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Sample records for bone diseases infectious

  1. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  2. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to prepare ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities on ...

  3. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010400 The genetic characterization of VP1 region of Coxsackie virus A10 isolated from hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Shandong Province of China.YANG He(杨赫), et al.Instit Epidemiol & Health Statistic, Sch Public Health, Shandong Univ, Jinan 250012.Chin J Infect Dis

  4. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease2003263 Isolation, identification and sequence analyses of dengue virus type 2 strain GD19/2001. REN Rui-wen(任瑞文), et al. Milit Med Instit Guangzhou Milit District, Guangzhou 510507. Chin J Epidemiol 2003; 24 (4):288-290. Objective:To identify the virus isolated from patients

  5. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    3.1 Viral disease2003162 The clinical and epidemiological analysis on 46 patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever in Huainan areas. WANG Kexia(王克霞). Sch Med, An-hui Univ Sci & Tehnol, Huainan 232001. Chin J En-demiol 2003;22(1):48-50.

  6. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease2004002 M gene sequence analyses on Guangdong SARS CoV isolates. ZHOU Huiqiong (周惠琼), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center, Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 2003; 23 (12) : 923 -925.Objective:To analyze the variation of M gene by sequenc-

  7. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Viral disease2004310 One-step simultaneous detection of G-genotype of human group a rotaviruses by multiplex RT-PCR. TANG Shaowen (唐少文) , et al. Dept Epidemiol, Tongji Med Coll Huozhong Univ Sci & Technol, Wuhan 430030. Chin J Lab Med 2004; 27 (4):234-236

  8. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    3.1 Viral disease2007149 Study on platelet β3 integrin expression levels and their relationships with disease severity in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.GAO Maicang(高麦仓), et al. Dept Infect Dis, 1st Affili Hosp, Sch Med, Xi′an Jiaotong Univ , Xi′an 710061. Chin J Infect Dis 2007;25(3):152-153. Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression level of platelet membrane glycoprotein 133(GP Ⅲa, CD61) and the severity of disease in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS). Methods One hundred and four patients with HFRS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. The percentage of CD61 positive platelets and the mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) of platelet membrane glycoprotein β3 were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The 104 patients studied were divided into three groups based on their expression levels of platelet membrane glycoprotein β3 at oliguric phase. Clinical data and laboratory parameters in different groups were compared and analyzed. Results The expression levels of CD61 in patients with HFRS were significantly higher than those in control group, although no significant difference in the percentage of CD61 positive platelets between patients with HFRS and controls was detected. The MFI of CD61 expression in patients with HFRS at fever phase, oliguric phase and polyuric phase was 19. 75±2.57, 17.46±1.48 and 15. 55±0.60, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in control group (3. 20±0.12). The expression level of CD61 in patients with HFRS at oliguric phase was negatively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin(r=-0.637 and -0. 695. respectively) and positively correlated with white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(r= 0.945, 0. 904, 0.956 and 0. 891, respectively). When the patients were compared according to the expression levels of CD61, it was indicated that the higher the expression level of CD61, the

  9. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases

  10. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteo-arthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatric patients as follows: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 4 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases and other different diseases 9 cases

  11. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    4.1 Viral disease2003021 Analysis on the epidemiologic features of Dengue fever in Guangdong province, 1990 - 2000. LUO Huiming(罗会明), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Epi-demiol 2002;23(6):427-430.Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of Dengue fever in Guangdong province in 1990 - 2000, and to develop the strategy for

  12. Infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system infections represents a group of life-threatening diseases that present a formidable challenge to physicians. Despite the development of effective antimicrobial agents and modern surgical techniques, significant mortality and morbidity with CNS infections persist. Since the introduction of computed tomography, there is evidence of a marked decrease in mortality among patients with brain abscesses, although the morbidity has not changed significantly. CT correlation with pathology of the various CNS infections may aid in earlier diagnosis and bring about further disease in morbidity and mortality. Infections reach the brain or meninges mainly by two routes: (1) hematogenous dissemination from a distant infective focus to the meninges, corticomedullary junction, and choroid plexus; (2) direct extension by bony erosion for an adjacent focus of suppuration (otitis, mastoidits, sinusitis), by transmission along anaostomotic veins from the face, scalp, and orbits, and by transmission along cranial nerves following neurosurgery or traumatic craniocerebral wounds. Certain external factors serve to enhance the risk of intracranial infections, such as radiation; immunosuppressive or steroid therapy; cyanotic congenital heart disease; systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or cirrhosis; leukemia, lymphoma, or agammaglobulinemia; severe body stress; midline bony fusion defects; surgical or traumatic craniocerebral injury; and pulmonary or other systemic infections

  13. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease 2006009 Correlation analysis of type A influenza virus genetic variation characteristic with survival selective pressure ZHOU xiao -ming(周晓明 ) ,et al. Sch Pub Health,Fudan Univ. Shanghai 200032. China J Infect Dis 2005;23(4) :221 -224 Objective:To study the relationship betweer. type A influenza virus genetic variation with survival selective pressure to find possible vaccine conserved antigen target. Methods:Seven strains of same HA (Hemagglutinin) serotype, regional and isolation time closely related type A influenza virus were selected with full HA gene coding sequence , Blast2 program was used to calculate the param-

  14. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  15. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  16. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  17. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  18. Fight against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  19. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  20. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  1. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles ...

  2. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  3. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in infectious bone diseases: results of histologically confirmed cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in acute and chronic osteomyelitis and inflammatory spondylitis. The study population comprised 21 patients suspected of having acute or chronic osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis. Fifteen of these patients subsequently underwent surgery. FDG-PET results were correlated with histopathological findings. The remaining six patients, who underwent conservative therapy, were excluded from any further evaluation due to the lack of histopathological data. The histopathological findings revealed osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis in all 15 patients: seven patients had acute osteomyelitis and eight patients had chronic osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis. FDG-PET yielded 15 true-positive results. The tracer uptake correlated with the histopathological findings in each case. Bone scintigraphy performed in 11 patients yielded ten true-positive results and one false-negative result. Follow-up carried out on two patients revealed normal or clearly reduced tracer uptake, which correlated with a normalisation of clinical data. In early postoperative follow-up it was impossible to differentiate between postsurgical reactive changes and further infection using FDG-PET. It is concluded that acute and chronic osteomyelitis of the peripheral as well as the central skeleton can be detected using FDG-PET. Osteomyelitis can be differentiated from soft tissue infection surrounding the bone. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, FDG-PET is not affected by metal implants used for fixing fractures. FDG-PET demonstrated promising initial results with respect to treatment monitoring. Nevertheless, in the early postoperative phase FDG-PET seems to be of limited value owing to unspecific tracer uptake. (orig.)

  4. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in infectious bone diseases: results of histologically confirmed cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaelicke, T. [Dept. of Surgery, University of Bochum (Germany); Schmitz, A.; Schmitt, O. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, University of Bonn (Germany); Risse, J.H.; Biersack, H.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Arens, S.; Hansis, M. [Dept. of Trauma Surgery, University of Bonn (Germany); Keller, E. [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn (Germany); Gruenwald, F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in acute and chronic osteomyelitis and inflammatory spondylitis. The study population comprised 21 patients suspected of having acute or chronic osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis. Fifteen of these patients subsequently underwent surgery. FDG-PET results were correlated with histopathological findings. The remaining six patients, who underwent conservative therapy, were excluded from any further evaluation due to the lack of histopathological data. The histopathological findings revealed osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis in all 15 patients: seven patients had acute osteomyelitis and eight patients had chronic osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis. FDG-PET yielded 15 true-positive results. The tracer uptake correlated with the histopathological findings in each case. Bone scintigraphy performed in 11 patients yielded ten true-positive results and one false-negative result. Follow-up carried out on two patients revealed normal or clearly reduced tracer uptake, which correlated with a normalisation of clinical data. In early postoperative follow-up it was impossible to differentiate between postsurgical reactive changes and further infection using FDG-PET. It is concluded that acute and chronic osteomyelitis of the peripheral as well as the central skeleton can be detected using FDG-PET. Osteomyelitis can be differentiated from soft tissue infection surrounding the bone. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, FDG-PET is not affected by metal implants used for fixing fractures. FDG-PET demonstrated promising initial results with respect to treatment monitoring. Nevertheless, in the early postoperative phase FDG-PET seems to be of limited value owing to unspecific tracer uptake. (orig.)

  5. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  6. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  7. The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medic...

  8. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  9. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  10. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  11. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief s...

  12. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  13. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  14. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. E. MacPhee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

  15. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:19220349

  16. Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospitalized. An ID specialist may also recommend a vaccination regimen for you and your children. One of ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  17. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  18. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and influenza. Travelers to foreign countries may require vaccinations against yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever or hepatitis ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  19. Global Spread of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S.; Zee, A.

    2003-01-01

    We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

  20. 5.INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    5.1.Viral disease930629 Distribution of extracellular viral antigen ofepidemic hemorrhagic fever in human autopsy cases.LIU Yanfang,et al.Dept Pathol,4th MilitMed Univ,Xian,710032.Natl Med J China 1993;73(6):341—342.Using improved immunohistochemical methods,re-peated PAP and repeated PAP+ABC,we found in theextracellular spaces of autopsy cases of epidemic hem-orrhagic fever large amount of viral antigens.Two

  1. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  2. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Investigations on infectious diseases of Pacific salmon due to micro-organisms other than viruses are reviewed. The etiological agents include trematodes, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Bacteria have been found to be the most important agents of disease in the several species of Pacific salmon. Kidney disease, due to a small, unnamed Gram-positive diplobacillus, causes serious mortalities in young salmon reared in hatcheries. The disease has also been found in wild fish. Aquatic myxobacteria are important agents of disease both in the hatchery and in the natural habitat. One of the myxobacteria, Chondrococcus columnaris, causes disease at relatively high water temperatures. The problem of the taxonomy of this organism is discussed. Another myxobacterium, Cytophaga psychrophila, has been found responsible for epizootics in coho salmon at lower water temperatures, i.e., in the range of 40° to 55° F. In outbreaks of gill disease in young salmon, myxobacteria of several kinds have been implicated.

  3. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, Amber M.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.; Earn, David J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that...

  4. [Update in Infectious Diseases 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Francisco Javier; López González, Laura; García-García, Ana Belén; Chiarella, Flavia; Picazo, Juan José

    2015-09-01

    Infectious disease remains current worldwide. During the second half of 2014 an outbreak of ebolavirus hit West Africa with implications in the rest of the world. In fact, Spain declared the first imported case of this infection. Multiresistant enterobacteria outbreaks are emerging all around the world in a moment on which WHO draws attention to the limited resources, coining the term "post antibiotic era". On the other hand, 2014 went down in history as one in which hepatitis C is cured. Are also current HIV epidemiological control or strategies for antiviral and antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26365724

  5. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  6. Infectious diseases associated with caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igreja, Ricardo Pereira

    2011-06-01

    In recent times, caving has become increasingly popular, with almost 2 million people visiting national park caves each year in the United States. Although the 2 million tourist visits are extremely low risk, smaller numbers of sport cavers are at risk for some high risk conditions, and expedition cavers are at risk for some obscure infections. Infectious diseases like histoplasmosis, rabies, leptospirosis, and tick-borne relapsing fever may be transmitted by the underground fauna. To reduce the risk of illness or injury while caving, knowledge of potential risks before engaging in this activity is important. Caving preparation needs to be carefully planned and executed, including vaccinations, prophylactic medications, and advice regarding safe conduct and behaviors. PMID:21664559

  7. [Frequent infectious diseases in migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, A

    2016-05-01

    The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group. PMID:27142435

  8. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  9. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

    2012-09-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

  10. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  11. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  12. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  13. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  14. Advances in microfluidics in combating infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Andy; Pavesi, Andrea; Yazdi, Saeed Rismani; Lim, Chwee Teck; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    One of the important pursuits in science and engineering research today is to develop low-cost and user-friendly technologies to improve the health of people. Over the past decade, research efforts in microfluidics have been made to develop methods that can facilitate low-cost diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-poor settings. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in microfluidic devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious diseases and emphasis is placed on malaria, sepsis and AIDS/HIV. Other infectious diseases such as SARS, tuberculosis, and dengue are also briefly discussed. These infectious diseases are chosen as they contribute the most to disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of research in this area is evaluated and projection toward future applications and accompanying challenges are also discussed. PMID:26854743

  15. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  16. Infectious Disease Management: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noni E Macdonald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade in Canada, infectious disease outbreaks have repeatedly been in the public spotlight. The Escherichia coli outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario (1, the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Toronto, Ontario (2 and the Clostridium difficile hospital outbreak in Montreal, Quebec (3, have cost lives, grabbed headlines and stressed local health care systems. Each outbreak raised questions about our ability to prevent outbreaks, detect outbreaks early, and respond efficiently and effectively to infectious disease crises; these outbreaks also highlighted gaps in Canada's preparedness for managing major infectious disease problems when multiple jurisdictions are involved (4. Canada's poor track record of tuberculosis control in the north (5 raises the concern that this problem is not limited to crisis situations, but rather has deeper implications for the management of infectious diseases in Canada.

  17. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  18. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J McMichael

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  19. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  20. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  1. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  2. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock di

  3. The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on...

  4. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  5. Infectious diseases and securitization: WHO's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiyong; Karackattu, Joe Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The threat posed by infectious diseases has been increasingly framed as a security issue. The UN Security Council's Resolution 1308, which designated HIV/AIDS as a threat to international security, evidenced the securitization process. Using securitization theory as a theoretical tool, this article explores the securitization of infectious diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO). While WHO has tended to securitize infectious diseases since 2000, it has encountered a dilemma in the process because of the inherent asymmetry of interest between developed and developing countries. The act of securitization in WHO currently remains mostly a rhetorical device, since WHO's norms emblematic of securitization have not been backed by operational measures for verification or enforcement due to these asymmetric interests. PMID:21612367

  6. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  7. [Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

    2013-04-24

    The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication.

  8. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  9. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  10. Infectious Disease Detection with Private Information

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander E. Saak

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study incentives to report clinically suspect situations in a simple model of an infectious animal disease with limited diagnostic resource. We characterize a transfer scheme that sustains credible reporting and implements an efficient test allocation. In a game without monetary transfers, credible reporting and first-best targeted testing are achievable in both laissez-faire and efficient disease control regimes when the disease occurrence among few well-informed producers i...

  11. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  12. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  13. Non-infectious Pulmonary Diseases and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, M; Crothers, K; Attia, E F

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary complications remain among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with HIV despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and improvement in its efficacy and availability. The prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary diseases is rising in this population, reflecting both an increase in smoking and the independent risk associated with HIV. The unique mechanisms of pulmonary disease in these patients remain poorly understood, and direct effects of HIV, genetic predisposition, inflammatory pathways, and co-infections have all been implicated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension are the most prevalent non-infectious pulmonary diseases in persons with HIV, and the risk of each of these diseases is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) persons than in the general population. This review discusses the latest advances in the literature on these important complications of HIV infection. PMID:27121734

  14. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

  15. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease.

  16. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members of the USAMRIID staff ... military personnel and civilians from the threat of infectious diseases. We participate in support of emerging disease investigations, ...

  17. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  18. Addressing Infectious Disease Challenges by Investigating Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balskus, Emily P

    2016-07-01

    Microbial communities occupy essentially every habitat on earth and have profound effects on our environment and human health. The National Microbiome Initiative will provide a framework for interdisciplinary microbiome research. The challenges inherent in discovering and understanding microbiome functions, especially those associated with infectious disease, present countless opportunities for chemists. PMID:27626096

  19. Mathematical aspects of infectious disease dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldin, B.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis `Mathematical aspects of infectious disease dynamics' by Barbara Boldin is about model formulation, analysis and interpretation of four questions arising from biology or medicine. Suppose that a new population is introduced into a steady community. When the basic reproduction ratio R_0 of

  20. Measurement and Modeling: Infectious Disease Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE

    2016-01-01

    After some historical remarks about the development of mathematical theory for infectious disease dynamics we introduce a basic mathematical model for the spread of an infection with immunity. The concepts of the model are explained and the model equations are derived from first principles. Using th

  1. Travel and pregnancy: an infectious diseases perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhutu, Kudzai; Torda, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to travel during pregnancy. In the presence of an altered immune state, exposure to certain microbes can be particularly harmful. We have undertaken a review of the literature in order to provide strategies to minimize the infectious disease risks of pregnant travel. Included is a discussion of common immunizing agents and their safety in pregnancy.

  2. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  3. Translational medicine policy issues in infectious disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fears, R.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, V. ter

    2010-01-01

    The European Academies Science Advisory Council has published a series of reports on infectious disease policy issues, analyzing priorities for building the science base as part of public health strategy. Among current challenges facing the European Union are the needs to tackle antibiotic resistanc

  4. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  5. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  6. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, imm...

  7. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    EK Shuman

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengu...

  8. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  9. Bone scan in inflammatory osseous disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The /sup 99m/Tc-phosphate bone scan has become a sensitive, reliable, and safe method for evaluating the patient with suspected inflammatory disease of bone. The scan may become positive as early as the first 24 hr after the symptoms and 10-14 days before roentgenographic changes occur. It can be used to differentiate successfully a variety of diseases from osteomyelitis, and in conjunction with 67Ga-citrate scan has become a mainstay in the work-up of the patient with infectious disease. Applications of the bone scan to infectious diseases in pediatric practice are especially helpful, since these diseases are common problems in this age group. Increased experience with the /sup 99m/Tc-phosphate bone scan has already defined several areas of ''limitations'' in evaluating inflammatory disease. ''Cold'' defects, negative scans in early stages of osteomyelitis, and ''extended uptake'' may all pose problems in interpretation, but careful correlation of the bone scan results with clinical history and physical findings, blood cultures, and roentgenography will significantly reduce these problems

  10. INFECTIOUS-DISEASE TESTING FOR BLOOD-TRANSFUSIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DESFORGES, JF; ATHARI, F; COOPER, ES; JOHNSON, CS; LEMON, SM; LINDSAY, KL; MCCULLOUGH, J; MCINTOSH, K; ROSS, RK; WHITSETT, CF; WITTES, J; WRIGHT, TL

    1995-01-01

    Objective.-To provide physicians and other transfusion medicine professionals with a current consensus on infectious disease testing for blood transfusions. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member consensus panel representing the fields of hematology, infectious disease, transfusion medic

  11. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  12. What Is New in Infectious Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Paul P

    2016-01-01

    The practice of infectious diseases is an ever-changing discipline. Diseases such as syphilis and tuberculosis have been with mankind for millennia, whereas conditions such as AIDS and Zika virus are relatively new maladies. A working knowledge of clinical presentations associated with Zika virus infection, syphilis, and common parasitic infections will help the primary care provider determine whom to treat and whom to refer to a specialist. Increasing the use of vaccination for influenza and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection should reduce the burden of these common diseases. PMID:27621340

  13. Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-07-01

    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. PMID:27363885

  14. Interdisciplinarity "in the making": modelling infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Erika

    2005-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper to current philosophical and sociological studies on modelling is to analyse modelling as an object-oriented interdisciplinary activity and thus to bring new insights into the wide, heterogeneous discourse on tools, forms and organisation of interdisciplinary research. A detailed analysis of interdisciplinarity in the making of models is presented, focusing on long-standing interdisciplinary collaboration between specialists in infectious diseases, mathemat...

  15. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  16. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brizzi, Kate T.; Lyons, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial ag...

  17. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-12

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/13/2014.

