct disorders in bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy. Materials and methods. The efficiency of adding combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol and dietary nourishment to traditional treatment that affected the state of bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy was studied. Results. With women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy it is noted statistically considerable reduction in blood of total calcium and bone tissue markers that grows with the course of gestation. The changes in mineral density of bone tissue can be seen from the existence of osteopenic syndrome at pregravid stage that occurs with every third woman who has body weight deficiency and with every second before labour. The use of elaborated medical and preventive measures including combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol allows to normalize the indexes of bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency. Conclusions. Women with body weight deficiency already at pregravid stage have disorders in bone metabolism and coming of pregnancy lead to aggravation of bone metabolism disorders. The additional use of combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol and dietary nourishment made the indexes of calcium-phosphorus and bone metabolism better and osteopenic

  13. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  14. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for enchondral bone growth and its disorders. I. Normal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the common effects on normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' is proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the non-physeal ends of small tubular bones. The last layer of development of both physes and acrophysis is the cartilaginous zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). The enchondral bone abutting the ZPC shares similar properties at physes and acrophyses, including the relatively lucent metaphyseal bands of many normal infants at several weeks of age. The bone-in-bone pattern of the normal vertebral bodies and bands of demineralization of the tarsal bones just under the ZPC are the equivalent of those bands. The growth arrest/recovery lines of metaphyses similarly have equivalent lines in growth centers and other acrophyseal sites. Nearly the same effects can also be anticipated from the relatively similar growth plate at the cartilaginous cap of benign exostoses (''paraphysis''). The companion article will explore abnormalities at acrophyseal sites, including metabolic bone disease and dysplasias. (orig.)

  15. Bone density, body composition, and psychopathology of anorexia nervosa spectrum disorders in DSM-IV vs DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Dichtel, Laura E; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Meenaghan, Erinne; Lederfine Paskal, Margaret; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Faje, Alexander T; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2017-04-01

    DSM-5 revised the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) by eliminating the amenorrhea requirement, liberalizing weight and psychological criteria, and adding the formal diagnosis of "atypical AN" for individuals with AN psychological symptoms without low weight. We sought to determine whether bone density (BMD) is impaired in women diagnosed with AN using the new, more liberal, DSM-5 criteria. Cross-sectional study of 168 women, 18 - 45y: (1) AN by DSM-IV (DSM-IV AN) (n = 37), (2) AN by DSM-5 but not DSM-IV criteria (DSM-5 AN) (n = 33), (3) atypical AN (ATYPICAL AN) (n = 77), (4) healthy comparison group (HC) (n = 21). Measurements included dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. BMD Z-score DSM-IV, 82% of DSM-5, and 69% of ATYPICAL. Mean Z-scores were comparably low in DSM-IV and DSM-5, intermediate in ATYPICAL, and highest in HC. Lack of prior low weight or amenorrhea was, but history of overweight/obesity was not, protective against bone loss. Mean lean mass and percent fat mass were significantly lower in all AN groups than HC. DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ATYPICAL had comparable psychopathology. Despite liberalizing diagnostic criteria, many women diagnosed with AN and atypical AN using DSM-5 criteria have low BMD. Presence or history of low weight and/or amenorrhea remain important indications for DXA. Loss of lean mass, in addition to fat mass, is present in all AN groups, and may contribute to low BMD. The deleterious effect of eating disorders on BMD extends beyond those with current low weight and amenorrhea. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:343-351). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and fractures among people with eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, M; Veronese, N; Correll, C U; Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P; Caregaro, L; Vancampfort, D; Luchini, C; De Hert, M; Stubbs, B

    2016-05-01

    To provide meta-analytical evidence of bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and osteoporosis rates in eating disorders (ED) vs. healthy controls (HCs). Three independent authors searched major electronic databases from inception till August 2015 for cross-sectional studies reporting BMD in people with ED (anorexia nervosa, (AN); bulimia nervosa, (BN); eating disorders not otherwise specified, (EDNOS)) vs. HCs. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) ±95% and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for BMD, and odds ratios (ORs) for osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Overall, 57 studies were eligible, including 21 607 participants (ED = 6485, HCs = 15 122). Compared to HC, AN subjects had significantly lower BMD values at lumbar spine (SMD = -1.51, 95% CI = -1.75, -1.27, studies = 42), total hip (SMD = -1.56, 95%CI = -1.84, -1.28, studies = 23), intertrochanteric region (SMD = -1.80, 95%CI = -2.46, -1.14, studies = 7), trochanteric region (SMD = -1.05, 95%CI = -1.44, -0.66, studies = 7), and femoral neck (SMD = -0.98, 95%CI = -1.12, -0.77, studies = 20). Reduced BMD was moderated by ED illness duration and amenorrhea (P EDNOS vs. HC. People with AN have reduced BMD, increased odds of osteoporosis and risk of fractures. Proactive monitoring and interventions are required to ameliorate bone loss in AN. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Osteocyte regulation of phosphate homeostasis and bone mineralization underlies the pathophysiology of the heritable disorders of rickets and osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian Q.; Clinkenbeard, Erica L.; Yuan, Baozhi; White, Kenneth E.; Drezner, Marc K.

    2013-01-01

    Although recent studies have established that osteocytes function as secretory cells that regulate phosphate metabolism, the biomolecular mechanism(s) underlying these effects remain incompletely defined. However, investigations focusing on the pathogenesis of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR), heritable disorders characterized by abnormal renal phosphate wasting and bone mineralization, have clearly implicated FGF23 as a central factor in osteocytes underlying renal phosphate wasting, documented new molecular pathways regulating FGF23 production, and revealed complementary abnormalities in osteocytes that regulate bone mineralization. The seminal observations leading to these discoveries were the following: 1) mutations in FGF23 cause ADHR by limiting cleavage of the bioactive intact molecule, at a subtilisin-like protein convertase (SPC) site, resulting in increased circulating FGF23 levels and hypophosphatemia; 2) mutations in DMP1 cause ARHR, not only by increasing serum FGF23, albeit by enhanced production and not limited cleavage, but also by limiting production of the active DMP1 component, the C-terminal fragment, resulting in dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, which contributes to impaired bone mineralization; and 3) mutations in PHEX cause XLH both by altering FGF23 proteolysis and production and causing dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, similar to abnormalities in ADHR and ARHR, but secondary to different central pathophysiological events. These discoveries indicate that ADHR, XLH, and ARHR represent three related heritable hypophosphatemic diseases that arise from mutations in, or dysregulation of, a single common gene product, FGF23 and, in ARHR and XLH, complimentary DMP1 and PHEX directed events that contribute to abnormal bone mineralization. PMID:23403405

  18. Bone density, body composition, and psychopathology of anorexia nervosa spectrum disorders in DSM-IV vs DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Dichtel, Laura E.; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Meenaghan, Erinne; Paskal, Margaret Lederfine; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Faje, Alexander T.; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective DSM-5 revised diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) by eliminating the amenorrhea requirement, liberalizing weight and psychological criteria, and adding the formal diagnosis of “atypical AN” for individuals with AN psychological symptoms without low weight. We sought to determine whether bone density (BMD) is impaired in women diagnosed with AN using the new, more liberal DSM-5 criteria. Method Cross-sectional study of 168 women, 18–45y: 1) AN by DSM-IV (DSM-IV)(n=37), 2) AN by DSM-5 but not DSM-IV criteria (DSM-5)(n=33), 3) atypical AN (ATYPICAL)(n=77), 4) healthy comparison group (HC)(n=21). Measurements included dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. Results BMD Z-score DSM-5, and 69% of ATYPICAL. Mean Z-scores were comparably low in DSM-IV and DSM-5, intermediate in ATYPICAL, and highest in HC. Lack of prior low weight or amenorrhea was, but history of overweight/obesity was not, protective against bone loss. Mean lean mass and percent fat mass were significantly lower in all AN groups than HC. DSM-IV, DSM-5 and ATYPICAL had comparable psychopathology. Discussion Despite liberalizing diagnostic criteria, many women diagnosed with AN and atypical AN using DSM-5 criteria have low BMD. Presence or history of low weight and/or amenorrhea remain important indications for DXA. Loss of lean mass, in addition to fat mass, is present in all AN groups, and may contribute to low BMD. The deleterious effect of eating disorders on BMD extends beyond those with current low weight and amenorrhea. PMID:27527115

  19. NBAS mutations cause a multisystem disorder involving bone, connective tissue, liver, immune system, and retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segarra, Nuria Garcia; Ballhausen, Diana; Crawford, Heather; Perreau, Matthieu; Campos-Xavier, Belinda; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin; Vermeer, Cees; Russo, Michel; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves; Stevenson, Brian; Royer-Bertrand, Beryl; Rivolta, Carlo; Candotti, Fabio; Unger, Sheila; Munier, Francis L.; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Bonafé, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    We report two unrelated patients with a multisystem disease involving liver, eye, immune system, connective tissue, and bone, caused by biallelic mutations in the neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS) gene. Both presented as infants with recurrent episodes triggered by fever with vomiting,

  20. An analysis of the combination frequencies of constituent medicinal herbs in prescriptions for the treatment of bone and joint disorder in Korean medicine: determination of a group of candidate prescriptions for universal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kyoung Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to select prescriptions (mixtures of medicinal herbs used in the treatment of bone and joint disorders in Korean medicine, and through the analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies, select a high-frequency medicinal herb combination group for further experimental and clinical research. Methods: We systematically searched for terms related to bone and joint disorder in the “Dongeuibogam (Dong yibaojian”, a seminal Korean medicine book. We reviewed the results of published papers regarding the effects in bone and joint disorders (especially in osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteopenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative arthritis. Results: In total, 34 candidates of a medicinal herb combination for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHCTBJDs and nine candidates of a medicinal herb for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHTBJDs were selected. Conclusion: : The candidates of a medicinal herb combination for the treatment of bone and joint disorders (CMHCTBJDs and candidates of a medicinal herb for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHTBJDs proposed in this study can be useful material for text mining to develop natural products with the effects in BJDs and also it has the potential to reduce the experimental and developmental time period. Keywords: Dongeuibogam (Dong yi bao gian, Text mining, Bone disorder

  1. Diversity of activity participation determines bone mineral content in the lower limbs of pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S S M; Vackova, D; Choi, A W M; Cheng, Y T Y; Yam, T T T; Guo, X

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between activity participation and bone mineralization in children with developmental coordination disorder. Limited participation in physical, recreational, social, and skill-based and self-improvement activities contributed to lower bone mineral content. For improved bone health, these children should participate in a variety of activities, not only physical activities. Limited activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have a negative impact on bone mineral accrual. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineralization and activity participation patterns of pre-pubertal children with DCD and those with typical development, and to determine the association between activity participation patterns and bone mineralization in children with DCD. Fifty-two children with DCD (mean age = 7.51 years) and 61 children with typical development (mean age = 7.22 years) participated in the study. Appendicular and total body (less head) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated by a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Activity participation patterns were assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) questionnaire. Children with DCD had lower appendicular and total body BMCs and BMDs than children with typical development overall (p accounting for the effects of age, sex, height, lean mass, and fat mass, the total activity diversity score remained independently associated with leg BMC in children with DCD, explaining 5.1% of the variance (p = 0.030). However, the physical activity diversity score was no longer associated with leg BMC (p = 0.090). Diversity of activity participation and bone mineralization were lower in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Decreased total activity participation diversity was a contributing factor to lower BMC in the legs of children with DCD.

  2. WNT-mediated Modulation of Bone Metabolism: Implications for WNT Targeting to Treat Extraskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Whitney A; Robling, Alexander G

    2017-10-01

    The WNT-signaling pathway is involved in cellular and tissue functions that control such diverse processes as body axis patterning, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and life span. The long list of molecules that can participate or modify WNT signaling makes this pathway one of the most complex in cell biology. In bone tissues, WNT signaling is required for proper skeletal development, and human mutations in various components of the cascade revealed insights into pharmacologic targeting that can be harnessed to improve skeletal health. In particular, mutations in genes that code for the WNT-signaling inhibitor sclerostin or the WNT coreceptor lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 have highlighted the potential therapeutic value of recapitulating those effects in patients with low bone mass. A constant challenge in this area is selectively modifying WNT components in the tissue of interest, as WNT has manifold effects in nearly every tissue.

  3. A familial disorder with low bone density and renal phosphate wasting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grondel, I.M.; Deure, J. van der; Zanen, A.L.; Dogger, M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary forms of renal phosphate wasting have been studied thoroughly in the past years. X-linked Hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia (ADHR) and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR) are known genetic disorders in which a

  4. Estimations of bone maturation and calculations of prediction of adult height as tools for the evaluation of growth disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, M

    1982-03-01

    The methods of estimation of bone maturation (Greulich and Pyle, Tanner et al.) and the possibilities for the calculation of future adult heigth (Bayley and Pinneau, Roche et al., Tanner et al.) are briefly described and their advantages and disadvantages in normal children and in children with growth disorders are discussed. In normal children, all methods provide valuable results, but there are small differences of precision depending on whether the pubertal development is early, average, or late. In pathological conditions, however, as e.g. in precocious puberty or in girls with Turner syndrome, the methods of Roche et al. and of Tanner et al. may overestimate adult height considerably, while that of Bayley and Pinneau remains reasonably accurate. A computerized system, which facilitates the complicated and time-consuming calculations is briefly presented.

  5. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  6. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  7. Molecular symphony of tooth - bone morphogenesis and related disorders, Part 2: Remodelling and defects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, P.; Matalová, Eva; Fleischmannová, Jana; Míšek, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2009), 14-21 ISSN 1210-4272 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC524/08/J032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : odontogenesis * osteogenesis * dental disorders Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  8. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC for CNS disorders – Strategy and tactics for clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kuroda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background – There is increasing evidence that the transplanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC significantly promote functional recovery after central nervous system (CNS damage in the animal models of various kinds of CNS disorders, including cerebral infarct, brain contusion and spinal cord injury. However, there are several shortages of information when considering clinical application of BMSC transplantation for patients with neurological disorders. In this paper, therefore, we discuss what we should clarify to establish cell transplantation therapy in clinical situation and describe our recent works for this purpose.Methods and Results – The BMSC have the ability to alter their gene expression profile and phenotype in response to the surrounding circumstances and to protect the neurons by producing some neurotrophic factors. They also promote neurite extension and rebuild the neural circuits in the injured CNS. Using optical imaging and MRI techniques, the transplanted BMSC can non-invasively be tracked in the living animals for at least 8 weeks after transplantation. Functional imaging such as PET scan may have the potential to assess the beneficial effects of BMSC transplantation. The BMSC can be expanded using the animal protein-free culture medium, which would maintain their potential of proliferation, migration, and neural differentiation.Conclusion – It is urgent issues to develop clinical imaging technique to track the transplanted cells in the CNS and evaluate the therapeutic significance of BMSC transplantation in order to establish it as a definite therapeutic strategy in clinical situation in the future

  9. Hepatic disorders predicted from extrahepatic accumulation of activity in the bone marrow during hepatosplenic scintiscanning - retrospective analysis of 549 cases in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillessen, U.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 148 scintigrams recorded following administration of 99mTc-labeled stannous phenzaone colloid were analysed for extrahepatic accumulation of tracer substance in the bone marrow as well as for further pathological features. The results obtained were subsequently examined on the basis of the individual case reports and laboratory values. It could thus be shown that an increased accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the bone marrow may provide conclusive evidence of the underlying pathological changes. The possible causes of extrahepatic accumulation vary according to the different types of hepatic disorder and include intrahepatic shunt or congestion, reduction in the number of Kupffer's cells as well as impaired function of the latter. Minor concentrations of activity in the bone marrow were equally observed in the presence of various liver diseases and in healthy individuals, while moderate accumulation was more frequently associated with hepatic disorders and to a lesser extent seen in persons without pathological findings; a pronounced degree of density in the bone marrow was almost invariably a sign of severe hepatic disorders like liver metastases, liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis. Hepatomegaly and irregular local concentration of the tracer substance were additional findings in a large number of patients showing liver metastases. In chronic hepatitis the quotient of the spleen:liver ratio was frequently increased, whereas the size of these organs had remained unchanged in the majority of cases. (TRV) [de

  10. Decision support methods for finding phenotype--disorder associations in the bone dysplasia domain.

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    Razan Paul

    Full Text Available A lack of mature domain knowledge and well established guidelines makes the medical diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias (a group of rare genetic disorders a very complex process. Machine learning techniques can facilitate objective interpretation of medical observations for the purposes of decision support. However, building decision support models using such techniques is highly problematic in the context of rare genetic disorders, because it depends on access to mature domain knowledge. This paper describes an approach for developing a decision support model in medical domains that are underpinned by relatively sparse knowledge bases. We propose a solution that combines association rule mining with the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST to compute probabilistic associations between sets of clinical features and disorders, which can then serve as support for medical decision making (e.g., diagnosis. We show, via experimental results, that our approach is able to provide meaningful outcomes even on small datasets with sparse distributions, in addition to outperforming other Machine Learning techniques and behaving slightly better than an initial diagnosis by a clinician.

  11. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs accumulation in skin: relations with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

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    Renata de Almeida França

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, main causes related with cardiovascular disease (CVD and bone mineral disorder (CKD-BMD. Uremic toxins, as advanced glycation end products (AGEs, are non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor and play a role on development of CKD-BMD in CKD. The measurement of skin autofluorescence (sAF is a noninvasive method to assess the level of AGEs in tissue, validated in CKD patients. Objective: The aim of this study is analyze AGEs measured by sAF levels (AGEs-sAF and its relations with CVD and BMD parameters in HD patients. Methods: Twenty prevalent HD patients (HD group and healthy subjects (Control group, n = 24, performed biochemical tests and measurements of anthropometric parameters and AGEs-sAF. In addition, HD group performed measurement of intact parathormone (iPTH, transthoracic echocardiogram and radiographies of pelvis and hands for vascular calcification score. Results: AGEs-sAF levels are elevated both in HD and control subjects ranged according to the age, although higher at HD than control group. Single high-flux HD session does not affect AGEs-sAF levels. AGEs-sAF levels were not related to ventricular mass, interventricular septum or vascular calcification in HD group. AGEs-sAF levels were negatively associated with serum iPTH levels. Conclusion: Our study detected a negative correlation of AGEs-sAF with serum iPTH, suggesting a role of AGEs on the pathophysiology of bone disease in HD prevalent patients. The nature of this relation and the clinical application of this non-invasive methodology for evaluation AGEs deposition must be confirmed and clarified in future studies.

  12. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Landgren, Ola [Multiple Myeloma Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Schirmacher, Peter [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells.

  13. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas; Bäuerle, Tobias; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Delorme, Stefan; Landgren, Ola; Schirmacher, Peter; Hillengass, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells

  14. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in patients with bone and musculoskeletal disorders

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    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in all the world countries. Recent studies show the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency prevalence in patients of various ages, who have musculoskeletal disorders, and to reveal the influence of seasonal factors on these conditions. Materials and methods. 3460 patients of the Ukrainian Scientific Medical Center of Osteoporosis Problems, aged 1 to 92 years, who were referred by other specialists to the center for bone state evaluation, were examined. A majority of the patients presented with osteoporosis and its complications, spinal osteochondrosis, knee and hip osteoarthritis (mean age — 52.90 ± 21.10 years. Most of the patients were women (83.5 %. 25(ОНD and parathyroid hormone analyses were performed by means of electrochemiluminescent method (Elecsys 2010 analyzer, Roche Diagnostics, Germany and cobas test-systems. Statistica 6.0 software package (Copyright StatSoft, Inc., 1984–2001 was also used. Results. Among the patients with musculoskeletal pathology, the highest 25(ОНD level was noted in the age group of 1–9 years and the lowest — in the age group of 80 and over. Age negatively influenced 25(ОНD values. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the patients with musculoskeletal pathology was 37.3 %, vitamin D insufficiency — 30.6 %; 32.1 % of patients had normal vitamin D status. Normal 25(OHD level was found in 38.0 % of children, 33.2 % of adults and in 29.6 % of elderly patients. Month of blood sampling had a significant influence on 25(ОНD content (F = 7.49; p < 0.001. The highest significant differences in 25(ОНD levels during the summer vs. winter months were observed in the age groups of 10–19 (18.2 %, 40–49 (17.3 %, 30–39 (16.2 % и 1–9 years (16.1 %. There were no significant seasonal differences observed in the elderly patients (60

  15. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system; Skelett und Knochenmark - nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik bei onkologischen und haematologischen Systemerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-10-01

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Therapie onkologischer und haematologischer Systemerkrankungen wie der malignen Lymphome, des Plasmozytoms und der Osteomyelofibrose hat in den letzten Jahren grosse Fortschritte durch die Anwendung neuer Therapiemodalitaeten (Hochdosischemotherapie, Knochenmark- und Stammzelltransplantation, Einsatz von Interferon u.a.) erfahren. Grundlage der Diagnostik ist nach wie vor die histologische Beurteilung des Knochenmarks nach Biopsie. Ergaenzend spielen bildgebende radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Verfahren zur makroskopischen Beurteilung morphologischer und funktioneller Veraenderungen des gesamten Knochenmarkraumes eine zunehmende Rolle. Die Knochenmarkszintigraphie mit Radiokolloiden bzw. die Knochenmarkimmunszintigraphie stellen hierbei wichtige Methoden alternativ oder ergaenzend zur Kernspintomographie dar. Die Skelettszintigraphie als bewaehrte Methode vermag zusaetzlich ossaere

  16. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  17. Conservative treatment of bone tissue metabolic disorders among patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation

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    S.M. Martsyniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of conservative therapy on genetically caused disorders of bone tissue metabolism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II and genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation (VDDR(COL1. Materials and methods. At the premises of consulting and outpatient department of SI “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics of the NAMS of Ukraine”, 13 patients having VDDR type II and genetic damage of type I collagen formation were examined and treated. The medical treatment was conducted in four stages. The first stage included full examination of patients (calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood serum and their urinary excretion, as well as determination of calcidiol and calcitriol serum levels, indicators of parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, and a marker of bone formation P1NP and osteoresorption b-CTx. At this stage, children were obligated to undergo a genetic test to detect changes (polymorphism in alleles of receptors to vitamin D and type I collagen. Besides genetic tests, examinations at the other stages were conducted in full. Results. The study has shown the following. The genetically caused abnormality of reception to vitamin D results into substantial accumulation of vitamin D active metabolite in the blood serum. When combined with gene­tic abnormality of type I collagen formation, it significantly affected bone formation and destruction processes that causes development of osteomalacia (parathormone — vitamin D — osteocalcin system. The comprehensive study of vitamin D metabolism and biochemical vitals of bone tissue in patients having VDDR (COL1 brought us to understanding of some issues related to pathogenesis and nature of osteomalacia and, in future, osteoporotic changes on different levels, ensured us to express these changes by corresponding indices in the biochemical research and, finally, to develop appropriate schemes for the treatment of

  18. Gracile bone dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz; Masel, John; Sillence, David O.; Arbuckle, Susan; Juttnerova, Vera

    2002-01-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  19. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  20. Primary amenorrhea after bone marrow transplantation and adjuvant chemotherapy misdiagnosed as disorder of sex development: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Tian, Qinjie

    2016-11-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a congenital condition in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal or genital sex is atypical. Majority of patients present clinical characteristics of primary amenorrhea, absent secondary sex characters, and abnormal hormone level. A female appearance patient with primary amenorrhea and 46 XY karyotype seems to be solid evidences to diagnose Y-chromosome-related DSD diseases, while it is not necessarily the accurate diagnosis. We report the case of an 18-year-old girl with primary amenorrhea and 46 XY karyotype misdiagnosed as Y-chromosome-related DSD. The patient has normal female reproductive organs and a disrupted pubertal development after the treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We consider that her gonads were probably functional and later impaired after AML. The clinical manifestations were not consistent with DSD. With doubts, we found that she received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her brother and adjuvant chemotherapy 6 years ago. Her karyotype changed from normal female to a karyotype of donor (her brother) origin after BMT.Adjuvant chemotherapy for AML may impair her ovarian function and finally bring about disrupted puberty or primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). We provided close follow-up. During the second visit, the patient had her menarche lasting 4 days without any medication. The present case serves as a reminder that a correct diagnosis depends on the comprehensive collection of present and past medical history, complete physical examination, and careful evaluation of related adjuvant tests. Do not presumptively judge a test and mislead reasoning. In addition, ovarian function protection should be considered for young girls having chemotherapy.

