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Sample records for bone diseases endocrine

  1. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  2. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fibrosis Research Identifies Key Hurdle in Quest for Cystic Fibrosis Treatment More Research News Clinical Trials Clinical trials offer ... people and opportunities to help researchers find better treatments in the ... Fibrosis Graves' Disease Hashimoto's Disease Human Growth Hormone and ...

  3. Endocrine complications following pediatric bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Josephine; Lewis, Victor; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Stephure, David K; Pacaud, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for various diseases can lead to endocrine system dysfunction owing to preparative regimens involving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We assessed the prevalence of post-BMT endocrine complications in children treated at the Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH) from 1991 to 2001. Time of onset of endocrine dysfunction, underlying disease processes, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and age at BMT were characterized. Subjects of primary hypothyroidism 1.2%, compensated hypothyroidism 7.0%, hyperthyroidism 2.4%, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism 22.4%, abnormal bone density 2.4%, and secondary diabetes mellitus 1.2%. These findings emphasize the need to screen for endocrine system dysfunction, particularly hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, in children who have undergone BMT. Children need long-term follow-up so that endocrine complications can be diagnosed and treated promptly. PMID:21823531

  4. Bone: a new endocrine organ at the heart of chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Marc G; Massy, Ziad A; Brandenburg, Vincent M; Mazzaferro, Sandro; Cozzolino, Mario; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Bover, Jordi; Goldsmith, David

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports of several bone-derived substances, some of which have hormonal properties, have shed new light on the bone-cardiovascular axis. Deranged concentrations of humoral factors are not only epidemiologically connected to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but can also be causally implicated, especially in chronic kidney disease. FGF23 rises exponentially with advancing chronic kidney disease, seems to reach maladaptive concentrations, and then induces left ventricular hypertrophy, and is possibly implicated in the process of vessel calcification. Sclerostin and DKK1, both secreted mainly by osteocytes, are important Wnt inhibitors and as such can interfere with systems for biological signalling that operate in the vessel wall. Osteocalcin, produced by osteoblasts or released from mineralised bone, interferes with insulin concentrations and sensitivity, and its metabolism is disturbed in kidney disease. These bone-derived humoral factors might place the bone at the centre of cardiovascular disease associated with chronic kidney disease. Most importantly, factors that dictate the regulation of these substances in bone and subsequent secretion into the circulation have not been researched, and could provide entirely new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  6. Gastrointestinal manifestations of endocrine disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Maser; Arnbjorn Toset; Sanziana Roman

    2006-01-01

    The hormonal interactions among the systems throughout the body are not fully understood; many vague clinical symptoms may in fact be manifestations of underlying endocrine diseases. The aim of the following review is to discuss gastrointestinal manifestations of surgically correctable endocrine diseases, focusing on abnormalities of thyroid function, cancer and finally autoimmune diseases. We also review manifestations of pancreatic endocrine tumors, and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  7. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  8. Biochemical, bone and renal patterns in hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar M. Lourenço Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 differs in many aspects from sporadic hyperparathyroidism, which is the most frequently occurring form of hyperparathyroidism. Bone mineral density has frequently been studied in sporadic hyperparathyroidism but it has very rarely been examined in cases of hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Cortical bone mineral density in hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 cases has only recently been examined, and early, severe and frequent bone mineral losses have been documented at this site. Early bone mineral losses are highly prevalent in the trabecular bone of patients with hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In summary, bone mineral disease in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1related hyperparathyroidism is an early, frequent and severe disturbance, occurring in both the cortical and trabecular bones. In addition, renal complications secondary to sporadic hyperparathyroidism are often studied, but very little work has been done on this issue in hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. It has been recently verified that early, frequent, and severe renal lesions occur in patients with hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this article we review the few available studies on bone mineral and renal disturbances in the setting of hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We performed a meta-analysis of the available data on bone mineral and renal disease in cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Wilson's disease: An endocrine revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Nitin; Shetty, Sahana; Thomas, Nihal; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area. PMID:25364683

  10. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  11. Endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable ...

  12. Endocrine manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease can have extra gastrointestinal tract (GIT presentations, most of which are endocrine. The aim of this study was to present patients diagnosed to have celiac disease from an endocrine department and to study the prevalence of endocrinopathies in celiac disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients from the endocrinology department (LLRM Medical College, Meerut between January 2011 and July 2012 and who were diagnosed to have celiac disease were included in the study. Results: Short stature was the commonest presentation (25%, other presentations included short stature and delayed puberty (20%, delayed puberty (11%, screening for celiac disease in type-1 DM patients (17%, rickets (6%, anemia not responding to oral therapy (6%, type-1 DM with recurrent hypoglycaemia (6%, and osteomalacia (3%. The endocrine manifestations include (after complete evaluation short stature (58%, delayed puberty (31%, elevated alkaline phospahatase (67%, low calcium (22%, X-rays suggestive of osteomalacia or rickets (8%, capopedal spasm (6%, and night blindness (6%. Anti-TPO antibody positivity was found in 53%, hypothyroidism in 28%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 17%, and type-1 DM in 25% of the patients. A total of 14% patients had no GI symptoms. Conclusion: Celiac disease is an endocrine disrupter as well as the great masquerader having varied presentations including short stature, delayed puberty, and rickets. Some patients who have celiac disease may not have any GI symptoms, making the diagnosis all the more difficult. Also, there is significant incidence of celiac disease with hypothyroidism and type-1 DM, making screening for it important in these diseases.

  13. Behcet's Disease and Endocrine System

    OpenAIRE

    Kerem Sezer; Onur Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic disease which is characterized by recurrent oral apthous ulcerations, recurrent genital ulcerations, skin eruptions, ocular involvements and other various systemic manifestations as well as systemic vasculitis. Endocrine involvement in BD regarding various systems can be seen. Hypophysis is one of the best and dense vascularized organs of the body, thus it is likely that it can be affected by BD. Not only anterior hypophysis functions, but posterior hypophys...

  14. Bone tissue as a systemic endocrine regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofkova, I

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a target tissue for hormones, such as the sex steroids, parathormon, vitamin D, calcitonin, glucocorticoids, and thyroid hormones. In the last decade, other "non-classic" hormones that modulate the bone tissue have been identified. While incretins (GIP and GLP-1) inhibit bone remodeling, angiotensin acts to promote remodeling. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) has also been found to have anabolic effects on the skeleton by activating bone formation during embryonic development, as well as in the postnatal period of life. Bone has also been identified as an endocrine tissue that produces a number of hormones, that bind to and modulate extra-skeletal receptors. Osteocalcin occupies a central position in this context. It can increase insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and regulate metabolism of fatty acids. Moreover, osteocalcin also influences phosphate metabolism via osteocyte-derived FGF23 (which targets the kidneys and parathyroid glands to control phosphate reabsorption and metabolism of vitamin D). Finally, osteocalcin stimulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells and thus may play some role in male fertility. Further studies are necessary to confirm clinically important roles for skeletal tissue in systemic regulations. PMID:25470522

  15. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. PMID:27449391

  16. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneton, J.N. [ed.] [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

    1999-03-01

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  17. Endocrine dysfunction after bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Young Jin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Several complications can occur in patients who received bone marrow transplantation (BMT during childhood and adolescence. This study aims to investigate endocrine dysfunctions after BMT so that better care can be provided to care for long-term survivors of BMT. Methods : One hundred patients (61 males, 39 females were included in this study. Clinical parameters such as initial diagnosis, age at BMT, conditioning regimen, presence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, growth pattern, thyroid function, and pubertal status were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate risk factors associated with endocrine dysfunction. Results : Height standard deviation score (SDS at BMT, after 1 year of BMT, and at the last visit were 0.08¡?#?.04;, -0.09¡?#?1.0;2, and -0.27¡?#?.18;, respectively (P=0.001. Height SDS significantly decreased in patients who received total body irradiation (TBI (P=0.017. One of the patients who received TBI demonstrated growth hormone deficiency. Thirty (31.9% of 94 patients had compensated hypothyroidism. Incidence of compensated hypothyroidism was higher among those who had GVHD (odds ratio 2.82, P=0.025. Of the 32 patients (17 males, 15 females who were over 14 years in male and 13 years in female at the last visit, 16 (3 males, 13 females had increased luteinizing hormone (LH or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH. Abnormal elevation of LH or FSH was more common in females (odds ratio 30.3, P=0.001. Conclusion : The most common endocrine dysfunction was ovarian insufficiency. Regular check-up for endocrine function needs to be required due to high incidence of endocrine dysfunction in patients with BMT.

  18. Osteoporosis in celiac disease and in endocrine and reproductive disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Velia Stazi; Antonello Trecca; Biagino Trinti

    2008-01-01

    As the increase in lifespan brings to light diseases that were previously not clinically detectable, osteoporosis has become an issue of worldwide significance. The disease is marked by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and more prone to fracturing. Because it is regulated by endocrine and environmental factors, osteoporosis presents a multifactorial etiopathogenesis, with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual variation in bone mass density (BMD), the principal determinant, with age, of fracture risk. Pathological conditions such as celiac disease (CD) exacerbate the process of bone loss, so that the occurrence of osteoporosis in celiac subjects is of particular note: indeed, the screening of osteoporosis patients for this disease is advisable, since it may be the only sign of undiagnosed CD. An increase in interleukin IL-1β, of the IL-1 system, in the relatives of celiac patients confirms the genetic predisposition to osteoporosis and its presence is evidence of an association between the two conditions. The direct effect on the bones of CD is secondary to poor absorption of calcium and vitamin D. In women osteoporosis is indirectly associated with early menopause and amenorrhea, and it may follow prolonged breast-feeding and frequent pregnancies, while in men it is associated with hypogonadism and GH deficit. These endocrine and non-endocrine factors exert their effects on bones by modulating the RANK/RANK-L/OPG system. An appropriate lifestyle from adolescence onwards, together with early diagnosis of and treatment for CD and primary and secondary endocrine pathologies are important for the prevention of damage to the bones.

  19. Bone Regulates Glucose Metabolism as an Endocrine Organ through Osteocalcin

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Skeleton was considered as a dynamic connective tissue, which was essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic niche. However more and more evidences indicate that skeleton works not only as a structural scaffold but also as an endocrine organ, which regulates several metabolic processes. Besides osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and Dickopf (DKK) which play essential roles in bone formation, modelling, remodelling, and homeostasis, bone can also secret hormones, suc...

  20. Bone Regulates Glucose Metabolism as an Endocrine Organ through Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeleton was considered as a dynamic connective tissue, which was essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic niche. However more and more evidences indicate that skeleton works not only as a structural scaffold but also as an endocrine organ, which regulates several metabolic processes. Besides osteoprotegerin (OPG, sclerostin (SOST, and Dickopf (DKK which play essential roles in bone formation, modelling, remodelling, and homeostasis, bone can also secret hormones, such as osteocalcin (OCN, which promotes proliferation of β cells, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. Additionally OCN can also regulate the fat cells and male gonad endocrine activity and be regulated by insulin and the neural system. In summary, skeleton has endocrine function via OCN and plays an important role in energy metabolism, especially in glucose metabolism.

  1. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  2. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tarçın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  3. Endocrine manifestations related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantyghem Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.

  4. Feline primary hyperaldosteronism: an emerging endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diola Bento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The primary hyperaldosteronism, an endocrine disease increasingly identified in cats, is characterized by adrenal gland dysfunction that interferes with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, triggering the hypersecretion of aldosterone. Pathophysiological consequences of excessive aldosterone secretion are related to increased sodium and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium, which induce hypertension and severe hypokalemia, respectively. The most common clinical findings in cats include: polydipsia, nocturia, polyuria, generalized weakness, neck ventroflexion, syncope, anorexia, weight loss, pendulous abdomen and blindness. Diagnosis is based on the evidence of hormonal hypersecretion with suppression of renin release, imaging and histopathological evaluation of adrenal glands. Treatment may be curative with adrenalectomy, in cases of unilateral disease, or conservative, through administration of aldosterone antagonists, potassium supplementation and antihypertensives. Prognosis varies from fair to good with the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the main aspects of primary aldosteronism in cats, providing the clinician with important information for the diagnosis of this disease.