  18. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  19. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  20. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  1. [Infectious diseases, the veritable pandora's box].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, S R

    1997-01-01

    The past few years, much attention has been given to the problems regarding new and emerging infectious diseases. Four groups may be considered: (1) new agents discovered among the causes of classical medical syndromes, these do not constitute new dangers but decrease the proportion of unknown causes within these syndromes; (2) increased importance of infectious agents resulting from modified ways of living or production procedures; (3) the really new agents, the spread of which is generally favoured by the same factors and (4) organisms with acquired resistance against antibiotics and pesticides. There is need for extended epidemiological surveillance, that can be improved in our country by better collaboration between different organisations. Most importantly epidemiological surveillance should be organized on an European level with the entire support of our regional and federal authorities.

  2. Mycotic and other nonbacterial infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infectious diseases discussed in this chapter are caused by a variety of organisms, many of which are capable of producing acute, fulminating, generalized disease in which there is associated involvement of the lungs. These organisms may also cause disease, usually chronic, limited primarily to the lungs. Some of the organisms are saprophytes or of very low virulence, but in compromised hosts they may produce life-threatening acute pneumonias. The diseases must be differentiated from each other as well as from pulmonary tuberculosis and occasionally from lung tumor. The ultimate diagnosis depends upon demonstration of the causative agent in bronchial secretions or in sections of the lung. In some instances bacteriologic studies based on immunologic reactions are sufficient. These consist of skin tests, agglutination, complement fixation, and precipitation reactions

  3. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  4. Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005–2011: comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Iyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. Methods: We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005–2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Results: Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. Conclusions: We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others.

  5. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

  6. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease: Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAO Lei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  7. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease:Ebola Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  8. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry. PMID:9494841

  9. Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases Based on Antimicrobial Peptide Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J.; Enciso-Moreno, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases. PMID:19703980

  10. Susceptibility to infectious diseases based on antimicrobial peptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J; Enciso-Moreno, J Antonio

    2009-11-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases.

  11. Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J T; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S.W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F.S.

    1997-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic o...

  12. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  13. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaras, Resat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Tabak, Fehmi; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yemisen, Mucahit; Sencan, Irfan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-06-01

    The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis among Syrian refugees. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks were noted not only in Syria but also in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. After a polio-free 15 years, Syria reported a polio outbreak. Ongoing measles outbreaks in the region was accelerated by the conflict. Iraq declared a cholera outbreak among the Syrian refugees. The healthcare facilities of the countries hosting immigrants, mainly Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, are overburdened. The majority of the immigrants live in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Infectious diseases are big challenges for Syria and for the countries hosting immigrants. More structured support from international organizations is needed for the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:27063349

  14. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues. PMID:27318291

  15. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  16. Recent trends in infectious diseases for travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A D; Roberts, K I

    2000-11-01

    In the early 1970s medicine was considered to have conquered infectious diseases. The following three decades have shown this optimism to be misplaced, with both traditional infections increasing in prevalence and novel diseases appearing. Many of these diseases have become major problems in developing countries, and coupled with the exponential growth in international traffic now pose a significant risk to the traveller. The threat to the package tourist differs greatly from that to the businessman, soldier or backpacker. The latter groups may have little control over their food and water supplies and be exposed to vector-borne and zoonotic infections normally restricted to remote locations. However the package holidaymaker may be involved in mass outbreaks of food poisoning with novel pathogens or acquire unusual infections from close proximity to other tourists. All groups may be susceptible to diseases transmitted during travel, and these may be more common than is presently recognised. The common factor is that all such infections may be transported around the world within their incubation period, and that any disease can now present to any doctor. Today more than ever before it is incumbent on any practitioner to ask not only 'where have you been?' but also 'what were you doing there?'

  17. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yunjing Wang; Yuhan Rao; Xiaoxu Wu; Hainan Zhao; Jin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify ...

  18. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  19. Endothelial cells, tissue factor and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes-Bezerra L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor is a transmembrane procoagulant glycoprotein and a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. It activates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, and induces the formation of a fibrin clot. Tissue factor is important for both normal homeostasis and the development of many thrombotic diseases. A wide variety of cells are able to synthesize and express tissue factor, including monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Tissue factor expression can be induced by cell surface components of pathogenic microorganisms, proinflammatory cytokines and membrane microparticles released from activated host cells. Tissue factor plays an important role in initiating thrombosis associated with inflammation during infection, sepsis, and organ transplant rejection. Recent findings suggest that tissue factor can also function as a receptor and thus may be important in cell signaling. The present minireview will focus on the role of tissue factor in the pathogenesis of septic shock, infectious endocarditis and invasive aspergillosis, as determined by both in vivo and in vitro models.

  20. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  1. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious...... mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparsely studied. METHODS: Population-based cohorts of infectious mononucleosis patients in Denmark and Sweden were...... statistical tests including the trend tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 1381 cancers were observed during 689 619 person-years of follow-up among 38 562 infectious mononucleosis patients (SIR = 1. 03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.09). Apart from Hodgkin's disease (SIR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1...

  2. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  3. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  4. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-04

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.  Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/4/2016.

  5. A History of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-17

    EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/17/2015.

  6. [Treatment of infectious diseases in al-Andalus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, M T; Casal, M

    2004-12-01

    The treatment used in Islamic Spain, al-Andalus, for a number of infectious diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, gonococcal disease, diarrhea, smallpox, measles, parasitic diseases, etc., is reviewed briefly. The different remedies of plant, animal and mineral extracts employed by renowned physicians of the time, such as Isaac, Arib ibn Said, Abulcasis, al-Gafiqi and Averroes among others, are analyzed briefly to provide an understanding of the approach to the treatment of infectious diseases nowadays known to be caused by microorganisms.

  7. Infection control in the management of highly pathogenic infectious diseases: consensus of the European Network of Infectious Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouqui, Philippe; Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M;

    2009-01-01

    The European Network for Infectious Diseases (EUNID) is a network of clinicians, public health epidemiologists, microbiologists, infection control, and critical-care doctors from the European member states, who are experienced in the management of patients with highly infectious diseases. We aim...

  8. SARS - infectious disease of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is an emerging viral infectious disease. According to the World Health Organization, a suspected case of SARS is defined as documented fever (temperature >38°C, lower respiratory tract symptoms, and contact with a person believed to have had SARS or history of travel to an area of documented transmission. A probable case is a suspected case with chest radiographic findings of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, or an unexplained respiratory illness resulting in death, with autopsy findings of ARDS without identifiable cause. In this article some SARS epidemiological data in Indonesia will also presented. There are 7 SARS suspected cases and 2 probable cases were registered in Indonesia on the period of 1 March to 9 July 2003, and no more cases were reported after that time. How will be SARS progression in the future will be a subject of discussion among scientist, and we will have to wait and be prepared for any development might occur. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 59-63Keywords: SARS, Case Definition, Etiology, Indonesia

  9. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  10. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  11. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment, systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  12. Global Dynamics of Infectious Disease with Arbitrary Distributed Infectious Period on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current epidemic models assume that the infectious period follows an exponential distribution. However, due to individual heterogeneity and epidemic diversity, these models fail to describe the distribution of infectious periods precisely. We establish a SIS epidemic model with multistaged progression of infectious periods on complex networks, which can be used to characterize arbitrary distributions of infectious periods of the individuals. By using mathematical analysis, the basic reproduction number R0 for the model is derived. We verify that the R0 depends on the average distributions of infection periods for different types of infective individuals, which extend the general theory obtained from the single infectious period epidemic models. It is proved that if R0<1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; otherwise the unique endemic equilibrium exists such that it is globally asymptotically attractive. Finally numerical simulations hold for the validity of our theoretical results is given.

  13. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  14. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Weiss, Mitchell g.; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Background Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned wi...

  15. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  16. 75 FR 156 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, The Infant Microbiome and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  17. 77 FR 20645 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

  18. 77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31,...

  19. 78 FR 26644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units...

  20. 77 FR 21789 - National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. 78 FR 20933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications...

  2. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  3. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  4. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 16, 2012. David...

  5. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.

  6. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Field; P. Gautret; P. Schlagenhauf; G.D. Burchard; E. Caumes; M. Jensenius; F. Castelli; E. Gkrania-Klotsas; L. Weld; R. Lopez-Velez; P. de Vries; F. von Sonnenburg; L. Loutan; P. Parola

    2010-01-01

    Background: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in Eur

  7. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    OpenAIRE

    de Koeijer, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for applying such models in real life. In this thesis, models on the spread of infectious diseases in animals are...

  8. Infectious disease, development, and climate change, A scenario analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, R.S.J.; Ebi, K L; Yohe, G. W.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of development and climate change on infectious disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Infant mortality and infectious disease are close related, but there are better data for the former. In an international cross-section, per capita income, literacy, and absolute poverty significantly affect infant mortality. We use scenarios of these three determinants, and of climate change to project the future incidence of malaria, assuming it to change proportionally to infant mortality. Ma...

  9. Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Shang; Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Yang, Pin; Sheng, Hui-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic i...

  10. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  11. A Clinical Analysis of 293 FUO Patients, A Diagnostic Model Discriminating infectious Diseases from Non-infectious Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective A diagnostic model was established to discriminate infectious diseases from non-infectious diseases. Methods The clinical data of patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) hospitalized in Xiangya Hospital Central South University, from January, 2006 to April, 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients enrolled were divided into two groups. The ifrst group was used to develop a diagnostic model: independent variables were recorded and considered in a logistic regression analysis to identify infectious and non-infectious diseases (αin= 0.05, αout= 0.10). The second group was used to evaluate the diagnostic model and make ROC analysis. Results The diagnostic rate of 143 patients in the ifrst group was 87.4%, the diagnosis included infectious disease (52.4%), connective tissue diseases (16.8%), neoplastic disease (16.1%) and miscellaneous (2.1%). The diagnostic rate of 168 patients in the second group was 88.4%, and the diagnosis was similar to the ifrst group. Logistic regression analysis showed that decreased white blood cell count (WBC 320 U/L) and lymphadenectasis were independent risk factors associated with non-infectious diseases. The odds ratios were 14.74, 5.84 and 5.11 (P≤ 0.01) , respectively. In ROC analysis, the sensitivity and speciifcity of the positive predictive values was 62.1% and 89.1%, respectively, while that of negative predicting values were 75% and 81.7%, respectively (AUC = 0.76,P = 0.00). Conclusions The combination of WBC 320 U/L and lymphadenectasis may be useful in discriminating infectious diseases from non-infectious diseases in patients hospitalized as FUO.

  12. Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2004-04-01

    We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure

  13. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to...

  14. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  15. Modeling infectious diseases dissemination through online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicer, Ran D

    2007-03-01

    As mathematical modeling of infectious diseases becomes increasingly important for developing public health policies, a novel platform for such studies might be considered. Millions of people worldwide play interactive online role-playing games, forming complex and rich networks among their virtual characters. An unexpected outbreak of an infective communicable disease (unplanned by the game creators) recently occurred in this virtual world. This outbreak holds surprising similarities to real-world epidemics. It is possible that these virtual environments could serve as a platform for studying the dissemination of infectious diseases, and as a testing ground for novel interventions to control emerging communicable diseases.

  16. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern for patients with MBD is the general loss in quality of life. How much of an effect MBD has on ... to be most effective in maintaining quality of life. A technetium bone scan ... blood count, because loss of red blood cells (anemia) is a frequent ...

  17. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  18. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  19. DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICATION OF EXANTHEMA IN THE PREHOSPITAL CARE IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease, with exanthema, pose a significant differential diagnostic difficulty for physicians multidisciplinary hospitals and require the consultation of an infectious disease physician. The article highlights the problem of early diagnostics of acute infectious diseases proceeding with exanthema. The analysis of quality of diagnostics of infectious disease on the outcomes of the consultative infectious ambulance team for 2013-2014.

  20. 77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. MID-B October 2012. Date: October 9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training...

  2. Double burden of noncommunicable and infectious diseases in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C

    2012-01-01

    On top of the unfinished agenda of infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, development, industrialization, urbanization, investment, and aging are drivers of an epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Malnutrition and infection in early life increase the risk of chronic NCDs...... in later life, and in adult life, combinations of major NCDs and infections, such as diabetes and tuberculosis, can interact adversely. Because intervention against either health problem will affect the other, intervening jointly against noncommunicable and infectious diseases, rather than competing...

  3. Factors influencing the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.

  4. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications.

  5. [The control of infectious diseases in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.E. van; Timen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal health services (MHSs) carry out the control and prevention of communicable diseases, under the authority of the municipal councils. Mayors have the authority to enforce measures aimed at individuals, such as isolation and quarantine. The mandatory notification of infectious diseases by ph

  6. Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

  7. Reflectance confocal microscopy in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F; Perrot, J L

    2015-10-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscope (RCM) is a high-resolution non-invasive imaging technique that was initially focused on the diagnosis of skin cancers. A rising number of other indications have been later described for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and infectious dermatological disorders. RCM can identify cutaneous parasites that are not visible to naked eye such as Sarcoptes scabiei and Demodex folliculorum and it allows to better identify the different body parts of bigger parasites such as ticks. Fungal filaments can also be identified as elongated bright structures in the cutaneous upper layers. RCM cannot observe virus directly. However, the cytopathic effect associated with some virus can be recognized. In addition of being helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. PMID:26129682

  8. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...... and sexually transmitted diseases were notably more frequent in Upernavik....

  9. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    , industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test......"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...

  10. Infectious Coryza: Overview of the Disease and New Diagnostic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Infectious coryza is a well-recognized and commonly encountered upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus paragallinarum. The occurrence of recent outbreaks in North America has emphasized that the disease can be significant in meat chickens as well as layer chickens. In developing countries, coryza is commonly complicated by the presence of a range of other infections, resulting in severe disease and significant economic losses. Unusual forms of ...

  11. Infectious diseases -- new and ancient threats to world health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, S J; Carnes, B; Rogers, R G; Smith, L

    1997-07-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability in developing countries and are re-emerging as a serious health problem in developed countries. Outbreaks of Ebola, dengue hemorrhagic fever, cholera, and bubonic plague have occurred in low-income countries and multidrug-resistant organisms have surfaced throughout the world. Since 1973, over 28 new disease-causing microbes have been identified. This issue of "Population Bulletin" analyzes the impact of factors such as population growth, urbanization, migration, poverty, travel, agricultural practices, climate changes, natural disasters, and medical technology on the resurgence of infectious and parasitic diseases as well as the influence of diseases such as AIDS on population dynamics and socioeconomic development. Most of these diseases could be prevented, cured, or eradicated with known public health measures. National governments can help reduce poverty, step up immunization programs, and lessen the chances of introducing new diseases. Nongovernmental organizations can disseminate preventive knowledge and monitor disease outbreaks. The medical profession can strengthen infection control precautions and institute surveillance of the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Since the geographic isolation that used to contain disease outbreaks has been replaced by permeable international borders, the campaign against infectious and parasitic diseases must be global. PMID:12292663

  12. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  13. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

  14. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  15. Spatial dynamics and genetics of infectious diseases on heterogeneous landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Leslie A; Biek, Roman

    2007-10-22

    Explicit spatial analysis of infectious disease processes recognizes that host-pathogen interactions occur in specific locations at specific times and that often the nature, direction, intensity and outcome of these interactions depend upon the particular location and identity of both host and pathogen. Spatial context and geographical landscape contribute to the probability of initial disease establishment, direction and velocity of disease spread, the genetic organization of resistance and susceptibility, and the design of appropriate control and management strategies. In this paper, we review the manner in which the physical organization of the landscape has been shown to influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of host-pathogen interactions, and how we might incorporate landscape architecture into spatially explicit population models of the infectious disease process to increase our ability to predict patterns of disease occurrence and optimally design vaccination and control policies.

  16. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18,...

  17. 78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013. David Clary,...

  18. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents.

  20. Complete genome assemblies and methylome characterization in infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the genetic basis of infectious diseases is a critical component to effective treatments. Because of the rapid evolution of bacterial strains and frequent horizontal transfer of DNA between them, resequencing of new isolates against known reference strains often provides an incomplete ...

  1. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  2. Health literacy and infectious diseases: why does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Limited or insufficient health literacy was associated with reduced adoption of protective behaviours such as immunization, and an inadequate understanding of antibiotics, although the relationship was not consistent. Large gaps remain in relation to infectious diseases with a high clinical and societal impact, such as tuberculosis and malaria.

  3. Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Wartenberg, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Examines coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see whether television news favors covering illness where it clusters or when it occurs near major news centers where it is easier to cover. Finds that television news did go to where the illness broke out but tended to favor reporting urban over rural suicides. (RS)

  4. Vaccination and infectious diseases: a never ending story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Extract: The relationship between vaccine and infectious diseases can be easily considered a never ending story. In the 3rd issue of 2009 of this journal, thematic papers were related to vaccination policies and practice, with a particular focus on vaccine and vaccination evalu- ation and assessment....

  5. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  6. Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

  7. INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABRAMS, IRVING; HAWKINS, BARBARA A.

    DESCRIPTIONS OF TWENTY-FIVE INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES INCLUDE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, EFFECTS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES. IT HAS BEEN DISCOVERED THAT RESPIRATORY AILMENTS OF A COMMUNICABLE NATURE ARE THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF ABSENTEEISM AMONG STUDENTS. INFORMATION IS INTENDED FOR THE USE OF TEACHERS OF HEALTH EDUCATION OR OTHER…

  8. International guidelines for infectious diseases: a practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C. Gyssens (Inge)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA growing number of organisations have become involved in the development of guidelines for infectious diseases (ID). The degree of acceptation of guidelines varies from one country to another. Some of these national differences are determining the practices of prescrib

  9. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  10. Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, James E.

    The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

  11. COPD stage and risk of hospitalization for infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    , and were followed for up to 25 years. All hospitalizations due to any infection were identified through registry linkage. Impaired lung function was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging system. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 3,333 infectious disease...... hospitalizations (IDHs) occurred during 230,653 person-years of follow-up (PY), corresponding to an overall incidence of 145 IDHs (95% confidence interval [CI], 139 to 149) per 10,000 PY. The incidence increased with GOLD stage, from 131 (95% CI, 126 to 136) for normal COPD, to 170 (95% CI, 146 to 193) for mild......, or other infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of obstructive lung disease is a significant predictor of IDH caused by respiratory tract infections, but not of hospitalizations due to infections outside the respiratory system....

  12. Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. PMID:26188633

  13. Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock

    OpenAIRE

    te Beest Dennis E; Hagenaars Thomas J; Stegeman J; Koopmans Marion PG; van Boven Michiel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms deemed to be at risk of infection. Conventional approaches usually involve the preventive culling of all farms within a certain radius of an infected farm. Here we propose a novel culling strat...

  14. Eradicating and eliminating infectious diseases: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Jai P

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, a number of infectious diseases have been targeted for eradication or elimination, with mixed results. While smallpox is the only one successfully eradicated so far, campaigns on yaws and malaria brought about a dramatic reduction in the incidence in the beginning of the campaign but ultimately could not achieve the desired goal. There is again a renewed interest in disease eradication. The World Health assembly in May 2010 passed a resolution calling for eradication...

  15. Predicting global variation in infectious disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Moestrup; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    2016-01-01

    and leptospirosis and assessed these for association with a range of population characteristics, such as crude birth and death rates, median age of the population, mean body mass index, proportion living in urban areas and tuberculosis vaccine coverage. We then tested this predictive model on Danish his- torical...... demographic and population data. Results: Birth rates were the best predictor for mumps and malaria CFR. For tuberculosis CFR death rates were the best predictor and for leptospirosis population density was a significant predictor. Conclusions and implications: CFR predictors differed among diseases according...