  1. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healty adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown that the bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid was an useful method to estimate the hemopoietic activity of the bone marrow. (J.P.N.)

  2. Disorders of Bone Mineral Density and Secondary Osteoporosis in Pathology of Hepatobiliary System and Gastrointestinal Tract: at the Crossing of Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Golovach

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article covers the issues of development of osteoporosis and disorders of bone mineral density in patients with various gastroenterological and hepatobiliary diseases. The article emphasized that the osteoporosis may be associated with many somatic diseases, especially of the digestive tract. Such situation requires participation of therapeutists and gastroenterologists in rehabilitation health care programs. According to the practical guidelines of the World Organization of Gastroenterology (OMGE, 2004 list of chronic diseases of the digestive system triggering the dangerous development of osteoporosis includes short bowel syndrome, postgastrectomy syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, cholestatic liver disease, as well as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. The etiology and pathogenesis of lower bone mineral density in patients with chronic diseases of the digestive system include, besides population-based risk factors, processes associated with disorders of vitamin D conversion, which leads to reduction of the absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the intestine and increase of their excretion by the kidneys. Hypocalcemia results in activation of the parathyroid glands and secondary hyperparathyroidism, and against the background of chronic inflammation increases the activity of cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins-1, -6, having bone resorptive action. The main risk factors for osteoporosis for various diseases associated with the peculiarities of the digestive tract’ disease were identified.

  3. From “Kidneys Govern Bones” to Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Bone Disorder: A Crosstalk between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of “Kidneys Govern Bones.” Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD and diabetes mellitus. Two signaling pathways essential for calcium-phosphate metabolism can mediate the effect of kidneys in bone homeostasis, one requiring renal production of bioactive vitamin D and the other involving an endocrine axis based on kidney-expressed Klotho and bone-secreted fibroblast growth factor 23. Disruption of either pathway can lead to calcium-phosphate imbalance and vascular calcification, accelerating metabolic bone disorder. Chinese herbal medicine is an adjunct therapy widely used for treating CKD and diabetes. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a Chinese herbal formulation, Shen-An extracts, in diabetic nephropathy and renal osteodystrophy. We believe that the smart combination of Eastern and Western concepts holds great promise for inspiring new ideas and therapies for preventing and treating complications of CKD and diabetes.

  4. Vitamin D, vitamin D receptor and the importance of its activation in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Jordi; Egido, Jesús; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Praga, Manuel; Solozábal-Campos, Carlos; Torregrosa, José V; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many different pathologies, especially with morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. The progressive loss of renal function leads to calcitriol deficiency and homeostatic changes in calcium, phosphorus, FGF-23 and PTH, among others. All these changes can also influence vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The biologic actions of both vitamin D and its synthetic analogues are mediated by binding to the same VDR, acting on different genes. There is a narrow relationship between low levels of calcitriol and SHPT. The combined approach of VDR activation and phosphate restriction, among others, plays an important role in the early treatment of the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The Spanish Society of Nephrology, in order to reduce the uniform and significant association with CKD-associated mortality, calcidiol and high phosphate levels suggests normalization of phosphate as well as calcidiol levels in both CKD and dialysis patients. Moreover, it considers that, in addition to selective/non selective activation of VDR for the prevention and treatment of SHPT, VDR could be activated in dialysis patients by native vitamin D or even low paricalcitol doses, independently of PTH levels, as some cohort studies and a recent metaanalysis have found an association between treatment with active vitamin D and decreased mortality in patients with CKD. In general it is considered reasonable to use all this information to individualise decision making.

  5. The assessment of cortical and spongy bone mineral content with quantitative computed tomography; A comparison of measurement sites in relation to certain diseases with metabolic bone disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Aritomi, Hiroshi; Iwanami, Shigeru; Kusano, Shouichi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine); Marumo, Fumiaki

    1991-12-01

    The CT numbers of cortex at the level of 20 cm (CT20) and spongiosa in the lateral condyle at the level of 2 cm (CT02) proximal from the distal end of the femur, and the bone mineral density of spongiosa in the L3 body (BMD), were obtained by QCT. The study included 43 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 71 female patients with primary osteoporosis (OP), 20 female nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF: nonHD), 37 hemodialyzed patients (CRF: HD),including 13 parathyroidectomized patients (CRF: HD, PTX), and 10 healthy volunteers. CT20 correlated closely with age in RA. CT02 and BMD correlated closely with age in RA and OP. CT20 and CT02 correlated closely with the duration of hemodialysis in CRF:HD, but not with the duration of disease in RA. The values of CT20 and CT02 in the CRF: HD. PTX group was significantly lower than those in the other CRF groups. BMD in the RA group was not different from that of healthy volunteers. The CT20 values of the one-third of RA patients older than 60 years were extremely low compared with those of the other two-thirds. The results indicated that BMD was useful in assessing bone mineral content in OP, but not in RA. CT02 and CT20 were useful in assessing bone mineral content in these three diseases, CT20 was especially useful for patients in the CRF: HD group and those with RA older than 60 years, but it was not useful in the CRF: nonHD group. (author).

  6. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Takashi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1984-02-01

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healthy adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown

  7. Administration of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in children with incurable neurological disorders and injury is safe and improves their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Chopra, Guneet; Kulkarni, Pooja; Lohia, Mamta; Badhe, Prerna; Jacob, V C

    2012-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and injury to the brain and spine currently have no known definitive treatments or cures. A study was carried out on 71 children suffering from such incurable neurological disorders and injury. They were intrathecally and intramuscularly administered autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells. Assessment after transplantation showed neurological improvements in muscle power and a shift on assessment scales such as FIM and Brooke and Vignos scale. Further, imaging and electrophysiological studies also showed significant changes in selective cases. On an average follow-up of 15 ± 1 months, overall 97% muscular dystrophy cases showed subjective and functional improvement, with 2 of them also showing changes on MRI and 3 on EMG. One hundred percent of the spinal cord injury cases showed improvement with respect to muscle strength, urine control, spasticity, etc. Eighty-five percent of cases of cerebral palsy cases showed improvements, out of which 75% reported improvement in muscle tone and 50% in speech among other symptoms. Eighty-eight percent of cases of other incurable neurological disorders such as autism, Retts Syndrome, giant axonal neuropathy, etc., also showed improvement. No significant adverse events were noted. The results show that this treatment is safe, efficacious, and also improves the quality of life of children with incurable neurological disorders and injury.

  8. Mutational analysis uncovers monogenic bone disorders in women with pregnancy-associated osteoporosis: three novel mutations in LRP5, COL1A1, and COL1A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscheidt, S; Delsmann, A; Rolvien, T; Barvencik, F; Al-Bughaili, M; Mundlos, S; Schinke, T; Amling, M; Kornak, U; Oheim, R

    2018-03-29

    Pregnancy was found to be a skeletal risk factor promoting the initial onset of previously unrecognized monogenic bone disorders, thus explaining a proportion of cases with pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. Therapeutic measures should focus in particular on the normalization of the disturbed calcium homeostasis in order to enable the partial skeletal recovery. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare skeletal condition, which is characterized by a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) in the course of pregnancy and lactation. Typical symptoms include vertebral compression fractures and transient osteoporosis of the hip. Since the etiology is not well understood, this prospective study was conducted in order to elucidate the relevance of pathogenic gene variants for the development of PAO. Seven consecutive cases with the diagnosis of PAO underwent a skeletal assessment (blood tests, DXA, HR-pQCT) and a comprehensive genetic analysis using a custom-designed gene panel. All cases showed a reduced BMD (DXA T-score, lumbar spine - 3.2 ± 1.0; left femur - 2.2 ± 0.5; right femur - 1.9 ± 0.5), while the spine was affected more severely (p Pregnancy should be considered a skeletal risk factor, which can promote the initial clinical onset of such skeletal disorders. The underlying increased calcium demand is essential in terms of prophylactic and therapeutic measures, which are especially required in individuals with a genetically determined low bone mass. The implementation of this knowledge in clinical practice can enable the partial recovery of the skeleton. Consistent genetic studies are needed to analyze the frequency of pathogenic variants in women with PAO.

  9. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  10. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  11. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  12. Study of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders in newly detected advanced renal failure patients: A Hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Etta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the disturbances in mineral metabolism, abnormalities in bone mineral density (BMD, and extraskeletal calcification in newly detected, untreated predialysis stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD patients at a tertiary care hospital in North India. This is cross-sectional observational study. A total of 95 (68 males, 27 females newly detected patients underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical assessment [serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD], BMD measurement (at spine, hip, and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, lateral abdominal radiograph [for abdominal aortic calcification (AAC], skeletal survey (to look for any abnormality including fractures, and echocardiography [for any cardiac valvular calcification (CVC]. Symptoms related to CKD-mineral bone disorder were seen in 33.6% of the study patients. Prevalence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and hypovitaminosis D was 64.2%, 81.1%, 49.5%, and 89.5%, respectively. CVC was seen in 22.1% of patients on echocardiography, mostly involving the mitral valve. Patients with CVC were more likely to be males and smokers. There was no significant difference in iPTH levels between patients with or without CVC. AAC was seen in 10.5% of patients on lateral abdominal X-ray. Patients with AAC had higher levels of iPTH, phosphorus, and ALP and lower levels of calcium compared to patients without AAC. BMD by DXA showed a low bone mass in 41.05% of our patients and was more prevalent in CKD stage 5. Most of the study patients had hyperparathyroidism and low 25(OHD levels. Our study shows that newly detected, naïve Indian CKD patients have a high prevalence of disturbances of mineral metabolism including hyperparathyroidism, Vitamin D deficiency, abnormal BMD, and valvular and vascular calcification, even before initiating dialysis.

  13. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxi, Tarvinder; Sud Seema; Vohra, Rakesh; Sud, Aditi; Singh, Satnam

    2004-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the temporal bone is rare. The nature of the underlying disorder that converted into the ABC might, however, be difficult to ascertain on imaging as well as on histopathology. The unusual CT and MRI findings in a case of ABC of the temporal bone are presented. This had transdural intracerebral spread with a large component of solid enhancing matrix but no peripheral calcific rim. The patient was an adult of 45 years with a history of headache for more than 1 year Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Increase in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase of bone at the early stage of ascorbic acid deficiency in the ascorbate-requiring Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi (ODS) rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, A; Tsukamoto, I

    2003-08-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on bone metabolism was evaluated using the ascorbate-requiring Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi (ODS) rat model. Ascorbic acid (Asc)-deficient rats gained body weight in a manner similar to Asc-supplemented rats (control) during 3 weeks, but began to lose weight during the 4th week of Asc deficiency. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in serum increased to about 2-fold the control value in the rats fed the Asc-free diet for 2, 3, and 4 weeks (AscD2, AscD3, and AscD4), while a decrease in the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was observed only in AscD4 rats. The serum pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) level significantly increased to 1.3-, 1.4-, and 1.9-fold of that in the controls in AscD2, D3, and D4, respectively. The ALP activity in the distal femur was unchanged in AscD1, D2, and D3, but decreased to 50% of the control level in AscD4 rats. The TRAP activity in the distal femur increased to about 2-fold of that in the controls in the AscD2 and D3 and decreased to the control level in the AscD4 rats. The amount of hydroxyproline in the distal femur significantly decreased to about 80%, 70%, and 60% of the control in AscD2, D3, and D4 rats, respectively. These decreases were associated with a similar reduction in the calcium content of the distal femur. Histochemical analysis of the distal femur showed an increase in TRAP-positive cells in AscD2 and AscD3 rats and a decrease in the trabecular bone in AscD2, D3, and D4 rats. These results suggested that a deficiency of Asc stimulated bone resorption at an early stage, followed by a decrease in bone formation in mature ODS rats which already had a well-developed collagen matrix and fully differentiated osteoblasts.

  15. Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation for Central Nervous System Disorders – Recent Progress and Perspective for Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the transplanted BMSC significantly promote functional recovery after CNS damage in the animal models of various kinds of CNS disorders, including cerebral infarct, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. However, there are several shortages of information when considering clinical application of BMSC transplantation for patients with CNS disorders. In this review, therefore, we discuss what we should clarify to establish cell transplantation therapy as the scientifically proven entity in clinical situation and describe our recent works for this purpose. The BMSC have the ability to alter their gene expression profile and phenotype in response to the surrounding circumstances and to protect the neurons by producing some neurotrophic factors. They also promote neurite extension and rebuild the neural circuits in the injured CNS. The BMSC can be expanded in vitro using the animal serum-free medium. Pharmacological modulation may accelerate the in vitro proliferation of the BMSC. Using in vivo optical imaging technique, the transplanted BMSC can non-invasively be tracked in the living animals for at least 8 weeks after transplantation. It is urgent issues to develop clinical imaging technique to track the transplanted cells in the CNS and evaluate the therapeutic significance of BMSC transplantation in order to establish it as a definite therapeutic strategy in clinical situation in the future.

  16. THE PATHOLOGY OF BONE MARROW FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Leguit , Roos; Van Den Tweel , Jan G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerable between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group, inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children a...

  17. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  18. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplement Prescribing Practices among Providers Caring for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Are We Addressing Bone Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylaja Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have several risk factors for low bone mineral density. The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF diet is a complementary therapy sometimes used in ASD that raises concerns for the adequacy of calcium and vitamin D intake. This study evaluated the prescribing practices of calcium and vitamin D supplements and the practice of checking 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD levels by providers in 100 children with ASD, 50 of whom were on the GFCF diet. Fifty-two percent and 46% of children on the GFCF diet were on some form of vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, compared to 18% and 14% of those not on this diet. Twenty-four percent of children in the GFCF group had a documented 25(OHD level compared to none in the non-GFCF group. The data highlight a gap in calcium and vitamin D supplement prescribing practices among providers caring for children with ASD as well as a gap in the practice of checking 25(OHD levels.

  20. Bone metabolism in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss: independent effects of weight change, insulin-like growth factor-1 and oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents with eating disorders (ED) are at risk of developing osteoporosis if weight is not recovered. Previous investigations do not separate the effects of weight change per se from those of concomitant hormonal changes. In this investigation serum osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and oestradiol were measured at assessment of 498 girls with ED and during weight gain of 59 girls. At assessment, OC concentrations were associated independently with weight (change), IGF-1 and oestradiol. Low weight, a high rate of weight loss and the hormone concentrations were associated with low OC. Low weight and high rate of weight loss were associated with high CTX concentrations but there were no associations independent of weight (change) with the hormones. During weight recovery, OC and CTX were independently and positively associated with weight, weight gain, IGF-1 and oestradiol. Bone metabolism markers are related to weight change independently of IGF-1 and oestradiol during both weight loss and weight gain. During weight gain, when pubertal development and growth are resumed there is an additional independent positive association between the markers and IGF-1 and oestradiol. These relationships are strongest in premenarcheal girls.

  1. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan, E-mail: dr.kamaleshwar@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, Kovai Medical Centre and Hospital Limited, Coimbatore (India); Madhavan, Devdas [Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Care Centre, Kovai Medical Centre and Hospital Limited, Coimbatore (India)

    2013-10-15

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma. (author)

  2. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan; Madhavan, Devdas

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma. (author)

  3. Role of TGF-β in a mouse model of high turnover renal osteodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguang; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Tang, Wen; Sabbagh, Yves; Kelley, Brian; Gotschall, Russell; Ryan, Susan; Phillips, Lucy; Malley, Katie; Cao, Xiaohong; Xia, Tai-He; Zhen, Gehua; Cao, Xu; Ling, Hong; Dechow, Paul C; Bellido, Teresita M; Ledbetter, Steven R; Schiavi, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Altered bone turnover is a key pathologic feature of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Expression of TGF-β1, a known regulator of bone turnover, is increased in bone biopsies from individuals with CKD. Similarly, TGF-β1 mRNA and downstream signaling is increased in bones from jck mice, a model of high-turnover renal osteodystrophy. A neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody (1D11) was used to explore TGF-β's role in renal osteodystrophy. 1D11 administration to jck significantly attenuated elevated serum osteocalcin and type I collagen C-telopeptides. Histomorphometric analysis indicated that 1D11 administration increased bone volume and suppressed the elevated bone turnover in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were associated with reductions in osteoblast and osteoclast surface areas. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) confirmed the observed increase in trabecular bone volume and demonstrated improvements in trabecular architecture and increased cortical thickness. 1D11 administration was associated with significant reductions in expression of osteoblast marker genes (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin) and the osteoclast marker gene, Trap5. Importantly, in this model, 1D11 did not improve kidney function or reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, indicating that 1D11 effects on bone are independent of changes in renal or parathyroid function. 1D11 also significantly attenuated high-turnover bone disease in the adenine-induced uremic rat model. Antibody administration was associated with a reduction in pSMAD2/SMAD2 in bone but not bone marrow as assessed by quantitative immunoblot analysis. Immunostaining revealed pSMAD staining in osteoblasts and osteocytes but not osteoclasts, suggesting 1D11 effects on osteoclasts may be indirect. Immunoblot and whole genome mRNA expression analysis confirmed our previous observation that repression of Wnt/β-catenin expression in bone is correlated with increased osteoclast activity in jck

  4. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  5. Role of TGF-β in a Mouse Model of High Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguang; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Tang, Wen; Sabbagh, Yves; Kelley, Brian; Gotschall, Russell; Ryan, Susan; Phillips, Lucy; Malley, Katie; Cao, Xiaohong; Xia, Tai-He; Zhen, Gehua; Cao, Xu; Ling, Hong; Dechow, Paul C; Bellido, Teresita M; Ledbetter, Steven R; Schiavi, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Altered bone turnover is a key pathologic feature of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Expression of TGF-β1, a known regulator of bone turnover, is increased in bone biopsies from individuals with CKD. Similarly, TGF-β1 mRNA and downstream signaling is increased in bones from jck mice, a model of high-turnover renal osteodystropy. A neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody (1D11) was used to explore TGF-βs role in renal osteodystrophy. 1D11 administration to jck significantly attenuated elevated serum osteocalcin and type I collagen C-telopeptides. Histomorphometric analysis indicated that 1D11 administration increased bone volume and suppressed the elevated bone turnover in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were associated with reductions in osteoblast and osteoclast surface areas. μCT confirmed the observed increase in trabecular bone volume and demonstrated improvements in trabecular architecture and increased cortical thickness. 1D11 administration was associated with significant reductions in expression of osteoblast marker genes (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin) and the osteoclast marker gene, Trap5. Importantly, in this model, 1D11 did not improve kidney function or reduce serum PTH levels indicating that 1D11 effects on bone are independent of changes in renal or parathyroid function. 1D11 also significantly attenuated high turnover bone disease in the adenine-induced uremic rat model. Antibody administration was associated with a reduction in pSMAD2/SMAD2 in bone but not bone marrow as assessed by quantitative immunoblot analysis. Immunostaining revealed pSMAD staining in osteoblasts and osteocytes but not osteoclasts, suggesting 1D11 effects on osteoclasts may be indirect. Immunoblot and whole genome mRNA expression analysis confirmed our previous observation that repression of Wnt/β catenin expression in bone is correlated with increased osteoclast activity in jck mice and bone biopsies from CKD patients. Furthermore

  6. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  7. MRI in bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.