  5. Hypothalamic-endocrine aspects in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersén, Asa; Björkqvist, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary and fatal disorder caused by an expanded CAG triplet repeat in the HD gene, resulting in a mutant form of the protein huntingtin. Wild-type and mutant huntingtin are expressed in most tissues of the body but the normal function of huntingtin is not fully known. In HD, the neuropathology is characterized by intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions of huntingtin aggregates, and cell death primarily in striatum and cerebral cortex. However, hypothalamic atrophy occurs at early stages of HD with loss of orexin- and somatostatin-containing cell populations. Several symptoms of HD such as sleep disturbances, alterations in circadian rhythm, and weight loss may be due to hypothalamic dysfunction. Endocrine changes including increased cortisol levels, reduced testosterone levels and increased prevalence of diabetes are found in HD patients. In HD mice, alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs as well as pancreatic beta-cell and adipocyte dysfunction. Increasing evidence points towards important pathology of the hypothalamus and the endocrine system in HD. As many neuroendocrine factors are secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine, it is possible that their levels may reflect the disease state in the central nervous system. Investigating neuroendocrine changes in HD opens up the possibility of finding biomarkers to evaluate future therapies for HD, as well as of identifying novel targets for therapeutic interventions.

  6. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  7. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction, Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other organ specific non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other organ non-specific non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusions. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Other­wise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.

  8. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders Aagaard; Plass, Mireya; Krogh, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    , polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) and to be associated with type I and II diabetes, pre-eclampsia, fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency, ectopic Cushing syndrome, and many cancer diseases, including several types of endocrine tumor diseases. Perspectives: Recent developments in high...... of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field....

  9. THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Endocrine dilemma: management of Graves' orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Irene; Vannucchi, Guia; Salvi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    Management of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) must be based on the correct assessment of activity and severity of the disease. Activity is usually assessed with the Clinical Activity Score, whereas severity is classified according to a European Group On Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) consensus statement as mild, moderate-to-severe, and sight-threatening. Myopathic and chronic congestive forms are uncommon clinical presentations of GO. Restoration and maintenance of stable euthyroidism are recommended in the presence of GO.In moderate-to-severe disease, steroids have been widely employed and have shown to possess an anti-inflammatory activity, but about 20-30% of patients are not responsive and present recurrence. Some novel immunosuppressors have already been employed in clinical studies and have shown interesting results, although the lack of randomized and controlled trials suggests caution for their use in clinical practice. Potential targets for therapy in GO are the thyroid-stimulating hormone and the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor on the fibroblasts, inflammatory cytokines, B and T cells, and the PIK3/mTORC1 signaling cascades for adipogenesis. A recent open study has shown that tocilizumab, an anti-sIL-6R antibody, inactivates GO. Consistent reports on the efficacy of rituximab have recently been challenged by randomized controlled trials.As the main goal of treatment is the well-being of the patient, the therapeutic strategy should be addressed to better suit the patient needs, more than improving one or more biological parameters. The increasing availability of new therapies will expand the therapeutic options for GO patients and allow the clinician to really personalize the treatment to better suit the patients' personal needs. PMID:27032693

  10. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

  11. Celiac Disease Presenting with Bone Pain: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Nural Albayrak Aydın; Kamil Yazıcıoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease or gluten sensitive enteropathy is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the small-bowel mucosa. As can be asymptomatic, involvement of the hematologic, gastrointestinal system, musculosceletal system, nervous system or endocrine system may occur as well. The presence of osteoporosis in celiac disease, may be the only sign of patients who have not been diagnosed yet. The direct effect of celiac disease on bones happens secondary to decreased absorbsion of calci...

  12. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  13. Endocrine & Metabolic Diseases A-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program (NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary) Back to Top C Cushing's Syndrome Defines ... Program (NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary) Back to Top H Hashimoto's Disease Describes ...

  14. Impact of endocrine hyperfunction and phosphate wasting on bone in McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, R; Matarazzo, P; Andreo, M; Defilippi, C; de Sanctis, C

    2002-01-01

    Skin dysplasia, as café-au-lait spots, bone fibrous dysplasia and peripheral endocrinopathies are the main clinical features of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). This illness is due to activating mutations of the Gsalpha protein and is spread with a mosaic pattern in affected tissues that consist of intermixed areas of normal and mutated cells. Peripheral endocrine secretion, free of hypothalamic pituitary control, is the hallmark of the endocrine syndromes: precocious puberty, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism and gigantism/acromegaly. In addition, phosphate wasting as hyperphosphaturia is often present. The impact of hormonal hypersecretion and phosphate loss on the bones of patients with MAS is poorly understood both in normal and fibrous bone tissue. As hypercortisolism and hyperthyroidism increase bone resorption, hyperestrogenism and growth hormone hypersecretion stimulate bone growth and mineralization, and phosphate wasting reduces bone mineral content. All these actions can be exerted at varying times and degrees in a single patient on lesional and non-lesional bones. Sonographic evidence of multiple diffused hyperechogenic spots in the testes of patients with MAS do not seem to be related to alterations in calcium-phosphate metabolism but rather to zonal dysplasia/hyperplasia of testicular tissue. PMID:12199350

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  16. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine changes in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a great deal of information on celiac disease and associated involvement of other nonintestinal sites, data on concomitant changes in the structure and function of the pancreas is limited. The present review critically examines pancreatic endocrine changes that have been well documented in the literature, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic exocrine alterations may also occur, and if severe, marked malnutrition with pancreatic failure and ductal calcification have been observed. Finally, other pancreatic disorders have been recorded with celiac disease.

  17. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  18. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern for patients with MBD is the general loss in quality of life. How much of an effect MBD has on ... to be most effective in maintaining quality of life. A technetium bone scan ... blood count, because loss of red blood cells (anemia) is a frequent ...

  19. Association studies in common endocrine diseases (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrami SM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of endocrine disorders increase rapidly by genetic studies at the molecular level. Common endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and cancer follow the multifactorial model in the genetic aspect. This review tries to clarify the approach in molecular studies of such diseases for clinicians in different specialties. How to evaluate a possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism and an endocrinopathy or its complication is the main concern of this review. Two approaches for gene mapping will be discussed as well as main challenges regarding each approach. All such genetic studies ideally include some test of the association between genome sequence variation and the phenotype of interest such as the trait itself, the presence of a given complication, or measures of some endocrinopathy-related intermediate trait. Despite different advances in this analysis, there are major concerns regarding the overall performance and robustness of genetic association studies. By using powerful new high-throughput methods, further insights to molecular basis of such endocrine disorders can be expected. Close correlation between geneticists and clinicians can effectively bridge between basic sciences and clinical investigations.

  20. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. PMID:27297495

  1. An "endocrine function of" bone to pick:starting with males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allan Z.Zhao; Dongming Su

    2011-01-01

    A stereotypical presentation of a hero in a Hollywood action movie would lavishly brag about not only strong muscle but also a large statue (a.k.a.bone structure), ostensibly for an attractive image.Unknown to these movie producers is that the bone tissue does send a "sex-related" message, an endocrine message to be exact, to the male reproductive system.Maybe we shouldn't blame Hollywood for their naiveté after all; even in the scientific community, there is a long-held traditional belief that regards skeletal bone as merely a structural and supportive tissue.However, this view has been challenged by a series of recent studies.

  2. Influence of vitamin D in endocrine metabolic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Algusto Rafaelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin D deficiency has been linked to the development of several endocrine metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paper presents an overview of the available scientific evidence for some of the non- calcemic actions of vitamin D in humans, through literature search in scientific databases. The deficiency of vitamin D may predispose to glucose intolerance, changes in insulin secretion and thus the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This mechanism is possible due to the presence of the vitamin D receptor in several tissues and cells, including pancreatic ? cells, adipocyte and muscle tissue. In obese individuals, the changes of the vitamin D endocrine system, characterized by high levels of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol are responsible for the negative feedback of hepatic synthesis of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and also by increased influx of calcium into the intracellular environment, which can damage the secretion and insulin sensitivity. In hypertension, vitamin D could act on the renin-angiotensin system and also in vascular function. There is some evidence that 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the renin gene expression and blocks the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell. Further prospective studies and randomized clinical trials, including studies of supplementation, are required to establish better clinical and metabolic effects of variations in the concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the clinical course of these diseases.

  3. Role of Interventional Radiology in Endocrine Diseases- Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHANAATI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a number of procedures for interventional radiology diagnosis and treatment have been developed by the radiologists. The ‘Interventional Radiology’ refers to the therapeutic procedures performed under imaging guidance. The emergence of this specialty has been made possible by a lot of advances in the technology, imaging systems, and radiologists experience. Interventional radiologists are physicians who are experienced in minimally invasive procedures and targeted treatments which have less risk, less pain and less recovery time in comparison with the surgery. Minimizing the patient discomfort, avoid of general anesthesia, lower incidence of morbidity and mortality, and decreases the length and cost of hospitalization are some advantages of interventional radiology procedures. Similar to all medical fields, interventional procedures have been introduced and developed for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrinology procedures. In this article we aim to review and report our experience about the role of interventional radiology in venous sampling for endocrine diseases (such as parathyroid venous sampling, inferior petrosal sinus sampling, adrenal venous sampling, and venous sampling for islet cell tumors. In addition, interventional treatments of neuroendocrine cancer metastases to the liver, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation of the adrenal gland neoplasms, and also establishing a cGMP pancreatic islet processing facility have been discussed in this article. Keywords: Interventional radiology, Endocrine diseases, Endovascular, Treatment

  4. Endocrine-Manifestations of Cirrhosis and Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalili

    2014-04-01

    cirrhosis. Here it reviews some endocrine-manifestations related to cirrhosis and the liver disease.        

  5. [The role of selenium in endocrine system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly

    2013-10-13

    Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.

  6. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana; Ičin Tijana; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Bajkin Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction, Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a...

  7. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  8. Endocrine origins of rheumatic disease. Diagnostic clues to interrelated syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshin, Michael D

    2002-04-01

    Heightened awareness of endocrine abnormalities is important in evaluation of patients presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms. Endocrine disorders such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, and acromegaly cause a unique array of rheumatic manifestations. Such conditions include Dupuytren's contracture, carpal tunnel syndrome, chondrocalcinosis, pseudogout, scleredema, and osteoporosis. Characteristic changes on radiologic evaluation and serum enzyme testing are additional clues to these atypical presentations. Consideration of a possible endocrine cause early in the evaluation may improve management in patients with such an underlying disorder.

  9. [Endocrine disorders and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuka

    2015-10-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass that predisposes fractures due to underlying disorders or medication. Disorders of the endocrine system, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, Cushing's syndrome, and anorexia nervosa frequently cause secondary osteoporosis. In those diseases, hormone excess or deficiency affects functions of osteoblasts, osteocyte, and osteoclasts, leading to aberrant bone remodeling. Bisphosphonates are the first-choice pharmacological agents for fracture prevention in most patients with secondary osteoporosis along with treatment of the underlying disease. PMID:26529938

  10. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  11. Coeliac disease in endocrine diseases of autoimmune origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miśkiewicz, Piotr; Kępczyńska-Nyk, Anna; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Coeliac disease (CD, sometimes called gluten-sensitive enteropathy or nontropical sprue) is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine of autoimmune origin. It occurs in genetically predisposed people and is induced by a gluten protein, which is a component of wheat. The prevalence of histologically confirmed CD is estimated in screening studies of adults in the United States and Europe to be between 0.2% and 1.0%. The results of previous studies have indicated that the prevalence of CD is increased in patients with other autoimmune disorders such as: autoimmune thyroid diseases, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and Addison's disease. A coincidence of the above diseases constitutes autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS). The high prevalence of CD in APS is probably due to the common genetic predisposition to the coexistent autoimmune diseases. The majority of adult patients have the atypical or silent type of the disease. This is the main reason why CD so often goes undiagnosed or the diagnosis is delayed. CD, if undiagnosed and untreated, is associated with many medical disorders including haematological (anaemia), metabolical (osteopenia/osteoporosis), obstetric-gynaecological (infertility, spontaneous abortions, late puberty, early menopause), neurological (migraine, ataxia, epilepsy) as well as with an increased risk of malignancy, especially: enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, small intestine adenocarcinoma, and oesophageal and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Early introduction of a gluten-free diet and lifelong adherence to this treatment decreases the risk of these complications. PMID:22744631

  12. Myeloma bone disease: Pathophysiology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma bone disease is marked by severe dysfunction of both bone formation and resorption and serves as a model for understanding the regulation of osteoblasts (OBL) and osteoclasts (OCL) in cancer. Myeloma bone lesions are purely osteolytic and are associated with severe and debilitating bone pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression, as well as increased mortality. Interactions within the bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma are responsible for the ...