  16. [Prevention of infectious diseases of viral origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre-Hurst, L

    1977-02-23

    In France, smallpox and poliomyelitis have almost disappeared thanks to generalized vaccination, no case of small pox has been reported since 1975. 17 cases of poliomyelitis were reported in 1975. These two vaccinations remain compulsory. The prophylaxis of measles, which is a very common disease, is based on vaccination recommended for young children, particularly those living in groups. The frequency of severe forms of flu is reduced by vaccination which is advised in the elderly and in weak or exposed subjects. Rubella raises the problem of contamination of pregnant women. It is recommended to vaccinate young girls and also, after serological reactions, women who are professionally exposed to the disease. Epidemic virus hepatitis (virus A) is increasing in frequency, whereas transfusion hepatitis is becoming less common since the strict application of measures of prophylaxis. The spread of rabies, mainly in the fox, is worrying for public health workers. No case of human rabies has been noted in France. Preventive anti-rabic treatment is applied in the case of a patient bitten by a suspicious animal. PMID:190696

  17. Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James

    2013-01-01

    As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.

  18. Addressing the growing burden of non–communicable disease by leveraging lessons from infectious disease management

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Piot; Aya Caldwell 2; Peter Lamptey 3; Moffat Nyrirenda 4; Sunil Mehra; Kathy Cahill 6; Ann Aerts 7

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases and poor maternal– and child–health low– and middle–income countries now face an additional burden with the inexorable rise of non–communicable diseases.

  19. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Deborah; Fullerton, Kathleen; Jajosky, Ruth; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana; Schley, Alan; Anderson, Willie; Faulkner, Amanda; Kugeler, Kiersten

    2015-10-23

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition-United States, 2013 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2013. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2013 reported as of June 30, 2014. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwr_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years. PMID:26492038

  20. Airline operating realities and the global spread of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Cliff H

    2010-07-01

    The advent of long-haul travel in the past 10 years has considerably reduced the time of potential disease spread from one side of the world to the other. The implication for travelers is that they may unwittingly be in the prodromal phase of influenza and become symptomatic a few days after travel. Alternatively they may knowingly travel with an infectious disease by masking symptoms. This article outlines the myths that have abounded about the cabin environment being "unclean" and discusses the low likelihood of in-flight transmission with effective air-conditioning and filtration systems. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the operational challenges of dealing with infectious disease, including the need for accurate passenger information to allow contact tracing, in contrast to futile measures such as thermal scanners. Containment attempts did not stop the rapid global spread of H1N1 influenza. PMID:20566546

  1. Infectious diseases in Yellowstone’s canid community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected

  2. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  3. Genome-wide association studies and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcock, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    The identification of genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases and phenotypes represent a challenge for geneticists in the early part of the 21st century. These are not simple Mendelian disorders caused by single mutations, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington's disease, but common diseases that are usually polygenic in origin. The predisposing genes can be susceptibility factors or protective factors. One example of such a complex disease is the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. However, another example could be protection from an infectious disease. Both of these phenotypes are due in part to the presence of low-risk variants in the host. Moreover, all of these complex phenotypes require environmental triggers as well and, in the case of infectious diseases, these are pathogens. In the case of other common diseases such as cardiovascular disease the triggers are often lifestyle-related issues such as diet or exercise. Genome-wide association studies are now identifying some of these genetic susceptibility factors. PMID:20370638

  4. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  5. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  6. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 26,...

  7. Influence of the factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas L; Dahl, Mortens; Nordestgaard, Borge G;

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial.......The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial....

  8. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Medical Countermeasures for Post-Exposure Mitigation/Treatment of...

  9. 76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Immune Response to Infection Meeting I. Date: April 25-26, 2011... of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

  10. 77 FR 76058 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  11. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011. Jennifer...

  12. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  13. Talking with Children: Tips for Caregivers, Parents, and Teachers during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children: TIPS FOR CAREGIVERS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS What You Should Know When children and youth watch news on TV about an infectious disease outbreak, read about it in the news, or ...

  14. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  15. 77 FR 74674 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 10, 2012. David...

  16. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  17. Myeloma bone disease: Pathophysiology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma bone disease is marked by severe dysfunction of both bone formation and resorption and serves as a model for understanding the regulation of osteoblasts (OBL) and osteoclasts (OCL) in cancer. Myeloma bone lesions are purely osteolytic and are associated with severe and debilitating bone pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression, as well as increased mortality. Interactions within the bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma are responsible for the ...

  18. Cellular Mechanisms of Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Oranger; Claudia Carbone; Maddalena Izzo; Maria Grano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulates and proliferates in the bone marrow. MM patients often develop bone disease that results in severe bone pain, osteolytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. These skeletal complications have not only a negative impact on quality of life but also a possible effect in overall survival. MM osteolytic bone lesions arise from the altered bone remodeling due to both increased osteoclast activation and d...

  19. Pain and Paget's Disease of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Paget’s Disease of Bone Paget’s Disease Management Pain and Paget’s Disease of Bone Publication available in: ... focus(); */ } //--> Print-Friendly Page May 2015 Types of Pain Paget’s disease can cause several different kinds of ...

  20. Host-directed therapies for infectious diseases: current status, recent progress, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Rao, Martin; Wallis, Robert S; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mwaba, Peter; Vilaplana, Cris; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam; Hoelscher, Michael; Maeurer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Despite extensive global efforts in the fight against killer infectious diseases, they still cause one in four deaths worldwide and are important causes of long-term functional disability arising from tissue damage. The continuing epidemics of tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, and influenza, and the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens represent major clinical management challenges worldwide. Newer approaches to improving treatment outcomes are needed to reduce the high morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. Recent insights into pathogen-host interactions, pathogenesis, inflammatory pathways, and the host's innate and acquired immune responses are leading to identification and development of a wide range of host-directed therapies with different mechanisms of action. Host-directed therapeutic strategies are now becoming viable adjuncts to standard antimicrobial treatment. Host-directed therapies include commonly used drugs for non-communicable diseases with good safety profiles, immunomodulatory agents, biologics (eg monoclonal antibodies), nutritional products, and cellular therapy using the patient's own immune or bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. We discuss clinically relevant examples of progress in identifying host-directed therapies as adjunct treatment options for bacterial, viral, and parasitic infectious diseases. PMID:27036359

  1. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Mulder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks.

  2. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV.

  3. Is the thymus a target organ in infectious diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Savino

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a central lymphoid organ, in wich T cell precursors differentiale and generate most of the so-called T cell reprtoire. Along with a variety of acute infectious diseases, we and others determined important changes in both microenvironmental and lymphoid compartments of the organ. For example, one major and common feature observed in acute viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, is a depletion of cortical thymocytes, mostly those bearing the CD4-CD8 double positive phenotype. This occurs simmultaneously to the relative enrichment in medullary CD4 or CD8 single positive cells, expressing high densities of the CD3 complex. Additionally we noticed a variety of changes in the thymic microenvironment (and particularly is epithelial component, comprising abnormal location of thymic epithelial cell subsets as well has a denser Ia-bearing cellular network. Moreover, the extracellular matrix network was altered with an intralobular increase of basement membrane proteins that positively correlated with the degree of thymocyte death. Lastly, anti-thymic cell antibodies were detected in both human and animal models of infectious diseases, and in some of them a phenomenon of molecular mimicry could be evidenced. Taken together, the data receiwed herein clearly show that the thymus should be regarded as a target in infectious diseases.

  4. CKD and Infectious Diseases in Asia Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vivekanand; Prasad, Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The exact number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia Pacific is uncertain. In numeric terms, the region is home to the largest population of patients with untreated chronic kidney failure. The climatic, geographic, social, cultural, economic, and environmental diversity within this region is higher than in any other part of the world. Large parts of the region face a climate-related burden of infectious diseases. Infections contribute to the development and progression of CKD and complicate the course of patients with pre-existing CKD (especially those on dialysis therapy or who are immunosuppressed), increase the cost of CKD care, and contribute to mortality and morbidity. Kidney involvement is a feature of several infectious diseases prevalent in Asia Pacific. Examples include malaria, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C virus, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan virus infections. The contribution of infection-associated acute kidney injury to the overall burden of CKD has not been evaluated systematically. Research is needed to quantify the impact of infections on kidney health by undertaking prospective studies. Nephrologists need to work with infectious disease research groups and government infection surveillance and control programs. PMID:26943982

  5. DNA technologies for diagnostics and vaccines for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In certain parts of the world infectious diseases are still a big problem. Although chemotherapy and the control of the vector, where involved, would be the methods of choice for eradication of the disease, development of resistance to either the antibiotic or the pesticide require that other methods are also applied. Vaccination has been highly successful in controlling some diseases. A potential for such applications exists also in diseases like encephalitis, leprosy, leishmaniasis and malaria which are caused by a virus, a bacterium and parasites respectively. At least three of these diseases are in an epidemic form in North India. There is a tremendous hope that new recombinant DNA and nuclear techniques will not only be of help in an early and swift diagnosis of the disease-causing organism but also in the development of vaccines. This article deals with some of the recent progress made in the diagnosis and vaccine production of these diseases. (author). 12 refs

  6. Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-08-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support

  7. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Kuzmin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, for other it has been suggested (filoviruses. Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses. In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions. We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

  8. Spread of Infectious Diseases with a Latent Period

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases spread through human networks. Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model is one of the epidemic models to describe infection dynamics on a complex network connecting individuals. In the metapopulation SIR model, each node represents a population (group) which has many individuals. In this paper, we propose a modified metapopulation SIR model in which a latent period is taken into account. We call it SIIR model. We divide the infection period into two stages: an infected stage, which is the same as the previous model, and a seriously ill stage, in which individuals are infected and cannot move to the other populations. The two infectious stages in our modified metapopulation SIR model produce a discontinuous final size distribution. Individuals in the infected stage spread the disease like individuals in the seriously ill stage and never recover directly, which makes an effective recovery rate smaller than the given recovery rate.

  9. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  10. Cyclodextrin complexes for treatment improvement in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperiale, Julieta C; Sosnik, Alejandro D

    2015-05-01

    Infectious diseases are a heterogeneous group of maladies that represent a serious burden to healthcare systems worldwide. Most of the available antimicrobial drugs display poor biopharmaceutical properties that compromise their effectiveness. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides of glucopyranose formed by a variable number of repeating units that combine a hydrophilic surface with a hydrophobic cavity. The production of drug/CD complexes has become one of the most extensively investigated technology approaches to improve the stability, solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of drugs. The present work overviews the applications of CDs for the formulation of anti-infective agents along with the most relevant administration routes. Finally, an update on the complexes with CDs available on the market to treat infectious diseases is presented. PMID:26008196

  11. [Organisation of La Mecque pil grimage. Prevention of infectious diseases.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Rouis, B; Dif, S; Tedjiza, M; Mesbah, S; Bouakaz, R

    1996-04-01

    The pilgrimage of La Mecque is one of the main part of Islam, concerning many people. In the beginning of the century, it was a dangerous situation because of the risk of infectious diseases. These risks have dramatically decreased with the economic development of Arabie Saoudite (accommodations, drinking water, transports, health organization). More than two millions of pilgrims are welcomed each years in will sanitary conditions. This is a model of health organization. PMID:17292309

  12. Infectious disease management in primary care: perceptions of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röing Marta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to keep the level of antibiotic prescribing low to contain the development of resistant bacteria. This study was conducted to reveal new knowledge about how GPs think in relation to the prescribing of antibiotics - knowledge that could be used in efforts toward rational treatment of infectious diseases in primary care. The aim was to explore and describe the variations in GPs' perceptions of infectious disease management, with special reference to antibiotic prescribing. Methods Twenty GPs working at primary care centres in a county in south-west Sweden were purposively selected based on the strategy of including GPs with different kinds of experience. The GPs were interviewed and perceptions among GPs were analysed by a phenomenographic approach. Results Five qualitatively different perceptions of infectious disease management were identified. They were: (A the GP must help the patient to achieve health and well-being; (B the management must meet the GP's perceived personal, professional and organisational demands; (C restrictive antibiotic prescribing is time-consuming; (D restrictive antibiotic prescribing can protect the effectiveness of antibiotics; and (E patients benefit personally from restrictive antibiotic prescribing. Conclusions Restrictive antibiotic prescribing was considered important in two perceptions, was not an issue as such in two others, and was considered in one perception although the actual prescribing was greatly influenced by the interaction between patient and GP. Accordingly, to encourage restrictive antibiotic prescribing several aspects must be addressed. Furthermore, different GPs need various kinds of support. Infectious disease management in primary care is complex and time-consuming, which must be acknowledged in healthcare organisation and planning.

  13. Infectious Disease: Connecting Innate Immunity to Biocidal Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Gregory J.; Som, Abhigyan; Madkour, Ahmad E.; Eren, Tarik; Tew, Gregory N.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. In the U.S. alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90,000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks, and clearly this is an important problem. Our review attempts to bridge the research areas of natural host defense pe...

  14. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit th...

  15. Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Nashwa Al-Mazrooei; Saoud Al-Habsi; Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Aliya Al-Ghabshi

    2012-01-01

    Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously inc...

  16. Children's Participation in a Virtual Epidemic in the Science Classroom: Making Connections to Natural Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neulight, Nina; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Kao, Linda; Foley, Brian; Galas, Cathleen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated students' understanding of a virtual infectious disease in relation to their understanding of natural infectious diseases. Two sixth-grade classrooms of students between the ages of 10 and 12 (46 students) took part in a participatory simulation of a virtual infectious disease, which was integrated into their science…

  17. Influence of diabetes and hyperglycaemia on infectious disease hospitalisation and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Jensen, J S; Nordestgaard, B G

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes mellitus is believed to increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The effects of hyperglycaemia per se on infectious disease risk are unknown and the influence of diabetes on infectious disease outcome is controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 10,063 indi...

  18. DMPD: LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15608698 LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity. Miller SI, Ernst RK, Bader MW.... Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005 Jan;3(1):36-46. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity.... PubmedID 15608698 Title LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity. Authors Miller SI, Ernst RK,

  19. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  20. 77 FR 45644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  1. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date: June 7, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m....

  2. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  3. 78 FR 70065 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-11-22

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  4. 77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-03-22

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  5. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 30, 2012. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  6. 78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

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  8. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  9. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne) disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4). The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from a...

  10. DNA technology for diagnosis and vaccines for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design

  11. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike. PMID:27217172

  12. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  13. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  14. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (HC (Saururaceae has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  15. Eradicating and eliminating infectious diseases: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai P Narain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past 60 years, a number of infectious diseases have been targeted for eradication or elimination, with mixed results. While smallpox is the only one successfully eradicated so far, campaigns on yaws and malaria brought about a dramatic reduction in the incidence in the beginning of the campaign but ultimately could not achieve the desired goal. There is again a renewed interest in disease eradication. The World Health assembly in May 2010 passed a resolution calling for eradication of measles by 2015; the target of polio eradication still remains elusive. In view of these developments, it is appropriate time to revisit the concept of disease eradication and elimination, the achievements and failures of past eradication programmes and reasons thereof, and possibly apply these lessons while planning for the future activities. This paper based on the Dr. A.L.Saha Memorial Oration describes various infectious diseases that have been targeted for eradication or elimination since 1950s, the potential direct and indirect benefits from disease eradication, and the issues and opportunities for the future.

  16. Transmission heterogeneity and control strategies for infectious disease emergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bolzoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate among age/stage-classes can make traditional eradication and control strategies ineffective, and in some cases, policies aimed at controlling pathogen emergence can even increase disease incidence in the host. When control strategies target for reduction in numbers those subsets of the population that effectively limit the production of new susceptible individuals, then control can produce a flush of new susceptibles entering the population. The availability of a new cohort of susceptibles may actually increase disease incidence. We illustrate these general points using Classical Swine Fever as a reference disease. CONCLUSION: Negative effects of culling are robust to alternative formulations of epidemiological processes and underline the importance of better assessing transmission structure in the design of wildlife disease control strategies.

  17. Modelling power-law spread of infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Short-time human travel behaviour can be well described by a power law with respect to distance. We incorporate this information in space-time models for infectious disease surveillance data to better capture the dynamics of disease spread. Two previously established model classes are extended, which both decompose disease risk additively into endemic and epidemic components: a space-time point process model for individual point-referenced data, and a multivariate time series model for aggregated count data. In both frameworks, the power-law spread is embedded into the epidemic component and its decay parameter is estimated simultaneously with all other unknown parameters using (penalised) likelihood inference. The performance of the new approach is investigated by a re-analysis of individual cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany (2002-2008), and count data on influenza in 140 administrative districts of Southern Germany (2001-2008). In both applications, the power-law formulations substantially ...

  18. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr on Cattle in Indonesia and The Strategy For Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Abdul Adjid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial insemination (AI centers as the first priority, then village breeding centers as the second priority, and the last priority is in cattle owned by smallholders. In the breeding and AI centers, eradication of the disease is carried out by surveilance, excluding reactors, and applying biosecurity. In the village breeding centers, the use of semen for AI should come from centers that free from IBR, the use of bull that free from IBR, surveilance and application of biosecurity. At the farmer levels, IBR control is bone by using semen from AI centers free from IBR and routine vaccination. The final step is performed after evaluating the successful rate and economic impact of the disease control.

  19. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...

  20. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  1. On the Identifiability of Transmission Dynamic Models for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintusaari, Jarno; Gutmann, Michael U; Kaski, Samuel; Corander, Jukka

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important for both biological research and public health applications. It has been widely demonstrated that statistical modeling provides a firm basis for inferring relevant epidemiological quantities from incidence and molecular data. However, the complexity of transmission dynamic models presents two challenges: (1) the likelihood function of the models is generally not computable, and computationally intensive simulation-based inference methods need to be employed, and (2) the model may not be fully identifiable from the available data. While the first difficulty can be tackled by computational and algorithmic advances, the second obstacle is more fundamental. Identifiability issues may lead to inferences that are driven more by prior assumptions than by the data themselves. We consider a popular and relatively simple yet analytically intractable model for the spread of tuberculosis based on classical IS6110 fingerprinting data. We report on the identifiability of the model, also presenting some methodological advances regarding the inference. Using likelihood approximations, we show that the reproductive value cannot be identified from the data available and that the posterior distributions obtained in previous work have likely been substantially dominated by the assumed prior distribution. Further, we show that the inferences are influenced by the assumed infectious population size, which generally has been kept fixed in previous work. We demonstrate that the infectious population size can be inferred if the remaining epidemiological parameters are already known with sufficient precision.

  2. Compensation for work-related hematologic, liver, and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Won; Kang, Dong-Mug

    2014-06-01

    Occupational diseases may be defined only medically or scientifically, and even then, their definition is not simple. However, compensable occupational diseases involve the additional layer of legal systems and social welfare policies as well. Their multifaceted nature makes determining the work-relatedness of these diseases more complex. Korea has established standards for the recognition of occupational diseases in Schedule 5 of the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standards Act, and specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases are listed in Schedule 3 of the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. The new list of compensable occupational diseases comprises 13 articles as an open-ended system. The newly added articles pertain to lymphohematopoietic (Article 5) and infectious diseases (Article 9), as well as diseases of other target organs. Furthermore, the article on liver diseases (Article 8) has been partially revised. The new act has been changed to clarify the meaning as it has been presented in recent research. It is necessary to achieve agreement among concerned parties, including experts from the legal, medical, and social domains to resolve the issues of work-relatedness, causation, notion of aggravation, and so on for preparing a list and a process that are more reasonable.