    1989-01-01

    MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de

  8. Chromosome anomalies in bone marrow as primary cause of aplastic or hypoplastic conditions and peripheral cytopenia: disorders due to secondary impairment of RUNX1 and MPL genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marletta Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome changes in the bone marrow (BM of patients with persistent cytopenia are often considered diagnostic for a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS. Comprehensive cytogenetic evaluations may give evidence of the real pathogenetic role of these changes in cases with cytopenia without morphological signs of MDS. Results Chromosome anomalies were found in the BM of three patients, without any morphological evidence of MDS: 1 an acquired complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a boy with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA; the rearrangement caused the loss of exons 2–8 of the RUNX1 gene with subsequent hypoexpression. 2 a constitutional complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a girl with congenital thrombocytopenia; the rearrangement led to RUNX1 disruption and hypoexpression. 3 an acquired paracentric inversion of chromosome 1, in which two regions at the breakpoints were shown to be lost, in a boy with aplastic anaemia; the MPL gene, localized in chromosome 1 short arms was not mutated neither disrupted, but its expression was severely reduced: we postulate that the aplastic anaemia was due to position effects acting both in cis and in trans, and causing Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia (CAMT. Conclusions A clonal anomaly in BM does not imply per se a diagnosis of MDS: a subgroup of BM hypoplastic disorders is directly due to chromosome structural anomalies with effects on specific genes, as was the case of RUNX1 and MPL in the patients here reported with diagnosis of SAA, thrombocytopenia, and CAMT. The anomaly may be either acquired or constitutional, and it may act by deletion/disruption of the gene, or by position effects. Full cytogenetic investigations, including a-CGH, should always be part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with BM aplasia/hypoplasia and peripheral cytopenias.

  9. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  10. The role of mineral and bone disorders in the development and progression of cardiac and renal pathology in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus of long duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biragova, Margarita S; Gracheva, Svetlana A; Glazunova, Alexandra M; Martynov, Sergey A; Ulaynova, Irina N; Ilyin, Alexandr V; Philippov, Yury I; Musaeva, Guliya M; Shamkhalova, Minara S; Shestakova, Marina V

    2016-08-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of mineral and bone metabolism disorders associated with chronic kidney disease (MBD-CKD) in the development and progression of cardiac and renal pathology in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) of long duration. We investigated 96 patients with T1DM of long duration, with CKD at different stages (0-5), including patients on hemodialysis (HD) and with kidney transplantation (KT). Along with overall clinical examination, we assessed markers of MBD (calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23) and levels of cardiac injury marker (atrial natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP). Multispiral computer tomography with Agatston index calculation was also included. Decreased kidney function was associated with increased of levels phosphorus, parathormone, FGF 23, and vitamin D deficiency, with the highest deviation from the reference ranges seen in patients on HD with a very high risk of cardiovascular events. In KT patients with satisfactory graft function, these parameters were at the same levels as in patients with CKD stages 0-4. Progression of cardiovascular pathology was accompanied by elevation of NT-proBNP levels as CKD duration increased, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and were correlated with the main parameters of mineral homeostasis. The severity of coronary arteries calcification was associated with patient age and duration of T1DM and arterial hypertension. Development and progression of kidney dysfunction is accompanied by MBD, a significant factor in progression of cardiac pathology, which remains a major cause of mortality in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth hormone and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  13. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  14. Persistent hyperparathyroidism as a risk factor for long-term graft failure: the need to discuss indication for parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Maria Júlia Correia Lima Nepomuceno; Ramalho, Janaina Almeida Mota; Elias, Rosilene Motta; Jorgetti, Vanda; Nahas, William; Custodio, Melani; Moysés, Rosa M A; David-Neto, Elias

    2018-01-10

    Although a successful kidney transplant (KTx) improves most of the mineral and bone disorders (MBD) produced by chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperparathyroidism may persist (pHPT). Current guidelines recommend parathyroidectomy if serum parathormone is persistently elevated 1 year after KTx, because pHPT has been recently associated with poor graft outcomes. However, whether patients with pHPT and adequate renal function are at risk for long-term graft failure is unknown. Longitudinal follow-up of 911 adults submitted to KTx between January 2005 and December 2014, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 30 mL/min 1 year after surgery. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from electronic database. Graft failure was defined as return to dialysis. Overall, 62% of the patients were classified as having pHPT 1 year after KTx. After a mean follow-up time of 47 months, there were 59 graft failures (49 in pHPT and 10 in non-pHPT group, P = .003). At last follow-up, death-censored graft survival was lower in the pHPT group (P = .009), even after adjustment for age at KTx, donor age, donor type, acute rejection, parathyroidectomy, and eGFR at 1 year after transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 1.99; 1.004-3.971; P = .049). A PTH of 150 pg/mL at 6 months was the best cutoff to predict pHPT at 1 year (specificity = 92.1%). Having pHPT after a successful KTx increases the long-term risk of death-censored graft failure. This result highlights the need for better recognition and management of CKD-MBD before and during the first year after KTx, and opens a discussion on the more appropriate timing to perform parathyroidectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fórum nacional de discussão das diretrizes do KDIGO para o distúrbio mineral e ósseo da doença renal crônica (DMO-DRC: uma análise crítica frente à relidade Brasileira KDIGO CKD-MBD Discussion forum: the Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Affonso Moysés

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No dia 14 de novembro de 2009, a Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia promoveu um fórum de discussão das novas diretrizes do KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes. O objetivo desse encontro, onde estiveram presentes 64 participantes, foi discutir estas novas diretrizes diante da realidade brasileira. Esse encontro teve o patrocínio da Empresa de Biotecnologia Genzyme, que não teve acesso à sala de discussão e tampouco aos temas tratados durante o evento. Este artigo traz um resumo das diretrizes do KDIGO e das discussões realizadas pelos participantes.On November 14th, 2009, the Brazilian Society of Nephrology coordinated the Brazilian Discussion Meeting on the new KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. The purpose of this meeting, which was attended by 64 nephrologists, was to discuss these new guidelines from the Brazilian perspective. This meeting was supported by an unrestricted grant of the biotechnology company Genzyme, which did not have access to the meeting room or to the discussion sections. This article brings a summary of the KDIGO guidelines and of the discussions by the attendees.

  16. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  17. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Bone scintigraphy is an integral part of the evaluation of bone disease in children. Common indications are suspected infection or inflammation, bone tumours and metastases, trauma and avascular necrosis. In all these disorders the sensitivity of scintigraphy is high. Gallium scintigraphy is often useful in children with clinical signs of infection not responding to treatment but the radiation dose is high. High quality images are essential. They depend on the full participation and co-operation of the child, parents and radiographers, the administration of appropriate analgesics, gentle but firm handling of the child, the injection of the appropriate amount of radiopharmaceutical, good positioning and immobilization, optimised equipment, and the acquisition of a suitable number of counts in an appropriate matrix size. Unless there are specific reasons for not doing so, we routinely perform two phase bone scintigraphy. This usually involves whole body blood pool and delayed images followed by static images of selected areas and, less often, pinhole images or SPECT. The interpretation of bone scan images in children requires knowledge of the age dependent differences in bone metabolism in the developing skeleton and the effect on the appearance of the maturing skeleton. (author)

  18. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2004-01-01

    collagen morphology and bone mineralisation in cortical bone as well as bone strength in GHD rats to try to clarify the explanation for the increased fracture rate. The Dw-4 rat was used as a model for GHD. This strain of rats has an autosomal recessive disorder, reducing GH synthesis to approximately 10...

  19. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  20. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  1. Semi-quantitative interpretation of the bone scan in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelman, I; Turner, J G; Hay, I D; Boyle, I T [Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Citrin, D L [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology; Bessent, G R

    1979-01-01

    Certain easily recognisable features are commonly seen in the bone scans of patients with metabolic bone disorders. Seven such features have been numerically graded by three independent observers in the scans of 100 patients with metabolic bone disease and of 50 control subjects. The total score for each patient is defined as the metabolic index. The mean metabolic index for each group of patients with metabolic bone disease is significantly greater than that for the control group (P < 0.001). (orig.).

  2. An insight in to Paget′s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Sabharwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paget′s disease of bone (PDB is a common disorder which may affect one or many bones. Although many patients are asymptomatic, a variety of symptoms and complications may occur. PDB is a focal disorder of bone turnover characterized by excessive bone resorption coupled with bone formation. PDB begins with a period of increased osteoclastic activity and bone resorption, followed by increased osteoblast production of woven bone that is poorly mineralized. In the final phase of the disease process, dense cortical and trabecular bone deposition predominates, but the bone is sclerotic and poorly organized and lacks the structural integrity and strength of normal bone. This article briefly reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical radiographic and histological features of Paget′s disease.

  3. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  4. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  6. A comparison of bone scanning and radiology in the evaluation of patients with metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Carr, D.

    1980-01-01

    Bone scan and radiographs were evaluated in 80 patients with metabolic bone disease (27 with osteoporosis, 14 with primary hyperparathyroidism, 24 with renal osteodystrophy and 15 with osteomalacia). The bone scan did not suggest a metabolic bone disorder in any of 27 patients with histologically proven osteoporosis. In 22 (81%) patients radiographs were reported as showing osteoporosis. In 19 (70%) vertebral fractures were seen on X-ray while these were noted in 11 (41%) patients on the bone scan. Vertebral fractures were usually visualised on the bone scan when these had occurred less than one year previously. In primary hyperparathyroidism the bone scan was suggestive of a metabolic bone disorder in 7 of 14 (50%) patients, while radiographs were reported as showing evidence of hyperparathyrodism in three (21%) cases. The bone scan suggested the presence of a metabolic bone disorder in all 24 patients with renal osteodystrophy and 15 patients with osteomalacia while the correct diagnosis was obtained in 14 (58%) and nine (60%) of these patients on X-ray. It is concluded that the bone scan is the more sensitive investigation in patients with osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. For osteoporosis radiology is the investigation of choice but the bone scan may be of value in assessing the duration of vertebral collapse. (author)

  7. Mineral bone disorder and its management among hemodialysis patients in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Initial findings from the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (2012-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, Issa; AlRukhaimi, Mona; AlSahow, Ali; Shaheen, Faisal A M; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M G; AlAli, Fadwa; AlGhareeb, Sumaya; Al Maimani, Yacoub; AlGhonaim, Mohammed; Bieber, Brian; Tentori, Francesca; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-11-01

    The prospective cohort Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) initiated data collection in national samples of hemodialysis (HD) units (total of 41 study sites) in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in late 2012. Here, we report initial results regarding mineral bone disorders (MBDs) and its management in the GCC countries. Forty-one randomly selected HD facilities, treating >23 HD patients each, were sampled and represent care for >95% of GCC HD patients. Descriptive results for the GCC countries based on a random sample of 20-30 HD patients in each study facility. Initial results for the GCC are from 931 HD patients treated at 41 dialysis units (ranging from 1 unit in Bahrain to 21 in Saudi Arabia). Results are presented as weighted estimates, accounting for the sampling fraction in each unit. Baseline descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, or percentage), weighted by facility sampling fraction were calculated for the study sample. For analyses examining the percent of facility patients having (a) serum phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL or (b) parathyroid hormone (PTH) >600 pg/mL, analyses were restricted to facilities having at least 10 HD patients with a reported serum phosphorus or PTH measurement, respectively. Logistic regression analyses of the indicated binary outcomes were based on the use of generalized estimating equations and were adjusted for GCC country, patient age category (65 years old), sex, and whether the patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Logistic models accounted for clustering of patients within facilities, assuming an exchangeable working correlation matrix. Mean age of HD patients in the GCC countries was 53 years vs. 61-64 years in the three other DOPPS regions. MBD markers showed slightly lower mean serum Calcium in the GCC countries, similar mean serum phosphorus, and intermediate median PTH levels compared with the three other

  8. Mineral bone disorder and its management among hemodialysis patients in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Initial findings from the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Al Salmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective cohort Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS initiated data collection in national samples of hemodialysis (HD units (total of 41 study sites in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates in late 2012. Here, we report initial results regarding mineral bone disorders (MBDs and its management in the GCC countries. Forty-one randomly selected HD facilities, treating >23 HD patients each, were sampled and represent care for >95% of GCC HD patients. Descriptive results for the GCC countries based on a random sample of 20-30 HD patients in each study facility. Initial results for the GCC are from 931 HD patients treated at 41 dialysis units (ranging from 1 unit in Bahrain to 21 in Saudi Arabia. Results are presented as weighted estimates, accounting for the sampling fraction in each unit. Baseline descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, or percentage, weighted by facility sampling fraction were calculated for the study sample. For analyses examining the percent of facility patients having (a serum phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL or (b parathyroid hormone (PTH >600 pg/mL, analyses were restricted to facilities having at least 10 HD patients with a reported serum phosphorus or PTH measurement, respectively. Logistic regression analyses of the indicated binary outcomes were based on the use of generalized estimating equations and were adjusted for GCC country, patient age category (65 years old, sex, and whether the patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Logistic models accounted for clustering of patients within facilities, assuming an exchangeable working correlation matrix. Mean age of HD patients in the GCC countries was 53 years vs. 61-64 years in the three other DOPPS regions. MBD markers showed slightly lower mean serum Calcium in the GCC countries, similar mean serum phosphorus, and intermediate median PTH levels compared with the three

  9. Role of bone scanning in osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; McKillop, J.H.; Bessent, R.G.; Boyle, I.T.; Turner, J.G.; Greig, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of eight ''metabolic features'' was assessed on the bone scintigrams of ten patients with osteomalacia. In all of these bone images, sufficient features were present to strongly suggest a metabolic disorder. These scintiphotos were included in a controlled blind study using 30 normal bone scans and 20 scans of metastatic disease. Nine of the ten metabolic bone images were correctly identified by two independent observers. Skeletal uptake of radiotracer, expressed as bone-to-soft-tissue ratio, was significantly higher in the osteomalacic patients than in a group of 80 controls

  10. De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Disorder Characterized by Early Aging, Bone Dysplasia, Characteristic Face, and Early Demise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Writzl, Karin; Maver, Ales; Kovačič, Lidija; Martinez-Valero, Paula; Contreras, Laura; Satrustegui, Jorgina; Castori, Marco; Faivre, Laurence; Lapunzina, Pablo; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Radović, Slobodanka; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Peterlin, Borut; del Arco, Araceli; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2017-01-01

    A series of simplex cases have been reported under various diagnoses sharing early aging, especially evident in congenitally decreased subcutaneous fat tissue and sparse hair, bone dysplasia of the skull and fingers, a distinctive facial gestalt, and prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. For

  11. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  12. Acquired bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.

  13. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  14. Characterisation of Bone Beneficial Components from Australian Wallaby Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Weiguo; Jin, Xingliang; Tan, Yi; Xiao, Linda; Padula, Matthew P.; Bishop, David P.; Reedy, Brian; Ong, Madeleine; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Qu, Xianqin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of conditions by determining mineral and protein content of bone extracts derived from the Australian wallaby. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were used for mineral tests, proteome analysis was using LC/MS/MS and the effects of wallaby bone extracts (WBE)s on calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated in osteogenic cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results: Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 26.21% and 14.72% in WBE respectively. Additionally, minerals found were wide in variety and high in concentration, while heavy metal concentrations of aluminium, iron, zinc and other elements were at safe levels for human consumption. Proteome analysis showed that extracts contained high amounts of bone remodelling proteins, such as osteomodulin, osteopontin and osteoglycin. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation of WBEs showed increased deposition of calcium in osteoblasts with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that wallaby bone extracts possess proteins and minerals beneficial for bone metabolism. WBEs may therefore be used for developing natural products for conditions such as osteoporosis and further investigation to understand biomolecular mechanism by which WBEs prevent osteoporosis is warranted. PMID:28930133

  15. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  16. A study on the mineral density of the lumbar vertebral bone in children of metabolic disorders and control using single energy quantitative CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi

    1991-01-01

    A cross sectional study on the mineral density of the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone was carried out in 123 children less than 15 years old, comprising 44 controls, and 79 patients affected with conditions which are at risk for developing metabolic derangement of skeletal bone (34 patients taking antiepileptic drugs (AED), 29 undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and 16 bedridden patients), by using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with a CaCO 3 phantom. Serum Ca and alkaline-phosphatase (Alp) levels were measured at the time of QCT examinations in all. The results obtained were as follows: The QCT values in the control children showed neither age dependency nor a sexual difference before puberty. The QCT values in each group showed significant difference with one another; the control group>the AED group>the GC group>the bedridden group (p<0.05∼0.005). The serum Ca levels in each pathology group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05∼0.005). The serum Alp levels in the AED group were significantly higher (p<0.005) and those in the GC and bedridden groups significantly lower (p<0.01 and p<0.005 respectively) than those in the control group. The only GC group was significant (p<0.01) in the study of the relationships between the QCT value and the serum Alp level of each group. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decreased bone mineral density with AED and GC therapy and immobility are different from one another. Especially in the GC group abnormality of the Alp activity may be closely related to the decrease of trabecular bone mineral density. (author)

  17. A study on the mineral density of the lumbar vertebral bone in children of metabolic disorders and control using single energy quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    A cross sectional study on the mineral density of the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone was carried out in 123 children less than 15 years old, comprising 44 controls, and 79 patients affected with conditions which are at risk for developing metabolic derangement of skeletal bone (34 patients taking antiepileptic drugs (AED), 29 undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and 16 bedridden patients), by using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with a CaCO{sub 3} phantom. Serum Ca and alkaline-phosphatase (Alp) levels were measured at the time of QCT examinations in all. The results obtained were as follows: The QCT values in the control children showed neither age dependency nor a sexual difference before puberty. The QCT values in each group showed significant difference with one another; the control group>the AED group>the GC group>the bedridden group (p<0.05{approx}0.005). The serum Ca levels in each pathology group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05{approx}0.005). The serum Alp levels in the AED group were significantly higher (p<0.005) and those in the GC and bedridden groups significantly lower (p<0.01 and p<0.005 respectively) than those in the control group. The only GC group was significant (p<0.01) in the study of the relationships between the QCT value and the serum Alp level of each group. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decreased bone mineral density with AED and GC therapy and immobility are different from one another. Especially in the GC group abnormality of the Alp activity may be closely related to the decrease of trabecular bone mineral density. (author).

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  20. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several inches long with a hollow core to capture the bone specimen. The CT scanner is typically ... IV), ultrasound machine and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How ...

  1. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  2. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  3. Patterns of bone-marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.J.; Lee, G.S.; Narvaez, M.; Marciano, D.

    1977-01-01

    111 In-transferrin, radiocolloid and bone scans were performed within one week on 105 from more than 250 scanned patients with different haematological disorders. All patients had complete haematological workups and confirmed final diagnoses. From the comparison of the 111 In-transferrin marrow scan with the radiocolloid marrow scan and bone scan, eight basic patterns of localized or generalized disorders in the bone marrow cell production were delineated. The first pattern was called a cold area and two sub-patterns were distinguished in it. A cold area in the erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial scans associated with cold or normal areas in the bone scan corresponded to radiation damage of the marrow or multiple myeloma; a cold area in both marrow scans with a hot area in the bone scan to tumour, infarct and bone trauma. The second pattern was called a hot area. A hot area in the two marrow scans with a normal bone scan was observed in islands of active bone-marrow. Hot areas in both 111 In-transferrin and bone scan associated with a cold area in the radiocolloid scan were observed in tumours growing in bones with or without little active bone marrow. Hot areas on the three scans were observed in osteomyelitis of bones of the extremities. The third pattern was bone-marrow expansion, which was observed in hereditary haemolytic anaemias, in myeloproliferative disorders and in patients with bone-marrow damage following irradiation. The fourth pattern was saturation of the serum iron-binding capacity and it was manifested by increased activity in the kidneys in the 111 In-transferrin scan. The fifth pattern was bone-marrow failure which consists of decreased accumulation in the marrow and increased accumulation in the liver of marrow-seeking agents associated with normal bone scan. The sixth pattern, pure red cell aplasia, was characterized by less accumulation of 111 In-transferrin than radiocolloid in the bone marrow. The seventh pattern, bone-marrow siderosis

  4. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases.

  5. Surface lesions of the bones of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J.; Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    Surface lesions involving the bones of the hand are uncommon. This pictorial review illustrates the spectrum of conditions including benign primary bone tumours, malignant primary bone tumours and non-neoplastic disorders. The review focuses on the radiographic appearances of these lesions and other techniques such as CT and MR imaging that may suggest a specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. The Role od Bone Marrow Aspirate and Trephine Samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other disorders diagnosed after bone marrow examination include myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aplastic anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia and myelofibrosis. Only 8.75% of these patients had a normal bone marrow. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the complexity of using bone marrow examination in ...

  7. Bone marrow transplantation from genetically HLA-nonidentical donors in children with fatal inherited disorders excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies: use of two monoclonal antibodies to prevent graft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabado, N; Le Deist, F; Cant, A; De Graeff-Meeders, E R; Fasth, A; Morgan, G; Vellodi, A; Hale, G; Bujan, W; Thomas, C; Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Wijdenes, J; Fischer, A

    1996-09-01

    For children with life-threatening inborn errors of metabolism without a matched related bone marrow donor, transplantation from an HLA genetically nonidentical donor is the only therapeutic option. To reduce the high risk of graft rejection in this setting without increasing the conditioning regimen, a protocol based on the infusion of an antiadhesion antibody directed against the CD11a (leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]) molecule was performed by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group with promising results. To optimize engraftment, and thereby survival, further, the additional blockade of a second important leukocyte adhesion and signalization pathway mediated by the CD2 and LFA-3 interaction was attempted in a multicenter protocol conducted by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group. Results of this study (ie, engraftment and survival) were compared with a historical control group that received the anti-LFA-1 antibody alone. Factors that may have affected engraftment and survival were also considered in this study. Forty-four children with inborn errors, including inherited immunodeficiencies (excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies), Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and malignant osteopetrosis, received bone marrow from HLA-nonidentical related donors or from HLA-identical unrelated donors at 13 European centers between August 1990 and June 1993. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by use of either erythrocyte (E) rosetting or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to prevent graft-versus-host disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and cyclophosphamide for all patients plus etoposide for patients with osteopetrosis, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. Infusions of MoAbs specific for the CD11a and the CD2 molecules were started 4 and 3 days, respectively, before and

  8. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

    2018-05-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

  9. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  10. Bone scintigraphy in hereditary multiple exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, D.A.; Levin, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two adult patients with multiple hereditary exostoses, a skeletal disorder with recognized malignant potential, each demonstrated increased /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate uptake in an exostosis in which renewed growth had begun. None of the other multiple exostoses in either patient showed abnormal uptake. Histologic study of the lesions demonstrated chondrosarcoma in one case and benign osteochondroma in the second. Although bone scintigraphy nonspecifically identifies bone growth rather than malignant degeneration, it is more useful than radiographic bone survey in the periodic surveillance of adult patients with this disorder

  11. Management of adynamic bone disease in chronic kidney disease: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi K. Sista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO work group released recommendations in 2006 to define the bone-related pathology associated with chronic kidney disease as renal osteodystrophy. In 2009, KDIGO released revised clinical practice guidelines which redefined systemic disorders of bone and mineral metabolism due to chronic kidney disease as chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders. Conditions under this overarching term include osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteomalacia, and adynamic bone disease. We aim to provide a brief review of the histopathology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic features of adynamic bone disease, focusing on current trends in the management of this complex bone disorder.