  13. Cellular Mechanisms of Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Oranger; Claudia Carbone; Maddalena Izzo; Maria Grano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulates and proliferates in the bone marrow. MM patients often develop bone disease that results in severe bone pain, osteolytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. These skeletal complications have not only a negative impact on quality of life but also a possible effect in overall survival. MM osteolytic bone lesions arise from the altered bone remodeling due to both increased osteoclast activation and d...

  14. Pain and Paget's Disease of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Paget’s Disease of Bone Paget’s Disease Management Pain and Paget’s Disease of Bone Publication available in: ... focus(); */ } //--> Print-Friendly Page May 2015 Types of Pain Paget’s disease can cause several different kinds of ...

  15. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-08-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support

  17. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  18. Vitamin D endocrine system involvement in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen; Sulli, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the skin (80-90%) under the sunlight and then metabolized into an active D hormone in liver, kidney and peripheral immune/inflammatory cells. These endocrine-immune effects include also the coordinated activities of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on cells of the immune system in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions. Vitamin D is implicated in prevention and protection from chronic infections (i.e. tubercolosis), cancer (i.e. breast cancer) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases since regulates both innate and adaptive immunity potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation), but suppressing the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). Vitamin D has modulatory effects on B lymphocytes and Ig production and recent reports have demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 does indeed exert direct effects on B cell homeostasis. A circannual rhythm of trough vitamin D levels in winter and peaks in summer time showed negative correlation with clinical status at least in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, the onset of symptoms of early arthritis during winter or spring have been associated with greater radiographic evidence of disease progression at 12 months possibly are also related to seasonal lower vitamin D serum levels.

  19. The unsolved case of "bone-impairing analgesics": the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Raffa, Robert B; Mattia, Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. PMID:25848298

  20. The unsolved case of “bone-impairing analgesics”: the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coluzzi F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flaminia Coluzzi,1,2 Joseph Pergolizzi,3,4 Robert B Raffa,5 Consalvo Mattia1,2 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Unit of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine – Polo Pontino, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy; 2SIAARTI Study Group on Acute and Chronic Pain, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 4Naples Anesthesia and Pain Associates, Naples, FL, 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1 the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2 reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3 chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine. Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. Keywords: opioids side effects, bone metabolism, fractures, OPIAD, endocrine system, chronic pain

  1. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  2. Effect of endocrine pathology on the development and the course of oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Babajanyan S.G.; Kazakova L.N.

    2013-01-01

    All systems of the human body are closely interconnected among themselves. The endocrine system directly influences formation, development and functioning of oral system. There is a close interrelation of endocrine disturbances with oral diseases. Clinical signs of dysfunction of glands of internal secretion firstly appear in the oral cavity. The knowledge of clinical symptoms, features of the course of diseases of internal secretion in the oral cavity will allow to diagnose and therefore, to...

  3. Cat-Scratch Disease With Bone Involvemnet

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...

  4. Current options for the treatment of Paget’s disease of the bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Merlotti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Merlotti, Luigi Gennari, Giuseppe Martini, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Sciences and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: Paget’s disease of bone (PDB is a chronic bone remodeling disorder characterized by increased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, with subsequent compensatory increases in new bone formation, resulting in a disorganized mosaic of woven and lamellar bone at affected skeletal sites. This disease is most often asymptomatic but can be associated with bone pain or deformity, fractures, secondary arthritis, neurological complications, deafness, contributing to substantial morbidity and reduced quality of life. Neoplastic degeneration of pagetic bone is a relatively rare event, occurring with an incidence of less than 1%, but has a grave prognosis. Specific therapy for PDB is aimed at decreasing the abnormal bone turnover and bisphosphonates are currently considered the treatment of choice. These treatments are associated with a reduction in plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and an improvement in radiological and scintigraphic appearance and with a reduction in bone pain and bone deformity, Recently, the availability of newer, more potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates has improved treatment outcomes, allowing a more effective and convenient management of this debilitating disorder.Keywords: Paget’s disease of bone, bisphosphonates, aminobisphosphonates, bone remodeling

  5. Rheumatological presentation of developmental bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalifa, Gabriel; Cohen, Pierre alain; Hamidou, Amine

    2000-02-01

    Developmental bone disease may be present, with rheumatological disorders as the major symptoms, even in children. The major lesions encountered are early osteo arthritis, osteo chondromatosis and vertebral involvement with two leading types, pseudo Scheuermann's disease or pseudo ankylosing spondylitis. This paper presents the different features and lists the rheumatological problems in bone dysplasia.

  6. Sleep and Quality of Life in Endocrine Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise; Verster, Joris; PandiPerumal, S.R.; Streiner, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary It is well established that a close relationship exists between sleep and hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Sleep has an electrophysiological component and an endocrine component, i.e., the distinct patterns of hormone secretion. Both the electrophysiological and the hormonal comp

  7. Unique effects on hepatic function, lipid metabolism, bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Klipping, Christine; Zimmerman, Yvette; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver. In combination with drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG), E4 blocks ovulation and has less effect on haemostatic biomarkers in comparison with ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with DRSP. This study evaluates the impact of several doses of E4/DRSP and E4/LNG on safety parameters such as liver function, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrine parameters. Methods This was a dose-finding, s...

  8. The Role of Vitamin D in the FGF23, Klotho, and Phosphate Bone-Kidney Endocrine Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Haussler, Mark R.; Whitfield, G. Kerr; Kaneko, Ichiro; Forster, Ryan; Saini, Rimpi; Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Haussler, Carol A.; Jurutka, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), through association with the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), exerts control over a novel endocrine axis consisting of the bone-derived hormone FGF23, and the kidney-expressed klotho, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 genes, which together prevent hyperphosphatemia/ectopic calcification and govern the levels of 1,25D to maintain bone mineral integrity while promoting optimal function of other vital tissues. When occupied by 1,25D, VDR interacts with RXR to form a heterodi...

  9. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  10. Bone Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonediseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Bone changes in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with growth impairment,osteomalacia, delayed fracture healing, and asepticnecrosis (primarily necrosis of the femoral head), butthe main alterations observed in the bones of alcoholicpatients are osteoporosis and an increased risk offractures. Decreased bone mass is a hallmark of osteoporosis,and it may be due either to decreased bone synthesis and/or to increased bone breakdown. Ethanolmay affect both mechanisms. It is generally acceptedthat ethanol decreases bone synthesis, and most authorshave reported decreased osteocalcin levels (a "marker" ofbone synthesis), but some controversy exists regardingthe effect of alcohol on bone breakdown, and, indeed,disparate results have been reported for telopeptideand other biochemical markers of bone resorption.In addition to the direct effect of ethanol, systemicalterations such as malnutrition, malabsorption, liverdisease, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines,alcoholic myopathy and neuropathy, low testosteronelevels, and an increased risk of trauma, play contributoryroles. The treatment of alcoholic bone disease should beaimed towards increasing bone formation and decreasingbone degradation. In this sense, vitamin D and calciumsupplementation, together with biphosphonates areessential, but alcohol abstinence and nutritional improvementare equally important. In this review we study thepathogenesis of bone changes in alcoholic liver diseaseand discuss potential therapies.

  12. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. PMID:27469183

  13. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for periodontitis and tooth loss. Role of the Dentist and Dental X Rays Research supported by the ... normal bone density. Because many people see their dentist more regularly than their doctor, dentists are in ...

  14. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis.

  15. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  16. Bone scan in inflammatory osseous disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The /sup 99m/Tc-phosphate bone scan has become a sensitive, reliable, and safe method for evaluating the patient with suspected inflammatory disease of bone. The scan may become positive as early as the first 24 hr after the symptoms and 10-14 days before roentgenographic changes occur. It can be used to differentiate successfully a variety of diseases from osteomyelitis, and in conjunction with 67Ga-citrate scan has become a mainstay in the work-up of the patient with infectious disease. Applications of the bone scan to infectious diseases in pediatric practice are especially helpful, since these diseases are common problems in this age group. Increased experience with the /sup 99m/Tc-phosphate bone scan has already defined several areas of ''limitations'' in evaluating inflammatory disease. ''Cold'' defects, negative scans in early stages of osteomyelitis, and ''extended uptake'' may all pose problems in interpretation, but careful correlation of the bone scan results with clinical history and physical findings, blood cultures, and roentgenography will significantly reduce these problems

  17. [The new bone formation and bone metabolism in Forestier disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrych, Daniel; Bohatyrewicz, Andrzej; Woźniak, Wojciech; Zietek, Paweł; Kołodziej, Łukasz; Karaczun, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Wojciech; Antoniak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The study was performed on 36 male patients between 65 and 83 years who were either hospitalised or treated in the out-patients clinic due to Forestier's disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the advance of ectopic bone formation process in cervical spine and bony metabolic changes in treated patients. The study showed reverse corelation between the degree of advance of cervical hyperostosis and the prevalence of osteoporosis and metabolic disorders in the tested group. The authors have emphasized the need of precise evaluation and differentiation of Forestier's disease and degenerative spine disease. PMID:18847002

  18. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe;

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...

  19. The Pathogenesis of the Bone Disease of Multiple Myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Claire M; Zhuang, Junling; Mundy, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a fatal hematologic malignancy associated with clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow and the development of a destructive osteolytic bone disease. The principal cellular mechanisms involved in the development of myeloma bone disease are an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption, and a reduction in bone formation. Myeloma cells are found in close association with sites of active bone resorption, and the interactions between myeloma cells, and o...

  20. Effects of 1-week head-down tilt bed rest on bone formation and the calcium endocrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Whalen, Robert T.; Fung, Paul; Sherrard, Donald J.; Maloney, Norma

    1992-01-01

    The -6-deg head-down tilt (HDT) is employed in the study of 8 subjects to determine early responses in human bone and calcium endocrines during spaceflight. The average rates of bone formation in the iliac crest are determined by means of a single-dose labeling schedule and are found to decrease in 6 of the subjects. The decrease varies directly with walking miles, and increased excretion of urinary Ca and Na are observed preceding increased levels of ionized serum calcium on a bed-rest day late in the week. Reduced phosphorous excretions are also followed by increased serum phosphorous on day six, and reductions are noted in parathyroid hormone and vitamin D by the end of the experiment. The data demonstrate the responsiveness of the skeletal system to biomechanical stimuli such as the HDT.

  1. What Is Paget's Disease of Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paget’s disease do not need a special diet. But, to maintain strong bones, you should get 1,200 mg of calcium and at least 400 IU of vitamin D every day. After age 70, you should take 600 IU of vitamin D each day. If you have had kidney stones, talk with your doctor about how much calcium ...

  2. Endocrine-Manifestations of Cirrhosis and Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Khalili, M

    2014-01-01

    The liver is involved in the synthesis and metabolism of many kinds of hormones, various abnormalities hormone levels are found in advanced liver disease. For example the liver is, extremely sensitive to changes in insulin or glucagon levels. The liver is the primary organ of iron storage is frequently involved, diabetes is common in patients with iron overload and may be seen in cirrhosis. Chronic infection with HCV is associated with insulin resistance. Thyroid disease often accompanies chr...