  3. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease With Bone Involvemnet

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...

  5. Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Mingsheng Tang; Xinjun Mao; Zahia Guessoum

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial s...

  6. Who can get the next Nobel Prize in infectious diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Onder Ergonul; Can Ege Yalcin; Mahmut Alp Erkent; Mert Demirci; Sanem Pinar Uysal; Nur Zeynep Ay; Asena Omeroglu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to deliver a perspective on future Nobel prizes by reviewing the features of Nobel prizes awarded in the infectious diseases-related (IDR) field over the last 115 years. Thirty-three out of 106 Nobel prizes (31%) in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded for IDR topics. Out of 58 Nobel laureates for IDR topics, two have been female; 67% have been medical doctors. The median age of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine was found to be lower than the median age of...

  7. Optimizing infectious disease interventions during an emerging epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Wallinga, J.; van Boven, M.; Lipsitch, M.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and global impact of the novel influenza A(H1N1)v highlights the continuous threat to public health posed by a steady stream of new and unexpected infectious disease outbreaks in animals and humans. Once an emerging epidemic is detected, public health authorities will attempt to mitigate the epidemic by, among other measures, reducing further spread as much as possible. Scarce and/or costly control measures such as vaccines, anti-infective drugs, and social distancing must be al...

  8. Genetic Polymorphisms of Infectious Diseases in Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, genetic epidemiological analyses in infectious diseases have increased drastically since the publication of human genome and all the subsequent projects analyzing human diversity at molecular level. The great majority of studies use classical epidemiological designs applied to genetic data, and more than 80% of published studies use population-based case-control designs with widely spread genetic markers in human genome, like short tandem repeats (STR or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, in genes chosen by their physiological association with the disease (candidate genes. Even though genetic data is less prone to several bias issues inherent to case-control studies, some care has to be taken when designing, performing, analyzing and interpreting results from such studies. Here we discuss some basic concepts of genetics and epidemiology as a departure to evaluate and review every step that should be followed to design, conduct, analyze, interpret and present data from those studies, using particularities of infectious diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis as models.

  9. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W

    2012-07-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

  10. Rheumatological presentation of developmental bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalifa, Gabriel; Cohen, Pierre alain; Hamidou, Amine

    2000-02-01

    Developmental bone disease may be present, with rheumatological disorders as the major symptoms, even in children. The major lesions encountered are early osteo arthritis, osteo chondromatosis and vertebral involvement with two leading types, pseudo Scheuermann's disease or pseudo ankylosing spondylitis. This paper presents the different features and lists the rheumatological problems in bone dysplasia.

  11. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYan-Fei; WangWei; 等

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  12. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  13. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  14. The Role of Macrophage Polarization in Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Adam C.; Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Hahn, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages, found in circulating blood as well as integrated into several tissues and organs throughout the body, represent an important first line of defense against disease and a necessary component of healthy tissue homeostasis. Additionally, macrophages that arise from the differentiation of monocytes recruited from the blood to inflamed tissues play a central role in regulating local inflammation. Studies of macrophage activation in the last decade or so have revealed that these cells adopt a staggering range of phenotypes that are finely tuned responses to a variety of different stimuli, and that the resulting subsets of activated macrophages play critical roles in both progression and resolution of disease. This review summarizes the current understanding of the contributions of differentially polarized macrophages to various infectious and inflammatory diseases and the ongoing effort to develop novel therapies that target this key aspect of macrophage biology. PMID:24625576

  15. Analysis of timeliness of infectious disease reporting in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar Mirjam EE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely reporting of infectious disease cases to public health authorities is essential to effective public health response. To evaluate the timeliness of reporting to the Dutch Municipal Health Services (MHS, we used as quantitative measures the intervals between onset of symptoms and MHS notification, and between laboratory diagnosis and notification with regard to six notifiable diseases. Methods We retrieved reporting data from June 2003 to December 2008 from the Dutch national notification system for shigellosis, EHEC/STEC infection, typhoid fever, measles, meningococcal disease, and hepatitis A virus (HAV infection. For each disease, median intervals between date of onset and MHS notification were calculated and compared with the median incubation period. The median interval between date of laboratory diagnosis and MHS notification was similarly analysed. For the year 2008, we also investigated whether timeliness is improved by MHS agreements with physicians and laboratories that allow direct laboratory reporting. Finally, we investigated whether reports made by post, fax, or e-mail were more timely. Results The percentage of infectious diseases reported within one incubation period varied widely, between 0.4% for shigellosis and 90.3% for HAV infection. Not reported within two incubation periods were 97.1% of shigellosis cases, 76.2% of cases of EHEC/STEC infection, 13.3% of meningococcosis cases, 15.7% of measles cases, and 29.7% of typhoid fever cases. A substantial percentage of infectious disease cases was reported more than three days after laboratory diagnosis, varying between 12% for meningococcosis and 42% for shigellosis. MHS which had agreements with physicians and laboratories showed a significantly shorter notification time compared to MHS without such agreements. Conclusions Over the study period, many cases of the six notifiable diseases were not reported within two incubation periods, and many were

  16. Sex bias in infectious disease epidemiology: patterns and processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guerra-Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006-2009 were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male-female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. CONCLUSIONS: Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including

  17. Lyme disease: a unique human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malawista, S. E.; Steere, A. C.; Hardin, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Lyme disease is a complex immune-mediated multi-system disorder that is infectious in origin and inflammatory or "rheumatic" in expression. Through its epidemiologic characteristics, large numbers of a seasonally synchronized patient population are readily available for prospective study. Lyme disease has a known clinical onset ("zero time"), marked by the characteristic expanding skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, and a clearly defined pre-articular phase. At least some manifestations of the disorder are responsive to antibiotics, and the causative agent--a spirochete--is now known. These advantages make Lyme disease unique as a human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease. PMID:6516449

  18. Natural Disasters, Corpses and the Risk of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Conly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent occurrence of the category 4 Hurricane Katrina devastated the United States? Gulf Coast. The hurricane caused widespread destruction and flooding, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. The mounting death toll was reported at almost 300 deaths as of September 8, 2005 (1,2. The unfolding events and high death toll have left an unusual situation in which there are many decomposing corpses either lying on the streets or floating in the flood waters. The presence of these corpses in open settings, such as in public places and in the water that has inundated much of the city of New Orleans, naturally raises concerns about the occurrence of infectious disease epidemics (3. In the aftermath of large natural disasters, instinctive uncertainties arise among workers and the general population with respect to the appropriate handling and disposal of dead bodies and human remains. Given the recent occurrence of Hurricane Katrina as a large natural disaster and the unprecedented setting of the numerous corpses requiring disposal, it was considered timely to review the infectious disease risks associated with the handling of dead bodies.

  19. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  20. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it. PMID:21186510

  1. Advanced Nanobiomaterials: Vaccines, Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torres-Sangiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles has contributed to many advances due to their important properties such as, size, shape or biocompatibility. The use of nanotechnology in medicine has great potential, especially in medical microbiology. Promising data show the possibility of shaping immune responses and fighting severe infections using synthetic materials. Different studies have suggested that the addition of synthetic nanoparticles in vaccines and immunotherapy will have a great impact on public health. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance is one of the major concerns worldwide; a recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO states that antibiotic resistance could cause 300 million deaths by 2050. Nanomedicine offers an innovative tool for combating the high rates of resistance that we are fighting nowadays, by the development of both alternative therapeutic and prophylaxis approaches and also novel diagnosis methods. Early detection of infectious diseases is the key to a successful treatment and the new developed applications based on nanotechnology offer an increased sensibility and efficiency of the diagnosis. The aim of this review is to reveal and discuss the main advances made on the science of nanomaterials for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Highlighting innovative approaches utilized to: (i increasing the efficiency of vaccines; (ii obtaining shuttle systems that require lower antibiotic concentrations; (iii developing coating devices that inhibit microbial colonization and biofilm formation.

  2. Infectious Diseases Are Analogous With Cancer. Hypothesis And Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Benharroch, Lidia Osyntsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to disclose first degree analogous features between cancer and infectious diseases and to find out whether these similarities are superficial and negligible, due to the use of the same bodily pathways by the two categories of disease or if they represent significantly parallel characteristics. We have found several primary analogous features, predominantly regarding pathways of spread, but to some extent also concerning the interaction with the immune system. Some of the implications to our hypothesis are probably available in the recent literature, at the experimental or clinical levels. For example endostatin, an angiogenic inhibitor has been used to prevent promotion of metastasis in cancer and to reduce granulomas formation in schistosomiasis. An ECFR antagonist employed to restrain bronchial vessels proliferation in pseudomonas infection, has also been used for the treatment of lung cancer.

  3. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods.

  4. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

  5. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-01

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  6. A Small Molecule, Odanacatib, Inhibits Inflammation and Bone Loss Caused by Endodontic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Liang; Chen, Wei; McConnell, Matthew; Zhu, Zheng; Li, Sheng; Reddy, Michael; Eleazer, Paul D; Wang, Min; Li, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Periapical disease, an inflammatory disease mainly caused by dental caries, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of humans, affecting both children and adults. The infection travels through the root, leading to inflammation, bone destruction, and severe pain for the patient. Therefore, the development of a new class of anti-periapical disease therapies is necessary and critical for treatment and prevention. A small molecule, odanacatib (ODN), which is a cathepsin K (Ctsk) inhibito...

  7. Addressing the growing burden of non–communicable disease by leveraging lessons from infectious disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Piot 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases and poor maternal– and child–health low– and middle–income countries now face an additional burden with the inexorable rise of non–communicable diseases.

  8. Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Galeone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role.

  9. Formation and development of the first department of infectious diseases in children in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Timchenko; G. L. Mikirtichan; T. M. Chernova

    2014-01-01

    80 years marks since the founding of the department of infectious diseases in children of St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy in 2010. The historical review presented in detail the stages and formation of oldest development in Russia the department of children’s infections. The main directions of infectious diseases and training of specialists in the field of infectious diseases in children presented.

  10. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  11. Proteomics in human disease: cancer, heart and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, P R; Zimny-Arndt, U; Zeindl-Eberhart, E; Stulik, J; Koupilova, K; Pleissner, K P; Otto, A; Müller, E C; Sokolowska-Köhler, W; Grabher, G; Stöffler, G

    1999-07-01

    In recent years, genomics has increased the understanding of many diseases. Proteomics is a rapidly growing research area that encompasses both genetic and environmental factors. The protein composition represents the functional status of a biological compartment. The five approaches presented here resulted in the detection of disease-associated proteins. Calgranulin B was upregulated in colorectal cancer, and hepatoma-derived aldose reductase-like protein was reexpressed in a rat model during hepatocarcinogenesis. In these two investigations, attention was focused on one protein, obviously differing in amount, directly after two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Additional methods, such as enzyme activity measurements and immunohistochemistry, confirmed the disease association of the two candidates resulting from 2-DE subtractive analysis. The following three investigations take advantage of the holistic potential of the 2-DE approach. The comparison of 2-DE patterns from dilated cardiomyopathy patients with those of controls revealed 25 statistically significant intensity differences, from which 12 were identified by amino acid analysis, Edman degradation or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). A human myocardial 2-DE database was constructed, containing 3300 protein spots and 150 identified protein species. The number of identified proteins was limited by the capacity of our group, rather than by the principle of feasibility. Another field where proteomics proves to be a valuable tool in identifying proteins of importance for diagnosis is proteome analysis of pathogenic microorganisms such as Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis). Sera from patients with early or late symptoms of Lyme borreliosis contained antibodies of various classes against about 80 antigens each, containing the already described antigens OspA, B and C, flagellin, p83/100, and p39. Similarly, antibody reactivity to

  12. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  13. 77 FR 28396 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 8, 2012. Anna P. Snouffer,...

  14. Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

  15. Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linard Catherine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers.

  16. Infectious Disease Cases by County, Year, and Sex, 2001-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These data contain counts and rates for Centers for Infectious Diseases-related disease cases among California residents by county, disease, sex, and year spanning...

  17. Resource Requirements Planning for Hospitals Treating Serious Infectious Disease Cases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Verzi, Stephen Joseph; Finley, Patrick D.; Turnquist, Mark A.; Wyte-Lake, Tamar; Griffin, Ann R.; Ricci, Karen J.; Plotinsky, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    This report presents a mathematical model of the way in which a hospital uses a variety of resources, utilities and consumables to provide care to a set of in-patients, and how that hospital might adapt to provide treatment to a few patients with a serious infectious disease, like the Ebola virus. The intended purpose of the model is to support requirements planning studies, so that hospitals may be better prepared for situations that are likely to strain their available resources. The current model is a prototype designed to present the basic structural elements of a requirements planning analysis. Some simple illustrati ve experiments establish the mo del's general capabilities. With additional inve stment in model enhancement a nd calibration, this prototype could be developed into a useful planning tool for ho spital administrators and health care policy makers.

  18. Defining Clinical Excellence in Adult Infectious Disease Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Natasha M; Ghanem, Khalil G; Auwaerter, Paul G; Wright, Scott M; Melia, Michael T

    2016-09-01

    Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas describes clinical excellence through the following domains: diagnostic acumen, professionalism and humanism, communication and interpersonal skills, skillful negotiation of the healthcare system, knowledge, taking a scholarly approach to clinical practice, and having passion for clinical medicine. This work references examples of infectious disease (ID) clinical excellence across Christmas' domains and, in doing so, both examines how the definition of clinical excellence applies to ID practice and highlights the importance of ID physicians. Emphasizing such aspirational standards may not only inspire trainees and practicing physicians to pursue their own fulfilling clinical ID careers, it may also encourage health systems to fully value outstanding ID physicians who labor tirelessly to provide patients with exceptional care. PMID:27419186

  19. Defining Clinical Excellence in Adult Infectious Disease Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Natasha M.; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Wright, Scott M.; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas describes clinical excellence through the following domains: diagnostic acumen, professionalism and humanism, communication and interpersonal skills, skillful negotiation of the healthcare system, knowledge, taking a scholarly approach to clinical practice, and having passion for clinical medicine. This work references examples of infectious disease (ID) clinical excellence across Christmas' domains and, in doing so, both examines how the definition of clinical excellence applies to ID practice and highlights the importance of ID physicians. Emphasizing such aspirational standards may not only inspire trainees and practicing physicians to pursue their own fulfilling clinical ID careers, it may also encourage health systems to fully value outstanding ID physicians who labor tirelessly to provide patients with exceptional care. PMID:27419186

  20. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

  1. The Role of Complement in Antibody Therapy for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibroe, Peter P; Helvig, Shen Y; Moein Moghimi, S

    2014-04-01

    The complement system is part of the innate immune system, eliciting central immunoregulatory functions. Detection of foreign surfaces is either achieved through complement-specific patternrecognition molecules or mediated by antigen recognition of antibodies. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM all have the potential to initiate a complement response, with the efficiency and response development closely related to the antibody isotype, multimeric state, and degree of glycosylation. A group of serum proteins constitutes the central effector functions of complement, thus allowing direct cell lysis, opsonization, and inflammation. These effector functions can be used in antibody therapies, especially against infectious diseases, as the target membranes lack complement regulatory proteins. The relative contribution of each function and the interplay with direct antibody-mediated clearance is not fully exploited, thus suggesting an option for further rational optimization of antibody therapies.

  2. Prevention of infectious diseases by public vaccination and individual protection

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiao-Long; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In the face of serious infectious diseases, governments endeavour to implement containment measures such as public vaccination at a macroscopic level. Meanwhile, individuals tend to protect themselves by avoiding contacts with infections at a microscopic level. However, a comprehensive understanding of how such combined strategy influences epidemic dynamics is still lacking. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model with imperfect vaccination on dynamic contact networks, where the macroscopic intervention is represented by random vaccination of the population and the microscopic protection is characterised by susceptible individuals rewiring contacts from infective neighbours. In particular, the model is formulated both in populations without and then with demographic effects. Using the pairwise approximation and the probability generating function approach, we investigate both dynamics of the epidemic and the underlying network. For populations without demography, the emerging degree correla...

  3. Bone Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonediseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  4. Bone changes in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with growth impairment,osteomalacia, delayed fracture healing, and asepticnecrosis (primarily necrosis of the femoral head), butthe main alterations observed in the bones of alcoholicpatients are osteoporosis and an increased risk offractures. Decreased bone mass is a hallmark of osteoporosis,and it may be due either to decreased bone synthesis and/or to increased bone breakdown. Ethanolmay affect both mechanisms. It is generally acceptedthat ethanol decreases bone synthesis, and most authorshave reported decreased osteocalcin levels (a "marker" ofbone synthesis), but some controversy exists regardingthe effect of alcohol on bone breakdown, and, indeed,disparate results have been reported for telopeptideand other biochemical markers of bone resorption.In addition to the direct effect of ethanol, systemicalterations such as malnutrition, malabsorption, liverdisease, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines,alcoholic myopathy and neuropathy, low testosteronelevels, and an increased risk of trauma, play contributoryroles. The treatment of alcoholic bone disease should beaimed towards increasing bone formation and decreasingbone degradation. In this sense, vitamin D and calciumsupplementation, together with biphosphonates areessential, but alcohol abstinence and nutritional improvementare equally important. In this review we study thepathogenesis of bone changes in alcoholic liver diseaseand discuss potential therapies.

  5. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Mejía Salazar

    Full Text Available Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus from a chronic wasting disease (CWD endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013, we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics.

  6. Th17 Cells in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Zambrano-Zaragoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The view of CD4 T-cell-mediated immunity as a balance between distinct lineages of Th1 and Th2 cells has changed dramatically. Identification of the IL-17 family of cytokines and of the fact that IL-23 mediates the expansion of IL-17-producing T cells uncovered a new subset of Th cells designated Th17 cells, which have emerged as a third independent T-cell subset that may play an essential role in protection against certain extracellular pathogens. Moreover, Th17 cells have been extensively analyzed because of their strong association with inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. Also, they appear to be critical for controlling these disorders. Similar to Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17 cells require specific cytokines and transcription factors for their differentiation. Th17 cells have been characterized as one of the major pathogenic Th cell populations underlying the development of many autoimmune diseases, and they are enhanced and stabilized by IL-23. The characteristics of Th17 cells, cytokines, and their sources, as well as their role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, are discussed in this review.

  7. Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

  8. An emerging infectious disease triggering large-scale hyperpredation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moleón

    Full Text Available Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leo B

    2005-01-01

    Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models-biological systems in the laboratory and the field-and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.

  10. Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

    2012-10-25

    Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health.

  11. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for periodontitis and tooth loss. Role of the Dentist and Dental X Rays Research supported by the ... normal bone density. Because many people see their dentist more regularly than their doctor, dentists are in ...

  12. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis.

  13. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  14. The practice of infectious diseases in the 1990s: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlech, W F

    1995-02-01

    A survey of the members of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society was carried out to determine the content of an infectious diseases consultative practice in the 1990s. Respondents were asked to identify all new inpatient, outpatient, and telephone consultations during a 1-week period in 1990. Consultations were categorized by the infectious disease syndrome of the patient and by the microorganism that was identified. Bacterial infections were the most common cause of inpatient consultations, while viral infections were more common in outpatients. Consultations for parasitic infections were primarily for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "Newer" infectious disease syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, and Lyme disease were all represented in the responses for the 1-week study period. The significant impact of HIV infection on the overall consultative load suggests that there will be a continuing need for newly trained infectious disease consultants into the 21st century.