  12. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.

  13. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  14. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  15. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  16. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  17. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Weaver, James C.; Jensen, Mads Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the roles of osteocytes in bone maintenance have gained increasing attention. Osteocytes reside in lacunae that are interconnected by canaliculi resulting in a vast cellular network within the mineralized bone matrix. As the structure of the lacuno-canalicular network is highly connected......-species but also inter-site variation in lacunar properties. Here, osteocyte lacunae in rat cortical bone have been studied using synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR μCT) and backscattered electron (BE) microscopy. Quantitative lacunar geometric characteristics are reported based on the synchrotron...... radiation data, differentiating between circumferential lamellar bone and a central, more disordered bone type. From these studies, no significant differences were found in lacunar volumes between lamellar and central bone, whereas significant differences in lacunar orientation, shape and density values...

  19. Segmenting Bone Parts for Bone Age Assessment using Point Distribution Model and Contour Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh Mann, Kulwinder, Dr.

    2018-01-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) is a task performed on radiographs by the pediatricians in hospitals to predict the final adult height, to diagnose growth disorders by monitoring skeletal development. For building an automatic bone age assessment system the step in routine is to do image pre-processing of the bone X-rays so that features row can be constructed. In this research paper, an enhanced point distribution algorithm using contours has been implemented for segmenting bone parts as per well-established procedure of bone age assessment that would be helpful in building feature row and later on; it would be helpful in construction of automatic bone age assessment system. Implementation of the segmentation algorithm shows high degree of accuracy in terms of recall and precision in segmenting bone parts from left hand X-Rays.

  20. Multinational observational study on clinical practices and therapeutic management of mineral and bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 4, 5, and 5D: The OCEANOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal A. M. Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to assess the current clinical practices in monitoring and treatment patterns of chronic kidney disease (CKD-mineral bone disorder and the degree to which these practices met the kidney disease improving global outcome (KDIGO guidelines. This was an international, multi-center, cross-sectional, observational study in adult patients diagnosed with CKD Stages 4, 5, and 5D. Patients were enrolled from Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia, and Africa; patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or with any medical/surgical conditions precluding their participation were excluded. Frequency of measurements, levels of serum calcium (Ca, phosphorus and parathormone (parathyroid hormone [PTH], and presence vascular/valvular calcification were recorded. Of the 2250 patients enrolled, data on 2247 patients were evaluated. Overall, only a small percentage of patients met all three target KDIGO ranges of serum Ca, phosphorus, and PTH (13.7% [95% confidence interval: 12.0; 15.4], with a higher proportion among CKD Stage 5D patients (14.8% than CKD Stage 4 and 5 (5.6% patients. Majority (84.3% of the patients received treatment with phosphorous binders, of whom 85.5% received Ca-based phosphate binders. Overall, 57.0% of patients received Vitamin D treatment with a similar frequency among patients with CKD Stages 4, 5, and 5D. Over half (65.7% of the patients were screened for vascular/valvular calcification; of these, 58.8% had ≥1 calcification. Diabetes status, P, PTH, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol had significant impact on the prescription pattern of phosphorous binders. The current practices for the management of bone and mineral metabolism in CKD patients in the study region fall far short of meeting the KDIGO target range.

  1. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  2. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  3. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  4. Bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Giuffrida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone complications occur frequently in Gaucher disease (GD and reduce the quality of life of these patients. Skeletal involvement is an important indication for treatment to ameliorate symptoms and reduce the risk of irreversible and debilitating disease. Bone biomarkers have been used to assess disease status and the response to therapy in a number of bone disorders. Here, we examine the literature for evidence of abnormalities in bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 GD to assess whether they might be useful for the assessment of bone involvement in GD. We have found that bone biomarkers in GD show highly variable results which do not currently support their routine use for clinical assessment of bone status, as an indication for therapy initiation, or for monitoring the response to therapy. A greater understanding of bone markers and their relation to the bone manifestations of GD is required.

  5. Bone health in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hoyos, Marta; Riancho, José Antonio; Valero, Carmen

    2017-07-21

    Patients with Down syndrome have a number of risk factors that theoretically could predispose them to osteoporosis, such as early aging, development disorders, reduced physical activity, limited sun exposure, frequent comorbidities and use of drug therapies which could affect bone metabolism. In addition, the bone mass of these people may be affected by their anthropometric and body composition peculiarities. In general terms, studies in adults with Down syndrome reported that these people have lower areal bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) than the general population. However, most of them have not taken the smaller bone size of people with Down syndrome into account. In fact, when body mineral density is adjusted by bone size and we obtain volumetric body mineral density (g/cm 3 ), the difference between both populations disappears. On the other hand, although people with Down syndrome have risk factor of hypovitaminosis D, the results of studies regarding 25(OH)D in this population are not clear. Likewise, the studies about biochemical bone markers or the prevalence of fractures are not conclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Buckner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA.

  7. Clinical significance of bone age estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    Skeletal development is an important maturity indicator during childhood. In clinical practice determination of skeletal age is helpful for the diagnosis of disorders of growth and development. Most hormones have specific effects on skeletal maturation. Thus, different disease states (growth disorders, disorders of pubertal development, chornic disorders of the bowels, kidneys, heart etc.) are characterized by retardation or acceleration of skeletal maturation. Therapeutic effects as well as side effects of hormones can be monitored by skeletal age determination. Typical disharmonic patterns in the appearance of bone centres of hand and wrist have been found in certain disorders of development. (orig.) [de

  8. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  9. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked...

  10. Meeting report of the 2016 bone marrow adiposity meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eerden, Bram; van Wijnen, André

    2017-10-02

    There is considerable interest in the physiology and pathology, as well as the cellular and molecular biology, of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Because bone marrow adiposity is linked not only to systemic energy metabolism, but also to both bone marrow and musculoskeletal disorders, this biologic compartment has become of major interest to investigators from diverse disciplines. Bone marrow adiposity represents a virtual multi-tissue endocrine organ, which encompasses cells from multiple developmental lineages (e.g., mesenchymal, myeloid, lymphoid) and occupies all the non-osseous and non-cartilaginous space within long bones. A number of research groups are now focusing on bone marrow adiposity to understand a range of clinical afflictions associated with bone marrow disorders and to consider mechanisms-based strategies for future therapies.

  11. Are manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture effective for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders or neck pain and associated disorders? An update of the Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders by the OPTIMa collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica J; Shearer, Heather M; Mior, Silvano; Jacobs, Craig; Côté, Pierre; Randhawa, Kristi; Yu, Hainan; Southerst, Danielle; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Sutton, Deborah; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J; Ameis, Arthur; Ammendolia, Carlo; Brison, Robert; Nordin, Margareta; Stupar, Maja; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

    2016-12-01

    In 2008, the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders (Neck Pain Task Force) found limited evidence on the effectiveness of manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture for the management of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) or neck pain and associated disorders (NAD). This review aimed to update the findings of the Neck Pain Task Force, which examined the effectiveness of manual therapies, passive physical modalities, and acupuncture for the management of WAD or NAD. This is a systematic review and best evidence synthesis. The sample includes randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies comparing manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture with other interventions, placebo or sham, or no intervention. The outcome measures were self-rated or functional recovery, pain intensity, health-related quality of life, psychological outcomes, or adverse events. We systematically searched five databases from 2000 to 2014. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a low risk of bias were stratified by the intervention's stage of development (exploratory vs. evaluation) and synthesized following best evidence synthesis principles. Funding was provided by the Ministry of Finance. We screened 8,551 citations, and 38 studies were relevant and 22 had a low risk of bias. Evidence from seven exploratory studies suggests that (1) for recent but not persistent NAD grades I-II, thoracic manipulation offers short-term benefits; (2) for persistent NAD grades I-II, technical parameters of cervical mobilization (eg, direction or site of manual contact) do not impact outcomes, whereas one session of cervical manipulation is similar to Kinesio Taping; and (3) for NAD grades I-II, strain-counterstrain treatment is no better than placebo. Evidence from 15 evaluation studies

  12. Bone scan and SPECT/CT findings in marble bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Jiten; Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Woril (India)

    2012-03-15

    Marble bone disease or osteopetrosis, is a rare inborn disorder characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone. Overall incidence of the disease is estimated to be 1 case in 100,000-500,000 population. Whereas the radiographic features of the disease are well known, information on bone scan imaging is sparse in the literature. We present technitium 99m methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc MDP) bone scan features of osteopetrosis, along with single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography(SPECT/CT) correlation in a young male.

  13. Bone scan and SPECT/CT findings in marble bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, Jiten; Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Marble bone disease or osteopetrosis, is a rare inborn disorder characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone. Overall incidence of the disease is estimated to be 1 case in 100,000-500,000 population. Whereas the radiographic features of the disease are well known, information on bone scan imaging is sparse in the literature. We present technitium 99m methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc MDP) bone scan features of osteopetrosis, along with single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography(SPECT/CT) correlation in a young male.

  14. Patients with eating disorders. A high-risk group for fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Emborg, C.; Stoving, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze fracture risk and bone mineral density in patients with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders). DESIGN: Clinical overview. FINDINGS: Bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased in patients with anorexia nervosa....... In patients with bulimia nervosa, bone mineral is only marginally decreased and fracture risk marginally increased. In patients with other eating disorders (eating disorders not otherwise specified), bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased. CONCLUSIONS: Fracture risk is increased...

  15. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow in hematological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.C. vande; Lecouvet, F.E.; Maldague, B.; Malghem, J.; Michaux, L.; Ferrant, A.

    1998-01-01

    Despite its lack of specificity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow has the potential to play a role in the management of patients with primary neoplastic disorders of the hematopoietic system, including lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myeloma. In addition to its use in the assessment of suspected spinal cord compression, bone marrow MRI could be used as a prognostic method or as a technique to assess the response to treatment. The current review addresses the common patterns of bone marrow involvement observed in primary neoplasms of the bone marrow, basic technical principles of bone marrow MRI, and several applications of MRI in selected clinical situations. (orig.) (orig.)

  17. The burden and determinants of neck pain in workers: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Pierre; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Cassidy, J David; Carroll, Linda J; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Holm, Lena W; Carragee, Eugene J; Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Hurwitz, Eric L; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    Systematic review and best evidence synthesis. To describe the prevalence and incidence of neck pain and disability in workers; to identify risk factors for neck pain in workers; to propose an etiological diagram; and to make recommendations for future research. Previous reviews of the etiology of neck pain in workers relied on cross-sectional evidence. Recently published cohorts and randomized trials warrant a re-analysis of this body of research. We systematically searched Medline for literature published from 1980-2006. Retrieved articles were reviewed for relevance. Relevant articles were critically appraised. Articles judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. One hundred and nine papers on the burden and determinants of neck pain in workers were scientifically admissible. The annual prevalence of neck pain varied from 27.1% in Norway to 47.8% in Québec, Canada. Each year, between 11% and 14.1% of workers were limited in their activities because of neck pain. Risk factors associated with neck pain in workers include age, previous musculoskeletal pain, high quantitative job demands, low social support at work, job insecurity, low physical capacity, poor computer workstation design and work posture, sedentary work position, repetitive work and precision work. We found preliminary evidence that gender, occupation, headaches, emotional problems, smoking, poor job satisfaction, awkward work postures, poor physical work environment, and workers' ethnicity may be associated with neck pain. There is evidence that interventions aimed at modifying workstations and worker posture are not effective in reducing the incidence of neck pain in workers. Neck disorders are a significant source of pain and activity limitations in workers. Most neck pain results from complex relationships between individual and workplace risk factors. No prevention strategies have been shown to reduce the incidence of neck pain in workers.

  18. The challenge of controlling phosphorus in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Martin, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis and management of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD) has experienced major changes, but the control of serum phosphorus at all stages of CKD still seems to be a key factor to improve clinical outcomes. High serum phosphorus is the most important uremia-related, non-traditional risk factor associated with vascular calcification in CKD patients and in the general population. Phosphorus may also be one of the key elements linking vascular calcification with low bone turnover. The main hormones and factors that contribute to the kidney regulation of phosphorus and calcium include parathyroid hormone, FGF-23, klotho and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). Serum phosphorus did not start rising until CKD 3b in contrast with the earlier changes observed with fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), Klotho, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite FGF-23 and PTH having synergic effects regarding phosphorus removal, they have opposite effects on 1,25(OH)2D3. At the same stages of CKD in which phosphorus retention appears to occur, calcium retention also occurs. As phosphorus accumulation is associated with poor outcomes, an important question without a clear answer is at which level-range should serum phosphorus be maintained at different stages of CKD to improve clinical outcomes. There are four main strategies to manage phosphate homeostasis; phosphorus dietary intake, administration of phosphate binder agents, effective control of hyperparathyroidism and to ensure in the CKD 5D setting, an adequate scheme of dialysis. Despite all the available strategies, and the introduction of new phosphate binder agents in the market, controlling serum phosphorus remains challenging, and hyperphosphatemia continues to be extremely common in CKD 5 patients. Furthermore, despite phosphate binding agents having proved to be effective in reducing serum phosphorus, their ultimate effects on clinical outcomes remain controversial. Thus, we still

  19. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  20. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  1. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  2. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  3. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  4. Force-induced bone growth and adaptation: A system theoretical approach to understanding bone mechanotransduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Solvey; Findeisen, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The modeling, analysis, and design of treatment therapies for bone disorders based on the paradigm of force-induced bone growth and adaptation is a challenging task. Mathematical models provide, in comparison to clinical, medical and biological approaches an structured alternative framework to understand the concurrent effects of the multiple factors involved in bone remodeling. By now, there are few mathematical models describing the appearing complex interactions. However, the resulting models are complex and difficult to analyze, due to the strong nonlinearities appearing in the equations, the wide range of variability of the states, and the uncertainties in parameters. In this work, we focus on analyzing the effects of changes in model structure and parameters/inputs variations on the overall steady state behavior using systems theoretical methods. Based on an briefly reviewed existing model that describes force-induced bone adaptation, the main objective of this work is to analyze the stationary behavior and to identify plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders. Identifying plausible targets can help in the development of optimal treatments combining both physical activity and drug-medication. Such treatments help to improve/maintain/restore bone strength, which deteriorates under bone disorder conditions, such as estrogen deficiency.

  5. 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy findings representing osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dae Gun; Moon, Tae Geon; Kim, Ji Hong; Son, Seok Man; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki

    2001-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled phosphates is one of the most common procedures in evaluation of various skeletal disorders. Metabolic bone diseases show involvement of the whole skeleton and are associated with increased bone turnover and increased uptake of 99m Tc-labeled phosphates. In this study, we investigated apparently normal women who were examined with routine bone scintigraphy applied bone densitometry to correlate it with skeletal uptake in bone scan. This study includes 79 women who were performed both of bone mineral density(BMD) and bone scintigraphy. We investigated the relation of bone scan findings and BMD of lumbar, femur, radius. Regional BMD were negatively correlated with increased age. Among the bone scintigraphy findings representing metabolic bone disease, uptakes by the long bones, skull and mandible increased with age in women, while that in the costochondral junction decreased. Increased skull and mandible uptakes is associated with decreased BMD, and it has statistically significance. Our results show that increased radionuclide uptake in bone scintigraphy, especially skull and mandible uptake was associated with decreased lumbar, femur BMD in women. So that, increased skull and mandible uptake in women would be a scintigraphic sign of osteopenia or osteoporosis

  6. Effects of Lowering Dialysate Calcium Concentration on Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Conversion from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Ueki, Kenji; Tokumoto, Masanori; Suehiro, Takaichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fujimi, Satoru; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Selection of a lower dialysate calcium concentration (DCa) can reduce calcium burden and prevent vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. However, decreased DCa can worsen mineral and bone disorders. This 1-year retrospective observational study evaluated 121 hemodialysis patients at Fukuoka Renal Clinic who underwent conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. The primary outcomes were changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The effects of baseline serum calcium and PTH levels on changes in biochemical parameters were also determined. One year after DCa conversion, mean serum calcium level decreased, while serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and PTH concentrations increased. The rate of achievement of target PTH was higher in patients with lower serum PTH level at baseline, while patients with higher baseline serum PTH level tended to exceed the upper limit of the PTH target range. Patients with higher baseline serum calcium concentration showed a greater decrease in serum calcium level and a greater increase in serum PTH level at 1 year. Patients with a lower baseline serum PTH level can benefit from optimal PTH control following conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. However, secondary hyperparathyroidism may be exacerbated in some patients with higher baseline serum calcium (Ca) and PTH levels. These results indicate that an individualized approach can maximize the benefits of Ca unloading after conversion to lower DCa. © 2015 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  7. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy in psoriatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.; Altmeyer, P.; Chilf, G.; Schlesinger, G.; Holzmann, H.; Hoer, G.

    1982-01-01

    24 psoriatics as well as 24 normal healthy adults were studied by functional bone marrow scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (Tc-99m-HSA-MM). Functional bone marrow scintigraphy is an in vivo test system for the assessment of various functional properties of fixed macrophages. 58% of psoriatics who had no systemic drug treatment demonstrated peripheral extension of the bone marrow space indicating hyperplasia of bone marrow macrophages. This phenomenon could be observed only in one normal subject who was a high-performance sportsman. 83% (n=6) of psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver demonstrated bone marrow extension. The 'capacity' of bone marrow macrophages to engulf Tc-99m-HSA-MM ('uptake ratio') was diminished in 42% of non-treated as well as 66% of psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid. The phagocytic and proteolytic turnover of Tc-99m-HSA-MM in bone marrow, spleen, and liver was found to be accelerated in 66% of non-treated psoriatics, normal, accelerated or delayed in psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid as well as considerably delayed in all of the psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy proved to be an appropriate in vivo test system to reveal abnormalities of fixed macrophages in psoriatics. Furthermore, theratpeutic effects as well as influences of pre-existing disorders on different macrophage populations can be assessed. (Author)

  8. [Clinical usefulness of bone turnover markers in the management of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shozo

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a state of elevated risk for bone fracture due to depressed bone strength, which is considered to be the sum of bone mineral density and bone quality. Since a measure of bone quality has not been established, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers are the only way to evaluate bone strength. Bone turnover markers are classified into bone formation marker and resorption marker, which are correlated with the bone formation rate and resorption rate, respectively, and bone matrix-related marker. Bone is always metabolized; old tissue is resorbed by acids and proteases derived from osteoclasts, whereas new bone is produced by osteoblasts. Bone formation and resorption rates should be balanced (also called coupled). When the bone resorption rate exceeds the formation rate(uncoupled state), bone volume will be reduced. Thus, we can comprehend bone metabolism by measuring both formation and resorption markers at the same time. Increased fracture risk is recognized by elevated bone resorption markers and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, which reflects vitamin K insufficiency and bone turnover. These values and the time course give us helpful information to choose medicine suitable for the patients and to judge the responsiveness. If the value is extraordinarily high without renal failure, metabolic bone disorder or bone metastatic tumor should be considered. Bone quality may be assessed by measuring bone matrix-related markers such as homocystein and pentosidine. Since recent studies indicate that the bone is a hormone-producing organ, it is possible that glucose metabolism or an unknown mechanism could be assessed in the future.

  9. Bone marrow examination findings at Aga Khan University Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional anaemia as a group was the most common haematological disorder ... examination in our patients with megaloblastic anaemia predominating. ... indication for bone marrow examination was anaemia followed by diagnostic work up ...

  10. Constitutional bone impairment in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Giuseppina; Mussa, Alessandro; Carli, Diana; Molinatto, Cristina; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista

    2017-03-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by genotypic and phenotypic variability. It belongs to the Ras/MAPK pathway disorders collectively named Rasopathies or neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndromes. Phenotype is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphisms, skeletal and ectodermal anomalies, cryptorchidism, mild to moderate developmental delay/learning disability, and tumor predisposition. Short stature and skeletal dysmorphisms are almost constant and several studies hypothesized a role for the RAS pathway in regulating bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated the bone quality assessed by phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and the metabolic bone profiling in a group of patients with NS, to determine whether low bone mineralization is primary or secondary to NS characteristics. Thirty-five patients were enrolled, including 20 males (55.6%) and 15 females (44.5%) aged 1.0-17.8 years (mean 6.4 ± 4.5, median 4.9 years). Each patients was submitted to clinical examination, estimation of the bone age, laboratory assays, and QUS assessment. Twenty-five percent of the cohort shows reduced QUS values for their age based on bone transmission time. Bone measurement were adjusted for multiple factors frequently observed in NS patients, such as growth retardation, delayed bone age, retarded puberty, and reduced body mass index, potentially affecting bone quality or its appraisal. In spite of the correction attempts, QUS measurement indicates that bone impairment persists in nearly 15% of the cohort studied. Our results indicate that bone impairment in NS is likely primary and not secondary to any of the phenotypic traits of NS, nor consistent with metabolic disturbances. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Assessment of bone mineral status in children with Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with skeletal involvement. It is caused by mutations in fibrillin1 (FBN1) gene resulting in activation of TGF-ßeta, which developmentally regulates bone mass and matrix properties. There is no consensus regarding bone minerali...