  3. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ying Wu; E Xiao; Dana T Graves

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  4. Endocrine and metabolic disease: Confocal microscopy as a diagnostic aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaikrit Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a systemic disease associated with many complications. These can be prevented and managed effectively if detected promptly. Confocal microscopy (CFM is a diagnostic tool which has the potential to help in early detection of disease and timely management. CFM has the potential to serve as an excellent noninvasive modality for in vivo imaging and morphological analysis, which can aid us in assessing and monitoring various infectious and pathological diseases at the cellular level. Besides ophthalmological indications, CFM has shown good sensitivity and specificity for identifying those at risk of neuropathy and foot ulceration, monitoring evolution and therapeutic response in a wide range of neuropathies apart from diabetic neuropathy. Through this communication, we aim to sensitize the endocrinologists towards cerebral cavernous malformation as a biomarker to evaluate potential outcomes and therapies in human diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Impact of bone marrow on respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Sara M

    2008-06-01

    The bone marrow is not only a site of haematopoiesis but also serves as an important reservoir for mature granulocytes and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. In respiratory diseases, such as asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis these cells are mobilised from the bone marrow in response to blood-borne mediators and subsequently recruited to the lungs. Although the granulocytes contribute to the inflammatory reaction, stem cells may promote tissue repair or remodelling. Understanding the factors and molecular mechanisms that regulate the mobilisation of granulocytes and stem cells from the bone marrow may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of a wide range of respiratory disorders. PMID:18372214

  6. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla;

    2015-01-01

    ). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...... Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Results: Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual...... of (sic)109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. Conclusions: EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those EDCs...

  7. Huntington’s disease : hypothalamic, endocrine and metabolic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Nasir Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear symptoms and signs of Huntington’s disease (HD) consist of motor, cognitive and behavioural disturbances. Other less well-known, but prevalent and debilitating features of HD include unintended weight loss, sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, as well as autonomic nervous system dysf

  8. Host neuro- immuno-endocrine responses in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettori, Elisa; De Laurentiis, Andrea; Dees, W Les; Endruhn, Axel; Rettori, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory complex disease caused by microorganisms. It may be influenced by diverse systemic disorders, environmental, genetic and socio-psychological factors with the ability to alter the balance of the host neuro-immunoendocrine responses. It is characterized by the progressive destruction of the tooth supporting apparatus leading to tooth loss, with possible impact on general health. Starting with a brief description of the periodontium, etiopathogenesis, repair processes and several physiological mechanisms and their disarray on periodontium response to bacterial challenge. Following, the negative effects of stress on the disease and some remarks on the recently discovered effects of oxytocin that modulate stress response and its role in individual coping mechanisms to stress. We also focus on the participation of components and functions of endocannabinoid system with anti-inflammatory actions on gingiva. Finally, a discussion that may link between diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke and metabolic syndrome associated with periodontal disease; all of them sharing a common denominator that is inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24588827

  9. Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cannata, J.B. (Jorge); Rodríguez, Minerva; Gómez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Among the chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone format...

  10. [Role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-11-29

    The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future.

  11. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  12. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  13. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    fracture resistance, whereas regulating the level of the cytokine TGF-beta can offer significant improvements in the stiffness, strength and toughness of bone, and as such may be considered as a therapeutic target to treat increased bone fragility induced by aging, drugs, and disease.

  14. Pediatric endocrine diseases in pre-Hispanic Aztecs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada León, Raúl

    2003-01-01

    Aztec medical and religious knowledge derived from Olmecs (800 BC), Teotihuacans (100 BC) and Toltecs (1100-1521 AC); however, there is no unique source that accurately presents Aztec medicine. Sahagfin combines naturalism and religion but not magic ("First Memorials", "Matritense Codex", "Florentine Codex" and "General History of New Spain"); Hernández gives a naturalistic image but is full of mistakes ("Natural History of the New Spain"); Badiano tries to match Aztecs with contemporary Europeans and with the first century medicine of the Romans ("Badiano Codex"), and Ruiz de Alarcón contains plenty of magical concepts ("Book of Superstition"). For the Aztecs, surveillance of growth was very important and represented a balance between body and soul. They described the different steps of pubertal development. They had specific treatments for thyroid disease in children, mainly hypothyroidism and goiter. There are no references to rickets, nor to type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:12793600

  15. PDX1- and NGN3-mediated in vitro reprogramming of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells into pancreatic endocrine lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limbert, Catarina; Päth, Günter; Ebert, Regina;

    2011-01-01

    Reprogramming of multipotent adult bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) (BM-MSC) represents one of several strategies for cell-based therapy of diabetes. However, reprogramming primary BM-MSC into pancreatic endocrine lineages has not yet been consistently demonstrated....

  16. Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Davel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium plays a vital role in maintaining circulatory homeostasis by the release of relaxing and contracting factors. Any change in this balance may result in a process known as endothelial dysfunction that leads to impaired control of vascular tone and contributes to the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Reduced endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increased production of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin H2 and superoxide anion in conductance and resistance arteries are commonly associated with endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive, diabetic and obese animals, resulting in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and in increased vasoconstrictor responses. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the role of enhanced overactivation ofβ-adrenergic receptors inducing vascular cytokine production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS uncoupling that seem to be the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in hypertension, heart failure and in endocrine-metabolic disorders. However, some adaptive mechanisms can occur in the initial stages of hypertension, such as increased NO production by eNOS. The present review focuses on the role of NO bioavailability, eNOS uncoupling, cyclooxygenase-derived products and pro-inflammatory factors on the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in hypertension, sympathetic hyperactivity, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. These are cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases of high incidence and mortality around the world, especially in developing countries and endothelial dysfunction contributes to triggering, maintenance and worsening of these pathological situations.

  17. A murine model of human myeloma bone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, I.R.; Dallas, S.; Radl, J.; Mundy, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Myeloma causes a devastating and unique form of osteolytic bone disease. Although osteoclast activation is responsible for bone destruction, the precise mechanisms by which myeloma cells increase osteoclast activity have not been defined. An animal model of human myeloma bone disease mould help in c

  18. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2015-08-01

    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  19. The unsolved case of “bone-impairing analgesics”: the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Raffa, Robert B; Mattia, Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. PMID:25848298

  20. Role of the GATA family of transcription factors in endocrine development, function, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, Robert S; Guittot, Séverine Mazaud; Anttonen, Mikko; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2008-04-01

    The WGATAR motif is a common nucleotide sequence found in the transcriptional regulatory regions of numerous genes. In vertebrates, these motifs are bound by one of six factors (GATA1 to GATA6) that constitute the GATA family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. Although originally considered for their roles in hematopoietic cells and the heart, GATA factors are now known to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues where they act as critical regulators of cell-specific gene expression. This includes multiple endocrine organs such as the pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, and especially the gonads. Insights into the functional roles played by GATA factors in adult organ systems have been hampered by the early embryonic lethality associated with the different Gata-null mice. This is now being overcome with the generation of tissue-specific knockout models and other knockdown strategies. These approaches, together with the increasing number of human GATA-related pathologies have greatly broadened the scope of GATA-dependent genes and, importantly, have shown that GATA action is not necessarily limited to early development. This has been particularly evident in endocrine organs where GATA factors appear to contribute to the transcription of multiple hormone-encoding genes. This review provides an overview of the GATA family of transcription factors as they relate to endocrine function and disease.

  1. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However,...

  2. Celiac disease: A missed cause of metabolic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celiac disease (CD is a highly prevalent autoimmune disease. The symptoms of CD are varied and atypical, with many patients having no gastrointestinal symptoms. Metabolic bone disease (MBD is a less recognized manifestation of CD associated with spectrum of musculoskeletal signs and symptoms, viz. bone pains, proximal muscle weakness, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fracture. We here report five patients who presented with severe MBD as the only manifestation of CD. Materials and Methods: Records of 825 patients of CD diagnosed during 2002-2010 were retrospectively analyzed for clinical features, risk factors, signs, biochemical, and radiological parameters. Results: We were able to identify five patients (0.6% of CD who had monosymptomatic presentation with musculoskeletal symptoms and signs in the form of bone pains, proximal myopathy, and fragility fractures without any gastrointestinal manifestation. All the five patients had severe MBD in the form of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. Four of the five patients had additional risk factors such as antiepileptic drugs, chronic alcohol consumption, malnutrition, and associated vitamin D deficiency which might have contributed to the severity of MBD. Conclusion: Severe metabolic disease as the only presentation of CD is rare. Patients show significant improvement in clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters with gluten-free diet, calcium, and vitamin D supplementation. CD should be looked for routinely in patients presenting with unexplained MBD.

  3. Management of adynamic bone disease in chronic kidney disease: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi K. Sista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO work group released recommendations in 2006 to define the bone-related pathology associated with chronic kidney disease as renal osteodystrophy. In 2009, KDIGO released revised clinical practice guidelines which redefined systemic disorders of bone and mineral metabolism due to chronic kidney disease as chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders. Conditions under this overarching term include osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteomalacia, and adynamic bone disease. We aim to provide a brief review of the histopathology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic features of adynamic bone disease, focusing on current trends in the management of this complex bone disorder.

  4. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabaglio, M; Sun, Z; Price, K N;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. METHODS: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years...... of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. RESULTS: The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated...... with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone...

  5. Polyphosphate bone scanning on non-malignant bone disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, D.J.; Gilday, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    The advent of /sup 99m/technetium phosphate bone scanning radiopharmaceuticals has opened new methods of investigation of pediatric bone diseases. In axial skeleton pain, suspected osteomyelitis, evaluation of vascular integrity and suspected but undetected fractures, the bone scan has proved to be a highly complementary study to the radiologic examination.

  6. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. PMID:26051481

  7. Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Rodriguez García, Minerva; Gómez Alonso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Among the chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone formation and bone resorption, and less new bone is formed to replace bone losses. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization as "a disease characterized by low bone mineral density and micro architectural deterioration leading to low bone strength and increased risk of fractures." In the general population, there is a good correlation between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements and bone fractures, but this is not the case with CKD patients. Despite the fact that we have a great number of active antiosteoporotic drugs, the experience in CKD patients is limited. Adynamic bone is suspected based on biochemical parameters, mainly parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone alkaline phosphatase, but it needs to be proven using a bone biopsy, where a low or zero bone formation rate and a reduction or absence of osteoblasts and osteoclasts should be found. The clinical management of adynamic bone has important limitations and currently does not allow taking many active measures. Treatment is mainly based on the prevention of risk factors known to induce PTH oversuppression, such as aluminium and calcium load and very high doses of vitamin D receptor activators. Due to the limitations in the treatment of both conditions, prevention plays a key role in the management of these disorders. PMID:23023723

  8. Lessons from rare diseases of cartilage and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James A; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Boyde, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Studying severe phenotypes of rare syndromes can elucidate disease mechanisms of more common disorders and identify potential therapeutic targets. Lessons from rare bone diseases contributed to the development of the most successful class of bone active agents, the bisphosphonates. More recent research on rare bone diseases has helped elucidate key pathways and identify new targets in bone resorption and bone formation including cathepsin K and sclerostin, for which drugs are now in clinical trials. By contrast, there has been much less focus on rare cartilage diseases and osteoarthritis (OA) remains a common disease with no effective therapy. Investigation of rare cartilage syndromes is identifying new potential targets in OA including GDF5 and lubricin. Research on the arthropathy of the ultra-rare disease alkaptonuria has identified several new features of the OA phenotype, including high density mineralized protrusions (HDMPs) which constitute a newly identified mechanism of joint destruction.

  9. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function.

  10. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  11. The effect of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence on growth and endocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen children with acute leukaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were investigated for growth and endocrine dysfunction. All had undergone bone marrow transplantation prepared with cyclophosphamide and single fraction total body irradiation (900-1000 cGy) between 1.5 and 3.8 (mean 2.2) years previously. The majority exhibited growth failure, of multiple aetiology. Ten patients, of whom eight had had previous prophylactic cranial irradiation, had evidence of growth hormone deficiency based on reduced growth hormone reponse to insulin induced hypoglycaemia. Three had evidence of hypothalamic damage. Gonadal failure was common. All four girls of adolescent age (10.6-14.1 years) had ovarian failure requiring sex steroid replacement. Of eight boys of adolescent age (12.3-18.3 years), two had testicular failure requiring sex steroid supplements. Both had had previous testicular irradiation. Five others had compensated gonadal failure; one had normal Leydig cell function. Abnormalities of the TSH response to TRH occurred in 10 patients but only three had overt hypothyroidism. Unlike growth hormone deficiency, gonadal and thyroid dysfunction showed no correlation with previous cranial radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Asymptomatic Paget's disease of bone presenting with complete atrioventricular block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Rauoof Malik; Nazir A.Lone; Hilal A.Rather; Vicar M Jan; Javid A.Malik; Khursheed A.Khan; S.Jalal

    2008-01-01

    @@ Paget's disease of bone is a deforming bone disease (osteitis deformans) characterized by increased bone remodeling,bone hypertrophy,and abnormal bone structure,leading to bone expansion,deformities,easy fractures,and occasionally,neoplastic transformation.It is the second most common bone disorder after osteoporosis.1 The disease is relatively rare in Asia but is common in Europe and North America,affecting approximately 2% of the population over 50 years,although lately,a decline in the prevalence has been reported.2 Paget's disease commonly affects people in or past their middle age and is slightly more common in men than in women.1 The exact cause of Paget's disease is not known.Environmental agents,particularly paramyxoviral infections (measles and canine distemper viruses) have been postulated as potential etiological factors.3 Recently,a strong genetic component has been described,with candidate loci suggested at 18q,5q35-QTER,and particularly,the squestosome 1/p62.2,3 The pathological process in Paget's disease consists of one or more areas of aggressive and relentless osteoclastic activity,coupled with deposition of structurally abnormal excessive bone and matrix tissues.1,4 Most of the cases involve only one (monostotic) or few bones,particularly skull,vertebrae,pelvis,femur,and tibia.