  15. Neopterin in Diagnosis and Monitoring of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eisenhut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neopterin is produced by activated monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells upon stimulation by interferon gamma produced by T-lymphocytes. Quantification of neopterin in body fluids has been achieved by standard high-performance liquid chromatography, radioimmunoassays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Neopterin levels predict HIV-related mortality more efficiently than clinical manifestations. Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with a decrease in neopterin levels. Elevated neopterin levels were associated with hepatitis by hepatitis A, B, and C viruses. Serum neopterin levels were found to be a predictor of response to treatment of chronic HCV infection with pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin. Neopterin levels of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were found to be higher in patients with more extensive radiological changes. Elimination of blood donors with elevated neopterin levels to reduce risk of transmission of infections with known and unknown viral pathogens has been undertaken. Neopterin measurement is hereby more cost effective but less sensitive than screening using polymerase chain reaction based assays. In conclusion neopterin is a nonspecific marker of activated T-helper cell 1 dominated immune response. It may be a useful marker for monitoring of infectious disease activity during treatment and for more accurate estimation of extent of disease and prognosis.

  16. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4. The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected host and then feeds on a person who is uninfected. There is no vaccine or cure for dengue fever. Dengue fever is a growing cause for concern in The Bahamas. This year the incidence of dengue fever reached epidemic proportions in The Bahamas. This article will explore the etiology and epidemiology of dengue fever, and offer some insight into how future the Bahamas can begin to develop strategies for the eradication of dengue fever.

  17. Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, José J; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-12-22

    Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework. PMID:20018697

  18. Mesoamerican nephropathy: a neglected tropical disease with an infectious etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristy O; Fischer, Rebecca S B; Chavarria, Denis; Duttmann, Christiane; Garcia, Melissa N; Gorchakov, Rodion; Hotez, Peter J; Jiron, William; Leibler, Jessica H; Lopez, Job E; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Marin, Alejandro; Sheleby, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    An outbreak of unexplained and severe kidney disease, "Mesoamerican Nephropathy," in mostly young, male sugar cane workers emerged in Central America in the late 1990's. As a result, an estimated 20,000 individuals have died, to date. Unfortunately, and with great consequence to human life, the etiology of the outbreak has yet to be identified. The sugarcane fields in Chichigalpa, Chinandega, Nicaragua, have been involved in the outbreak, and during our initial investigation, we interviewed case patients who experienced fever, nausea and vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, neck and back pain, weakness, and paresthesia at the onset of acute kidney disease. We also observed a heavy infestation of rodents, particularly of Sigmodon species, in the sugarcane fields. We hypothesize that infectious pathogens are being shed through the urine and feces of these rodents, and workers are exposed to these pathogens during the process of cultivating and harvesting sugarcane. In this paper, we will discuss the epidemic in the Chichigalpa area, potential pathogens responsible for Mesoamerican Nephropathy, and steps needed in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent future cases from occurring. PMID:26320026

  19. Infectious diseases in Mexico. A survey from 1995-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, Ana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Martínez-Campos, Carmen; González-Domínguez, Fernando; Briseño-García, Baltasar; García-Suárez, Rosario; Caballero-Servín, Angel; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; García-Lozano, Herlinda; Gutiérrez-Cogco, Lucina; Rodríguez-Angeles, Guadalupe; López-Martínez, Irma; Galindo-Virgen, Sonia; Vázquez-Campuzano, Roberto; Balandrano-Campos, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica; de la Rosa, Jorge; Magos, Clementina; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2002-01-01

    Data obtained at a central laboratory for emerging, re-emerging, and other infectious diseases in Mexico from 1995-2000 are presented. An outstanding increase of DEN-3 circulation was identified. Aedes aegypti, the dengue vector, is widely distributed. Leptospirosis has become the most important differential diagnosis for dengue. Identification of rabies virus variants allowed cataloging of new transmitters of rabies. Rotavirus showed a clear seasonal distribution, while different proportions of pathogenic classes of Escherichia coli under endemic and outbreak conditions were seen. Serotypes of several bacteria are reported as well as the sources of isolation and frequency of Shigella, Salmonella, and Vibrio cholerae. Rise and disappearance of cholera could be followed along the past decade. Influenza strains were identified, as were several pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections. Laboratory support was important for surveillance after Hurricane Mitch. Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are emerging and primary resistance is very high. It is now mandatory to search for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in blood banks. Triatoma barberi, a peridomestic bug, is the main vector of Chagas disease. Localized cutaneous leishmaniosis increased in regions having a guerrilla element in Chiapas. Modern immunodiagnostic techniques are used for control studies of cysticercosis and similar techniques were recently standardized for Trichinella spiralis detection. Low iodine values in children's urine were found in several Mexican states; therefore, use of iodized salt should be encouraged. PMID:12234523

  20. Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Beest Dennis E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms deemed to be at risk of infection. Conventional approaches usually involve the preventive culling of all farms within a certain radius of an infected farm. Here we propose a novel culling strategy that is based on the idea that farms that have the highest expected number of secondary infections should be culled first. We show that, in comparison with conventional approaches (ring culling, our new method of risk based culling can reduce the total number of farms that need to be culled, the number of culled infected farms (and thus the expected number of human infections in case of a zoonosis, and the duration of the epidemic. Our novel risk based culling strategy requires three pieces of information, viz. the location of all farms in the area at risk, the moments when infected farms are detected, and an estimate of the distance-dependent probability of transmission.

  1. 78 FR 65343 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  2. Evaluating a New Online Course in the Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases by Studying Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    At RMIT University, students may now elect to study infectious diseases through a course called Outbreak--The Detection and Control of Infectious Disease. Outbreak was designed to simulate in an online class the effective teamwork required to bring resolution to outbreak crises and enable frameworks for future prevention. The appropriateness of…

  3. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Blouki Moghaddam; Bidabadi; Hassanzadeh Rad; Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Sh...

  4. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... available. Purpose: The BSC, OID, provides advice and guidance to the Secretary, Department of Health and... reports from the BSC OID working groups, brief updates on activities of the infectious disease...

  5. 76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... to the public, limited only by the space available. Purpose: The BSC, OID, provides advice and... infectious disease national centers, a report from the OID/BSC Food Safety Modernization Act working...

  6. 78 FR 21961 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 8, 2013. David Clary, Program...

  7. 76 FR 10384 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council,...

  8. 78 FR 64964 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 23, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 24, 2013... 20814 which was published in the Federal Register on October 01, 2013, 78 FR 60294. The meeting...

  9. 78 FR 64962 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 21, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 22, 2013, 4... which was published in the Federal Register on September 27, 2013, 78 FR 59707. The meeting is...

  10. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  11. Black-white differences in infectious disease mortality in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study determined the degree to which Black-White differences in infectious disease mortality are explained by income and education and the extent to which infectious diseases contribute to Black-White differences in all-cause mortality. METHODS: A sampl

  12. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Twenty-first Edition, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

    This book is a comprehensive textbook of infectious diseases. It is organized in five parts: (1) active and passive immunization; (2) recommendations for care of children in special circumstances; (3) summaries of infectious diseases; (4) antimicrobial prophylaxis; and (5) antimicrobials. There are six appendices: (1) federal vaccine injury…

  13. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S.; Hudson, Peter J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2016-01-01

    The dilution effect is the sort of idea that everyone wants to be true. If nature protects humans against infectious disease, imagine the implications: nature's value could be tallied in terms of human suffering avoided. This makes a potent argument for conservation, convincing even to those who would otherwise be disinclined to support conservation initiatives. The appeal of the dilution effect has been recognized by others: “the desire to make the case for conservation has led to broad claims regarding the benefits of nature conservation for human health” (Bauch et al. 2015). Randolph and Dobson (2012) were among the first to critique these claims, making the case that promotion of conservation to reduce Lyme disease risk, although well intentioned, was flawed. Along with Randolph and Dobson's critique, there have been several calls for a more nuanced scientific assessment of the relationship between biodiversity and disease transmission (Dunn 2010, Salkeld et al. 2013, Wood and Lafferty 2013, Young et al. 2013). In response, supporters of the dilution effect have instead increased the scope of their generalizations with review papers, press releases, and, like Levi et al. (2015), letters. These responses have been successful; it is not uncommon to read papers that repeat the assertion that biodiversity generally interferes with disease transmission and that conservation will therefore generally benefit human health. Here, we explain how Levi et al. (2015) and other, similar commentaries use selective interpretation and shifting definitions to argue for the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis.

  14. Recent advances in molecular medicine techniques for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, R F O; da Silva, C C; De Paula, S O

    2013-06-01

    In recent years we have observed great advances in our ability to combat infectious diseases. Through the development of novel genetic methodologies, including a better understanding of pathogen biology, pathogenic mechanisms, advances in vaccine development, designing new therapeutic drugs, and optimization of diagnostic tools, significant infectious diseases are now better controlled. Here, we briefly describe recent reports in the literature concentrating on infectious disease control. The focus of this review is to describe the molecular methods widely used in the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases with regard to the innovation of molecular techniques. Since the list of pathogenic microorganisms is extensive, we emphasize some of the major human infectious diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, rotavirus, herpes virus, viral hepatitis, and dengue fever). As a consequence of these developments, infectious diseases will be more accurately and effectively treated; safe and effective vaccines are being developed and rapid detection of infectious agents now permits countermeasures to avoid potential outbreaks and epidemics. But, despite considerable progress, infectious diseases remain a strong challenge to human survival. PMID:23339016

  15. Hepatitis C Now Leading Infectious Disease Killer in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis C Now Leading Infectious Disease Killer in U.S. CDC notes that nearly 20,000 Americans died ... deaths in 2014, according to preliminary data from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Those tragically ...

  16. [The new bone formation and bone metabolism in Forestier disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrych, Daniel; Bohatyrewicz, Andrzej; Woźniak, Wojciech; Zietek, Paweł; Kołodziej, Łukasz; Karaczun, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Wojciech; Antoniak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The study was performed on 36 male patients between 65 and 83 years who were either hospitalised or treated in the out-patients clinic due to Forestier's disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the advance of ectopic bone formation process in cervical spine and bony metabolic changes in treated patients. The study showed reverse corelation between the degree of advance of cervical hyperostosis and the prevalence of osteoporosis and metabolic disorders in the tested group. The authors have emphasized the need of precise evaluation and differentiation of Forestier's disease and degenerative spine disease. PMID:18847002

  17. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selakovic, S.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows

  18. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, P.C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows

  19. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszak, P.; Berger, Lee; Cunningham, A.A.; Hyatt, A.D.; Green, D.E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

  20. Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide ra...

  1. Global governmentality: Biosecurity in the era of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappah, Jlateh Vincent; Smith, Danielle Taana

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Foucault's concept of governmentality to examine relationships between globalisation, the threat of infectious diseases and biosecurity. It draws attention to forms of calculated practices which Foucault notes as technologies of power that aim to foster positive demographic and economic trends in societies through the apparatus of security. These practices are employed at the global level with similar ambitions; hence, we adopt the term global governmentality. We discuss the applications of global governmentality by actors in the global core through the apparatus of security and (neo)liberal economic practices. We then provide examples of resistance/contestation from actors mainly in the global periphery through discussions of viral sovereignty; access to essential medicines, including HIV drugs; and health for all as a human right. We conclude that despite the core-periphery power asymmetry and competing paradigms, these developments tend to complement and/or regulate the phenomenon termed global governmentality, which is made evident by the tremendous successes in global health. PMID:25981616

  2. Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation. However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1 only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2 the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  3. Who can get the next Nobel Prize in infectious diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonul, Onder; Yalcin, Can Ege; Erkent, Mahmut Alp; Demirci, Mert; Uysal, Sanem Pinar; Ay, Nur Zeynep; Omeroglu, Asena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deliver a perspective on future Nobel prizes by reviewing the features of Nobel prizes awarded in the infectious diseases-related (IDR) field over the last 115 years. Thirty-three out of 106 Nobel prizes (31%) in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded for IDR topics. Out of 58 Nobel laureates for IDR topics, two have been female; 67% have been medical doctors. The median age of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine was found to be lower than the median age of laureates in Literature (p<0.001). Since the Second World War, US-affiliated scientists have dominated the Nobel prizes (53%); however before 1945, German scientists did so (p=0.005). The new antimicrobials received Nobel prizes until 1960; however no treatment study was awarded the Prize until the discovery of artemisinin and ivermectin, for which the Nobel Prize was awarded in 2015. Collaborative works have increasingly been appreciated. In the future, more female laureates would be expected in the IDR field. Medical graduates and scientists involved in multi-institutional and multidisciplinary collaborative efforts seem to have an advantage. PMID:26945715

  4. Who can get the next Nobel Prize in infectious diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ergonul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to deliver a perspective on future Nobel prizes by reviewing the features of Nobel prizes awarded in the infectious diseases-related (IDR field over the last 115 years. Thirty-three out of 106 Nobel prizes (31% in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded for IDR topics. Out of 58 Nobel laureates for IDR topics, two have been female; 67% have been medical doctors. The median age of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine was found to be lower than the median age of laureates in Literature (p < 0.001. Since the Second World War, US-affiliated scientists have dominated the Nobel prizes (53%; however before 1945, German scientists did so (p = 0.005. The new antimicrobials received Nobel prizes until 1960; however no treatment study was awarded the Prize until the discovery of artemisinin and ivermectin, for which the Nobel Prize was awarded in 2015. Collaborative works have increasingly been appreciated. In the future, more female laureates would be expected in the IDR field. Medical graduates and scientists involved in multi-institutional and multidisciplinary collaborative efforts seem to have an advantage.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  6. Who can get the next Nobel Prize in infectious diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonul, Onder; Yalcin, Can Ege; Erkent, Mahmut Alp; Demirci, Mert; Uysal, Sanem Pinar; Ay, Nur Zeynep; Omeroglu, Asena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deliver a perspective on future Nobel prizes by reviewing the features of Nobel prizes awarded in the infectious diseases-related (IDR) field over the last 115 years. Thirty-three out of 106 Nobel prizes (31%) in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded for IDR topics. Out of 58 Nobel laureates for IDR topics, two have been female; 67% have been medical doctors. The median age of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine was found to be lower than the median age of laureates in Literature (pNobel prizes (53%); however before 1945, German scientists did so (p=0.005). The new antimicrobials received Nobel prizes until 1960; however no treatment study was awarded the Prize until the discovery of artemisinin and ivermectin, for which the Nobel Prize was awarded in 2015. Collaborative works have increasingly been appreciated. In the future, more female laureates would be expected in the IDR field. Medical graduates and scientists involved in multi-institutional and multidisciplinary collaborative efforts seem to have an advantage.

  7. Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Leventhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR, the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS.

  8. Principles of validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assay validation requires a series of inter-related processes. Assay validation is an experimental process: reagents and protocols are optimized by experimentation to detect the analyte with accuracy and precision. Assay validation is a relative process: its diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity are calculated relative to test results obtained from reference animal populations of known infection/exposure status. Assay validation is a conditional process: classification of animals in the target population as infected or uninfected is conditional upon how well the reference animal population used to validate the assay represents the target population; accurate predictions of the infection status of animals from test results (PV+ and PV-) are conditional upon the estimated prevalence of disease/infection in the target population. Assay validation is an incremental process: confidence in the validity of an assay increases over time when use confirms that it is robust as demonstrated by accurate and precise results; the assay may also achieve increasing levels of validity as it is upgraded and extended by adding reference populations of known infection status. Assay validation is a continuous process: the assay remains valid only insofar as it continues to provide accurate and precise results as proven through statistical verification. Therefore, the work required for validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases does not end with a time-limited series of experiments based on a few reference samples rather, to assure valid test results from an assay requires constant vigilance and maintenance of the assay, along with reassessment of its performance characteristics for each unique population of animals to which it is applied. (author)

  9. Usefulness of nuclear imaging for infectious diseases specialists; Interet de l'imagerie nucleaire pour l'infectiologue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, E. [CHU Purpan, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, 31 6 Toulouse (France)

    2008-03-15

    Nuclear imaging could be helpful for infections diseases specialists in search for bone or joint and endovascular septic foci (with or without foreign body) but also for various metastatic infectious locations and for exploring fever of unknown origin (F.U.O.), especially in HIV-infected patients. In this paper, the interest of 'conventional' scintigraphic methods (labeled leukocyte and gallium scintigraphy) and positron emission tomography coupled with fluorodeoxyglucose (F.D.G.-PET) for the diagnosis of endovascular infections (especially those associated with foreign body) and some opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients (especially those presenting central nervous system involvement and F.U.O.) will be discussed. Then other potential areas of isotopic investigations will be briefly listed; some of them, including bone and joint infections and F.U.O. in the general population, will be presented in details in other papers in this issue. (author)

  10. The impact of infection on population health: results of the Ontario burden of infectious diseases study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Kwong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence-based priority setting is increasingly important for rationally distributing scarce health resources and for guiding future health research. We sought to quantify the contribution of a wide range of infectious diseases to the overall infectious disease burden in a high-income setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used health-adjusted life years (HALYs, a composite measure comprising premature mortality and reduced functioning due to disease, to estimate the burden of 51 infectious diseases and associated syndromes in Ontario using 2005-2007 data. Deaths were estimated from vital statistics data and disease incidence was estimated from reportable disease, healthcare utilization, and cancer registry data, supplemented by local modeling studies and national and international epidemiologic studies. The 51 infectious agents and associated syndromes accounted for 729 lost HALYs, 44.2 deaths, and 58,987 incident cases per 100,000 population annually. The most burdensome infectious agents were: hepatitis C virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza virus, Clostridium difficile, and rhinovirus. The top five, ten, and 20 pathogens accounted for 46%, 67%, and 75% of the total infectious disease burden, respectively. Marked sex-specific differences in disease burden were observed for some pathogens. The main limitations of this study were the exclusion of certain infectious diseases due to data availability issues, not considering the impact of co-infections and co-morbidity, and the inability to assess the burden of milder infections that do not result in healthcare utilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infectious diseases continue to cause a substantial health burden in high-income settings such as Ontario. Most of this burden is attributable to a relatively small number of infectious agents, for which many effective

  11. Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Cobo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes.

  12. The Pathogenesis of the Bone Disease of Multiple Myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Claire M; Zhuang, Junling; Mundy, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a fatal hematologic malignancy associated with clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow and the development of a destructive osteolytic bone disease. The principal cellular mechanisms involved in the development of myeloma bone disease are an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption, and a reduction in bone formation. Myeloma cells are found in close association with sites of active bone resorption, and the interactions between myeloma cells, and o...

  13. The potential role of vitamin D for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is a common condition among several populations in the world. VDD is associated with higher incidence of immune system disorders and faster progression of some infectious diseases. Vitamin D is known to be of physiological importance, it is considered an essential micronutrient for the bone health and plays a beneficial role in the prevention and/or treatment of a number of chronic diseases. Vitamin D has a complex action on the immune system. RESULTS: Evidence that vitamin D protects against tuberculosis has been supported by in vitro, epidemiological and some preliminary clinical studies. Vitamin D has a potential effect on HIV (human immunodeficiency virus and plays a crucial role in the defence against respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation could be a low-cost, practical method to protect groups of people with high incidence of those diseases. Public health education should stress the need for adequate dietary intake of vitamin D in those vulnerable groups.