  12. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  13. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  14. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  15. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  16. Effects of Fish Bone Meal Flour and Mineral Water «Abalakhskaya» on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Palshina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the complex application of fish bone meal flour (FBMF and mineral water «Abalakhskaya» (AMW for correction of calcium-phosphorus metabolism disorders in patients with abnormal bone mineral density and biliary tract pathology.

  17. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondain, J.E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  18. Vladimir Byurchiev, Ankle Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Vladimir says that today not many children play with ankle bones. He recalls when he was young, children played with bones more often. According to Vladimir, various games using ankle bones develop flexibility, agility, and muscle in children’s hands. Ankles bones are taken from the back legs of a cow or a sheep. It is possible to determine the age and health of animals by examining this particular bone. Arcadia

  19. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Paget disease of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most common in people of western European heritage. Early-onset Paget disease of bone is much rarer. This form of the disorder has been reported in only a few families. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  1. Fat, Sugar, and Bone Health: A Complex Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With people aging, osteoporosis is expected to increase notably. Nutritional status is a relatively easily-modified risk factor, associated with many chronic diseases, and is involved in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD, along with osteoporosis. Nutrients, such as fats, sugars, and proteins, play a primary function in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. In Western nations, diets are generally high in saturated fats, however, currently, the nutritional patterns dominating in China continue to be high in carbohydrates from starch, cereals, and sugars. Moreover, high fat or high sugar (fructose, glucose, or sucrose impart a significant impact on bone structural integrity. Due to diet being modifiable, demonstrating the effects of nutrition on bone health can provide an approach for osteoporosis prevention. Most researchers have reported that a high-fat diet consumption is associated with bone mineral density (BMD and, as bone strength diminishes, adverse microstructure changes occur in the cancellous bone compartment, which is involved with lipid metabolism modulation disorder and the alteration of the bone marrow environment, along with an increased inflammatory environment. Some studies, however, demonstrated that a high-fat diet contributes to achieving peak bone mass, along with microstructure, at a younger age. Contrary to these results, others have shown that a high-fructose diet consumption leads to stronger bones with a superior microarchitecture than those with the intake of a high-glucose diet and, at the same time, research indicated that a high-fat diet usually deteriorates cancellous bone parameters, and that the incorporation of fructose into a high-fat diet did not aggravate bone mass loss. High-fat/high-sucrose diets have shown both beneficial and detrimental influences on bone metabolism. Combined, these studies showed that nutrition exerts different effects on bone health. Thus, a better understanding of

  2. Fat, Sugar, and Bone Health: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Yu, Xijie

    2017-05-17

    With people aging, osteoporosis is expected to increase notably. Nutritional status is a relatively easily-modified risk factor, associated with many chronic diseases, and is involved in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD), along with osteoporosis. Nutrients, such as fats, sugars, and proteins, play a primary function in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. In Western nations, diets are generally high in saturated fats, however, currently, the nutritional patterns dominating in China continue to be high in carbohydrates from starch, cereals, and sugars. Moreover, high fat or high sugar (fructose, glucose, or sucrose) impart a significant impact on bone structural integrity. Due to diet being modifiable, demonstrating the effects of nutrition on bone health can provide an approach for osteoporosis prevention. Most researchers have reported that a high-fat diet consumption is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and, as bone strength diminishes, adverse microstructure changes occur in the cancellous bone compartment, which is involved with lipid metabolism modulation disorder and the alteration of the bone marrow environment, along with an increased inflammatory environment. Some studies, however, demonstrated that a high-fat diet contributes to achieving peak bone mass, along with microstructure, at a younger age. Contrary to these results, others have shown that a high-fructose diet consumption leads to stronger bones with a superior microarchitecture than those with the intake of a high-glucose diet and, at the same time, research indicated that a high-fat diet usually deteriorates cancellous bone parameters, and that the incorporation of fructose into a high-fat diet did not aggravate bone mass loss. High-fat/high-sucrose diets have shown both beneficial and detrimental influences on bone metabolism. Combined, these studies showed that nutrition exerts different effects on bone health. Thus, a better understanding of the regulation

  3. Mineral & Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . This ... about Kidney Failure and How it’s Treated Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis Treatment Methods for Kidney ...

  4. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  5. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registry Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Use Find a Psychiatrist Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive ...

  6. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  7. Bone Health in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Zikan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a gait disorder characterized by acute episodes of neurological defects leading to progressive disability. Patients with MS have multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures, such as progressive immobilization, long-term glucocorticoids (GCs treatment or vitamin D deficiency. The duration of motor disability appears to be a major contributor to the reduction of bone strength. The long term immobilization causes a marked imbalance between bone formation and resorption with depressed bone formation and a marked disruption of mechanosensory network of tightly connected osteocytes due to increase of osteocyte apoptosis. Patients with higher level of disability have also higher risk of falls that combined with a bone loss increases the frequency of bone fractures. There are currently no recommendations how to best prevent and treat osteoporosis in patients with MS. However, devastating effect of immobilization on the skeleton in patients with MS underscores the importance of adequate mechanical stimuli for maintaining the bone structure and its mechanical competence. The physical as well as pharmacological interventions which can counteract the bone remodeling imbalance, particularly osteocyte apoptosis, will be promising for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with MS.

  8. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma, or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions.

  9. Schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not improve with treatment Thoughts of suicide or of harming others Alternative Names Mood disorder - schizoaffective disorder; Psychosis - schizoaffective disorder Images Schizoaffective disorder ...

  10. Roentgenological semiotics of bone and bone joints pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Physiologic and pathologic processes in bones followed by alternations of bone structure and reflected on roentgenograms are considered and described. Most frequent reasons for roentgenodiagnosis errors in diseases of bone and bone joint apparatus are presented

  11. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R.; Jones, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  12. Bone benefits of testosterone replacement therapy in male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; Biagioli, A; Balercia, G

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is an asymptomatic, systemic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in increased bone fragility. Such condition is often underdiagnosed and undertreated, especially in men, therefore considerably increasing the fracture risk. Of note, fracture-related morbidity and mortality is generally higher in men, partly due to greater frailty. On the other hand, male hypogonadism is defined as the failure of the testes to produce androgens, sperm, or both and it is often due to the ageing process. This disorder, in turn, causes many systemic disorders, and it is the condition mainly associated with male osteoporosis. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is usually prescribed to restore optimal hormone levels, but conflicting data are available about the efficacy of TRT treatment on bone mineral density. In this review we extensively examined literature data about the usefulness of TRT in improving hypogonadism-associated low bone mineral density. Furthermore, we considered the complex relationship between male osteoporosis and hypogonadism, by specifically addressing the role of androgens in male bone physiology and the diagnostic approach to male osteoporosis and hypogonadism and also by dealing with some new related aspects such as the new endocrine pathways between bone and testis and the role of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism on bone density.

  13. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone ...

  14. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  15. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  16. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  17. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  18. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  19. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  20. Nutritional factors affecting poultry bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Robert H

    2008-05-01

    Outlined are two main current research concerns relating to skeletal disorders in poultry: (a) osteoporosis in egg-laying hens; (b) leg problems caused by rapid bone growth in broiler chickens. Surveys indicate that 30% of caged laying hens suffer at least one lifetime fracture (a severe welfare issue). Modern hybrids produce one egg per d for 50 weeks. For this period 'normal' bone turnover ceases; only medullary bone (MB) is formed, a woven bone type of limited structural value. MB is resorbed for eggshell formation alongside structural bone, leading to increased fracture risk. Avian osteoporosis is reduced by activity and genetic selection but nutrition is also important. Fluoride and vitamin K are beneficial but the timing of nutritional intervention is important. Ca, inorganic P and vitamin D must be adequate and the form of Ca is critical. Limestone fed as particulates benefits skeletal and eggshell quality. In hens fed particulate limestone compared with flour-fed hens the tibiotarsus breaking strength and radiographic density are increased at 56 weeks of age (Pbroiler (meat) chickens selection for rapid growth from approximately 50 g to 3 kg in 42 d has inadvertently produced skeletal disorders such as tibial dyschondroplasia, rickets and associated valgus-varus deformities leading to lameness. The beneficial skeletal effects during growth of increased dietary n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA (utilising salmon oil) have been demonstrated. Experiments simulating daylight UVB levels have produced beneficial skeletal effects in Ca- and vitamin D-deficient chicks.

  1. Essence of "Shen (Kidney) Controlling Bones": Conceptual Analysis Based on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Osteo-Related Cells Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao-Tao; Jin, Hong-Ting; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2018-04-12

    As a traditional concept of Chinese medicine (CM), the theory of "Shen (Kidney) controlling bones" has been gradually proven. And in modern allopathic medicine, the multiple mechanisms of bone growth, development and regeneration align with the theory. Shen defifi ciency as a pathological condition has a negative effect on the skeleton of body, specififi cally the disorder of bone homeostasis. Present studies indicate that Shen defifi ciency shares a common disorder characterized by dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis may be an important regulator of bone diseases with abnormal homeostasis. Therefore, we posit the existence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-osteo-related cells axis: cells that comprise bone tissue (osteo-related cells) are targets under the regulation of HPA axis in disorder of bone homeostasis. Chinese herbs for nourishing Shen have potential in the development of treatments for disorder of bone homeostasis.

  2. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A Roadmap to the Brittle Bones of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini P. Gore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disorder which despite advances in medical care continues to be a life-limiting and often fatal disease. With increase in life expectancy of the CF population, bone disease has emerged as a common complication. Unlike the osteoporosis seen in postmenopausal population, bone disease in CF begins at a young age and is associated with significant morbidity due to fractures, kyphosis, increased pain, and decreased lung function. The maintenance of bone health is essential for the CF population during their lives to prevent pain and fractures but also as they approach lung transplantation since severe bone disease can lead to exclusion from lung transplantation. Early recognition, prevention, and treatment are key to maintaining optimal bone health in CF patients and often require a multidisciplinary approach. This article will review the pathophysiology, current clinical practice guidelines, and potential future therapies for treating CF-related bone disease.

  4. Second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen in ancient bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B; McIntosh, D; Fildes, T; Smith, L; Hargrave, F; Islam, M; Thompson, T; Layfield, R; Scott, D; Shaw, B; Burrell, C L; Gonzalez, S; Taylor, S

    2017-12-01

    Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG) captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen. These results suggest that future studies have the potential to use SHG imaging to provide new insights into the composition of ancient bone, to characterize ancient bone disorders, to investigate collagen preservation within and between various taxa, and to monitor collagen decay regimes in different depositional environments.

  5. Second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen in ancient bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen. These results suggest that future studies have the potential to use SHG imaging to provide new insights into the composition of ancient bone, to characterize ancient bone disorders, to investigate collagen preservation within and between various taxa, and to monitor collagen decay regimes in different depositional environments.

  6. Glucocorticoid: A potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Wenbin; Xue, Yanru; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Jingbao; Shang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to conditions of microgravity, including actual spaceflight and simulated microgravity, results in numerous negative alterations to bone structure and mechanical properties. Although there are abundant researches on bone loss in microgravity, the explicit mechanism is not completely understood. At present, it is widely accepted that the absence of mechanical stimulus plays a predominant role in bone homeostasis disorders in conditions of weightlessness. However, aside from mechanical unloading, nonmechanical factors such as various hormones, cytokines, dietary nutrition, etc. are important as well in microgravity induced bone loss. The stress-induced increase in endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) levels is inevitable in microgravity environments. Moreover, it is well known that GCs have a detrimental effect to bone health at excess concentrations. Therefore, GC plays a potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss. This review summarizeds several studies and their prospective solutions to this hypothesis.

  7. Bone geometry, density, and microarchitecture in the distal radius and tibia in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta type I assessed by high-resolution pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Hansen, Stinus

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disorder characterized by decreased biosynthesis or impaired morphology of type I collagen that leads to decreased bone mass and increased bone fragility. We hypothesized that patients with OI have altered bone microstructure and bone geometry...

  8. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2007. When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 ...

  9. Cortical bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M. Jr.; Rogers, L.F.; Hendrix, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of bone metastases involving the cortex alone are reviewed. Seven patients had primary lung carcinoma, while 18 had primary tumors not previously reported to produce cortical bone metastases (tumors of the breast, kidney, pancreas, adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, multiple myeloma). Radiographically, these cortical lesions were well circumscribed, osteolytic, and produced soft-tissue swelling and occasional periosteal reaction. A recurrent pattern of metadiaphyseal involvement of the long bones of the lower extremity (particularly the femur) was noted, and is discussed. Findings reported in the literature, review, pathophysiology, and the role of skeletal radiographs, bone scans, and CT scans in evaluating cortical bone metastases are addressed

  10. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  12. [Prefabrication of bone transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C

    2015-03-01

    Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.

  13. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role and mechanism of action of Sclerostin in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Calle, Jesus; Sato, Amy Y.; Bellido, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    After discovering that lack of Sost/sclerostin expression is the cause of the high bone mass human syndromes Van Buchem disease and sclerosteosis, extensive animal experimentation and clinical studies demonstrated that sclerostin plays a critical role in bone homeostasis and that its deficiency or pharmacological neutralization increases bone formation. Dysregulation of sclerostin expression also underlies the pathophysiology of skeletal disorders characterized by loss of bone mass as well as the damaging effects of some cancers in bone. Thus, sclerostin has quickly become a promising molecular target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other skeletal diseases, and beneficial skeletal outcomes are observed in animal studies and clinical trials using neutralizing antibodies against sclerostin. However, the anabolic effect of blocking sclerostin decreases with time, bone mass accrual is also accompanied by anti-catabolic effects, and there is bone loss over time after therapy discontinuation. Further, the cellular source of sclerostin in the bone/bone marrow microenvironment under physiological and pathological conditions, the pathways that regulate sclerostin expression and the mechanisms by which sclerostin modulates the activity of osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts remain unclear. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on the regulation of Sost/sclerotin expression and its mechanism(s) of action, discuss novel observations regarding its role in signaling pathways activated by hormones and mechanical stimuli in bone, and propose future research needed to understand the full potential of therapeutic interventions that modulate Sost/sclerostin expression. PMID:27742498

  15. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  16. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  17. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  18. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  19. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  20. Hematological and vascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous blood-related disorders will demonstrate skeletal alterations. These include various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and clotting-deficient diseases (hemophilia). Of all the various types of anemias only those that are chronic and severe will result in radiographically visible osseous changes. The skeletal alterations which are observed are invariably related to the direct effects on the bone marrow or are secondary to the inherent complications of the disease. The most notable osseous changes are seen in the congenital hemolytic anemias, especially thalassemia (Cooley's anemia), sickle cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Chronic iron deficiency anemia produces very minor skeletal changes, usually isolated to the skull. Leukemia demonstrates characteristic changes largely dependent on age. Hemophilia primarily alters joint function due to recurrent intraarticular hemorrhage. This chapter discusses blood-related disorders that affect the bones

  1. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    ''What is growth anyway? Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age? Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references

  2. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  3. Bone scintigraphy in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Illawarra Regional Hospital, Wollongong, NSW, (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a benign skeletal disorder of unknown aetiology. Fibrous dysplasia characteristically involves the fibrous replacement of portions of the medullary cavities of a single bone (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic). Bones typically involved include the femurs, tibiae, ribs and maxillae. The polyostotic form may be accompanied by skin pigmentation and endocrine abnormalities (McCune Allbright Syndrome). Radiological findings in fibrous dysplasia are variable, ranging from completely radiolucent to radio-opaque lesions, depending on the amount of fibrous or osseous tissue deposited in the medulla. The most common radiographic finding is that of a ground glass-like semi-opaque lesion. Case reports on scintigraphic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia are scanty. We present radiological and scintigraphic findings of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in a young male. (authors). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  5. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  6. Central and peripheral distribution of bone marrow on bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocytic antibody in hematologic malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young [Dong-A University College of Medicne, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Tae; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy has been used to evaluate the status of bone marrow in various hematologic disorders. We have analyzed the peripheral distribution pattern and central uptake ratio of bone marrow using anti-NCA-95 monoclonal antibody and the their correlation in patients with various hematologic malignancy. Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m anti-granulocyte monoclonal mouse antibody BW 250/183. Fifty patients were classified into four groups; 11 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 12 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 15 with lymphoma and 12 with myelodysplastic syndrome. Th extension of peripheral bone marrow was categorized into four grades: I, II, III and IV. The activity of central bone marrow was expressed as sacroiliac uptake ratio. The patient's number was 4 in grade I, 27 in grade II, 15 in grade III and 4 in grade IV according to extension of peripheral bone marrow. The extension of peripheral bone marrow was marked (58% in grade III and IV) in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukemia and mild (93% in grade I and II) in lymphoma. Sacroiliac uptake ratio was highest (8.5{+-}4.0) in myelodysplastic syndrome and lowest (5.9{+-}3.6) in acute myelogenous leukemia, but not significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). Sacroiliac uptake ratio of whole patients was significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). The pattern of peripheral bone marrow extension and activity of central hemopoietic marrow were not specific to the disease entities. Response of hemopoietic bone marrow may be evaluated on both peripheral and central bone marrow in patients with hematologic malignancy.

  7. Central and peripheral distribution of bone marrow on bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocytic antibody in hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2002-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy has been used to evaluate the status of bone marrow in various hematologic disorders. We have analyzed the peripheral distribution pattern and central uptake ratio of bone marrow using anti-NCA-95 monoclonal antibody and the their correlation in patients with various hematologic malignancy. Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m anti-granulocyte monoclonal mouse antibody BW 250/183. Fifty patients were classified into four groups; 11 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 12 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 15 with lymphoma and 12 with myelodysplastic syndrome. Th extension of peripheral bone marrow was categorized into four grades: I, II, III and IV. The activity of central bone marrow was expressed as sacroiliac uptake ratio. The patient's number was 4 in grade I, 27 in grade II, 15 in grade III and 4 in grade IV according to extension of peripheral bone marrow. The extension of peripheral bone marrow was marked (58% in grade III and IV) in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukemia and mild (93% in grade I and II) in lymphoma. Sacroiliac uptake ratio was highest (8.5±4.0) in myelodysplastic syndrome and lowest (5.9±3.6) in acute myelogenous leukemia, but not significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). Sacroiliac uptake ratio of whole patients was significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). The pattern of peripheral bone marrow extension and activity of central hemopoietic marrow were not specific to the disease entities. Response of hemopoietic bone marrow may be evaluated on both peripheral and central bone marrow in patients with hematologic malignancy

  8. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  9. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  10. Current options for the treatment of Paget’s disease of the bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Merlotti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Merlotti, Luigi Gennari, Giuseppe Martini, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Sciences and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: Paget’s disease of bone (PDB is a chronic bone remodeling disorder characterized by increased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, with subsequent compensatory increases in new bone formation, resulting in a disorganized mosaic of woven and lamellar bone at affected skeletal sites. This disease is most often asymptomatic but can be associated with bone pain or deformity, fractures, secondary arthritis, neurological complications, deafness, contributing to substantial morbidity and reduced quality of life. Neoplastic degeneration of pagetic bone is a relatively rare event, occurring with an incidence of less than 1%, but has a grave prognosis. Specific therapy for PDB is aimed at decreasing the abnormal bone turnover and bisphosphonates are currently considered the treatment of choice. These treatments are associated with a reduction in plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and an improvement in radiological and scintigraphic appearance and with a reduction in bone pain and bone deformity, Recently, the availability of newer, more potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates has improved treatment outcomes, allowing a more effective and convenient management of this debilitating disorder.Keywords: Paget’s disease of bone, bisphosphonates, aminobisphosphonates, bone remodeling

  11. Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis: insight into risk factors and microstructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyi; Yin, Jimin; Gao, Junjie; Cheng, Tak S; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zhang, Changqing; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the adult population. As a progressive degenerative joint disorder, OA is characterized by cartilage damage, changes in the subchondral bone, osteophyte formation, muscle weakness, and inflammation of the synovium tissue and tendon. Although OA has long been viewed as a primary disorder of articular cartilage, subchondral bone is attracting increasing attention. It is commonly reported to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of OA. Subchondral bone sclerosis, together with progressive cartilage degradation, is widely considered as a hallmark of OA. Despite the increase in bone volume fraction, subchondral bone is hypomineralized, due to abnormal bone remodeling. Some histopathological changes in the subchondral bone have also been detected, including microdamage, bone marrow edema-like lesions and bone cysts. This review summarizes basic features of the osteochondral junction, which comprises subchondral bone and articular cartilage. Importantly, we discuss risk factors influencing subchondral bone integrity. We also focus on the microarchitectural and histopathological changes of subchondral bone in OA, and provide an overview of their potential contribution to the progression of OA. A hypothetical model for the pathogenesis of OA is proposed.

  12. Critical assessment of bone scan quantitation (bone to soft tissue ratios) in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelman, I.; Gordon, D.; Bessent, R.G.

    1981-03-01

    Accurate quantitation from the bone scan image of skeletal uptake of radiopharmaceutical would be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. Repeat measurements of bone to soft tissue (B/ST) ratios on the one set of images were made for 103 subjects, a) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 for the area of bone; b) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 then lumbar vertebra 4; c) by two observers both using lumbar vertebra 2. The median difference between repeat measurements by the same observer was well under 1% but the 5-95 percentile range was -13 to +14%. Between the two observers there was a median difference of 10.6% with a 5-95 percentile range of -11 to +44%. We also measured B/ST ratios in 150 control subjects and 139 patients with various metabolic bone disorders. While statistically significant differences for B/ST ratios were found between the osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's groups, and the control population (P < 0.001 in all cases), there was appreciable overlap between individual patient results and the control range. It is concluded, therefore, that measurement of B/ST ratios for the individual is of limited value in clinical practice.