  13. Nanotechnology in the targeted drug delivery for bone diseases and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenyi Gu,1,2 Chengtie Wu,3 Jiezhong Chen,1 Yin Xiao1 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment approaches. Similarly, this technique has been used for treating bone diseases including bone regeneration. In this review, we have summarized and highlighted the recent advancement of nanostructured particles and scaffolds for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis, osteosarcoma, bone infections and inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as for bone regeneration. Nanoparticles used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules to specific bone sites for gene therapies are also included. The investigation of the implications of nanoparticles in bone diseases have just begun, and has already shown some promising potential. Further studies have to be conducted, aimed specifically at assessing targeted delivery and bioactive scaffolds to further improve their efficacy before they can be used clinically. Keywords: nanoparticles, nanostructured scaffold, cancer bone metastasis, bone diseases, target drug delivery, bone regeneration

  14. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, L; Zoeller, R T; Hass, U; Kortenkamp, A; Grandjean, P; Myers, J P; DiGangi, J; Hunt, P M; Rudel, R; Sathyanarayana, S; Bellanger, M; Hauser, R; Legler, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Heindel, J J

    2016-07-01

    A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation, and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median annual cost of €163 billion (1.28% of EU Gross Domestic Product) across 1000 simulations. We conclude that endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those endocrine disrupting chemicals with the highest probability of causation; a broader analysis would have produced greater estimates of burden of disease and costs. PMID:27003928

  15. Zoledronic acid in the management of metastatic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Polascik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas J Polascik, Vladimir MouravievDuke Prostate Center and Division of Urologic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Many patients with advanced cancer experience decreased bone strength due to metastatic foci, underlying osteoporosis and/or cancer treatment induced bone loss. The clinical consequences of metastatic disease involving the skeleton are widespread. This review focuses on the efficacy, pharmacology, and safety when using intravenous biphosphonate such a zoledronic acid for cancer bone metastases. Zoledronic acid is the gold standard for the medical management of metastatic bone disease. The indications for treatment include prevention of skeletal relevant events (SRE, osteoporotic complications, and palliation of bone pain, among others. Zoledronic acid is the only bisphosphonate effective in decreasing SREs associated with bone metastases from advanced renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer. Regarding prostate cancer, zoledronic acid effectively prevents both bone loss in patients with locally advanced disease receiving androgen deprivation therapy and SREs in men with hormone-refractory or hormonesensitive metastatic disease. Zoledronic acid has an acceptable safety profile and tolerability, and has been effective at significantly decreasing the incidence, delaying the onset, and reducing the overall risk of experiencing an SRE compared to placebo. It is the only bisphosphonate currently approved for the prevention and treatment of skeletal complications in patients with bone metastases due to all solid tumors.Keywords: zoledronic acid, metastatic bone disease, osteoporosis, skeletal relevant events, advanced prostate cancer

  16. Bone marrow invasion in multiple myeloma and metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C; Luna, A

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is the imaging study of choice for the management of bone marrow disease. MRI sequences enable us to integrate structural and functional information for detecting, staging, and monitoring the response the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases in the spine. Whole-body MRI has been incorporated into different guidelines as the technique of choice for managing multiple myeloma and metastatic bone disease. Normal physiological changes in the yellow and red bone marrow represent a challenge in analyses to differentiate clinically significant findings from those that are not clinically significant. This article describes the findings for normal bone marrow, variants, and invasive processes in multiple myeloma and bone metastases.

  17. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system.

  18. Endocrine sequelae of irradiation in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis explores some of the endocrine sequelae following irradiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy in childhood which to date have not been clearly defined. Greater understanding of these sequelae will aid the management of survivors of childhood malignancy, who by virtue of improved management of the primary disease are increasing in number and complexity. The majority of this thesis involves children who have received cranial irradiation for a brain tumour distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but endocrine sequelae in children who have undergone total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for haematological malignancies have also been studied. (author).

  19. Cancer treatment-related bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sue A.; Guise, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Bone health may be impaired in many patients being treated for cancer. Primary tumors that reside in or form metastases to bone can result in compromised skeletal integrity. It has also been increasingly recognized that patients undergoing therapies for treatment of cancer are at higher risk of bone loss. These include androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer among others. Hypogonadism induced by many of these cancer treatments results...

  20. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments

  1. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  2. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...

  3. Disease-specific clinical problems associated with the subchondral bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pape; G. Filardo; E. Kon; C.N. van Dijk; H. Madry

    2010-01-01

    The subchondral bone is involved in a variety of diseases affecting both the articular cartilage and bone. Osteochondral defects in distinct locations and of variable sizes are the final results of different etiologies. These include traumatic osteochondral defects, osteochondritis dissecans, osteon

  4. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Marrow Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonemarrowdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. Roles of FGFs as paracrine or endocrine signals in liver development, health, and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eItoh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The liver plays important roles in multiple processes including metabolism, the immune system, and detoxification and also has a unique capacity for regeneration. FGFs are growth factors that have diverse functions in development, health, and disease. The FGF family now comprises 22 members. Several FGFs have been shown to play roles as paracrine signals in liver development, health, and disease. FGF8 and FGF10 are involved in embryonic liver development, FGF7 and FGF9 in repair in response to liver injury, and FGF5, FGF8, FGF9, FGF17, and FGF18 in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, FGF15/19 and FGF21 are endocrine signals. FGF15/19, which is produced in the ileum, is a negative regulator of bile acid metabolism and a stimulator of gallbladder filling. FGF15/19 is a postprandial, insulin-independent activator of hepatic protein and glycogen synthesis. It is also required for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver regeneration. FGF21 is a hepatokine produced in the liver. FGF21 regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Serum FGF21 levels are elevated in non-alcoholic fatty liver. FGF21 also protects against non-alcoholic fatty liver. These findings provide new insights into roles of FGFs in the liver and potential therapeutic strategies for hepatic disorders.

  6. The Role of Hedgehog Signaling in Tumor Induced Bone Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannonier, Shellese A.; Sterling, Julie A., E-mail: Julie.sterling@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 372335 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Despite significant progress in cancer treatments, tumor induced bone disease continues to cause significant morbidities. While tumors show distinct mutations and clinical characteristics, they behave similarly once they establish in bone. Tumors can metastasize to bone from distant sites (breast, prostate, lung), directly invade into bone (head and neck) or originate from the bone (melanoma, chondrosarcoma) where they cause pain, fractures, hypercalcemia, and ultimately, poor prognoses and outcomes. Tumors in bone secrete factors (interleukins and parathyroid hormone-related protein) that induce RANKL expression from osteoblasts, causing an increase in osteoclast mediated bone resorption. While the mechanisms involved varies slightly between tumor types, many tumors display an increase in Hedgehog signaling components that lead to increased tumor growth, therapy failure, and metastasis. The work of multiple laboratories has detailed Hh signaling in several tumor types and revealed that tumor establishment in bone can be controlled by both canonical and non-canonical Hh signaling in a cell type specific manner. This review will explore the role of Hh signaling in the modulation of tumor induced bone disease, and will shed insight into possible therapeutic interventions for blocking Hh signaling in these tumors.

  7. The Role of Hedgehog Signaling in Tumor Induced Bone Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite significant progress in cancer treatments, tumor induced bone disease continues to cause significant morbidities. While tumors show distinct mutations and clinical characteristics, they behave similarly once they establish in bone. Tumors can metastasize to bone from distant sites (breast, prostate, lung), directly invade into bone (head and neck) or originate from the bone (melanoma, chondrosarcoma) where they cause pain, fractures, hypercalcemia, and ultimately, poor prognoses and outcomes. Tumors in bone secrete factors (interleukins and parathyroid hormone-related protein) that induce RANKL expression from osteoblasts, causing an increase in osteoclast mediated bone resorption. While the mechanisms involved varies slightly between tumor types, many tumors display an increase in Hedgehog signaling components that lead to increased tumor growth, therapy failure, and metastasis. The work of multiple laboratories has detailed Hh signaling in several tumor types and revealed that tumor establishment in bone can be controlled by both canonical and non-canonical Hh signaling in a cell type specific manner. This review will explore the role of Hh signaling in the modulation of tumor induced bone disease, and will shed insight into possible therapeutic interventions for blocking Hh signaling in these tumors

  8. MANAGEMENT OF DISEASES OF LONG BONES WITH KUNTSCHER NAILS

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikant; Vibha; Singh,, G.; Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AIMS: SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The aim of this study was, to devise economical, easy, simple, quick method of fixation of diseased long bones, so that pathological fracture could be prevented and to provide rigid fixation, in those cases which have already developed pathological fractu re, and to achieve arthrodesis. Ten, cases of long bone diseases were managed with the help of K nails, in the Department of Orthopaedics, in CIMS, between, December 2002 ...

  9. Anemia and bone disease of chronic kidney disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemin, Douglas

    2014-12-02

    Anemia and metabolic bone disease accompany chronic kidney disease (CKD), and worsen as CKD progresses. It is likely that both processes contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality seen in CKD. This paper briefly reviews the pathogenesis and diagnosis of anemia and bone disease in CKD, and summarizes recent consensus guidelines for treatment.

  10. A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widhe, Torulf L. [Department of Orthopaedics, Huddinge University Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease in two sisters and one female cousin is described. In infancy, the radiological findings were osteopenia, coxa vara, periosteal cloaking, bowing of the long bones, and flaring of the metaphyses. During growth, spinal pathology developed with compression of the vertebral bodies and scoliosis in one girl and kyphosis in another. All three children had genu valgum and two developed severe S-shaped bowing of the tibiae. Growth was stunted. Inheritance of this disorder is probably recessive. Type I and III collagen biosynthesis was normal. This condition is probably a hitherto undescribed form of osteogenesis imperfecta type III or a new bone disease. (orig.)

  11. Bone disease in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Szejnfeld, V L; Carvalho, A B; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1994-09-01

    The association between idiopathic hypercalciuria and osteopenia (OP) has been recently recognized. It is not established whether or not calcium intake plays a critical role in the loss of bone mass. Fifty-five calcium stone forming patients with either absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) or fasting hypercalciuria (FH), 29 males and 26 premenopausal females, were submitted to dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Calcium intake was assessed by a 72 hr dietary record. OP was detected in 20% (11/55) of patients, being more common among men, 9/26 (35%) than in women, 2/29 (7%), p < 0.05. Male FH patients presented lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than sex, weight and age-matched control (1.058 +/- 0.18 vs 1.209 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, X +/- SD, p < 0.05). OP was more frequent in FH patients, 7/20 (35%) than in AH patients 4/35 (11%), albeit the difference was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between calcium intake and BMD measurement. Six osteopenic male FH patients were further submitted to histomorphometric evaluation with tetracycline double labeling. Bone volume was lower than the controls (13.2 +/- 3.0 vs 27.2 +/- 3.7%, p < 0.05). Osteoid surfaces were reduced, although not significantly (10.1 +/- 8.2% vs 15.9 +/- 6.7%). Eroded surfaces were markedly increased (23.9 +/- 13.4 vs 4.2 +/- 1.4%, p < 0.05). The bone formation rate was very low with a complete lack of tetracycline double labeling in 4 patients. These data suggest low bone volume, tendency to low bone formation, increased bone resorption and a severe mineralization defect, consistent with normal or low bone turnover osteoporosis. PMID:7994936

  12. Human Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation: Growth Factors, Hormones and Regulatory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eijken, Marco

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is the most common bone disease and is characterized by low bone mass, micro architectural deterioration and decreased bone quality resulting in increased risk of fractures. Osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, play a crucial role in the regulation of bone mass and bone quality. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and undergo a complex differentiation process regulated by many endocrine and autocrine factors. In order to develop novel bone anabolic drugs, more knowl...