  14. 78 FR 63996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... to 6:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health... review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  15. Mixing in age-structured population models of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, John; Feng, Zhilan; Moylan, Andrew; Del Valle, Sara; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diseases are controlled by reducing pathogen replication within or transmission between hosts. Models can reliably evaluate alternative strategies for curtailing transmission, but only if interpersonal mixing is represented realistically. Compartmental modelers commonly use convex combinations of contacts within and among groups of similarly aged individuals, respectively termed preferential and proportionate mixing. Recently published face-to-face conversation and time-use studies suggest that parents and children and co-workers also mix preferentially. As indirect effects arise from the off-diagonal elements of mixing matrices, these observations are exceedingly important. Accordingly, we refined the formula published by Jacquez et al. [19] to account for these newly-observed patterns and estimated age-specific fractions of contacts with each preferred group. As the ages of contemporaries need not be identical nor those of parents and children to differ by exactly the generation time, we also estimated the variances of the Gaussian distributions with which we replaced the Kronecker delta commonly used in theoretical studies. Our formulae reproduce observed patterns and can be used, given contacts, to estimate probabilities of infection on contact, infection rates, and reproduction numbers. As examples, we illustrate these calculations for influenza based on "attack rates" from a prospective household study during the 1957 pandemic and for varicella based on cumulative incidence estimated from a cross-sectional serological survey conducted from 1988-94, together with contact rates from the several face-to-face conversation and time-use studies. Susceptibility to infection on contact generally declines with age, but may be elevated among adolescents and adults with young children. PMID:22037144

  16. What Is Paget's Disease of Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paget’s disease do not need a special diet. But, to maintain strong bones, you should get 1,200 mg of calcium and at least 400 IU of vitamin D every day. After age 70, you should take 600 IU of vitamin D each day. If you have had kidney stones, talk with your doctor about how much calcium ...

  17. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. McFarlane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010 and historical (1788–1973 review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20 of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

  18. Multiple Positive Solutions for Some Neutral Integral Equatious Modeling Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOHua-xiang; SUNXing-wang

    2003-01-01

    By using fixed point index theory of cone mapping and extension method,this paper discusses the existence of multiple positive solution of nonlinear neutral integral equatious modeling infectious dis-ease.

  19. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... to the public, limited only by the space available. Purpose: The BSC, OID, provides advice...

  20. 75 FR 69687 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... 30333. Status: Open to the public, limited only by the space available. Purpose: The BSC, OID,...

  1. 75 FR 66772 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... 8481618. Purpose: The BSC, OID, shall advise the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services;...

  2. 78 FR 13678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the Federal Register on February 19, 2013, Volume 78, Number 33, page 11651, announcing a teleconference of the BSC, OID on...

  3. 75 FR 7283 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, (BSC, CCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Center for Infectious Diseases, (BSC, CCID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... 9887280. Purpose: The BSC, CCID shall advise the Secretary, HHS, and the Director, CDC...

  4. Modelling the epidemiology of infectious diseases for decision analysis: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc

    2011-05-01

    The number of economic evaluations related to infectious disease topics has increased over the last 2 decades. However, many such evaluations rely on models that do not take into account unique features of infectious diseases that can affect the estimated value of interventions against them. These include their transmissibility from infected to susceptible individuals, the possibility of acquiring natural immunity following recovery from infection and the uncertainties that arise as a result of their complex natural history and epidemiology. Modellers conducting economic evaluations of infectious disease interventions need to know the main features of different types of infectious disease models, the situations in which they should be applied and the effects of model choices on the cost effectiveness of interventions.

  5. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety and Quantitative Risk Assessment: Blood Safety and... Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety'' (EID public... tissues for transplantation. The first day of the workshop will focus on transfusion safety and...

  6. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA... acquired while in Iraq or Afghanistan compared to veterans residing in urban areas. An agency may...

  7. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ying Wu; E Xiao; Dana T Graves

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  8. Spread of infectious diseases : Impact on demography, and the eradication effort in models with backward bifurcation

    OpenAIRE

    Safan, Muntaser

    2006-01-01

    Despite the great progress in medicine which lead to the discovery of safe and effective drugs and vaccines, infectious diseases are still a major cause of death, disability and social and economic burden for millions of people around the world. Every year, about 20% of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious diseases. As examples we mention malaria, HIV/AIDS, measles, tuberculosis, and influenza. Therefore, we need to know about the impact of these infections on demography and about th...

  9. Skin as a potential source of infectious foot and mouth disease aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines whether exfoliated, virus-infected animal skin cells could be an important source of infectious foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) aerosols. Infectious material rafting on skin cell aerosols is an established means of transmitting other diseases. The evidence for a similar mechanism for FMDV is: (i) FMDV is trophic for animal skin and FMDV epidermis titres are high, even in macroscopically normal skin; (ii) estimates for FMDV skin cell aerosol emissions appear consistent...

  10. Measuring Health Literacy Regarding Infectious Respiratory Diseases: A New Skills-Based Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xinying; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yuhui; Zeng, Qingqi; Wei, Nanfang; Xie, Ruiqian; Chang, Chun; Du, Weijing

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no special instrument to measure skills-based health literacy where it concerns infectious respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore and evaluate a new skills-based instrument on health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. Methods This instrument was designed to measure not only an individual’s reading and numeracy ability, but also their oral communication ability and their ability to use the internet to seek information. Sixteen stimuli materials w...

  11. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  12. Pediatric in-Hospital Death from Infectious Disease in Uganda: Derivation of Clinical Prediction Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nasim Lowlaavar; Larson, Charles P.; Elias Kumbakumba; Guohai Zhou; J. Mark Ansermino; Joel Singer; Niranjan Kissoon; Hubert Wong; Andrew Ndamira; Jerome Kabakyenga; Julius Kiwanuka; Matthew O Wiens

    2016-01-01

    Background Pediatric hospital mortality from infectious diseases in resource constrained countries remains unacceptably high. Improved methods of risk-stratification can assist in referral decision making and resource allocation. The purpose of this study was to create prediction models for in-hospital mortality among children admitted with suspected infectious diseases. Methods This two-site prospective observational study enrolled children between 6 months and 5 years admitted with a proven...

  13. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Potkonjak Aleksandar; Lako Branislav; Belić Branislava; Milošević Nikolina; Stevančević Ognjen; Cincović Marko; Lako Bjanka

    2010-01-01

    The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasi...

  14. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Asokan; R. K. Kasimanickam

    2014-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, which could severely hamper reaching the targets of millennium development goals (MDG). Five out of the total eight MDG’s are strongly associated with the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs). Recent emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated and prevent reaching the targets of MDG, with shrinking of therapeutic arsenal, mostly due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). World Health Organization (WHO has identified AMR a...

  15. A branching model for the spread of infectious animal diseases in varying environments

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Pieter; Meester, R; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a stochastic model, describing outbreaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or human health consequences, and which can result in such severe economic losses that immediate sets of measures need to be taken to curb the spread. During an outbreak of such a disease, the environment that the infectious agent experiences is therefore changing due to the subsequent control measures taken. In our model, we introduce a general branching process in ...

  16. Diagnosing norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease using viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Clarence C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID. However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in an IID case when they are RT-PCR positive. It is important to identify the pathogen causing illness in sporadic IID cases, for clinical management and for community based incidence studies. The aim of this study was to investigate how faecal viral load can be used to determine when norovirus is the most likely cause of illness in an IID case. Methods Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the viral load in faecal specimens collected from 589 IID cases and 159 healthy controls, who were infected with genogroup II noroviruses. Cycle threshold (Ct values from the real-time RT-PCR were used as a proxy measure of viral load. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to identify a cut-off in viral load for attributing illness to norovirus in IID cases. Results One hundred and sixty-nine IID cases and 159 controls met the inclusion criteria for the ROC analysis. The optimal Ct value cut-off for attributing IID to norovirus was 31. The same cut-off was selected when using healthy controls, or IID cases who were positive by culture for bacterial pathogens, as the reference negative group. This alternative reference negative group can be identified amongst specimens routinely received in clinical virology laboratories. Conclusion We demonstrated that ROC analysis can be used to select a cut-off for a norovirus real time RT-PCR assay, to aid clinical interpretation and diagnose when norovirus is the cause of IID. Specimens routinely received for diagnosis in clinical virology laboratories can be used to select an appropriate cut-off. Individual laboratories can use this method to

  17. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

    2014-03-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

  18. Nine challenges in incorporating the dynamics of behaviour in infectious diseases models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Funk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been modelled with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic models of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in modelling changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to incorporate behavioural changes in models of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such models, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics.

  19. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  20. 传染病医院接诊传染病病种分布%Study on distribution and prevention of infectious diseases in an infectious diseases hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶波; 廉颖; 张凤莲; 张晓静; 赵秀红; 李晓迎

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the distribution of infectious diseases in an infectious diseases hospital so as to provide guidance for prevention and treatment of the infectious diseases .METHODS A total of 19 779 patients with various infectious diseases who were treated in the hospital from 2008 to 2012 were enrolled in the study ,the types of the infectious diseases were observed ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of Excel 2007 software .RESULTS The patients with blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases accounted for 59 .37% ,the patients with respiratory tract infectious diseases 18 .37% ,the patients with intestinal infectious dis-eases 18 .47% .The number of newly cases of viral hepatitis showed a downward trend but still ranked the first place among the infectious diseases ,with the morbidity of 63 .0% .The incidence of measles showed a downward trend ,the number of newly cases of brucellosis was increased year by year ,while the number of cases of other dis-eases was stable .All the diseases had the significant seasonal variations;all the diseases showed relatively stable monthly distribution except that the measles disseminated in the whole year .CONCLUSION The blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases are the major infectious diseases ,followed by the respiratory tract and intestinal dis-eases;the morbidity of viral hepatitis is significantly higher than that of other diseases ,which should be attached great importance to .%目的 分析传染病医院接诊传染病病种分布 ,为传染病的防治提供依据.方法 对医院2008 -2012年接诊的各类传染病共19 779例患者进行病种分析 ,数据采用Excel 2007软件进行统计分析.结果 血源及性传播疾病、呼吸道传染病和肠道传染病分别占59 .73% 、18 .73% 、18 .47% ;病毒性肝炎新发病例数呈下降趋势 ,但仍居传染病的首位 ,占63 .0% ;麻疹的发病水平呈明显的下降趋势 ,布鲁氏菌

  1. Impact of bone marrow on respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Sara M

    2008-06-01

    The bone marrow is not only a site of haematopoiesis but also serves as an important reservoir for mature granulocytes and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. In respiratory diseases, such as asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis these cells are mobilised from the bone marrow in response to blood-borne mediators and subsequently recruited to the lungs. Although the granulocytes contribute to the inflammatory reaction, stem cells may promote tissue repair or remodelling. Understanding the factors and molecular mechanisms that regulate the mobilisation of granulocytes and stem cells from the bone marrow may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of a wide range of respiratory disorders. PMID:18372214

  2. Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cannata, J.B. (Jorge); Rodríguez, Minerva; Gómez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Among the chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone format...

  3. Risk governance for infectious diseases : Exploring the feasibility and added value of the IRGC-framework for Dutch infectious disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenrijs, J. C M; Kraaij-Dirkzwager, M. M.; Van Den Kerkhof, J. H T C; Runhaar, H. A C

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Dutch system for control of infectious diseases is considered to be high. However, sometimes (e.g. during the Mexican flu and HPV vaccination in 2009, during the Q-fever outbreak from 2008 to 2011) the system encounters problems in terms of perceived effectiveness and public accep

  4. Climate change and infectious diseases of wildlife: Altered interactions between pathogens, vectors and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena GALLANA, Marie-Pierre RYSER-DEGIORGIS, Thomas WAHLI, Helmut SEGNER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host, pathogens, and, in the case of vector-borne diseases, also vectors. The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions. Environmental change, therefore, will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and, consequently, the distribution, intensity, and dynamics of infectious diseases. Here, we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution, life cycle, and physiological status of hosts, pathogens and vectors. While a change in either host, pathogen or vector does not necessarily translate into an alteration of the disease, it is the impact of climate change on the interactions between the disease components which is particularly critical for altered disease risks. Finally, climate factors can modulate disease through modifying the ecological networks host-pathogen-vector systems are belonging to, and climate change can combine with other environmental stressors to induce cumulative effects on infectious diseases. Overall, the influence of climate change on infectious diseases involves different mechanisms, it can be modulated by phenotypic acclimation and/or genotypic adaptation, it depends on the ecological context of the host-pathogen-vector interactions, and it can be modulated by impacts of other stressors. As a consequence of this complexity, non-linear responses of disease systems under climate change are to be expected. To improve predictions on climate change impacts on infectious disease, we suggest that more emphasis should be given to the integration of biomedical and ecological research for studying both the physiological and ecological mechanisms which mediate climate change impacts on disease, and to the development of harmonized methods and approaches to obtain more comparable results, as this

  5. Climate change and infectious diseases of wildlife: Altered interactions between pathogens, vectors and hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milena GALLANA; Marie-Pierre RYSER-DEGIORGIS; Thomas WAHLI; Helmut SEGNER

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host,pathogens,and,in the case of vector-borne diseases,also vectors.The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions.Environmental change,therefore,will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and,consequently,the distribution,intensity,and dynamics of infectious diseases.Here,we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife.Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution,life cycle,and physiological status of hosts,pathogens and vectors.While a change in either host,pathogen or vector does not necessarily translate into an alteration of the disease,it is the impact of climate change on the interactions between the disease components which is particularly critical for altered disease risks.Finally,climate factors can modulate disease through modifying the ecological networks host-pathogen-vector systems are belonging to,and climate change can combine with other environmental stressors to induce cumulative effects on infectious diseases.Overall,the influence of climate change on infectious diseases involves different mechanisms,it can be modulated by phenotypic acclimation and/or genotypic adaptation,it depends on the ecological context of the host-pathogen-vector interactions,and it can be modulated by impacts of other stressors.As a consequence of this complexity,non-linear responses of disease systems under climate change are to be expected.To improve predictions on climate change impacts on infectious disease,we suggest that more emphasis should be given to the integration of biomedical and ecological research for studying both the physiological and ecological mechanisms which mediate climate change impacts on disease,and to the development of harmonized methods and approaches to obtain more comparable results,as this would support the discrimination of case-specific versus

  6. Infectious diseases in children and adolescents in the Republic of Korea; Past & recent status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the past decades, in recent decades, environmental and hygienic conditions in the Republic of Korea have improved along with socioeconomic developments, and the incidence of most infectious diseases, especially vaccine-preventable diseases, has greatly decreased due to active immunization with the developed level of health care. However, the incidence of some diseases has been increasing, and new diseases have been emerging. To cope with such changes actively, the government put the “Law for Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases” into effect; this law was entirely revised on December 30, 2010. In this report, I review the past and recent status of infectious diseases in the Republic of Korea, following the introduction of this law, on the basis of data in the “National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System”, which had been accumulated between the years 1960 and 2010.

  7. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  8. Bias, accuracy, and impact of indirect genetic effects in infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipschutz-Powell, D.; Woolliams, J.A.; Bijma, P.; Pong-Wong, R.; Bermingham, M.L.; Doeschl-Wilson, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Selection for improved host response to infectious disease offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment but has proven difficult in practice, due to low heritability estimates of disease traits. Disease data from field studies is often binary, indicating whether an individual has become infe

  9. 75 FR 22607 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  10. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  11. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  12. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    fracture resistance, whereas regulating the level of the cytokine TGF-beta can offer significant improvements in the stiffness, strength and toughness of bone, and as such may be considered as a therapeutic target to treat increased bone fragility induced by aging, drugs, and disease.

  13. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease. PMID:25308818

  14. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Suk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  15. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  16. Respiratory protection and emerging infectious diseases: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Lange

    2005-01-01

    @@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that emerged 2002-2003 and apparently again 2004 (reported by the news media on December 27, 2003) as the first confirmed case by the World Health Organization (WHO)1,2 raised awareness of emerging infectious diseases.3 Every year there are both new and old infectious diseases emerging as potential pandemic agents.4-6 However, few of these diseases receive the public attention and concern expressed as occurred during the emergence of SARS. Much of this concern was a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (CoV) to different regions of the world and its high infectivity, especially for health care workers (HCW).3 In many ways, the high percent of HCW infected is a warning of the potential hazards of old and emerging infectious diseases.6 However, SARS was not the only disease (e.g. Monkeypox) that emerged in 2003,3 rather it received the greatest attention.

  17. Value and Clinical Impact of an Infectious Disease-Supervised Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Russell M.; Skorodin, Nathan C.; Fliegelman, Robert M.; Hines, David W.; Chundi, Vishnu V.; Harting, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective modality for treating serious infections. This study was undertaken to define the value of OPAT in a multicentered infectious disease (ID) private practice setting. Methods. Over a period of 32 months, 6120 patients were treated using 19 outpatient ID offices in 6 states. Analysis included patient demographics, indications of OPAT, diagnoses, therapeutic agent, duration of therapy, and site of therapy initiation. Outcomes were stratified by therapeutic success, clinical relapse, therapeutic complications, and hospitalizations after initiating therapy. Statistical analysis included an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results. Forty-three percent of patients initiated therapy in an outpatient office, and 57% began therapy in a hospital. Most common diagnoses treated were bone and joint (32.2%), abscesses (18.8%), cellulitis (18.5%), and urinary tract infection (10.8%). Ninety-four percent of patients were successfully treated, and only 3% were hospitalized after beginning therapy. Most common cause of treatment failure was a relapse of primary infection (60%), progression of primary infection (21%), and therapeutic complication (19%). Conclusions. An ID-supervised OPAT program is safe, efficient, and clinically effective. By maximizing the delivery of outpatient care, OPAT provides a tangible value to hospitals, payers, and patients. This program is a distinctive competency available to ID physicians who offer this service to patients.

  18. Multiple myeloma in a dog with multiple concurrent infectious diseases and persistent polyclonal gammopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigy, Caroline; Riond, Barbara; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Grest, Paula; Kircher, Patrick; Lutz, Hans

    2013-03-01

    A 12-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for acute hematuria, stranguria, polyuria, and polydipsia, as well as lameness for 8 days. Previous medical history included treatment for infection with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, and Dirofilaria immitis 6.5 years prior to presentation. Besides persistently increased antibody titers to E canis and A phagocytophilum, polyclonal gammopathy with a monoclonal spike and moderate hypercalcemia were observed. There was marked hematuria, and Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from urine. Two weeks after successful treatment of the urinary tract infection, radiographs showed an extensive destructive monostotic lesion of the right humerus. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates of this lesion revealed a neoplastic round cell population suggestive of multiple myeloma. The dog was treated with melphalan and prednisolone for suspected multiple myeloma and doxycycline for suspected ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Treatments lead to resolution of the clinical signs, hypercalcemia, and monoclonal gammopathy, and there was radiographic improvement of bone lesions; polyclonal gammopathy persisted. About one year after presentation the dog was still in clinical remission. This is a rare report of a dog with suspected multiple myeloma and a history of multiple chronic infectious diseases, suggesting that chronic infection and uncontrolled long-term stimulation of the immune system could contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. PMID:23278475

  19. Conformational analysis of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV derived cell penetrating peptide (CPP analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay G. Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to develop peptide analogs of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD virus VP5 protein segment having cell penetrating ability to improve their interaction with cargo molecule (Nucleic acid without affecting the backbone conformation. Materials and Methods: IBDV VP5 protein segment designated as RATH peptide were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and their solution conformation was elucidated using CD spectroscopy in polar (water and apolar (TFE solvents. Cell penetrating ability of RATH-CONH2 was observed using FITC labeled peptide internalization in to HeLa cells under fluorescent microscopy. The efficacy of RATH analog interactions with nucleic acids was evaluated using FITC labeled oligonucleotides by fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay. Results: CD spectra of RATH analogs in water and apolar trifluroethanol (TFE helped to compare their secondary structures which were almost similar with dominant beta conformations suggesting successful induction of positive charge in the analogs without affecting back bone conformation of CPP designed. Cell penetrating ability of RATH CONH2 in HeLa cell was more than 90%. The fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay demonstrated successful interaction of amide analogs with nucleic acid. Conclusion: Intentional changes made in IBDV derived peptide RATH COOH to RATH CONH2 did not showed major changes in backbone conformation and such modifications may help to improve the cationic charge in most CPPs to interact with nucleic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 307-312

  20. Simulation of the spread of infectious diseases in a geographical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The study of mathematical models for the spread of infectious diseases is an important issue in epidemiology. Given the fact that most existing models cannot comprehensively depict heterogeneities (e.g., the population heterogeneity and the distribution heterogeneity) and complex contagion patterns (which are mostly caused by the human interaction induced by modern transportation) in the real world, a theoretical model of the spread of infectious diseases is proposed. It employs geo-entity based cel-lular automata to simulate the spread of infectious diseases in a geographical environment. In the model, physical geographical regions are defined as cells. The population within each cell is divided into three classes: Susceptible, Infective, and Recovered, which are further divided into some sub-classes by states of individuals. The transition rules, which determine the changes of proportions of those subclasses and reciprocal transformation formulas among them, are provided. Through defining suitable spatial weighting functions, the model is applied to simulate the spread of the infectious dis-eases with not only local contagion but also global contagion. With some cases of simulation, it has been shown that the results are reasonably consistent with the spread of infectious diseases in the real world. The model is supposed to model dynamics of infectious diseases on complex networks, which is nearly impossible to be achieved with differential equations because of the complexity of the prob-lem. The cases of simulation also demonstrate that efforts of all kinds of interventions can be visual-ized and explored, and then the model is able to provide decision-making support for prevention and control of infectious diseases.