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    is an ordered array of bone fibers in a matrix material [1]. It is the dominant form of bone and closely resembles a layered fiber - reinforced ...mineral [3], [14]. These fibers are not independent structures, but exist only within the complex lamellar bone [13], similar to a fiber reinforced ...accuracy of this method. What this model does not provide is the transverse properties or a Poisson ’ s ratio for TC. Thus, we must assume that

  14. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references

  15. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  16. Molecular and radiological diagnosis of sclerosing bone dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hul, Wim van; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Balemans, Wendy; Janssens, Katrien; Schepper, A.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a quantitative trait for which the heritability of the variance is estimated to be up to 80%, based on epidemiological and twin studies. Further illustration of the involvement of genetic factors in bone homeostasis, is the existence of an extended group of genetic conditions associated with an abnormal bone density. The group of conditions with increased bone density has long been poorly studied and understood at the molecular genetic level but recently, thanks to recent developments in molecular genetics and genomics, for some of them major breakthroughs have been made. These findings will make the molecular analysis of such patients an additional tool in diagnostics and in genetic counseling. However, the initial identification of affected patients is still largely dependent upon recognition of clinical and radiological stigmata of the disease. Therefore, in this overview of sclerosing bone dysplasias, the classical clinical and radiological signs of this group of disorders will be discussed along with the new molecular insights

  17. Molecular and radiological diagnosis of sclerosing bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hul, Wim van E-mail: vhul@uia.ac.be; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Balemans, Wendy; Janssens, Katrien; Schepper, A.M. de

    2001-12-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a quantitative trait for which the heritability of the variance is estimated to be up to 80%, based on epidemiological and twin studies. Further illustration of the involvement of genetic factors in bone homeostasis, is the existence of an extended group of genetic conditions associated with an abnormal bone density. The group of conditions with increased bone density has long been poorly studied and understood at the molecular genetic level but recently, thanks to recent developments in molecular genetics and genomics, for some of them major breakthroughs have been made. These findings will make the molecular analysis of such patients an additional tool in diagnostics and in genetic counseling. However, the initial identification of affected patients is still largely dependent upon recognition of clinical and radiological stigmata of the disease. Therefore, in this overview of sclerosing bone dysplasias, the classical clinical and radiological signs of this group of disorders will be discussed along with the new molecular insights.

  18. PREDICTION OF THE DURATION OF DISTRACTION REGENERATED BONE MATURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Tushina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study the characteristics of changes of serum biochemical parameters in dogs with delayed maturation of the distraction regenerate after surgical lengthening the leg bones by Ilizarov. The comparative analysis of biochemical changes in blood serum of animals with delayed regenerated bone osteogenesis after surgical leg bone lengthening according to Ilizarov has been made in the work. The development of persistent and marked hypocalcemia, significant accumulation of blood serum nonoxidized degradation products during limb bone surgical lengthening according to Ilizarov have been revealed to be adverse signs evidencing of the high probability of the disorder of further formation of the regenerated bone and its subsequent maturation at the stage of fixation.

  19. Current Concepts in Scaffolding for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Toktam; Shahroodi, Azadeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Mousavian, Alireza; Movaffagh, Jebraeel; Moradi, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Bone disorders are of significant worry due to their increased prevalence in the median age. Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering holds great promise for the future of osseous defects therapies. Porous composite materials and functional coatings for metallic implants have been introduced in next generation of orthopedic medicine for tissue engineering. While osteoconductive materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate ceramics as well as some biodegradable polymers are suggested, much interest has recently focused on the use of osteoinductive materials like demineralized bone matrix or bone derivatives. However, physiochemical modifications in terms of porosity, mechanical strength, cell adhesion, biocompatibility, cell proliferation, mineralization and osteogenic differentiation are required. This paper reviews studies on bone tissue engineering from the biomaterial point of view in scaffolding. Level of evidence: I.

  20. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1980-02-01

    Radionuclide bone scanning will identify readily areas of the skeleton where vascularity or osteogenesis is disturbed. Frequently, this will be achieved with a greater sensitivity than orthodox radiology by reflecting altered local physiology of bone. This procedure is, therefore, valuable not only for identifying metastatic disease, but also in benign skeletal disorders characterised by altered blood flow or osteoblastic reaction. These changes occur in many diseases involving bone which are more common in children and young adults. Special attention to the performance of the study and to its interpretation is, however, required in these age groups. The bone scan is invaluable in detecting metastatic disease related to either primary bone tumours or other neoplasia, both in the initial investigation and in the evaluation of therapy. Extra-osseous uptake may also occur, providing useful information relevant to the care of these patients.

  1. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  2. Scanning of Bone Marrow in Haematopoietic Disorders; Gammagraphie de la Moelle Osseuse dans les Troubles Hematopoietiques; Skennirovanie kostnogo mozga pri gematopoehticheskikh narusheniyakh; Exploracion de la Medula Osea en Casos de Trastornos Hematopoyeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniseley, R. M.; Andrews, G. A.; Edwards, C. L.; Tanida, R. [Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, TN (United States)

    1964-10-15

    Scanning can help evaluate size and distribution of the haematopoietic marrow, a difficult task by aspiration or biopsy. With the 61-hole focusing gold-tungsten Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scanner, the marrow organ has been clearly delineated by means of intravenous colloidal Au{sup 198}, it being known that reticulo-endothelial function in the marrow correlates with areas of haematopoiesis. Patients with normal haematopoiesis and with a variety of blood disorders such as focal marrow lesions, acute and chronic leukaemia, polycythaemiavera, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma have been scanned. Because of the reticulo-endothelial activity in liver and spleen, the marrow pattern is obscured in the mid-trunk. Vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, pelvis and long bones are outlined, and, in the thorax, the sternum and thoracic vertebrae. Focal lesions have also been found. Because of respiratory motion, individual ribs are not seen. In expanded marrow, the knee region can be shown, including the joint space. It has been possible to correlate these scans with aspiration biopsy and with linear scans. Because relatively large doses of Au{sup 198} are required, other isotopes are being investigated. An improved whole- body scanner is being tested for more practical scans. (author) [French] La gammagra- phie permet d'evaluer plus aisement l'importance quantitative et la repartition de la moelle hematoporetique, tache qu'il est difficile de realiser par biopsie. Au moyen du scintigraphe or-tungstene, a collimateur avec 61 canaux a focalisation, du Laboratoire national de Oak Ridge, on a pu nettement delimiter l'organe medulleux a la suite d'une injection intraveineuse d'or-198 colloidal; on sait, en effet, que la fonction reticulo-endotheliale de la moelle correspond a des zones d'hematopoiese. On a fait des gammagraphies sur des sujets presentant une hematopolese normale mais divers troubles sanguins: lesions focales de la moelle, leucemie aiguee et chronique

  3. A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widhe, Torulf L. [Department of Orthopaedics, Huddinge University Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease in two sisters and one female cousin is described. In infancy, the radiological findings were osteopenia, coxa vara, periosteal cloaking, bowing of the long bones, and flaring of the metaphyses. During growth, spinal pathology developed with compression of the vertebral bodies and scoliosis in one girl and kyphosis in another. All three children had genu valgum and two developed severe S-shaped bowing of the tibiae. Growth was stunted. Inheritance of this disorder is probably recessive. Type I and III collagen biosynthesis was normal. This condition is probably a hitherto undescribed form of osteogenesis imperfecta type III or a new bone disease. (orig.)

  4. A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widhe, Torulf L.

    2002-01-01

    A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease in two sisters and one female cousin is described. In infancy, the radiological findings were osteopenia, coxa vara, periosteal cloaking, bowing of the long bones, and flaring of the metaphyses. During growth, spinal pathology developed with compression of the vertebral bodies and scoliosis in one girl and kyphosis in another. All three children had genu valgum and two developed severe S-shaped bowing of the tibiae. Growth was stunted. Inheritance of this disorder is probably recessive. Type I and III collagen biosynthesis was normal. This condition is probably a hitherto undescribed form of osteogenesis imperfecta type III or a new bone disease. (orig.)

  5. Bone turnover markers: Emerging tool in the management of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD. These microarchitectural alterations affecting the bone quality can be assessed by BTMs and thus may serve as a complementary tool to BMD in the assessment of fracture risk. A systematic search of literature regarding BTMs was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Various reliable, rapid, and cost-effective automated assays of BTMs with good sensitivity are available for the management of osteoporosis. However, BTMs are subjected to various preanalytical and analytical variations necessitating strict sample collection and assays methods along with utilizing ethnicity-based reference standards for different populations. Estimation of fracture risk and monitoring the adherence and response to therapy, which is a challenge in a chronic, asymptomatic disease such as osteoporosis, are the most important applications of measuring BTMs. This review describes the physiology of bone remodeling, various conventional and novel BTMs, and BTM assays and their role in the assessment of fracture risk and monitoring response to treatment with antiresorptive or anabolic agents.

  6. Stem cells applications in bone and tooth repair and regeneration: New insights, tools, and hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Meguid, Eiman; Ke, Yuehai; Ji, Junfeng; El-Hashash, Ahmed H K

    2018-03-01

    The exploration of stem and progenitor cells holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of tissue repair and regeneration mechanisms after injury. This will also help in the future use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of different tissue-species defects or disorders such as bone, cartilages, and tooth defects or disorders. Bone is a specialized connective tissue, with mineralized extracellular components that provide bones with both strength and rigidity, and thus enable bones to function in body mechanical supports and necessary locomotion process. New insights have been added to the use of different types of stem cells in bone and tooth defects over the last few years. In this concise review, we briefly describe bone structure as well as summarize recent research progress and accumulated information regarding the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, as well as stem cell contributions to bone repair/regeneration, bone defects or disorders, and both restoration and regeneration of bones and cartilages. We also discuss advances in the osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration of dental and periodontal stem cells as well as in stem cell contributions to dentine regeneration and tooth engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of Galectin-3 in Bone Cell Differentiation, Bone Pathophysiology and Vascular Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Iacobini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 is expressed in various tissues, including the bone, where it is considered a marker of chondrogenic and osteogenic cell lineages. Galectin-3 protein was found to be increased in the differentiated chondrocytes of the metaphyseal plate cartilage, where it favors chondrocyte survival and cartilage matrix mineralization. It was also shown to be highly expressed in differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in concomitance with expression of osteogenic markers and Runt-related transcription factor 2 and with the appearance of a mature phenotype. Galectin-3 is expressed also by osteocytes, though its function in these cells has not been fully elucidated. The effects of galectin-3 on bone cells were also investigated in galectin-3 null mice, further supporting its role in all stages of bone biology, from development to remodeling. Galectin-3 was also shown to act as a receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, which have been implicated in age-dependent and diabetes-associated bone fragility. Moreover, its regulatory role in inflammatory bone and joint disorders entitles galectin-3 as a possible therapeutic target. Finally, galectin-3 capacity to commit mesenchymal stem cells to the osteoblastic lineage and to favor transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into an osteoblast-like phenotype open a new area of interest in bone and vascular pathologies.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  9. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  10. Bone Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Start here to find information on bone cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  11. Bone-building exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.

  12. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  13. Dense bone - too much bone: Radiological considerations and differential diagnosis. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1985-02-01

    In conclusion, the attempt has been made to demonstrate that three major forms of new bone formation exist: reactive, neoplastic, and the newborn or relative skeletal sclerosis in congenital (developmental) disorders. A classification of skeletal disorders has been presented and four major groups have been selected from the nine categories in this classification. These are: congenital-developmental, metabolic and endocrine, benign neoplasms and malignant neoplasms. In all four categories a large group of entities which may present with new bone (sclerosis) are listed and are discussed in some, but limited, detail. A number of these entities in each of the four categories are illustrated. Some difficulty is encountered in considering the mechanisms for the production of bony sclerosis in the group of congenital-developmental disorders. In such entities as osteopetrosis, the overproduction of cartilage cords and subsequent excessive mineralization is known to be responsible for the dense bone. However, in various skeletal dysplasias (e.g. pyknodysostosis, van Bucherm disease), the exact mechanism for the development of the diffuse sclerotic process is not clearly understood. In the metabolic and endocrine category, the situation as to mechanism is less unclear in considering the reason for the development of bony sclerosis. Yet even in evaluating disorders such as renal osteodystrophy, the reactive bony sclerosis in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia is a source of speculation with no definite proof, as yet.

  14. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, women generally have less bone tissue than men. So, it’s especially important for girls to build up their bone “bank account” during their teenage years by exercising regularly and getting enough calcium and vitamin D. What to do for strong bones—today and tomorrow Osteoporosis is usually a ...

  15. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine is the bone scintiscanning with labelled compounds for obtain skeletal images. The main sections in this work are: (1) bone composition and anatomy;(2)skeletal radiopharmaceutical development;(3)physical properties of radionuclides;(4)biological behaviour and chemical structures;(5)radiopharmaceuticals production for skeletal scintillation;(6)kits;(7)dosimetry and toxicity.tabs

  17. Treated unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, J.; Servaes, S.; Anupindi, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course

  18. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  19. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  20. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  1. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  2. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  3. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  4. The clinical spectrum and pathophysiology of skeletal complications in lysosomal storage disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, Lorne A.; Hollak, Carla E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders affect multiple organs including the skeleton. Disorders with prominent skeletal symptoms are type 1 and 3 Gaucher disease, the mucopolysaccharidoses, the glycoproteinoses and pycnodysostosis. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic radiographical evidence of bone

  5. Use of Gamma Correction Pinhole Bone Scans in Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Youg Whee; Chung, Youg An; Park, Jung Mee

    2012-01-01

    99 mTc hydroxydiphosphonate (HDP) bone scanning is a classic metabolic nuclear imaging method and the most frequently performed examination. Clinically, it has long been cherished as an indispensable diagnostic screening tool and for monitoring of patients with bone, joint, and soft tissue diseases. The HDP bone scan, the pinhole scan in particular, is known for its ability to detect increased, decreased, or defective tracer uptake along with magnified anatomy. Unfortunately, however, the findings of such uptake changes are not specific in many traumatic bone disorders, especially when lesions are minute and complex. This study discusses the recently introduced gamma correction pinhole bone scan (GCPBS), emphasizing its usefulness in the diagnosis of traumatic bone diseases including occult fractures; and fish vertebra. Indeed, GCPBS can remarkably enhance the diagnostic feasibility of HDP pinhole bone scans by refining the topography, pathologic anatomy, and altered chemical profile of the traumatic diseases in question. The fine and precise depiction of anatomic and metabolic changes in these diseases has been shown to be unique to GCPBS, and they are not appreciated on conventional radiographs, multiple detector CT, or ultrasonographs. It is true that MR imaging can portray proton change, but understandably, it is a manifestation that is common to any bone disease

  6. The Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Bone Fracture Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic metabolic disease known by the presence of elevated blood glucose levels. Nowadays, it is perceived as a worldwide epidemic, with a very high socioeconomic impact on public health. Many are the complications caused by this chronic disorder, including a negative impact on the cardiovascular system, kidneys, eyes, muscle, blood vessels, and nervous system. Recently, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that T2DM also adversely affects the skeletal system, causing detrimental bone effects such as bone quality deterioration, loss of bone strength, increased fracture risk, and impaired bone healing. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms by which T2DM causes detrimental effects on bone tissue are still elusive and remain poorly studied. The aim of this review was to synthesize current knowledge on the different factors influencing the impairment of bone fracture healing under T2DM conditions. Here, we discuss new approaches used in recent studies to unveil the mechanisms and fill the existing gaps in the scientific understanding of the relationship between T2DM, bone tissue, and bone fracture healing.

  7. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse malignant bone marrow diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Rehn, S.; Glimelius, B.; Hagberg, H.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Simonsson, B.; Sundstroem, C.

    Twenty-four patients with malignant bone marrow involvement or polycythemia vera, 8 patients with reactive bone marrow and 7 healthy individuals were examined with spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging at 0.35 T and 0.5 T. Signs of an increased longitudinal relaxation time, T1, were found when normal bone marrow was replaced by malignant cells, polycythemia vera or reactive marrow. A shortened T1 was indicated in 4 patients in bone marrow regions treated by radiation therapy; the marrow was most likely hypocellular in these cases. The estimated T1 relaxation times were highly correlated to the cellularity of the bone marrow as assessed by histology. Among patients with close to 100% cellularity neither T1 nor T2 discriminated between the various malignancies or between malignant and reactive, non-malignant bone marrow. Characterization of tissues in terms of normalized image intensities was also attempted, the motive being to avoid approximations and uncertainties in the assessment of T1 and T2. The normalization was carried out with respect to the image of highest intensity, i.e. the proton density weighted image. The results were in agreement with those for T1 and T2. It was concluded that MRI is valuable for assessing bone marrow cellularity, but not for differentiating between various bone marrow disorders having a similar degree of cellularity.

  9. Pros and cons of fatty acids in bone biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauquier, Fabien; Léotoing, Laurent; Philippe, Claire; Spilmont, Mélanie; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2015-04-01

    Despite the growing interest in deciphering the causes and consequences of obesity-related disorders, the mechanisms linking fat intake to bone behaviour remain unclear. Since bone fractures are widely associated with increased morbidity and mortality, most notably in elderly and obese people, bone health has become a major social and economic issue. Consistently, public health system guidelines have encouraged low-fat diets in order to reduce associated complications. However, from a bone point of view, mechanisms linking fat intake to bone alteration remain quite controversial. Thus, after more than a decade of dedicated studies, this timely review offers a comprehensive overview of the relationships between bone and fatty acids. Using clinical evidences as a starting-point to more complex molecular elucidation, this work highlights the complexity of the system and reveals that bone alteration that cannot be solved simply by taking ω-3 pills. Fatty acid effects on bone metabolism can be both direct and indirect and require integrated investigations. Furthermore, even at the level of a single cell, one fatty acid is able to trigger several different independent pathways (receptors, metabolites…) which may all have a say in the final cellular metabolic response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristic focal hot spots of bone marrow scintigraphic finding in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong

    1991-01-01

    The bone marrow scintigraphy with 99m Tc sulfur colloid has been performed in 168 patients with Aplastic anemia(AA) and 100 patients with others hematological disorders. Bone marrow imaging is a useful method to demonstrate the existence of active hematopoietic foci in living body. The features and clinical significance of these focal hot spots have been discussed. The bone marrow scintigraphy is proved to be helpful in diagnosis, therapy and assessing prognosis of A.A

  11. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  12. Gut microbiome and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2018-04-11

    The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  14. Combined Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Diagnostic and Treatment System for Bone Quality Assessment and Fracture Healing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration...

  15. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  16. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  17. Making silent bones speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanovaite, Livija; Jensen, Mathias Paul Bjørnevad; Philippsen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , Obšrūtai and Kamšai were subjected to the AMS dating, tandem mass spectrometry for animal species identification as well as technological and use-wear analysis. The results revealed that all four bone points could be dated to the Boreal period and imply early-to-middle Mesolithic dates. Harpoons from...... of the present research, the paper shortly describes other scientific methods which could be applied to orphaned bone and antler tools including biomolecular and stable isotope analysis. Digital recording methods can be useful for bone artefact recording. This is relevant today, as the demand for good quality...

  18. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  19. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  20. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  1. Posttranslational heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase in metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1994-09-01

    Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.

  2. Heterogeneous pattern of bone disease in adult type 1 Gaucher disease: clinical and pathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dussen, L; Lips, P; van Essen, H W; Hollak, C E M; Bravenboer, N

    2014-09-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages, so-called Gaucher cells, as a result of a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Bone complications are an important cause of morbidity of GD and are thought to result from imbalance in bone remodeling. Bone manifestations among GD patients demonstrate a large variation including increased osteoclastic bone resorption, low bone formation and osteonecrosis. The purpose of the current case series is to describe the histological features observed in undecalcified bone samples, obtained from three GD patients, and evaluate the relationship with clinical features in these patients. Bone fragments were obtained from three adult type 1 GD patients with variable degrees of bone disease during orthopedic surgery. Specimens were embedded without prior decalcification in methylmethacrylate and prepared for histology according to standardized laboratory procedures. Histology revealed a heterogeneous pattern of bone involvement. High cellularity of bone marrow, abundant presence of Gaucher cells (GCs) and high turnover were observed in a patient with a history of multiple bone complications, while minimal bone turnover and few GCs were detected in the mildest affected patient in this series. An intermediate picture with relatively low bone turnover and a substantial amount of Gaucher cells was demonstrated in the third, moderately affected patient. No gross abnormalities in three biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide) were noted. Plastic embedding and subsequent Goldner and TRAP staining offered a unique possibility to study bone histological findings in GD. Our data show that bone manifestations in GD may vary both clinically as well as histologically and bone disease in GD will likely require a personalized approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  3. Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis: insight into risk factors and microstructural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guangyi; Yin, Jimin; Gao, Junjie; Cheng, Tak S; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zhang, Changqing; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the adult population. As a progressive degenerative joint disorder, OA is characterized by cartilage damage, changes in the subchondral bone, osteophyte formation, muscle weakness, and inflammation of the synovium tissue and tendon. Although OA has long been viewed as a primary disorder of articular cartilage, subchondral bone is attracting increasing attention. It is commonly reported to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of OA. Subcho...

  4. Radionuclide bone image in growing and stable bone island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, R.T.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Wehbe, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A normal radionuclide bone image can facilitate distinction between a bone island and significant pathologic processes, especially an osteoblastic metastasis. This distinction becomes more crucial when growth is detected in an isolated sclerotic bone lesion or if a relatively large sclerotic lesion is detected de novo in patients with a known neoplasm. This report presents three patients with isolated bone islands: two with interval growth, the other with a relatively large stable lesion; all showing a normal radionuclide bone image. (orig.) [de

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  9. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can ...

  11. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... About Eating Disorders More Publications About Eating Disorders Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Eating Disorders Contact Us The National ...

  12. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern of inner ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  13. Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... variations in brain chemistry and structure. Risk factors Factors that increase the risk of developing schizoaffective disorder include: Having a close blood relative who has schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Stressful events that trigger symptoms ...