  13. [Celiac disease and its endocrine and nutritional implications on male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A

    2004-06-01

    The problem of the interference of celiac disease (CD) with the male reproductive system is made evident both by the recognized adverse effects on female reproduction and by the multifactorial nature of the disease. It is important to consider CD as a multifactorial condition since its diverse effects can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. The male CD patient has a greater risk of infertility and other reproductive disturbances, as well as a greater incidence of hypoandrogenism. In this paper the problems of CD associated to endocrine disorders and to deficiencies of micronutrients are discussed. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens. Moreover, attention should be paid to increases of FSH and prolactin; these are not associated to infertility and/or impotence, but they may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health: an example is the increased risk of male osteoporosis in CD patients. Hormone alterations are reversible upon start of the gluten-free diet, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis; this should be performed in the case of clinical suspicion, e.g., unexplained hypoandrogenism. As regards nutritional aspects, the folic acid deficiency of CD can affect rapidly proliferating tissues, such as the embryo and the seminiferous epithelium. More attention should be paid to deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins, such as A and E, observed in CD. Vitamin A is important for Sertoli cell function as well as for early spermatogenetic phases. Vitamin E supports the correct differentiation and function of epidydimal epithelium, spermatid maturation and secretion of proteins by the prostate. Therefore, CD male patients should be considered as vulnerable subjects; thus, the detection of early biomarkers of andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:15289752

  14. Pregnant ewes exposed to multiple endocrine disrupting pollutants through sewage sludge-fertilized pasture show an anti-estrogenic effect in their trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: Monica.Lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ullerakersvaegen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Oberg, Denise [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Larsson, Sune [Department of Orthopaedics, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kyle, Carol E. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Orberg, Jan [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rhind, Stewart M. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    Pregnant ewes were maintained on pastures fertilized, twice yearly, with either sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T) or inorganic fertilizer containing equivalent amounts of nitrogen (Control; C), to determine effects on maternal and fetal bone structures, density and mechanical properties of exposure to environmental concentrations of multiple endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and heavy metal pollutants. The ewes were maintained on the respective pastures from the age of about 8 months until they were 4-6 years of age and they were slaughtered at 110 d gestation. Metaphyseal parts of adult ewe femurs exhibited a significantly reduced mean, total cross sectional area (CSA, - 4%; p < 0.05), lower trabecular bone mineral content (BMC, mg/mm; - 18%; p < 0.05), trabecular bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm{sup 3}, - 8.0%; p < 0.05) and trabecular CSA, mm{sup 2}, - 11.1%; p < 0.05) in T compared with C animals. Femurs of T ewes were stronger than those of C ewes but this may reflect greater body weights. At the mid-diaphyseal part of the fetal bones, there was a reduction in endosteal circumference (- 6.7%, p < 0.05) and marrow cavity area (- 13.8%, p < 0.05) in the female T fetuses compared with female C fetuses. In the male fetuses the mid-diaphyseal part total bone mineral content was higher (+ 3.0%, p < 0.05) in T than in C animals. No treatment difference in biomechanical bending was detected in the fetuses. It is concluded that ewes grazing pasture fertilized with sewage sludge exhibited an anti-estrogenic effect on their trabecular bone in the form of reduced mineral content and density, despite increased body weight. It is suggested that human exposure to low levels of multiple EDCs may have implications for bone structure and human health.

  15. Bone disease in multiple myeloma and precursor disease: novel diagnostic approaches and implications on clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Minter, Alex R; Korde, Neha; TAN, ESTHER; Landgren, Ola

    2011-01-01

    The manifestations of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) can have devastating clinical effects and increase mortality. Recent studies demonstrate that patients with the precursor conditions smoldering MM (SMM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) show evidence of bone disease and increased risk of fractures. The understanding of the pathogenesis of bone disease in MM has expanded in recent years. The traditional skeletal survey will probably be re...

  16. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  17. Lipids and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Pérez-Castrillón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between cholesterol and triglycerides and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease (hypertension and acute coronary syndrome.Methods: The study included 217 patients (83 men and 134 women, aged between 36 and 76 (mean age 59 ± 10, with hypertension and acute coronary syndrome. Information obtained included anthropometric measurements, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides; bone mineral density (BMD was recorded at the lumbar spine.Results: BMD was significantly lower in patients in the higher tertiles of cholesterol (p = 0.041. The effect was maintained after adjustment for age and Body Mass Index (BMI. However, there was no association between the range of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and bone mass.Conclusions: A relationship was found between total cholesterol and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease.

  18. New aspects of radionuclide therapy of bone and joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas in developing countries P-32 is widely used for radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases, in Europe three radionuclides or radiopharmaceutical agents are available for pain palliation: Sr-89, Sm-153-EDTMP, and Re-186-HEDP. Radionuclide therapy for pain palliation is indicated for bone pain due to metastatic malignancy that has involved multiple skeletal sites and has evoked an osteoblastic response on bone scintigraphy. Response rates of about 70-80% in patients with breast or prostate cancer is reported in the literature, less in metastatic lesions of other primary malignancies. Sm-153-EDTMP may also be used for curative treatment of primary bone tumours or their metastases. Radiosynovectomy as therapeutic procedure or rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory joint diseases, persistent synovial perfusion, and other joint diseases is widely used. Using Y-90 for the knee joint, Re-186 for middle sized joints, and Er-169 for small joints an improvement of symptoms may be observed in about 70-80%. (author)

  19. [Insights into cystic fibrosis-related bone disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, C; Bacchetta, J; Reix, P

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), prevalence of late complications such as CF-related bone disease (CFBD) has increased. It was initially described in 24% of the adult population with CF and has also been reported in the pediatric population. CFBD is multifactorial and progresses in different steps. Both decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption (in different amounts) are observed. CFBD is likely primitive (directly related to the CFTR defect itself), but is also worsened by acquired secondary factors such as lung infections, chronic inflammation, denutrition, vitamin deficiency, and decreased physical activity. CFBD may be clinically apparent (i.e., mainly vertebral and costal fractures), or clinically asymptomatic (therefore corresponding to abnormalities in bone density and architecture). CFBD management mainly aims to prevent the occurrence of fractures. Prevention and regular monitoring of bone disease as early as 8 years of age is of the utmost importance, as is the control of possible secondary deleterious CFBD factors. New radiological tools, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, allow an accurate evaluation of cortical and trabecular bone micro-architecture in addition to compartmental density; as such, they will likely improve the assessment of the bone fracture threat in CF patients in the near future. PMID:27345551

  20. LRP4 in neuromuscular junction and bone development and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengyong; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Recent studies have revealed multiple functions and complex signaling mechanisms of LRP4 in different organs and tissues. LPR4 mutation or malfunction has been implicated in neurological disorders including congenital myasthenic syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and diseases of bone or kidney. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". PMID:26071838

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease Impairs Bone Defect Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqing; Kang, Ning; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Dong, Yuliang; Zhou, Liyan; Lin, Yunfeng; Ye, Ling; Liang, Xing; Yuan, Quan

    2016-03-09

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a risk for bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CKD on bone defect repair in rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal renal ablation, and serum levels of BUN and PTH were significantly elevated four weeks after the second renal surgery. Calvarial defects of 5-mm diameter were created and implanted with or without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM). Micro-CT and histological analyses consistently revealed a decreased newly regenerated bone volume for CKD rats after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, 1.4-mm-diameter cortical bone defects were established in the distal end of femora and filled with gelatin sponge. CKD rats exhibited significantly lower values of regenerated bone and bone mineral density (BMD) within the cortical gap after 2 and 4 weeks. Moreover, histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in both osteoblast number (N.Ob/B.Pm) and osteoclast number (N.Oc/B.Pm) in CKD groups due to hyperparathyroidism. Notably, collagen maturation was delayed in CKD rats as verified by Masson's Trichrome staining. These data indicate that declined renal function negatively affects bone regeneration in both calvarial and femoral defects.

  2. From "Kidneys Govern Bones" to Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Bone Disorder: A Crosstalk between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Zou, Xin-Rong; Zhang, Yuan Clare

    2016-01-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of "Kidneys Govern Bones." Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. Two signaling pathways essential for calcium-phosphate metabolism can mediate the effect of kidneys in bone homeostasis, one requiring renal production of bioactive vitamin D and the other involving an endocrine axis based on kidney-expressed Klotho and bone-secreted fibroblast growth factor 23. Disruption of either pathway can lead to calcium-phosphate imbalance and vascular calcification, accelerating metabolic bone disorder. Chinese herbal medicine is an adjunct therapy widely used for treating CKD and diabetes. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a Chinese herbal formulation, Shen-An extracts, in diabetic nephropathy and renal osteodystrophy. We believe that the smart combination of Eastern and Western concepts holds great promise for inspiring new ideas and therapies for preventing and treating complications of CKD and diabetes. PMID:27668003

  3. Management of endocrine disease: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: novel pathogenic insights opening new therapeutic avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Raquel

    2015-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR is primarily present in epithelial cells of the airways, intestine and in cells with exocrine and endocrine functions. Mutations in the gene encoding the channel protein complex (CFTR) cause alterations in the ionic composition of secretions from the lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and also the pancreas. CF-related diabetes (CFRD), the most common complication of CF, has a major detrimental impact on pulmonary function, nutrition and survival. Glucose derangements in CF seem to start from early infancy and, even when the pathophysiology is multifactorial, insulin insufficiency is clearly a major component. Consistently, recent evidence has confirmed that CFTR is an important regulator of insulin secretion by islet β-cells. In addition, several other mechanisms were also recognized from cellular and animals models also contributing to either β-cell mass reduction or β-cell malfunction. Understanding such mechanisms is crucial for the development of the so-called 'transformational' therapies in CF, including the preservation of insulin secretion. Innovative therapeutic approaches aim to modify specific CFTR mutant proteins or positively modulate their function. CFTR modulators have recently shown in vitro capacity to enhance insulin secretion and thereby potential clinical utility in CFDR, including synergistic effects between corrector and potentiator drugs. The introduction of incretins and the optimization of exocrine pancreatic replacement complete the number of therapeutic options of CFRD besides early diagnosis and implementation of insulin therapy. This review focuses on the recently identified pathogenic mechanisms leading to CFRD relevant for the development of novel pharmacological avenues in CFRD therapy. PMID:25336504

  4. Metabolic Bone Disease in the Bariatric Surgery Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery has proven to be a life-saving measure for some, but for others it has precipitated a plethora of metabolic complications ranging from mild to life-threatening, sometimes to the point of requiring surgical revision. Obesity was previously thought to be bone protective, but this is indeed not the case. Morbidly obese individuals are at risk for metabolic bone disease (MBD due to chronic vitamin D deficiency, inadequate calcium intake, sedentary lifestyle, chronic dieting, underlying chronic diseases, and the use of certain medications used to treat those diseases. After bariatric surgery, the risk for bone-related problems is even greater, owing to severely restricted intake, malabsorption, poor compliance with prescribed supplements, and dramatic weight loss. Patients presenting for bariatric surgery should be evaluated for MBD and receive appropriate presurgical interventions. Furthermore, every patient who has undergone bariatric surgery should receive meticulous lifetime monitoring, as the risk for developing MBD remains ever present.

  5. RECENT ADVANCES IN PATHO-BIOLOGY OF MYELOMA BONE DISEASE: CLINICOPATHOLOGY AND LITERATURE OF REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Lohit Kumar; Bhubaneswar

    2016-01-01

    Bone disease is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, presenting as lytic lesions associated with bone pain, pathological fractures requiring surgery and/or radiation to bone, spinal cord compression and hypercalcaemia. Increased osteoclastic activity unaccompanied by a compensatory increase in osteoblast function, leading to enhanced bone resorption results in bone disease. The interaction of plasma cells with the bone marrow microenvironment has been shown to play a vital role. Also,...