  1. Simulation of the spread of infectious diseases in a geographical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG ShaoBo; HUANG QuanYi; SONG DunJiang

    2009-01-01

    The study of mathematical models for the spread of infectious diseases is an important issue in epi-demiology. Given the fact that most existing models cannot comprehensively depict heterogeneities (e.g., the population heterogeneity and the distribution heterogeneity) and complex contagion patterns (which are mostly caused by the human interaction induced by modern transportation) in the real world, a theoretical model of the spread of infectious diseases is proposed. It employs geo-entity based cel-lular automata to simulate the spread of infectious diseases in a geographical environment. In the model, physical geographical regions are defined as cells. The population within each cell is divided into three classes: Susceptible, Infective, and Recovered, which are further divided into some sub-classes by states of individuals. The transition rules, which determine the changes of proportions of those subclasses and reciprocal transformation formulas among them, are provided. Through defining suitable spatial weighting functions, the model is applied to simulate the spread of the infectious dis-eases with not only local contagion but also global contagion. With some cases of simulation, it has been shown that the results are reasonably consistent with the spread of infectious diseases in the real world. The model is supposed to model dynamics of infectious diseases on complex networks, which is nearly impossible to be achieved with differential equations because of the complexity of the prob-lem. The cases of simulation also demonstrate that efforts of all kinds of interventions can be visual-ized and explored, and then the model is able to provide decision-making support for prevention and control of infectious diseases.

  2. [Revealing of tuberculosis in an infectious diseases hospital of a megalopolis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashenkov, E A; Ivanovskiĭ, V B

    2007-01-01

    The advisory work of the phthisiatrician in an infectious diseases hospital was analyzed; the analysis revealed that in 2005 tuberculose changes of various degrees of activity had been revealed in 42.5% of examined patients, and 32.1% of them were subjects in whom tuberculosis of diferent localizations had been revealed for the first time. In 43.2% of the latter subjects, the reasons for hospitalization were "clinical masks" of tuberculose process (influenza, acute respiratory viral disease), while 48.6% were hospitalized for gastrointestinal infections and viral hepatitis. In 20.7% of cases tuberculosis was combined with HIV infection. In the infectious diseases hospital, 16.2% of patients with active tuberculosis died. Among the patients treated in the infectious diseases hospital during one year, the proportion of patients with active tuberculosis was 1.44%, the proportion of those in whom the process was revealed for the first time, was 0.75%. In Botkin infectious diseases hospital, there were approximately 6% of patients in whom tuberculose process was revealed for the first time in Saint Petersburg. The peculiarities of this group of patients in an infectious diseases hospital require not only tuberculose alertness, but also reinforcement of phthisiatric, radiological, and laboratory services.

  3. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Nichols

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden.

  4. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change.

  5. Professional challenges and opportunities in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    The two closely linked specialties of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases face important challenges. We report the consensus of clinical microbiologists and infectious disease physicians assembled by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Both specialties have different training requirements in different European countries and are not universally recognised as professions. The specialties are rapidly evolving as they adapt to the changing demands within hospital practice, including the need to deal with emerging infections, rapidly increasing internationalisation, and immigration. Clinical microbiology needs to develop and master technological advances such as laboratory automation and an avalanche of new methods for rapid diagnostics. Simultaneously, the pressure for concentration, amalgamation, and out-sourcing of laboratory services is ever-increasing. Infectious disease physicians have to meet the professional challenge of subspecialisation and the continual need to find new niches for their skills. Despite these challenges, each of these specialties continues to thrive in Europe and will enjoy important opportunities over the next few years. The recently formed European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, Sweden, will increase demands in areas of surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance on both specialties.

  6. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. PMID:26479830

  7. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-12-22

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications. PMID:26621750

  8. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious dise...

  9. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okabe Nobuhiko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category. In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP, Singapore and

  10. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category) during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category). In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP), Singapore and Taiwan were the most

  11. A murine model of human myeloma bone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, I.R.; Dallas, S.; Radl, J.; Mundy, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Myeloma causes a devastating and unique form of osteolytic bone disease. Although osteoclast activation is responsible for bone destruction, the precise mechanisms by which myeloma cells increase osteoclast activity have not been defined. An animal model of human myeloma bone disease mould help in c

  12. [Historical notes on Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    The Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, is the oldest in Latin America. It is over 100 years old and has a history worthy of pride. It became known as "Hospital of the pests" and was preceded by the old House of Insulation, which served as a quarantine station during epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and smallpox. The new House of Insulation, built in the neighborhood of Parque Patricios ("Barracks Hospital"), was renamed in 1904 in memory of Francisco Javier Muñiz, a former military doctor, naturalist and paleontologist. Its technical name is "Porteño Care Centre and National Reference Regional Infectious-Contagious Disease". It receives numerous national and foreign undergraduate and postgraduate students in its Departments of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Diseases. PMID:23096553

  13. Nosocomial infection control in healthcare settings: Protection against emerging infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanxi Fu; Shengyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea in 2015 may be attributable to poor nosocomial infection control procedures implemented.Strict infection control measures were taken in the hospital where an imported case with MERS was treated in southern China and 53 health care workers were confirmed to be MERS-CoV negative.Infection control in healthcare settings,in which patients with emerging infectious diseases such as MERS,Ebola virus disease,and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are diagnosed and treated,are often imperfect.When it comes to emerging or unknown infectious diseases,before the imported case was finally identified or community transmission was reported,cases have often occurred in clusters in healthcare settings.Nosocomial infection control measures should be further strengthened among the workers and inpatients in designated healthcare settings that accommodate suspected cases suffering from emerging or unknown infectious diseases.

  14. [Analysis of policies in activating the Infectious Disease Specialist Network (IDSN) for bioterrorism events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Soo

    2008-07-01

    Bioterrorism events have worldwide impacts, not only in terms of security and public health policy, but also in other related sectors. Many countries, including Korea, have set up new administrative and operational structures and adapted their preparedness and response plans in order to deal with new kinds of threats. Korea has dual surveillance systems for the early detection of bioterrorism. The first is syndromic surveillance that typically monitors non-specific clinical information that may indicate possible bioterrorism-associated diseases before specific diagnoses are made. The other is infectious disease specialist network that diagnoses and responds to specific illnesses caused by intentional release of biologic agents. Infectious disease physicians, clinical microbiologists, and infection control professionals play critical and complementary roles in these networks. Infectious disease specialists should develop practical and realistic response plans for their institutions in partnership with local and state health departments, in preparation for a real or suspected bioterrorism attack.

  15. Mind the scales: Harnessing spatial big data for infectious disease surveillance and inferences

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Elizabeth C; Goldlust, Sandra; Kraemer, John D; Lawson, Andrew B; Bansal, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    Spatial big data have the "velocity," "volume," and "variety" of big data sources and additional geographic information about the record. Digital data sources, such as medical claims, mobile phone call data records, and geo-tagged tweets, have entered infectious disease epidemiology as novel sources of data to complement traditional infectious disease surveillance. In this work, we provide examples of how spatial big data have been used thus far in epidemiological analyses and describe opportunities for these sources to improve public health coordination and disease mitigation strategies. In addition, we consider the technical, practical, and ethical challenges with the use of spatial big data in infectious disease surveillance and inference. Finally, we discuss the implications of the rising use of spatial big data in epidemiology to health risk communications, across-scale public health coordination, and public health policy recommendation.

  16. ["Choosing wisely" in infectious diseases : Overuse of antibiotics - too few vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, N; Koop, H; Riessen, R; Galle, J-C; Jany, B; Märker-Herrmann, E

    2016-06-01

    The "choosing wisely" recommendations of the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and its specialist societies address diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which are of particular medical importance but applied too often or too rarely in clinical practice. The aim is to further improve treatment of patients. Important topics of overuse and insufficient treatment related to the diagnostics, therapy, prevention and exclusion of infectious diseases could be identified. These topics not only play an important role in the discipline of infectious diseases but are also relevant for other internal medical disciplines. These topics related to infectious diseases have also been integrated into the recommendations of the German Society of Gastroenterology, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases as well as the German Societies for Internal Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, for Pneumology, for Nephrology and for Rheumatology. The pivotal issues of the recommendations are the inappropriate use of antibiotics and insufficient vaccination rates.

  17. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanvanichkij Voravit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  18. [Teaching infectious diseases in the Medical Degree within the European higher education area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Félix; Masiá, Mar

    2016-01-01

    During their medical studies, students must acquire basic competencies in different areas of knowledge, one of which is infectious diseases. Training in infectious diseases is essential for general medical practice and for academic or professional expertise in many areas of medicine, both medical and surgical. The vast amount of knowledge that is continuously generated about infectious diseases requires a well-structured undergraduate medical education program and framed in a setting dominated by globalization. The incorporation of Spain to the European higher education area has forced medical schools to adapt their curriculum and to establish the content and learning objectives of all courses of study. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the integration of the Spanish university system in the European higher education area («Bologna Process») in the teaching of infectious diseases in the Degree of Medicine, and describe the learning program in infectious diseases of the University Miguel Hernández of Elche (Alicante, Spain) based on learning outcomes and competencies.

  19. Incorporating pathology in the practice of infectious disease: myths and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette

    2014-10-15

    The role pathology plays in establishing or excluding infectious diseases has been established. However, as the practice of pathology has become subspecialized, there is not enough infectious disease specimen volume to have a pathologist dedicated full time to this crosscutting subspecialty. So, what are the myths and realities of a practicing infectious disease pathologist in the hospital setting? Infectious disease clinicians tend to consult pathologists when there are questions regarding terminology used in pathology reports; when there is the need to perform additional studies on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues; and when there is an interest in seeing biopsies or resections obtained from patients and in obtaining photographs for presentations. Pathologists consult infectious disease pathologists when there is a need to review diverse inflammatory reactions; for identification of fungi, parasites, or unknown structures; to define the need to use special stains and other techniques in order to identify organisms in tissues that have been formalin fixed; and to help with terminology to be used in reports. This review explores in more detail why and how these consultations occur.

  20. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families. PMID:27405928

  1. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2015-08-01

    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  2. Immunity, infectious diseases and the knowledge of 100 Latvian pregnant women of the impact of infectious diseases on the pregnancy and its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abramova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection diseases may adversely affect the pregnancy, lead to the development of foetal abnormalities, foetal death, congenital infections and preterm birth. Infection is possible in antenatal, postnatal and intranatal way. CMV, adenovirus, enterovirus are the most common viruses which are found during the examination of amniotic fluid. Hundred Latvian pregnant women were offered to fill in the questionnaire with the help of which it will be possible to study their knowledge on infectious diseases during pregnancy and preventive options. The obtained data were compared with foreign literature and foreign studies. Respondents' age was from 19 to 43 years. Only 65% of women are aware that the risk of contracting infectious diseases during pregnancy is higher. Only 7% of women know about all possible ways of infection during pregnancy. 68% of women note that bacterial vaginosis may harm foetus and adversely affect pregnancy. Compared to the study conducted in Japan, Latvian pregnant women know about toxoplasmosis 4% more often than in Japan. Knowledge of pregnant women about the impact of infectious diseases on the foetus and pregnancy, potential infection and prevention ways is insufficient. Women want to know and receive understandable information from health care professionals. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 954-958

  3. Infectious disease burden related to child day care in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, R.; Ypma, R.; Donker, G.A.; Smit, H.A.; Pelt, W. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studying day-care–associated infectious disease dynamics aids in formulating evidence-based guidelines for disease control, thereby supporting day-care centers in their continuous efforts to provide their child population with a safe and hygienic environment. The objective of this study

  4. Efficacy of laser therapy in infants with infectious-inflammatory respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    TASHMUKHAMEDOVA BARNO ERKINOVNA; MUKHAMEDOVA HADICHA TULKUNOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The developed schemes and regimes for assigning the low-intensity laser therapy percutaneous approaches to optimize the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract in infants, reduce the incidence of complications and loss of physiological diseases, speed up recovery periods.

  5. Teaching Pediatric Infectious Diseases to Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students During Monthly Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Milap C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Medical, pharmacy, and nursing students participated in a course on pathophysiology and pharmacotherapeutics of common pediatric bacterial and viral diseases during their rotation in infectious diseases. Student attitudes were highly positive, and substantial knowledge gain resulted. This interdisciplinary clinical approach is recommended to…

  6. Historical mammal extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyatt, Kelly B; Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, M Thomas P;

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). In the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases...

  7. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of...

  8. 76 FR 72416 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of...

  9. 75 FR 48973 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific Counselors,...

  10. 75 FR 26266 - National Cancer Institute (NCI); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin...: From Mouse Models to Human Disease and Treatment.'' Dates: September 2-3, 2010. Location: Lister Hill... treatment. It is hoped that one consequence of this meeting might be some consensus as to what is...

  11. Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: Risk perception and behaviour of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bults (Marloes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on risk perception and behaviour of the public during the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. It consists of studies on Influenza A (H1N1), Q fever and Lyme disease. These studies were conducted among both the general public and specific risk

  12. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia. PMID:20961947

  13. Traveling Wave Solutions for a Delayed SIRS Infectious Disease Model with Nonlocal Diffusion and Nonlinear Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Tian; Rui Xu

    2014-01-01

    A delayed SIRS infectious disease model with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear incidence is investigated. By constructing a pair of upper-lower solutions and using Schauder's fixed point theorem, we derive the existence of a traveling wave solution connecting the disease-free steady state and the endemic steady state.

  14. Surveillance and response systems for elimination of tropical diseases: summary of a thematic series in Infectious Diseases of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Yap, Peiling; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The peer-reviewed journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty provides a new platform to engage with, and disseminate in an open-access format, science outside traditional disciplinary boundaries. The current piece reviews a thematic series on surveillance-response systems for elimination of tropical diseases. Overall, 22 contributions covering a broad array of diseases are featured - i.e. clonorchiasis, dengue, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), H7N9 avian influenza, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), rabies, schistosomiasis and tuberculosis (TB). There are five scoping reviews, a commentary, a letter to the editor, an opinion piece and an editorial pertaining to the theme "Elimination of tropical disease through surveillance and response". The remaining 13 articles are original contributions mainly covering (i) drug resistance; (ii) innovation and validation in the field of mathematical modelling; (iii) elimination of infectious diseases; and (iv) social media reports on disease outbreak notifications released by national health authorities. Analysis of the authors' affiliations reveals that scientists from the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) are prominently represented. Possible explanations include the fact that the 2012 and 2014 international conferences pertaining to surveillance-response mechanisms were both hosted by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) in Shanghai, coupled with P.R. China's growing importance with regard to the control of infectious diseases. Within 4 to 22 months of publication, three of the 22 contributions were viewed more than 10 000 times each. With sustained efforts focusing on relevant and strategic information towards control and elimination of infectious diseases, Infectious Diseases of Poverty has become a leading journal in the field of surveillance and response systems in infectious diseases and beyond. PMID:27179509

  15. Delays reducing waterborne and water-related infectious diseases in China under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica H.; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy J.; Justin V. Remais

    2014-01-01

    Despite China’s rapid progress improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation and 401 million to household piped water. Because certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in 2020 and 2030 by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal diseases and three vector-borne diseases, temper...

  16. The present status of infectious diseases of laboratory animals in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul; Awal

    2005-01-01

    The commonlaboratory animals in Bangladesh are rabbit,guinea pig,rat&mice.Commoninfectious diseases of rabbitare pasteurellosis,infectious myxomatosis,pneumonia,tyzzer’s disease,nasal catarrh,Conjunctivitis(weepy eye)&abscess formation.Amongthem,laterthree diseases are most commonin most of the animal housesin Bangladesh.Ente-rotoxaemia,primarilya diarrhoeal disease of rabbit caused by Clostridiumspiroformoccurs during4-8weeks of age show-ing clinical signslikelassitude,rough hair coat,perianal regioncovere...

  17. Publication trends of research articles from infectious diseases specialty in a medical journal from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Details about research productivity in the infectious diseases specialty from India are lacking. Objective: To analyse publishing trends and research productivity of articles related to infectious diseases in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI. Materials and Methods : We carried out bibliometric analysis of articles related to infectious diseases specialty from JAPI published between 2000 and 2011. Data were derived from the journal′s website and the articles were analysed for type (original article, case reports, etc., microorganism (bacterial, viral, etc. place of the research and timelines for publication. Results : Out of 2977 articles published in JAPI over last 12 years, 256 articles belong to infectious diseases subspecialty. Infectious diseases contributed 11-18% of the published articles per year in JAPI during the last decade. Original articles (31%, case reports (38% and correspondence (22% constitute the majority of article types, while remaining 9% was made up by images. Bacterial (22%, protozoal and helminthic (20%, HIV (15% and mycobacterial (16% diseases lead the type of microorganisms represented in the research articles. Mumbai (16%, Delhi (9% and Kolkata (7% are the top three places contributing to the articles, followed by Chandigarh and Chennai. Original articles and case reports took approximately 14 months for publication, as compared to 6 months for an image (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Infectious diseases specialty contributes about 15% of articles per annum in JAPI. HIV and tuberculosis together account for 30% of published litearture with fair representation from other organisms. Mumbai and Delhi are the leading contributors towards research productivity in this specialty.

  18. Infectious Disease risks associated with exposure to stressful environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Ichard T.; Smith, Morey; Sams, Clarence

    1993-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors asociated with space flight can increase the risk of infectious illness among crewmembers thereby adversely affecting crew health and mission success. Host defences can be impaired by multiple physiological and psychological stressors including: sleep deprivation, disrupted circadian rhythms, separation from family, perceived danger, radiation exposure, and possibly also by the direct and indirect effects of microgravity. Relevant human immunological data from isolated or stressful environments including spaceflight will be reviewed. Long-duration missions should include reliable hardware which supports sophisticated immunodiagnostic capabilities. Future advances in immunology and molecular biology will continue to provide therapeutic agents and biologic response modifiers which should effectively and selectively restore immune function which has been depressed by exposure to environmental stressors.