  14. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  15. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  16. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response.......9 Versus 11.2 g) diets, reflecting lower and upper intakes in post men opausal women consuming a Western-style diet, were provided. Stable isotope labeling techniques were used to measure calcium absorption and excretion, compartmental modeling was undertaken to estimate bone calcium balance......, and biomarkers of bone formation and resorption were measured in blood and urine. Moderately high salt intake (11.2 g/d) elicited a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion (p = 0.0008) and significantly affected bone calcium balance with the high calcium diet 0.024). Efficiency of calcium absorption...

  17. The petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adults...... (n = 34) and subadults (n = 24). Additional samples of dentine from the root of 1st molars were taken from 16 individuals. The skeletal material is from a medieval cemetery (AD 1200-1573) in Holbaek, Denmark. Our results indicate that the petrous bone has an isotopic signal that differs significantly...... from that of femur and rib within the single skeleton (P bone and the 1st molar. The intraskeletal variation may reflect differences...

  18. Bone and glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Karine

    2018-06-01

    Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the most frequent cause of osteoporosis in young people. Bone loss and fracture risk increase rapidly after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and are proportional to dose and treatment duration. The increase in fracture risk is not fully assessed by bone mineral density measurement, as it is also related to impaired bone quality and increased risk of falls. Prevention should be considered in all patients beginning corticosteroid therapy, especially as the underlying inflammation in itself impairs bone quality. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide have shown efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Several national and international guidelines are available to improve management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, which remains inadequate. Duration of anti-osteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics and on the progression of the underlying inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  20. Bone tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.A.; Berquist, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors

  1. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  2. Bone changes in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  3. Treated unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J; Servaes, S; Anupindi, S A

    2013-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  5. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, D.D.; Nesbit, M.E.; Griffiths, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Two cases of lymphangiomatosis of bone, a very rare systemic condition characterised by both skeletal and parenchymal lesions, are presented. The skeletal changes have an appearance similar to haemangiomas in the spine, and soap-bubbly lesions in the flat bones. One case carried the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma for 18 years. The findings on MRI, which have not been previously well-established, are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Bone changes in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessment of the influence of body composition on bone mass in children and adolescents based on a functional analysis of the muscle-bone relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Joanna; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    The functional model of skeletal development considers the mechanical factor to be the most important skeletal modulant. The aim of the study was a functional analysis of the bone-muscle relationship in children with low and normal bone mass. The study involved 149 children with low and 99 children with normal bone mass (control group). All patients underwent a densitometry examination (DXA). Low bone mass was diagnosed if the Z-score was below values of Z-scores for all parameters in children with low bone mass as compared to the control group. Children with low bone mass had lower content of adipose and muscle tissue and a marked deficit of muscle tissue with regard to height (which according to mechanostat theory leads to lower muscle-generated strain on bones). This group of children had also lower TBBMC/LBM Z-scores, which indicates greater fracture susceptibility. 1. Functional analysis, which showed associations between bone and muscle tissues, can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring skeletal system disorders as well as making therapeutic decisions.2. The study emphasizes the role of proper nutrition and physical activities, which contribute to proper body composition, in the prevention of bone mineralization disorders in childhood and adolescence. 3. The study showed the inadequacy of the classic reference ranges used in interpreting DXA data in children and demonstrated the usefulness of continuous variables for that purpose.

  8. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone metastasis in patients with para neoplastic myasthenic syndrome - Possible indication for bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirion, Cristina; Stanescu, D.A.; Draganescu, Sandina; Ion, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by a decrease in the number of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions and consequently characterized by weakness and fatigue. Paraneoplastic myasthenic syndrome (PMS) is a neurological disorder often difficult to diagnose in clinical practice, due to the lack, in most cases, of any sign of malignancy at the time when neurological impairment occurs. The connection between MG and pathological alterations of the thymus as well as between the presynaptic membrane alteration (Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome) and the small-cell lung cancer is often demonstrated. Most researchers agree that myasthenic syndrome noticed in aged persons should be investigated as a possible paraneoplastic disorder. The aim of our study was to find if suspected PMS could be an indication to perform a bone scan, in presence of parameters suggesting malignancy (such as elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, elevated tumor markers, unexplained bone pain etc.). Another question is whether bone metastases occur more frequently in malignancies associated with PMS than in the same diseases without neurological involvement, taking into account that neurological disorders are not produced by metastatic or direct invasion of the nervous system by the cancer. Our observations included 28 patients (13 men and 15 women), aged 42-80 years with myasthenic syndrome, who were referred by the neurology department for suspicion of bone metastasis. All patients had elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, 18 patients had therapy-resistant bone and joints pain. Conventional imaging procedures (abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray and computer tomography) were performed in all patients. Only in 6 patients the primary malignancy was diagnosed prior to bone scan (5 cases with thymoma and 1 case of digestive neoplasm). Bone scan was performed on a Diacam Siemens gamma camera and consisted of whole-body examination after

  10. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan

    1998-01-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Bones and oil reservoirs : bioengineers use oilpatch technology to study fluid flow in bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    2003-06-01

    The fact that porosity and the presence of channels are qualities that are common to oil reservoirs and bones, led to the use of reservoir modelling technology in investigating bone disorders and to the discovery of dramatic changes in the structure and blood supply of osteoarthritic bones that lie under degenerating cartilage. CMG (Computer Modelling Group) Ltd., developers of reservoir simulation software claim that their software packages can help with the modelling of cellular responses to strains and deformations that occur as fluid flows through bone after a traumatic event such as a tear in the anterior cruciate ligament, a common sports-related injury. Researchers at the University of Calgary expect that by looking at the changes in blood and fluid flow within the bone, they can attain a better understanding of the chain of events that leads to osteoarthritis. Better understanding of the progression of the disease could eventually lead to more precise administration of drugs to deal with osteoarthritic pain, and even to the prevention of painful arthritic joints.

  13. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  14. Temporary brittle bone disease: fractures in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Colin R

    2009-12-01

    Temporary brittle bone disease is the name given to a syndrome first reported in 1990, in which fractures occur in infants in the first year of life. The fractures include rib fractures and metaphyseal fractures which are mostly asymptomatic. The radiological features of this disorder mimic those often ascribed to typical non-accidental injury. The subject has been controversial, some authors suggesting that the disorder does not exist. This study reports five infants with typical features of temporary brittle bone disease in whom all or most of the fractures took place while in hospital. A non-accidental cause can be eliminated with some confidence, and these cases provide evidence in support of the existence of temporary brittle bone disease.

  15. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Yaun, Amanda; Santi, Mariarita

    2009-01-01

    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  16. A possibly new form of familial bone dysplasia resembling dyschondrosteosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasanelli, S.; Bellussi, A.; Iannaccone, G.

    1983-01-01

    The authors report two patients, a 16-year-old girl and her 10-year-old brother, with striking bone changes of the acromesomelic dwarfism type, which do not fit any of the previously reported disorders of this group. The differential diagnosis from dyschondrosteosis and other related conditions is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  17. Possibly new form of familial bone dysplasia resembling dyschondrosteosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasanelli, S.; Bellussi, A.; Iannaccone, G.

    1983-02-01

    The authors report two patients, a 16-year-old girl and her 10-year-old brother, with striking bone changes of the acromesomelic dwarfism type, which do not fit any of the previously reported disorders of this group. The differential diagnosis from dyschondrosteosis and other related conditions is briefly discussed.

  18. Craniofacial and temporal bone CT findings in cleidocranial dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Guido E.; Caruso, Paul A.; Curtin, Hugh D.; Small, Juan E.; Jyung, Robert W.; Troulis, Maria J.

    2008-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a multistructural polyostotic genetic disorder that results from mutation of the CBFA1 gene. Hearing loss is a frequent finding in CCD. We describe the CT craniofacial findings in CCD and provide a comprehensive discussion of the CT temporal bone findings in these patients. (orig.)

  19. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  20. Hypermineralization and High Osteocyte Lacunar Density in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V Bone Indicate Exuberant Primary Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Stéphane; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Glorieux, Francis H; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Marini, Joan C; Rauch, Frank

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to "classical" forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I to IV, caused by a mutation in COL1A1/A2, OI type V is due to a gain-of-function mutation in the IFITM5 gene, encoding the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5, or bone-restricted interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM)-like protein (BRIL). Its phenotype distinctly differs from OI types I to IV by absence of blue sclerae and dentinogenesis imperfecta, by the occurrence of ossification disorders such as hyperplastic callus and forearm interosseous membrane ossification. Little is known about the impact of the mutation on bone tissue/material level in untreated and bisphosphonate-treated patients. Therefore, investigations of transiliac bone biopsy samples from a cohort of OI type V children (n = 15, 8.7 ± 4 years old) untreated at baseline and a subset (n = 8) after pamidronate treatment (2.6 years in average) were performed. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) was used to determine bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) as well as osteocyte lacunar density. The BMDD of type V OI bone was distinctly shifted toward a higher degree of mineralization. The most frequently occurring calcium concentration (CaPeak) in cortical (Ct) and cancellous (Cn) bone was markedly increased (+11.5%, +10.4%, respectively, p < 0.0001) compared to healthy reference values. Treatment with pamidronate resulted in only a slight enhancement of mineralization. The osteocyte lacunar density derived from sectioned bone area was elevated in OI type V Ct and Cn bone (+171%, p < 0.0001; +183.3%, p < 0.01; respectively) versus controls. The high osteocyte density was associated with an overall immature primary bone structure ("mesh-like") as visualized by polarized light microscopy. In summary, the bone material from OI type V patients is hypermineralized, similar to other forms of OI. The elevated osteocyte lacunar density in connection with lack of regular bone

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  2. Lymphoproliferative disorders in non-AIDS- associated Kaposi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proliferative disorders are mostly of B-cell origin and include non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphatic leukaemia and multiple .... Bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed ... transplants, patients with auto-immune diseases and patients with ...

  3. Skeletal blood flow: implications for bone-scan interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The dispersion of the skeleton throughout the body and its complex vascular anatomy require indirect methods for the measurement of skeletal blood flow. The results of one such method, compartmental analysis of skeletal tracer kinetics, are presented. The assumptions underlying the models were tested in animals and found to be in agreement with experimental observations. Based upon the models and the experimental results, inferences concerning bone-scan interpretation can be drawn: decreased cardiac output produces low-contrast (technically poor) scans; decreased skeletal flow produces photon-deficient lesions; increase of cardiac output or of generalized systemic blood flow is undetectable 1 to 2 h after dose; increased local skeletal blood flow results from disturbance of the bone microvasculature and can occur from neurologic (sympatholytic) disorders or in association with focal abnormalities that also incite the formation of reactive bone (e.g., metastasis, fracture, etc.). Mathematical solutions of tracer kinetic data thus become relevant to bone-scan interpretation

  4. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  5. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Straehl, Fiona; Scheyer, Torsten; Forasiepi, Analia Marta; Macphee, Ross; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xen...

  6. Roentgenofunctional investigation of the ankle joint in a long-term period after crural bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, Yu.T.; Novikov, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the results of clinicoroentgenological and tensographic investigations of 119 patients after traumas of the crural bones and ankle joint (2-36 yrs. ago) the authors showed the importance of roentgenofunctional investigation of the ankle joint. A specially designed footing was proposed. Of 77 patients after intra-articular fractures of the ankle bones various disorders in articular proportions, undetectable on routine roengenography, were diagnosed in 29 by functional roentgenography. Articular changes on roentgenofunctional investigation were revealed in one patient only out of 42 patients with extra-articular fractures of the crural bones. Tensography showed disorders of foot biomechanics in all patients with subluxations in the ankle

  7. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L.F. Chauffaille

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis. Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05. Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05. GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  8. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauffaille, M L L F; Pinheiro, R F; Stefano, J T; Kerbauy, J

    2003-07-01

    The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases) to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis). Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively) were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05). GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  9. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Masayasu; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1977-01-01

    111 In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  10. Bone biology in the elderly: clinical importance for fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolvien Tim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related bone impairment often leads to fragility fractures in the elderly. Although excellent surgical care is widely provided, diagnosis and treatment of the underlying bone disorder are often not kept in mind. The interplay of the three major bone cells – osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes – is normally well regulated via the secretion of messengers to control bone remodeling. Possible imbalances that might occur in the elderly are partly due to age, genetic risk factors, and adverse lifestyle factors but importantly also due to imbalances in calcium homeostasis (mostly due to vitamin D deficiency or hypochlorhydria, which have to be eliminated. Therefore, the cooperation between the trauma surgeon and the osteologist is of major importance to diagnose and treat the respective patients at risk. We propose that any patient suffering from fragility fractures is rigorously screened for osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases. This includes bone density measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, laboratory tests for calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, and bone turnover markers, as well as additional diagnostic modalities if needed. Thereby, most risk factors, including vitamin D deficiency, can be identified and treated while patients who meet the criteria for a specific therapy (i.e. antiresorptive and osteoanabolic receive such. If local health systems succeed to manage this process of secondary fracture prevention, morbidity and mortality of fragility fractures will decline to a minimum level.

  11. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Influence of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue on Bone Loss and of Osteocalcin on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira L. Mendonça

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow adipose tissue has been associated with low bone mineral density. However, no data exist regarding marrow adipose tissue in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder associated with bone loss in conditions of high bone turnover. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between marrow adipose tissue, bone mass and parathyroid hormone. The influence of osteocalcin on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also evaluated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university hospital, involving 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT and 21 controls (CG. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and marrow adipose tissue was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biochemical evaluation included the determination of parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: A negative association was found between the bone mass at the 1/3 radius and parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.69; p<0.01. Marrow adipose tissue was not significantly increased in patients (CG = 32.8±11.2% vs PHPT = 38.6±12%. The serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in patients (CG = 8.6±3.6 ng/mL vs PHPT = 36.5±38.4 ng/mL; p<0.005, but no associations were observed between osteocalcin and insulin or between insulin and both marrow adipose tissue and bone mass. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the increment of adipogenesis in the bone marrow microenvironment under conditions of high bone turnover due to primary hyperparathyroidism is limited. Despite the increased serum levels of osteocalcin due to primary hyperparathyroidism, these patients tend to have impaired insulin sensitivity.

  12. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  13. Silk scaffolds in bone tissue engineering: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Promita; Kundu, Banani; Naskar, Deboki; Kim, Hae-Won; Maiti, Tapas K; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Kundu, Subhas C

    2017-11-01

    Bone tissue plays multiple roles in our day-to-day functionality. The frequency of accidental bone damage and disorder is increasing worldwide. Moreover, as the world population continues to grow, the percentage of the elderly population continues to grow, which results in an increased number of bone degenerative diseases. This increased elderly population pushes the need for artificial bone implants that specifically employ biocompatible materials. A vast body of literature is available on the use of silk in bone tissue engineering. The current work presents an overview of this literature from materials and fabrication perspective. As silk is an easy-to-process biopolymer; this allows silk-based biomaterials to be molded into diverse forms and architectures, which further affects the degradability. This makes silk-based scaffolds suitable for treating a variety of bone reconstruction and regeneration objectives. Silk surfaces offer active sites that aid the mineralization and/or bonding of bioactive molecules that facilitate bone regeneration. Silk has also been blended with a variety of polymers and minerals to enhance its advantageous properties or introduce new ones. Several successful works, both in vitro and in vivo, have been reported using silk-based scaffolds to regenerate bone tissues or other parts of the skeletal system such as cartilage and ligament. A growing trend is observed toward the use of mineralized and nanofibrous scaffolds along with the development of technology that allows to control scaffold architecture, its biodegradability and the sustained releasing property of scaffolds. Further development of silk-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, taking them up to and beyond the stage of human trials, is hoped to be achieved in the near future through a cross-disciplinary coalition of tissue engineers, material scientists and manufacturing engineers. The state-of-art of silk biomaterials in bone tissue engineering, covering their wide

  14. Diabetes mellitus and bone health: epidemiology, etiology and implications for fracture risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrábano, Rodrigo J; Linares, Maria I

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal fractures can result when there are co-morbid conditions that negatively impact bone strength. Fractures represent an important source of morbidity and mortality, especially in older populations. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that has reached worldwide epidemic proportions and is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for fracture. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have different effects on bone mineral density but share common pathways, which lead to bone fragility. In this review, we discuss the available data on diabetes and fractures, bone density and the clinical implications for fracture risk stratification in current practice.

  15. A patient with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, David Kyle; Zadeh, Touran; Nugent, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Familial bone marrow failure has been associated with a variety of chromosomal aberrations. Chromosome 8 abnormalities have been described in association with neoplastic and hematologic disorders; however, to our knowledge, inversion of the long arm of chromosome 8 has not been described in the context of familial bone marrow failure. We describe a 9-year-old female with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8 [inv (8) (q22, q24.3)]. Given the importance of considering the genetic determinants of familial bone marrow failure, the potential role of chromosome 8 abnormalities in the development of marrow failure is discussed.

  16. Case report 437: Solitary (unicameral, simple) bone cyst of the scapula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Biagnini, M.

    1987-01-01

    A case has been presented of an expanding, aggressive bone cyst in the scapula of an 11-year-old girl. The lesion had the appearance of a highly aggressive, cyst-like disorder that appeared to be benign. Biopsy and histological preparation confirmed the presence of a solitary bone cyst. The clinical, radiological, and pathological criteria associated with a solitary bone cyst, particularly in the scapula, were discussed and the literature was reviewed. The differential diagnosis was stressed and a number of examples of scapular lesions was presented radiologically, particularly lesions that might be confused with solitary bone cyst. (orig./SHA)

  17. Case report 437: Solitary (unicameral, simple) bone cyst of the scapula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, P.; Biagnini, M.; Picci, P.

    1987-08-01

    A case has been presented of an expanding, aggressive bone cyst in the scapula of an 11-year-old girl. The lesion had the appearance of a highly aggressive, cyst-like disorder that appeared to be benign. Biopsy and histological preparation confirmed the presence of a solitary bone cyst. The clinical, radiological, and pathological criteria associated with a solitary bone cyst, particularly in the scapula, were discussed and the literature was reviewed. The differential diagnosis was stressed and a number of examples of scapular lesions was presented radiologically, particularly lesions that might be confused with solitary bone cyst. (orig./SHA).

  18. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  19. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taconis, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  20. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Bone Biology and Osteoporosis: Can They Drive Therapeutic Choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-08-12

    Osteoporosis is a complex multifactorial disorder of the skeleton. Genetic factors are important in determining peak bone mass and structure, as well as the predisposition to bone deterioration and fragility fractures. Nonetheless, genetic factors alone are not sufficient to explain osteoporosis development and fragility fracture occurrence. Indeed, epigenetic factors, representing a link between individual genetic aspects and environmental influences, are also strongly suspected to be involved in bone biology and osteoporosis. Recently, alterations in epigenetic mechanisms and their activity have been associated with aging. Also, bone metabolism has been demonstrated to be under the control of epigenetic mechanisms. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), the master transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation, has been shown to be regulated by histone deacetylases and microRNAs (miRNAs). Some miRNAs were also proven to have key roles in the regulation of Wnt signalling in osteoblastogenesis, and to be important for the positive or negative regulation of both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Exogenous and environmental stimuli, influencing the functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of bone metabolism, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis and other bone disorders, in synergy with genetic determinants. The progressive understanding of roles of epigenetic mechanisms in normal bone metabolism and in multifactorial bone disorders will be very helpful for a better comprehension of disease pathogenesis and translation of this information into clinical practice. A deep understanding of these mechanisms could help in the future tailoring of proper individual treatments, according to precision medicine's principles.

  2. Prevalence of bone marrow necrosis in Egyptian cancer patients referring to the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgamal, B.M.; Rashed, R.A.; Raslan, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow necrosis; Egyptian cancer patients Abstract Background: Bone marrow necrosis is a relatively rare entity which has been associated with a poor prognosis. It is most commonly found in patients with neoplastic disorders and severe infections. Methods: study comprised examination of 5043 bone marrow biopsy specimens performed at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, over 7 years period (March 2004-March 2011). It included 5 years retrospective (2867 archived samples) and 2 years prospective (2176 samples). Results: Bone marrow necrosis was diagnosed in fifteen out of 5043 examined specimens with a percentage of 0.3% and ranged from mild to massive according to semiquantitative estimation. Prognosis of all patients was poor with survival not exceeding 6 months from the date of marrow necrosis diagnosis. Conclusion: In Egyptian patients, bone marrow necrosis in association with malignancy is a rare disorder which is accompanied by a poor outcome

  3. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nieman, Fred H.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. {sup 18}F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  4. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with 18F-fluoride PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn; Nieman, Fred H.M.

    2011-01-01

    18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent 18 F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average 18 F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. 18 F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. 18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that 18 F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  5. Myostatin deficiency partially rescues the bone phenotype of osteogenesis imperfecta model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, A K; Carleton, S M; Yao, X; Gentry, B A; Raw, C E; Brown, M; Pfeiffer, F M; Wang, Y; Phillips, C L

    2016-01-01

    Mice with osteogenesis imperfecta (+/oim), a disorder of bone fragility, were bred to mice with muscle over growth to test whether increasing muscle mass genetically would improve bone quality and strength. The results demonstrate that femora from mice carrying both mutations have greater mechanical integrity than their +/oim littermates. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable connective tissue disorder due primarily to mutations in the type I collagen genes resulting in skeletal deformity and fragility. Currently, there is no cure, and therapeutic strategies encompass the use of antiresorptive pharmaceuticals and surgical bracing, with limited success and significant potential for adverse effects. Bone, a mechanosensing organ, can respond to high mechanical loads by increasing new bone formation and altering bone geometry to withstand increased forces. Skeletal muscle is a major source of physiological loading on bone, and bone strength is proportional to muscle mass. To test the hypothesis that congenic increases in muscle mass in the osteogenesis imperfecta murine model mouse (oim) will improve their compromised bone quality and strength, heterozygous (+/oim) mice were bred to mice deficient in myostatin (+/mstn), a negative regulator of muscle growth. The resulting adult offspring were evaluated for hindlimb muscle mass, and bone microarchitecture, physiochemistry, and biomechanical integrity. +/oim mice deficient in myostatin (+/mstn +/oim) were generated and demonstrated that myostatin deficiency increased body weight, muscle mass, and biomechanical strength in +/mstn +/oim mice as compared to +/oim mice. Additionally, myostatin deficiency altered the physiochemical properties of the +/oim bone but did not alter bone remodeling. Myostatin deficiency partially improved the reduced femoral bone biomechanical strength of adult +/oim mice by increasing muscle mass with concomitant improvements in bone microarchitecture and physiochemical properties.