  6. Emerging strategies and therapies for treatment of Paget’s disease of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jacques P.

    2011-01-01

    Laëtitia Michou, Jacques P BrownLaval University, Department of Medicine, CHUQ (CHUL) Research Centre and Division of Rheumatology, Quebec City, QC, CanadaAbstract: Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is a progressive monostotic or polyostotic metabolic bone disease characterized by focal abnormal bone remodeling, with increased bone resorption and excessive, disorganized, new bone formation. PDB rarely occurs before middle age, and it is the second most frequent metabolic bone d...

  7. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of

  8. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, V.L.; Soares, L.M.M.; Ribeiro, V.P.B.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of

  9. Cardiovascular implications of endodontic bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dessì, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have a complex etiology determined by risk factors, which are in turn associated to a strong genetic component and to environmental factors. In the biological background for the development of CVD, low-grade chronic inflammation plays a role as a pathogenetic determinant of atherosclerosis. Dental infections have been associated with CVD. Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the supporting tissues of the tooth that can lead to teeth loss. In recent years...

  10. Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Rust, Daniel W.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2009-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated...

  11. Paget’s Disease of Bone among Various Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Merashli; Ali Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is a relatively benign disease common among many European populations, including those in the UK, Italy and Spain. However, it appears to be rare among Scandinavians and non-European immigrants living in Europe. The prevalence among Asian populations may be underestimated because a large number of reported cases were discovered incidentally. There is a need for surveys addressing the prevalence rate and consequences of PDB to be carried out in various parts of th...

  12. In vivo bone aluminum measurements in patients with renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Contamination of the dialysis solution with trace amounts of aluminum and long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders have led to increased body burden of aluminum in patients with end-stage renal disease. A significant clinical problem associated with aluminum-overload is the early diagnosis of aluminum-induced dialysis dementia and osteomalacic osteodystrophy. There are few, if any, blood or urine indices that provide an early monitor of this bone disease, especially in the asymptomatic patient. Although a bone biopsy is usually the basis for the final clinical diagnosis, this procedure is not recommended for routine monitoring of patients. The present technique demonstrates the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum levels in patients with renal failure. The interference normally present from activation of bone phosphorus is eliminated by using a thermal/epithermal neutron beam. For the clinical management of the patients, the Al/Ca ratio for the hand may be more useful than an absolute measurement of the total body or skeletal aluminum burden. The relationship between the increased serum Al levels following disferrioxamine infusion and the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum using the Al/Ca ratio are currently under investigation. The neutron activation procedure presented in this pilot study is a promising new technique with an immediate clinical application. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Neridronic acid for the treatment of bone metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Fracassi, Elena; Adami, Silvano

    2009-10-01

    Neridronic acid (6-amino-1-idroxyesilidene-1,1-bisphosphonate) is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate licensed in Italy for the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta and Paget's disease of bone. The pharmacodynamic profile is similar to that of other nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates and is characterized by its high affinity for bone tissue particularly at sites undergoing a process of remodeling. In growing children affected by osteogenesis imperfect, neridronic acid rapidly increases bone mineral density as measured by dual X-ray absortiometry and this is associated with a significant decrease in fracture cumulative number. Similar results have been obtained also in newborns ( 75% of bone turnover markers) in 95% of the patients. Neridronic acid treatment has been reported to be effective also in other skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis, algodystrophy, hypercalcemia of malignancy and bone metastasis. Neridronic acid has been developed only for parenteral use, and it is the only one used as intramuscular injection. This avoids all the limitations of oral bisphosphonates and may be offered for a home treatment with simple nursing assistance. PMID:19761412

  14. Bone histomorphometry after treatment with teriparatide (PTH 1-34) in a patient with adynamic bone disease subsequent to parathyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Maiwald, Jörg; Wolf, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    A 33-year-old male patient suffered from adynamic bone disease because of parathyroidectomy due to tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Histomorphometric analysis of bone biopsies taken before and 8 months after treatment with teriparatide (human parathyroid hormone 1-34 of recombinant DNA origin) for 18 months is demonstrated. A considerable increase in mineralized bone volume and also stimulated bone remodelling were detected after treatment with teriparatide. Although teriparatide is currently on...

  15. Turner's syndrome presenting as metabolic bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan; Karthik Balachandran; Ramesh Ananthakrishnan; Abdoul Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Turner′s syndrome is a genetic disorder with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome with characteristic phenotypic features. The prevalence of renal anomalies in turner syndrome is 30-40%. However, the renal function is usually normal. We report a case of Turner′s syndrome presenting with chronic kidney disease and renal osteodystrophy.

  16. Turner's syndrome presenting as metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Balachandran, Karthik; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Hamide, Abdoul

    2012-07-01

    Turner's syndrome is a genetic disorder with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome with characteristic phenotypic features. The prevalence of renal anomalies in turner syndrome is 30-40%. However, the renal function is usually normal. We report a case of Turner's syndrome presenting with chronic kidney disease and renal osteodystrophy. PMID:22837932

  17. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  18. Kimura's disease involving a long bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yang-Guk; Kang, Yong-Koo; Bahk, Won-Jong; Cho, Hyun-Min [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Jung, Chan-Kwon; Park, Gyeong-Sin; Lee, An-hi [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Park, Jong-Won [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Kimura's disease is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. It occurs most often in Asian men, usually in the second or third decade of life. Most lesions occur in the head and neck followed by the axilla, groin, popliteal region, and arm. The lesions are commonly found in soft tissues. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one case report of bone involvement in Kimura's disease presented on plain radiography. We report a case of Kimura's disease that involved the proximal meta-diaphysis of the humerus and adjacent soft tissue shown on radiography and MR imaging. (orig.)

  19. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  20. Bone disease in newly diagnosed lupus nephritis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lázara Resende

    Full Text Available Bone loss in Lupus Nephritis (LN patients is common and multifactorial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone status of newly diagnosed LN patients and their correlation with inflammatory factors involved in LN physiopathology.We studied 15 pre-menopausal patients with ≤2 months of diagnosed SLE and LN. Patients with prior kidney or bone disease were excluded. In addition to biochemical evaluation (including 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD] and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP1 dosage, we performed bone biopsies followed by osteoblast culture, histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis.LN patients presented a mean age of 29.5±10 years, a proteinuria of 4.7±2.9 g/day and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR of 37(31-87 ml/min/1,73 m2. They were on glucocorticoid therapy for 34±12 days. All patients presented vitamin D insufficiency (9.9±4.4 ng/ml, range 4-20. Urinary MCP1 correlated negatively with 25(OHD (r = -0.53, p = 0.003 and positively with serum deoxypyridinoline (r = 0.53, p = 0.004. Osteoblasts isolated from LN bone biopsies presented a significantly higher expression of MCP-1 when compared to controls (32.0.±9.1 vs. 22.9±5.3 mean fluorescence intensities, p = 0.01. LN patients presented a significantly reduced osteoid volume, osteoid thickness, osteoid surface, mineralization surface and bone formation rate, associated with an increased eroded surface and osteoclast surface. Patient's bone specimens demonstrated a reduced immunostaining for osteoprotegerin (0.61±0.82 vs. 1.08±0.50%, p = 0.003, and an increased expression of Receptor Activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL (1.76±0.92 vs. 0.41±0.28%, p<0.001 when compared to controls.Newly diagnosed LN patients presented a significant disturbance in bone metabolism, characterized by an impaired bone formation and mineralization, associated with an increase in resorption parameters. Glucocorticoid use, vitamin D insufficiency and

  1. Deficiency of trace elements and bone diseases%微量元素缺乏与骨病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 王永福; 刘忠厚

    2014-01-01

    Bone diseases are one kind of the motor system diseases involving of bone, joint, tendons and fascia.They include osteoporosis, rickets, osteosclerosis, femoral head necrosis, fractures, etc.Several factors affect the development of the diseases, such as genetic, environmental, endocrinal and nutritional factors.In addition to calcium, phosphorus and vitamins which are associated with bone diseases, a number of trace elements are also involved in the growth, development and metabolism of the bone.Furthermore, various trace elements play the different roles in bone metabolism and diseases.Therefore, deficiency of trace elements, which participate in bone metabolism and regeneration, may cause the disorder of bone growth, resorption, and mineral deposition, leading to different types of bone diseases.This paper reviews the distribution of trace elements in the bone, the regulation of bone metabolism, bone diseases due to the deficiency of trace elements, and supplementation of trace elements for prevention and treatment of bone diseases, thus providing theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and therapy of bone diseases for trace element deficiency.%骨病是一类发生在骨骼、关节、肌腱及筋膜等运动系统的疾病,包括骨质疏松、骨软骨病、骨质增生硬化、股骨头坏死及骨折等。骨病的发生发展受众多因素的影响,包括遗传、环境、内分泌和营养等。除了钙、磷等常量元素及维生素与骨病的发生发展相关,体内一些微量元素也参与骨的生长发育和新陈代谢,且各种微量元素在骨代谢调节和骨病发生发展中发挥的作用不同。因而,体内缺乏参与骨代谢和骨再生的微量元素,使骨生长、骨吸收及骨矿物质沉积等过程紊乱,引起不同类型的骨病。本文就与骨代谢相关的微量元素在骨组织中的分布及在骨代谢调节中的作用,微量元素缺乏所致的骨病及补充微量元素对骨病的防治

  2. [Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, B; Schütt, M; Sayk, F

    2012-03-01

    Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy can become life-threatening for both mother and fetus. In addition to some pregnancy-linked endocrine disorders, several pre-existing forms of endocrinopathy, such as Grave's disease, type 1 diabetes and adrenal insufficiency might deteriorate acutely during pregnancy. Early diagnosis and management are challenging because the classical symptoms are often modified by pregnancy. Laboratory tests are subject to altered physiological ranges and pharmacological options are limited while therapeutic goals are stricter than in the non-pregnant patient. This article focuses on endocrine emergencies complicating pregnancy. PMID:22349529

  3. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2A disease. Almost everyone with type 2A disease develops medullary thyroid cancer (see Medullary cancer ). About 40 to ... stones in about 25% of people. Type 2B disease Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B can consist of Medullary thyroid cancer Pheochromocytomas Growths around nerves (neuromas) Many ...

  4. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carla P; Rankin, Sara M

    2011-07-01

    Adult bone marrow contains a number of discrete populations of progenitor cells, including endothelial, mesenchymal, and epithelial progenitor cells and fibrocytes. In the context of a range of diseases, endothelial progenitor cells have been reported to promote angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells are potent immunosuppressors but can also contribute directly to tissue regeneration, and fibrocytes have been shown to induce tissue fibrosis. This article provides an overview of the basic biology of these different subsets of progenitor cells, reporting their distinct phenotypes and functional activities. The differences in their secretomes are highlighted, and the relative role of cellular differentiation vs paracrine effects of progenitor cells is considered. The article reviews the literature examining the contribution of progenitor cells to the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, and discusses recent studies using bone marrow progenitor cells as stem cell therapies in the context of pulmonary hypertension, COPD, and asthma. PMID:21729891

  5. RECENT ADVANCES IN PATHO-BIOLOGY OF MYELOMA BONE DISEASE: CLINICOPATHOLOGY AND LITERATURE OF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohit Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, presenting as lytic lesions associated with bone pain, pathological fractures requiring surgery and/or radiation to bone, spinal cord compression and hypercalcaemia. Increased osteoclastic activity unaccompanied by a compensatory increase in osteoblast function, leading to enhanced bone resorption results in bone disease. The interaction of plasma cells with the bone marrow microenvironment has been shown to play a vital role. Also, interactions of myeloma cells with osteoclasts enhance myeloma growth and survival, and thereby create a vicious cycle leading to extensive bone destruction and myeloma cell expansion.