  19. Epidemiological characterisics of gastrointestinal infectious diseases and viral hepatitis A in the Canton Sarajevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarema Obradović

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastrointestinal infectious diseases are a group of frequent diseases in developing countries as a result of industrialization in food production and often consuming of the food in public places. In Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Canton Sarajevo these diseases are frequent. The aim of this work is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the most often gastrointestinal infectious diseases in Canton Sarajevo (Enterocolitis acuta, Toxiinfectio alimentaris, Salmonellosis, Amoebiasis compared with Viral Hepatitis A and to estimate the need for the implementation of vaccination against this disease.Methods: We used individual reports as well as monthly and annual bulletins about the movement of infectious diseases which are obligatory for reporting from the Epidemiology department of the Institute for public health in Canton Sarajevo. This work is a retrospective study, for the period 2005-2009. Descriptive- analytical method was used. In statistical processing we used mean, structure index and trend index.Results: The research showed that gastrointestinal infectious diseases are registered in a huge number in all the observed years. The most often was Enterocolitis acuta, and the rarest was Viral Hepatitis A. The diseases were mostly sporadic. Distinct seasonality and coherence with warm months in the year is expressed in Enterocolitis acuta and Intoxicatio alimentaris, while the other diseases are registered during the whole year.Conclusions: Incidence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases in Canton Sarajevo is high and we need to work intensively to improve sanitary conditions as the most eficient preventive measures. There is no justification for implementing of the vaccine against Viral hepatitis A.

  20. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  1. Nonlinear Dynamics of Infectious Diseases Transfer with Possible Applications for Tubercular Infection

    CERN Document Server

    Krevchik, V D; Dahnovsky, Yu I; Semenov, M B; Shcherbakova, E V; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we model a nonlinear dynamics of infectious diseases transfer. Particularly, we study possible applications to tubercular infection in models with different profiles (peak values) of the population density dependence on spatial coordinates. Our approach is based on the well known method of instantons which has been used by the authors to describe kinetics of adiabatic chemical reactions as a function of the heat-bath temperature and other system parameters. In our approach, we use "social temperature" T as one of the controlling parameters. Increase of T leads to acceleration of the infectious diseases transfer. The "blockage" effect for the infectious diseases transfer has been demonstrated in the case when peak values (in the population density) are equal to one and under condition that the "social temperature" is low. Existence of such effect essentially depends from environment "activity" (social and prophylactic). Results of our modeling qualitatively meet the tuberculosis dynamic spread d...

  2. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  3. Maternal Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Therapy or Immunizations: Very few Contraindications to Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noni E Macdonald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends exclusive breastfeeding as the optimal method of infant feeding for the first six months of life for healthy, term infants (1. There are many benefits associated with breastfeeding, including nutritional, immunological, psychological, developmental, environmental, social, economic and health (eg, decrease in infectious diseases (2-4. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, every effort must be made to minimize contraindications to breastfeeding, particularly unnecessary ones. The present article summarizes the maternal infectious diseases in which continuing breastfeeding is recommended, the very few infectious diseases in which it is not recommended, the rare instances in which maternal antimicrobial therapy indicates a caution for breastfeeding, and the continuation of breastfeeding when a mother or her infant is receiving a routine recommended immunization.

  4. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However,...

  5. Celiac disease: A missed cause of metabolic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celiac disease (CD is a highly prevalent autoimmune disease. The symptoms of CD are varied and atypical, with many patients having no gastrointestinal symptoms. Metabolic bone disease (MBD is a less recognized manifestation of CD associated with spectrum of musculoskeletal signs and symptoms, viz. bone pains, proximal muscle weakness, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fracture. We here report five patients who presented with severe MBD as the only manifestation of CD. Materials and Methods: Records of 825 patients of CD diagnosed during 2002-2010 were retrospectively analyzed for clinical features, risk factors, signs, biochemical, and radiological parameters. Results: We were able to identify five patients (0.6% of CD who had monosymptomatic presentation with musculoskeletal symptoms and signs in the form of bone pains, proximal myopathy, and fragility fractures without any gastrointestinal manifestation. All the five patients had severe MBD in the form of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. Four of the five patients had additional risk factors such as antiepileptic drugs, chronic alcohol consumption, malnutrition, and associated vitamin D deficiency which might have contributed to the severity of MBD. Conclusion: Severe metabolic disease as the only presentation of CD is rare. Patients show significant improvement in clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters with gluten-free diet, calcium, and vitamin D supplementation. CD should be looked for routinely in patients presenting with unexplained MBD.

  6. Management of adynamic bone disease in chronic kidney disease: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi K. Sista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO work group released recommendations in 2006 to define the bone-related pathology associated with chronic kidney disease as renal osteodystrophy. In 2009, KDIGO released revised clinical practice guidelines which redefined systemic disorders of bone and mineral metabolism due to chronic kidney disease as chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders. Conditions under this overarching term include osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteomalacia, and adynamic bone disease. We aim to provide a brief review of the histopathology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic features of adynamic bone disease, focusing on current trends in the management of this complex bone disorder.

  7. Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosu WK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available William K Bosu Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, West African Health Organisation, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Abstract: About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. Keywords: infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, operational research, developing countries, integration

  8. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  9. Modeling infectious disease dynamics in the complex landscape of global health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy; Andreasen, Viggo;

    2015-01-01

    The spread of infectious diseases can be unpredictable. With the emergence of antibiotic resistance and worrying new viruses, and with ambitious plans for global eradication of polio and the elimination of malaria, the stakes have never been higher. Anticipation and measurement of the multiple...... factors involved in infectious disease can be greatly assisted by mathematical methods. In particular, modeling techniques can help to compensate for imperfect knowledge, gathered from large populations and under difficult prevailing circumstances. Heesterbeek et al. review the development of mathematical...

  10. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  11. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of infectious bursal disease in chickens and causes a significant economic loss for the poultry industry. Little is understood about the mechanism involved in the host responses to IBDV infection. For better understanding the IBDV......-host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...

  12. Montpellier Infectious Diseases - Pôle Rabelais (MID) 3rd annual meeting (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besteiro, Sébastien; Blanc-Potard, Anne; Bonazzi, Matteo; Briant, Laurence; Chazal, Nathalie; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Lentini, Gaëlle; Matkovic, Roy; Sanosyan, Armen; Tuaillon, Edouard; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    For the third time, teams belonging to the "Montpellier Infectious Diseases" network in the Rabelais BioHealth Cluster held their annual meeting on the 27th and 28th of November in Montpellier, France. While the 2012 meeting was focused on the cooperation between the local force tasks in biomedical and medical chemistry and presented the interdisciplinary research programs designed to fight against virus, bacteria and parasites, the 2014 edition of the meeting was focused on the translational research in infectious diseases and highlighted the bench-to-clinic strategies designed by academic and private research groups in the Montpellier area.

  13. Does infectious disease cause global variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Kenneth; Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Geographic and cross-national variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war is a subject of great interest. Previous theory on this variation has focused on the influence on human behaviour of climate, resource competition, national wealth, and cultural characteristics. We present the parasite-stress model of intrastate conflict, which unites previous work on the correlates of intrastate conflict by linking frequency of the outbreak of such conflict, including civil war, to the intensity of infectious disease across countries of the world. High intensity of infectious disease leads to the emergence of xenophobic and ethnocentric cultural norms. These cultures suffer greater poverty and deprivation due to the morbidity and mortality caused by disease, and as a result of decreased investment in public health and welfare. Resource competition among xenophobic and ethnocentric groups within a nation leads to increased frequency of civil war. We present support for the parasite-stress model with regression analyses. We find support for a direct effect of infectious disease on intrastate armed conflict, and support for an indirect effect of infectious disease on the incidence of civil war via its negative effect on national wealth. We consider the entanglements of feedback of conflict into further reduced wealth and increased incidence of disease, and discuss implications for international warfare and global patterns of wealth and imperialism. PMID:20377573

  14. Unhealthy landscapes: Policy recommendations on land use change and infectious disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M; Aguirre, A Alonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J

    2004-07-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities. The centers' objectives would be 3-fold: a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health; b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems. PMID:15238283

  15. Remote sensing and geographic information systems in the spatial temporal dynamics modeling of infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Peng

    2006-01-01

    Similar to species immigration or exotic species invasion, infectious disease transmission is strengthened due to the globalization of human activities. Using schistosomiasis as an example, we propose a conceptual model simulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of infectious diseases. We base the model on the knowledge of the interrelationship among the source, media, and the hosts of the disease. With the endemics data of schistosomiasis in Xichang, China, we demonstrate that the conceptual model is feasible; we introduce how remote sensing and geographic information systems techniques can be used in support of spatio-temporal modeling; we compare the different effects caused to the entire population when selecting different groups of people for schistosomiasis control. Our work illustrates the importance of such a modeling tool in supporting spatial decisions. Our modeling method can be directly applied to such infectious diseases as the plague, lyme disease, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The application of remote sensing and geographic information systems can shed light on the modeling of other infectious disease and invasive species studies.

  16. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  17. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Clinton

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  18. Herd immunity acquired indirectly from interactions between the ecology of infectious diseases, demography and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Matthew H; Rohani, Pejman

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of morbidity and mortality around the globe are determined by interactions between infectious diseases and systematic human socioeconomic processes. The most obvious of these patterns is that the greatest burdens of infectious diseases are found among the poor, who lack the basic resources for disease prevention and treatment. Yet, it is becoming increasingly clear that many infectious diseases are themselves causes of poverty owing to their effects on labour productivity. A particularly subtle phenomenon that receives little attention in the epidemiology literature and is especially important for poor communities is the role of the birth rate as an important direct cause of high disease burdens. Because of their high rates of transmission and life-long immunity, the persistence of many child diseases such as measles relies on high rates of reproduction as their source of susceptible individuals. Thus, there are significant direct health benefits of lower fertility rates, which are further enhanced by interactions with economic processes. Indeed, fertility, poverty and disease all interact with each other in important and predictable ways that can be built into traditional disease ecology models. We present such a model here that provides insights into the long-term effect of policy interventions. For example, because of indirect income effects, herd immunity may be acquired with lower vaccine coverage than previously thought. Reductions in the disease burden can also occur through lower fertility. Our model thus provides a disease ecology framework that is useful for the analysis of demographic transitions.

  19. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases.

  20. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases. PMID:18566093

  1. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

  2. Estimation of incidences of infectious diseases based on antibody measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, J; Mølbak, K; Falkenhorst, G;

    2009-01-01

    Owing to under-ascertainment it is difficult if not impossible to determine the incidence of a given disease based on cases notified to routine public health surveillance. This is especially true for diseases that are often present in mild forms as for example diarrhoea caused by foodborne bacter...

  3. Emerging infectious diseases: Memorandum from a WHO meeting*

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A meeting of international experts exchanged information on recent activities dealing with new, emerging and re-emerging diseases, discussed ways of responding to this problem and to other communicable disease threats, and reviewed WHO's activities and role in this area. This Memorandum summarizes the various presentations and concludes with the recommendations and specific tasks for action at every level.

  4. Notification of infectious diseases by junior doctors in accident and emergency departments.

    OpenAIRE

    Spedding, R L; Jenkins, M G; O'Reilly, S A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge about notifiable infectious diseases by accident and emergency (A&E) senior house officers. METHODS: A telephone questionnaire of senior house officers was carried out over a one week period at the end of their six month attachment in A&E departments in Northern Ireland. RESULTS: 81 (91%) of the senior house officers participated in the study; 23 (29%) realised that the doctor diagnosing the notifiable disease had a statutory duty to notify that disease; nin...

  5. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rolla, Davide; Conti, Novella; Ansaldo, Francesca; Panaro, Laura; Lusenti, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of a patient with acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative mesangial nephropathy. Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN)secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in man could be fatal, as it is in canine Lyme borreliosis. Case: A 61-year old man with chronic ethanolic hepatitis was admitted to a provincial hospit...

  6. Climate change and infectious disease risk management: a localised health security perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic risks in relation to climate change are not fully understood and to a large extent have to be regarded as unpredictable. It is therefore important to focus attention on human vulnerability and coping for which more certain influences on disease risk can be assessed. Despite commonplace environmental conditions for infectious diseases around the world, only some people are affected. This is because the larger proportions of disease risks are regularly a function of human socio-econo...

  7. Polyphosphate bone scanning on non-malignant bone disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, D.J.; Gilday, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    The advent of /sup 99m/technetium phosphate bone scanning radiopharmaceuticals has opened new methods of investigation of pediatric bone diseases. In axial skeleton pain, suspected osteomyelitis, evaluation of vascular integrity and suspected but undetected fractures, the bone scan has proved to be a highly complementary study to the radiologic examination.

  8. Node discovery in meta-population network behind infectious disease outbreak

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. The presented method solves a node discovery problem to identify the nodes within a given dataset which are directly influenced by an unknown neighboring node during the spread. The dataset is either the time sequence data on the number of infectious persons or new cases in the early growth phase of an infectious disease outbreak. The network topology and transmission parameters are revealed by the maximal likelihood estimation. The degree of influence on individual nodes from an unknown origin is calculated with the technique of the extreme sequence detection given the revealed topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on SARS outbreak.

  9. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easther Sally

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential

  10. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  11. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS and the dissemination in time (DIT in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diagnosis list, including diseases with exacerbation, remitting periods and numerous treatable infectious diseases, which can mimic the MRI features of MS. We discuss the most relevant imaging features in several infectious diseases that resemble MS and examine the primary spatial distributions of lesions and the gadolinium enhancement patterns related to MS. Recognizing imaging "red flags" can be useful for the proper diagnostic evaluation of suspected cases of MS, facilitating the correct differential diagnosis by assessing the combined clinical, laboratory and MR imaging information.

  12. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  13. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. PMID:26051481

  14. Co-infection alters population dynamics of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Hanna; Barrès, Benoit; Vale, Pedro F; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Co-infections by multiple pathogen strains are common in the wild. Theory predicts co-infections to have major consequences for both within- and between-host disease dynamics, but data are currently scarce. Here, using common garden populations of Plantago lanceolata infected by two strains of the pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis, either singly or under co-infection, we find the highest disease prevalence in co-infected treatments both at the host genotype and population levels. A spore-trapping experiment demonstrates that co-infected hosts shed more transmission propagules than singly infected hosts, thereby explaining the observed change in epidemiological dynamics. Our experimental findings are confirmed in natural pathogen populations-more devastating epidemics were measured in populations with higher levels of co-infection. Jointly, our results confirm the predictions made by theoretical and experimental studies for the potential of co-infection to alter disease dynamics across a large host-pathogen metapopulation. PMID:25569306

  15. Co-infection alters population dynamics of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Hanna; Barrès, Benoit; Vale, Pedro F; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-08

    Co-infections by multiple pathogen strains are common in the wild. Theory predicts co-infections to have major consequences for both within- and between-host disease dynamics, but data are currently scarce. Here, using common garden populations of Plantago lanceolata infected by two strains of the pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis, either singly or under co-infection, we find the highest disease prevalence in co-infected treatments both at the host genotype and population levels. A spore-trapping experiment demonstrates that co-infected hosts shed more transmission propagules than singly infected hosts, thereby explaining the observed change in epidemiological dynamics. Our experimental findings are confirmed in natural pathogen populations-more devastating epidemics were measured in populations with higher levels of co-infection. Jointly, our results confirm the predictions made by theoretical and experimental studies for the potential of co-infection to alter disease dynamics across a large host-pathogen metapopulation.

  16. Electrochemical magnetic microbeads-based biosensor for point-of-care serodiagnosis of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Melli, Luciano J; Roberti, Mariano; Mass, Mijal; Longinotti, Gloria; Tropea, Salvador; Lloret, Paulina; Serantes, Diego A Rey; Salomón, Francisco; Lloret, Matías; Caillava, Ana J; Restuccia, Sabrina; Altcheh, Jaime; Buscaglia, Carlos A; Malatto, Laura; Ugalde, Juan E; Fraigi, Liliana; Moina, Carlos; Ybarra, Gabriel; Ciocchini, Andrés E; Comerci, Diego J

    2016-06-15

    Access to appropriate diagnostic tools is an essential component in the evaluation and improvement of global health. Additionally, timely detection of infectious agents is critical in early diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Conventional pathogen detection methods such as culturing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) require long assay times, and complex and expensive instruments making them not adaptable to point-of-care (PoC) needs at resource-constrained places and primary care settings. Therefore, there is an unmet need to develop portable, simple, rapid, and accurate methods for PoC detection of infections. Here, we present the development and validation of a portable, robust and inexpensive electrochemical magnetic microbeads-based biosensor (EMBIA) platform for PoC serodiagnosis of infectious diseases caused by different types of microorganisms (parasitic protozoa, bacteria and viruses). We demonstrate the potential use of the EMBIA platform for in situ diagnosis of human (Chagas disease and human brucellosis) and animal (bovine brucellosis and foot-and-mouth disease) infections clearly differentiating infected from non-infected individuals or animals. For Chagas disease, a more extensive validation of the test was performed showing that the EMBIA platform displayed an excellent diagnostic performance almost indistinguishable, in terms of specificity and sensitivity, from a fluorescent immunomagnetic assay and the conventional ELISA using the same combination of antigens. This platform technology could potentially be applicable to diagnose other infectious and non-infectious diseases as well as detection and/or quantification of biomarkers at the POC and primary care settings. PMID:26802749

  17. Accessing and Utilizing Remote Sensing Data for Vectorborne Infectious Diseases Surveillance and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Kempler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Background: The transmission of vectorborne infectious diseases is often influenced by environmental, meteorological and climatic parameters, because the vector life cycle depends on these factors. For example, the geophysical parameters relevant to malaria transmission include precipitation, surface temperature, humidity, elevation, and vegetation type. Because these parameters are routinely measured by satellites, remote sensing is an important technological tool for predicting, preventing, and containing a number of vectorborne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, etc. Methods: A variety of NASA remote sensing data can be used for modeling vectorborne infectious disease transmission. We will discuss both the well known and less known remote sensing data, including Landsat, AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager), and SIESIP (Seasonal to Interannual Earth Science Information Partner) dataset. Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. It provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data. After remote sensing data is obtained, a variety of techniques, including generalized linear models and artificial intelligence oriented methods, t 3 can be used to model the dependency of disease transmission on these parameters. Results: The processes of accessing, visualizing and utilizing precipitation data using Giovanni, and acquiring other data at additional websites are illustrated. Malaria incidence time series for some parts of Thailand and Indonesia are used to demonstrate that malaria incidences are reasonably well modeled with generalized linear models and artificial

  18. Six challenges in the eradication of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Klepac

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradication and elimination are increasingly a part of the global health agenda. Once control measures have driven infection to low levels, the ecology of disease may change posing challenges for eradication efforts. These challenges vary from identifying pockets of susceptibles, improving monitoring during and after the endgame, to quantifying the economics of disease eradication versus sustained control, all of which are shaped and influenced by processes of loss of immunity, susceptible build-up, emergence of resistance, population heterogeneities and non-compliance with control measures. Here we discuss how modelling can be used to address these challenges.

  19. 78 FR 39300 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  20. 78 FR 64510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  1. 75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  2. 75 FR 993 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  3. 77 FR 67826 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  4. 78 FR 65344 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  5. 78 FR 78984 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  6. 78 FR 71629 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a...

  7. 76 FR 56207 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  8. 77 FR 66624 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  9. 75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  10. 78 FR 13360 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  11. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  12. 77 FR 8269 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  13. 78 FR 50429 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  14. 75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  15. 76 FR 49780 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  16. 77 FR 72364 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  17. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  18. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  19. 76 FR 20360 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  20. 77 FR 46099 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...