  6. Relative 238Pu content of bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton

  7. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...

  8. Pathogenesis of Bone Alterations in Gaucher Disease: The Role of Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marcos Mucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher, the most prevalent lysosomal disorder, is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder due to a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Glucocerebrosidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of glucosylceramide primarily in cells of mononuclear-macrophage lineage. Clinical alterations are visceral, hematological, and skeletal. Bone disorder in Gaucher disease produces defects on bone metabolism and structure and patients suffer from bone pain and crisis. Skeletal problems include osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteolytic lesions, and osteonecrosis. On the other hand a chronic stimulation of the immune system is a well-accepted hallmark in this disease. In this review we summarize the latest findings in the mechanisms leading to the bone pathology in Gaucher disease in relationship with the proinflammatory state.

  9. Bone tissue engineering using silica-based mesoporous nanobiomaterials:Recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadjou, Nasrin; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. It is in this context that tissue engineering has been emerging as a valid approach to the current therapies for bone regeneration/substitution. Tissue-engineered bone constructs have the potential to alleviate the demand arising from the shortage of suitable autograft and allograft materials for augmenting bone healing. Silica based mesostructured nanomaterials possessing pore sizes in the range 2-50 nm and surface reactive functionalities have elicited immense interest due to their exciting prospects in bone tissue engineering. In this review we describe application of silica-based mesoporous nanomaterials for bone tissue engineering. We summarize the preparation methods, the effect of mesopore templates and composition on the mesopore-structure characteristics, and different forms of these materials, including particles, fibers, spheres, scaffolds and composites. Also, the effect of structural and textural properties of mesoporous materials on development of new biomaterials for production of bone implants and bone cements was discussed. Also, application of different mesoporous materials on construction of manufacture 3-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering was discussed. It begins by giving the reader a brief background on tissue engineering, followed by a comprehensive description of all the relevant components of silica-based mesoporous biomaterials on bone tissue engineering, going from materials to scaffolds and from cells to tissue engineering strategies that will lead to "engineered" bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yu, E-mail: tanyu2048@163.com; Fu, Runqing, E-mail: furunqing@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Jiaqiang, E-mail: liujqmj@163.com; Wu, Yong, E-mail: wyonger@gmail.com; Wang, Bo, E-mail: wb228@126.com; Jiang, Ning, E-mail: 179639060@qq.com; Nie, Ping, E-mail: nieping1011@sina.com; Cao, Haifeng, E-mail: 0412chf@163.com; Yang, Zhi, E-mail: wcums1981@163.com; Fang, Bing, E-mail: fangbing@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-08

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. -- Highlights: •We firstly reported that ADAM10 was essentially involved in maxillofacial bone development. •ADAM10 cKO mice present craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. •Impaired osteoblast differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis underlie the bone deformity.

  11. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yu; Fu, Runqing; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Yong; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Ning; Nie, Ping; Cao, Haifeng; Yang, Zhi; Fang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. -- Highlights: •We firstly reported that ADAM10 was essentially involved in maxillofacial bone development. •ADAM10 cKO mice present craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. •Impaired osteoblast differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis underlie the bone deformity.

  12. Fibrous dysplasia of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Young Sook

    1983-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a skeletal development anomaly of unknown etiology characterized by single or multiple areas of fibrous tissue replacement of medullary cavity of one or more bones. The disease may be localized to single bone (monostotic form) or may affect multiple bones (polyostotic form). Eighteen cases of fibrous dysplasia diagnosed by roentgenlogic or histologic assessment at Chosun University Hospital, Chosun University Hospital and Kwangju Christian Hospital during recent ten tears were analyzed clinically and radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. 16 case of them had monostotic involvement, and 2 cases showed polyostotic disease, but none of our series presented Albright's syndrome. 2. The male to female ratio in this series was 10 : 8, but then 2 polyostotic forms of them were females. In age distribution, peak incidence at the time of diagnosis was in the age group of second decade (10 cases). 3. Maxilla (6 cases) and femur (4 case) were frequently involved sites in patients with monostotic lesion, whereas polyostotic lesions diffusely affected skull, pelvis, ribs and limb bones. 4. The clinical symptoms according to the extent and site of disease were very variable, which were localized painless or painful swelling, nasal obstruction, deformity of face or extremity and incidentally during routine roentgen study. 5. The chemical abnormality of blood serum was moderate degree of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in only one patients with monostotic lesion. 6. The main radiologic findings of fibrous dysplasia were relatively well circumscribed single or multiloculated cystilike appearance, bone expansion, cortical thinning and/or erosion, bony deformity and pathologic fracture, but especially in maxilla, dense homogenous area with expanding lesion was observed in our series

  13. Prebiotics and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisner, Corrie M; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in food science have resulted in the extraction and synthesis of novel dietary fibers or prebiotics. Subsequently, great interest has emerged in developing strategies to improve metabolic conditions like osteoporosis by modulating the intestinal microbiome with fiber. Prebiotics have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower gut of both animals and humans as well as improve measures of bone mineral density and strength in rodent models. Fewer data are available in humans, but data from growing children and postmenopausal women suggest that prebiotics have both short- and long-term effects that beneficially affect bone turnover and mineral accretion in the skeleton. Currently, the exact mechanism by which these products elicit their effects on bone is poorly understood, but emerging data suggest that the gut microbiota may be involved in one or more direct and indirect pathways. The most well-accepted mechanism is through microbial fermentation of prebiotics which results in the production of short-chain fatty acids and a concomitant decrease in pH which increases the bioavailability of calcium in the colon. While other mechanisms may be eliciting a prebiotic effect on bone, the current data suggest that novel dietary fibers may be an affordable and effective method of maximizing mineral accretion in growing children and preventing bone loss in later years when osteoporosis is a greater risk. This chapter will discuss the dynamic role of prebiotics in bone health by discussing the current state of the art, addressing gaps in knowledge and their role in public health.

  14. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  15. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  16. Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sol

    2007-07-01

    Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal

  17. Ca/P concentration ratio at different sites of normal and osteoporotic rabbit bones evaluated by Auger and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and the consequent high risk of bone fractures. Current practice relates osteoporosis largely with absolute mass loss. The assessment of variations in chemical composition in terms of the main elements comprising the bone mineral and its effect on the bone’s quality is usually neglected. In this study, we evaluate the ratio of the main elements of bone mineral, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P), as a suit...

  18. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesztakova, E.; Bilek, J.; Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Culenova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  19. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  20. Solitary (unicameral) bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struhl, S.; Edelson, C.; Pritzker, H.; Seimon, L.P.; Dorfman, H.D.; Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    1989-01-01

    The fallen fragment sign is a prominent radiologic feature in a minority of cases of unicameral bone cyst (20% in this series). This sign is always associated with pathologic fracture. Intramedullary fracture fragments may be single or multiple and may or may not be entirely dislodged from overlying periosteum. The finding appears limited to unicameral bone cysts in patients with open physes. When present, the fallen fragment is a pathognomonic finding as it defines the interior of the cyst as nonsolid. (orig./GDG)

  1. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  2. Significance of bone scintollography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wioland, M.; Milhaud, G.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial radioactivity enables visualisation of the principal organs in the forms of scintiscans, introduces a new order of sensitivity in quantitative hormonal analysis, thanks to radio-immunology and remains unrivalled in compartmental analyses of the various metabolism. The diagnosis of local skeletal conditions is reviewed and the indications for this quantitative examination are described for the diagnosis of numerous bone metabolic diseases. Finally, mono- and bi- photonic absorptiometry, the latest developments in isotopic techniques, are introduced. They are likely to provide numerical data on the state of mineralisation of bone tissue. The use of these nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and surveillance of osteoporosis is detailed [fr

  3. Hydrated disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishwani, A.H.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    A case of primary hydatid disease of the right femur is reported that presented with pathological fracture and was diagnosed at the time of exploration for biopsy. The patient was treated by removal of all cysts, irrigation with colloidal solution, bone grafting and immobilization of the fracture followed by four cycles of oral Albendazole. Eosinophilia and serological tests reverted to normal but the patient died due to acute myocardial infarction six months later. This uncommon condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pathological fractures, bone pain or osteolytic lesions, especially in patients of rural and farmer background.(author)

  4. Impact of antiepileptic drugs on bone health: Need for monitoring, treatment, and prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. In India, overall prevalence of epilepsy is reported to be 5.59/1000 population. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs constitute the main-stay of treatment with a large number of AEDs available in the market. High incidence of adverse effects is a major limitation with AEDs. One of the major concerns is significant metabolic effects on the bone. However, little attention has been paid to this issue because most of the bone effects remain subclinical for a long time and may take years to manifest clinically. The main effects include hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, reduced serum levels of Vitamin D, increase in parathormone (PTH levels, and alterations in bone turnover markers. The CYP450 enzyme-inducing AEDs such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and primidone are the most common AEDs associated with bone disorders while the data regarding the effect of valproate and newer AEDs such as lamotrigine, gabapentin, vigabatrin, levetiracetam, and topiramate on bone metabolism and bone density are scanty and controversial. Deficiency of Vitamin D is commonly described as a cause for the bone loss in epileptic patients while others being decreased absorption of calcium, increased PTH levels, and inhibition of calcitonin secretion, etc. However, there are no formal practical guidelines for the management of bone disease among those taking AEDs. Evidence-based strategies regarding monitoring, prevention, and treatment of bone diseases in patients on AED therapy are needed.

  5. A comparative study of bone scintigraphy and NMR for vertebral diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Mariko; Sekiya, Toru; Hata, Yuichi; Mori, Yutaka; Yasuda, Masanobu; Kawakami, Kenji; Tada, Sinpei

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of NMR and bone scintigraphy was performed in vertebral disorders, and the significance of both modalities was evaluated. Twelve patients with various vertebral abnormalities including ten cases of vertebral metastases, one case of cervical caries and one case of Granular cell tumor of L3, were examined. In 4 patients, NMR showed abnormalities in the same regions as the bone scintigrams. In another 3 patients. NMR did not show the disorders reported on bone scintigrams. This may be due to the low NMR sensitivity to tiny infiltration of tumor cells in the bone marrow. In 3 out of the remaining 5 patients, NMR demonstrated abnormal findings, whilst the bone scintigrams were normal. Previous bone scintigrams in these patients before treatment had shown abnormal accumulation of activity in the region of abnormal NMR findings. This may be due to the fact that NMR detects the irreversible change of bone marrow, and bone scintigram demonstrates the turn over of bone minerals. This limited experience suggests that both madalities are complementary in the evaluation of vertebral abnormalities. (author)

  6. Red-yellow marrow conversion: Its effect on the location of some solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of yellow marrow to red marrow caused by marrow infiltrating disorders or marrow stress disorders. (orig.)

  7. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  8. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  9. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  10. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  15. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  16. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  18. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  19. The valence of photonabsorptiondensitometry at the view of bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, P.; Uhlir, H.; Willvonseder, R.

    1977-01-01

    Senile osteoporosis itself is asymptomatic unless pain is induced by the static insufficiency of the skeleton, in long lasting disease. Conventional procedures for early diagnosis and control of patients are invasive and therefore not suitable for routine purposes. The efficiency of sodiumfluorid for the treatment of senile osteoporosis after a minimum of 12 months has been established by invasive methods. It is the purpose of this study, to examine the value of photoabsorption-densitometry with double-isotope-methode (125-J, 241-Am) for the evaluation of a therapeutic effect in this disorder. 7 patients with clinical and radiological evidence of senile osteoporosis (6 female, 1 male patient with ages of 56 to 87 years) underwent regular follow-up examinations for one year while on a regimen of 25 mg sodiumfluorid, as retard, twice daily. The bone mineral content registered 1 cm proximal of the proc. styloideus ulnaris (representative for the trabecular bone) and 8 cm proximal from the proc. styloideus ulnaris of the right forearm (representative for cortical bone) was not statistically different from the measurements registered prior to the study. However, the bone mineral content registered in both regions increased significantly, after 12 months treatment (p < 0,05). This indicates that the assessment of bone mineral content by photonabsorptiondensitometry is a valuable method for therapeutic control of this disorder. The method is recommended as a routine procedure for the early diagnosis and for follow up of sodiumfluorid therapy in geriatric patients. (Author)

  20. Pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Haley; Attia, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED. For bulimia nervosa, antidepressant medications are the primary pharmacologic treatment and limited new research has been completed. For BED, lisdexamfetamine is reported to be generally well tolerated and effective, and is the first medication to be indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of BED. For anorexia nervosa, there is limited evidence supporting benefits of medications. Second-generation antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine, appear to demonstrate some benefit for weight gain in anorexia nervosa, although are not advised as a stand-alone treatment. Transdermal administration of hormonal agents is also being explored for improving bone health in anorexia nervosa. Although pharmacotherapy has established utility in bulimia nervosa and BED, further research on medications for the treatment of eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, is necessary.

  1. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  2. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  3. Chemical Makeup of Microdamaged Bone Differs from Undamaged Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.

    2006-01-01

    Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-(micro)m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality

  4. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J.; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  5. Neonatal bone marrow transplantation prevents bone pathology in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pievani, Alice; Azario, Isabella; Antolini, Laura; Shimada, Tsutomu; Patel, Pravin; Remoli, Cristina; Rambaldi, Benedetta; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Riminucci, Mara; Biondi, Andrea; Tomatsu, Shunji; Serafini, Marta

    2015-03-05

    Neonatal bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity for genetic disorders by providing sustainable levels of the missing protein at birth, thus preventing tissue damage. We tested this concept in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH; Hurler syndrome), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-l-iduronidase. MPS IH is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, including severe progressive skeletal abnormalities. Although BMT increases the life span of patients with MPS IH, musculoskeletal manifestations are only minimally responsive if the timing of BMT delays, suggesting already irreversible bone damage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that transplanting normal BM into newborn MPS I mice soon after birth can prevent skeletal dysplasia. We observed that neonatal BMT was effective at restoring α-l-iduronidase activity and clearing elevated glycosaminoglycans in blood and multiple organs. At 37 weeks of age, we observed an almost complete normalization of all bone tissue parameters, using radiographic, microcomputed tomography, biochemical, and histological analyses. Overall, the magnitude of improvements correlated with the extent of hematopoietic engraftment. We conclude that BMT at a very early stage in life markedly reduces signs and symptoms of MPS I before they appear. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Consequence of reduced necrotic bone elastic modulus in a Perthes' hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmingo, Remel A.; Skytte, Tina Lercke; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    Introduction Perthes is a destructive hip joint disorder characterized as a malformation of the femoral head which affects young children. Several studies have shown the change of mechanical properties of the femoral head in Perthes’ disease. However, the consequence of the changes in bone...... mechanical properties in a Perthes’ hip is not well established. Due to the material differences, changes in bone mechanical properties might lead to localization of stress and deformation. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced elastic modulus of necrotic bone...... weight) was applied on the top of the femoral head. The distal part of the femur was fixed. The same Poisson’s ratio 0.3 was set for the femoral and necrotic bone. The elastic modulus (E) of femoral bone was 500 MPa. To investigate the effects of reduced elastic modulus, the necrotic bone E was reduced...

  7. Production of new 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration by rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, R; Correia, T R; Miguel, S P; de Sá, K D; Figueira, D R; Mendonça, A G; Correia, I J

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of bone disorders, whether due to trauma or pathology, has been trending upward with the aging of the worldwide population. The currently available treatments for bone injuries are rather limited, involving mainly bone grafts and implants. A particularly promising approach for bone regeneration uses rapid prototyping (RP) technologies to produce 3D scaffolds with highly controlled structure and orientation, based on computer-aided design models or medical data. Herein, tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/alginate scaffolds were produced using RP and subsequently their physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties were characterized. The results showed that 60/40 of TCP and alginate formulation was able to match the compression and present a similar Young modulus to that of trabecular bone while presenting an adequate biocompatibility. Moreover, the biomineralization ability, roughness and macro and microporosity of scaffolds allowed cell anchoring and proliferation at their surface, as well as cell migration to its interior, processes that are fundamental for osteointegration and bone regeneration.

  8. Multiple long bone cysts revealed by MRI in trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II predisposing to pathological fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konala, Praveen; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry (United Kingdom); Kiely, Nigel [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oswestry (United Kingdom); Noakes, Charlotte [Oxford University Hospital, The Oxford Genetics Laboratories, Oxford (United Kingdom); Blair, Edward [Oxford University Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II is a rare genetic disorder with the few published case reports mainly reporting the radiographic skeletal manifestations. There are no published imaging reports of long bone cysts involving multiple bones in this condition. We report a unique case of bone cysts involving multiple long bones detected with MRI in a patient with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II complicated by a subsequent pathological fracture. It is possible that the bone cysts are a previously undescribed feature of this syndrome; however, the evidence is insufficient to establish a definite association. Chromosomal abnormality identified in this patient is consistent with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II with no unusual features. Although the nature of these bone cysts is unclear, they are one of the causes of the known increased fracture risk observed in this syndrome. (orig.)

  9. Electron Microscopy of Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, V.; Hoeben, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized tissues like bone, dentin and mineralized cartilage are difficult to prepare for ultrastructural analysis. In general, the higher the level of mineralization is, the more difficult it is to obtain ultrathin sections of these tissue. Tissues with a low level of mineral, e.g. from young

  10. Bone scintiscanning in metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, J.; Basset, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan [fr

  11. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  12. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  13. Wounded to the bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucherie, Alexandra; Jørkov, M L S; Smith, Martin

    2017-01-01

    avenue for achieving both greater detail and accuracy through digital microscopy. Patterns of injury were investigated among 45 individuals from a Medieval Danish mass grave (Sandbjerget, AD 1300–1350). Injuries were recorded on every anatomical element, except hand and foot bones. Each was photographed...

  14. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  15. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of…

  16. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  17. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  18. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  19. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de

  20. Nanotechnology and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Henderson, Janet E; Vengallatore, Srikar T

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology and its attendant techniques have yet to make a significant impact on the science of bone healing. However, the potential benefits are immediately obvious with the result that hundreds of researchers and firms are performing the basic research needed to mature this nascent, yet soon to be fruitful niche. Together with genomics and proteomics, and combined with tissue engineering, this is the new face of orthopaedic technology. The concepts that orthopaedic surgeons recognize are fabrication processes that have resulted in porous implant substrates as bone defect augmentation and medication-carrier devices. However, there are dozens of applications in orthopaedic traumatology and bone healing for nanometer-sized entities, structures, surfaces, and devices with characteristic lengths ranging from 10s of nanometers to a few micrometers. Examples include scaffolds, delivery mechanisms, controlled modification of surface topography and composition, and biomicroelectromechanical systems. We review the basic science, clinical implications, and early applications of the nanotechnology revolution and emphasize the rich possibilities that exist at the crossover region between micro- and nanotechnology for developing new treatments for bone healing.

  1. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  2. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  3. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  5. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  6. Understanding the Structure of Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    OI Issues: Understanding Bone Structure Introduction: Structural Organization of Bone The structure of bone is very similar to reinforced concrete that is used to make a building or a bridge. When the building or bridge is first assembled, an initial frame ...

  7. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.

    1986-01-01

    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with 99m TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout. (orig.) [de

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  9. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    mission, DXA BMD and TBS are detecting different effects of ARED exercise and of ARED + Bisphosphonate on the lumbar spine of astronauts. There is emerging evidence associating reduced TBS with terrestrial metabolic bone disorders where a TBS 1.350 is associated with "normal." However, it is not possible to conclude how the spaceflight-induced changes in TBS increase risk for vertebral fractures in the astronaut or if changes in body composition of the trunk region could be an indirect method of assessing exercise effect on bone microarchitecture. More importantly, this pilot analysis demonstrates a new, minimal risk approach for monitoring changes to vertebral bone microarchitecture. This method could help assess the combined skeletal effects of spaceflight with the effects of aging in the astronaut after return to Earth.

  10. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  11. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  12. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1988-01-01

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  13. Alterations to the subchondral bone architecture during osteoarthritis : bone adaptation versus endochondral bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by loss of cartilage and alterations in subchondral bone architecture. Changes in cartilage and bone tissue occur simultaneously and are spatially correlated, indicating that they are probably related. We investigated two hypotheses regarding this

  14. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the death of a loved one or parents' divorce) and major life transitions (like moving to a ... Ways to Deal With Anxiety Dealing With Difficult Emotions Anxiety Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Fears and Phobias ...

  15. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  16. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  17. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  18. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... destructive lesions, but are sometimes the result of abnormal development. The disorder can occur before or after birth. Porencephaly most ... decade of life. SCHIZENCEPHALY is a rare developmental disorder characterized by abnormal slits, or clefts, in the cerebral hemispheres. Schizencephaly ...

  19. Bone metastases from gastric cancer. Clinical evaluation on bone scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1983-07-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N/sub 0/ or N/sub 1/ regional lymph node metastases, highly differentiated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone metastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer.

  20. The bone scan in tarsal coalition: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lima, R.T.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    Tarsal coalition is abnormal fusion of two or more tarsal bones. The union may be fibrous, cartilaginous, or osseous and can be congenital or acquired in response to infection, articular disorders, trauma, or surgery. We report a case of fibrous talocalcaneal coalition in a 15-year-old boy in whom bone scintigraphy employing pinhole lateral views confirmed the clinical diagnosis when plain radiographs showed minimal changes and computed tomography was equivocal. The diagnosis of symptomatic tarsal coalition is important in that it is a common remediable cause of peroneal spastic flat foot, a frequently encountered condition. Scintigraphy provides important information about the presence and localization of this condition. (orig.). With 3 figs