  6. Adipose, bone and muscle tissues as new endocrine organs: role of reciprocal regulation for osteoporosis and obesity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Wannenes, Francesca; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently been revised. In fact, the latest epidemiologic and clinical studies show that a high level of fat mass, but also reduced muscle mass, might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Furthermore, increasing evidence seems to indicate that different components such as myokines, adipokines and growth factors, released by both fat and muscle tissues, could play a key role in the regulation of skeletal health and in low bone mineral density and, thus, in osteoporosis development. This review considers old and recent data in the literature to further evaluate the relationship between fat, bone and muscle tissue.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF DISEASES OF LONG BONES WITH KUNTSCHER NAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AIMS: SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The aim of this study was, to devise economical, easy, simple, quick method of fixation of diseased long bones, so that pathological fracture could be prevented and to provide rigid fixation, in those cases which have already developed pathological fractu re, and to achieve arthrodesis. Ten, cases of long bone diseases were managed with the help of K nails, in the Department of Orthopaedics, in CIMS, between, December 2002 to January 2005, and cases were followed for about ten years for recurrence, relapse and complications or deterioration of the underlying disease process. METHODS AND MATERIAL : K nailing was done by standard procedure of nailing, applying A O Principles of internal fixation with due emphasis on exact length and thickness of the nail, so as to span the whole length of the bone and should occupy the entire medullary cavity at isthmus, and should achieve three point fixation of the nail in the bone, in order to provide complete rotational stability of the bone and fracture. RESULT : All the cases healed within three to six months of operation. The results were similar to internal fixation done with interlocking nailing or plating, in all the parameters including, knee and hip range of movement, both active and passive, thigh and leg girth, muscle wasting, extensor lag and time of union, but the operative time was half that of interlocking. CONCLUSION : By this study we came to the conclusion that, K nailing is still indispensable implant, and should not be discarded completely. It shou ld be an important inclusion in the inventory of implants in Orthopaedic surgeon basket. Especially in management diseases of long bones, a surgeon has to take care of so many surgical steps that the surgeon is left with very little, anaesthesia and surgic al time to put in complicated lengthy processed implant. In such a situation a K nail serves the purpose. Therefore it should be the most preferred

  8. Short-term endocrine consequences of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation in children treated for leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryalls, M.; Tait, D.M.; Meller, S.T. (Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)); Spoudeas, H.A.; Hindmarsh, P.C.; Brook, C.G.D. (Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Matthews, D.R. (Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom). Diabetes Research Lab.)

    1993-02-01

    We studied 24-h hormone profiles and hormonal responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia prospectively in 23 children of similar age and pubertal stage, nine of whom had received prior cranial irradiation and fourteen of whom had not before and 6-12 months after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transportation in leukaemia. (Author).

  9. Uremic bone diseases - Clinical laboratorial, scintigraphic and radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluated the uremic bone disease in 10 patients on peritoneal dialysis, 10 on hemodialysis and 10 submited to renal transplantation. According to biochemical evaluation we observed hypocalcemia in some patients on dialysis and hipercalcemia in a renal transplanted and in another on peritoneal dialysis. However, there was no significative difference in the serum calcium concentration between the groups and the control group. Hiperphosphatemia occured in 8 patients on peritoneal dialysis and in 9 on hemodialysis and slight hiperphosphatemia occured in 2 renal transplanted patient. The product calcium X phosphorus was elevated in 2 patients on peritoneal dialysis and in 2 on hemodialysis. The magnesium serum concentration were hight in all patients on dialysis and the alkaline phosphatase serum levels were hight in 3 patients dialysis peritoneal and 4 on hemodialysis. A skeleton curvey showed abnormalities in 3 patients on peritoneal dialysis, 5 on hemodialysis and of 5 renal transplanted patients. However there was no significant difference between these results. The bone scanning was abnormal in 6 patients on peritoneal dialysis, 9 patients on hemodialysis and in 8 renal transplanted. The positive results of bone scanning compared with X ray were statistically significative. Bone scanning was the most sensitive method used to detect early abnormalities. (author)

  10. Consensus on Surgical Management of Myeloma Bone Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Myeloma bone disease (MBD), the skeletal lesions caused by multiple myeloma, is also known as skeletal related events and includes bone pain, osteoporosis, pathological fractures, osteolytic bone lesions, spinal instability, spinal cord and nerve root compression and extramedullary plasmacytoma. It is now generally accepted that patients with these complications usually require surgical management and that such treatment is safe and effective. The aims of surgical interventions are to alleviate pain, improve quality of life, treat potential or existing pathological fractures, decompress the spinal cord and nerve roots, and reestablish bone continuity. Thus far, there have not been uniform standards for surgical treatment of MBD. The Surgeon's Committee of the Chinese Myeloma Working Group has therefore achieved a consensus with the aim of providing guidance for clinicians and benefitting patients with MBD. This consensus focuses on the treatment of MBD, including its clinical definition and characteristics, diagnosis and surgical management. This expert consensus document was compiled after discussion and revision by experts from several relevant institutions in China. However, it is only an interim guide that cannot be enforced legally. It will be updated with development of new techniques of treatment. PMID:27627707

  11. The Kidney-Vascular-Bone Axis in the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-03-01

    The last 25 years have been characterized by dramatic improvements in short-term patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Long-term patient and allograft survival remains limited by cardiovascular disease and chronic allograft injury, among other factors. Cardiovascular disease remains a significant contributor to mortality in native chronic kidney disease as well as cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease more than doubles that of the general population. The chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a syndrome recently coined to embody the biochemical, skeletal, and cardiovascular pathophysiology that results from disrupting the complex systems biology between the kidney, skeleton, and cardiovascular system in native and transplant kidney disease. The CKD-MBD is a unique kidney disease-specific syndrome containing novel cardiovascular risk factors, with an impact reaching far beyond traditional notions of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. This overview reviews current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including emerging concepts surrounding the importance of circulating pathogenic factors released from the injured kidney that directly cause cardiovascular disease in native and transplant chronic kidney disease, with potential application to mechanisms of chronic allograft injury and vasculopathy.

  12. How rare bone diseases have informed our knowledge of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Rare bone diseases, generally defined as monogenic traits with either autosomal recessive or dominant patterns of inheritance, have provided a rich database of genes and associated pathways over the past 2-3 decades. The molecular genetic dissection of these bone diseases has yielded some major surprises in terms of the causal genes and/or involved pathways. The discovery of genes/pathways involved in diseases such as osteopetrosis, osteosclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and many other rare bone diseases have all accelerated our understanding of complex traits. Importantly these discoveries have provided either direct validation for a specific gene embedded in a group of genes within an interval identified through a complex trait genome-wide association study (GWAS) or based upon the pathway associated with a monogenic trait gene, provided a means to prioritize a large number of genes for functional validation studies. In some instances GWAS studies have yielded candidate genes that fall within linkage intervals associated with monogenic traits and resulted in the identification of causal mutations in those rare diseases. Driving all of this discovery is a complement of technologies such as genome sequencing, bioinformatics and advanced statistical analysis methods that have accelerated genetic dissection and greatly reduced the cost. Thus, rare bone disorders in partnership with GWAS have brought us to the brink of a new era of personalized genomic medicine in which the prevention and management of complex diseases will be driven by the molecular understanding of each individuals contributing genetic risks for disease. PMID:27688878

  13. Plastics Derived Endocrine Disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) Induce Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity, Reproductive Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1–F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the “plastics” or “lower dose plastics” mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:23359474

  14. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  15. Osteoclast formation from peripheral blood of patients with bone-lytic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. de Vries; V. Everts

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that osteoclast formation in vitro from peripheral blood of patients with diseases associated with bone loss such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, periodontitis and bone metastatic cancer may occur spontaneously being independent of addition of osteoclast formation

  16. Differential diagnosis of metastatic bone disease and benign bone disease on spine SPECT in patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One or more abnormal vertebrae detected on bone scintigraphy is a common finding in clinical practice, and it could pose a diagnostic dilemma especially in cancer patients, as either metastasis or benign disease may cause scintigraphic abnormality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether additional spine SPECT has a role in differentiating malignant from benign lesions in patients with back pain. We reviewed spine SPECT studies obtained over a three-year period in 108 patients. Among them, forty-five patients with abnormal SPECT and clinically followed records were evaluated (20 cancer patients were included). Uptake patterns were classified as follows: 1. Body: diffusely increased uptake, linear increased uptake of end plate, segmental increased uptake, and cold defect, 2 Posterior element; posterior to body (pedicle), posterior to intervertebral disc space (facet joint), and spinous process. Lesions were correlated with radiological findings and with final diagnosis. Sixty-nine bone lesions were detected on SPECT images, including 18 metastases, 28 degenerative diseases and 21 compression fractures. Cold defect (6) and segmental increased uptake (5) were dominant findings in metastasis: linear increased uptake (12), and facet joint uptake (15) were in degenerative change; and diffuse increased uptake (9), and linear increased uptake (9) were in compression fracture. Cold defect and segmental increased uptake of body were characteristic findings of metastasis, but care should be taken because compression fracture also shows segmental increased uptake in some cases. Degenerative disease was easily diagnosed because of the typical finding of linear increased uptake of end plate and facet joint. Therefore, additional bone SPECT after planar bone scan would be helpful for differentiating metastasis from benign condition in cancer patients

  17. Differential diagnosis of metastatic bone disease and benign bone disease on spine SPECT in patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    One or more abnormal vertebrae detected on bone scintigraphy is a common finding in clinical practice, and it could pose a diagnostic dilemma especially in cancer patients, as either metastasis or benign disease may cause scintigraphic abnormality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether additional spine SPECT has a role in differentiating malignant from benign lesions in patients with back pain. We reviewed spine SPECT studies obtained over a three-year period in 108 patients. Among them, forty-five patients with abnormal SPECT and clinically followed records were evaluated (20 cancer patients were included). Uptake patterns were classified as follows: 1. Body: diffusely increased uptake, linear increased uptake of end plate, segmental increased uptake, and cold defect, 2 Posterior element; posterior to body (pedicle), posterior to intervertebral disc space (facet joint), and spinous process. Lesions were correlated with radiological findings and with final diagnosis. Sixty-nine bone lesions were detected on SPECT images, including 18 metastases, 28 degenerative diseases and 21 compression fractures. Cold defect (6) and segmental increased uptake (5) were dominant findings in metastasis: linear increased uptake (12), and facet joint uptake (15) were in degenerative change; and diffuse increased uptake (9), and linear increased uptake (9) were in compression fracture. Cold defect and segmental increased uptake of body were characteristic findings of metastasis, but care should be taken because compression fracture also shows segmental increased uptake in some cases. Degenerative disease was easily diagnosed because of the typical finding of linear increased uptake of end plate and facet joint. Therefore, additional bone SPECT after planar bone scan would be helpful for differentiating metastasis from benign condition in cancer patients.

  18. Evasion and Immuno-Endocrine Regulation in Parasite Infection: Two Sides of the Same Coin in Chagas Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R.; González, Florencia B.; Pérez, Ana R.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease. PMID:27242726

  19. Bilateral orbital bone infarction in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Roya H; Lee, Irene; Freitag, Suzanne K; Pira, Tony N

    2011-01-01

    This is a case of a 2-year-old boy with sickle cell disease who presented with bilateral eyelid swelling, limited extraocular motility, and lateral subperiosteal fluid collection associated with bilateral lateral orbital wall infarctions on MRI. The patient was managed medically with intravenous fluids, analgesics, broad-spectrum antibiotics, systemic steroids, and clinically improved. Patients with sickle cell disease are susceptible to infarction of the orbital bones during vaso-occlusive crises. Orbital wall infarction can lead to acute proptosis and restricted extraocular motility. Orbital wall infarction should be considered in sickle cell patients with orbital diseases so that appropriate treatment can be instituted promptly to prevent the serious sequelae of orbital compression syndrome. PMID:20577135

  20. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  1. In vivo identical reversibility of rad-bio-chem lesions in blood, bone marrow, liver, endocrine system and on the whole body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental scientific researches of a new patented pharmaceutical product STANOSIMAGNE, was initiated, directed and developed since 1995, as interdisciplinary challenge for in vivo decorporation on natural way of radio-toxic uranium (235U) and radionuclides, and the treatment of lesions induced by radiation injury, or heavy metals. The synergic effect - decorporation and reversibility - for in vivo identical reversibility of rad-bio-chem lesions in blood, bone marrow, liver, endocrine system, derma and vital organs verifies and sustains the scientific discovery. The safety and efficiency of clinical administration of the medicine STANOSIMAGNE capsules and ointment is based on the non-clinic (pre-clinic) practical pharmacological research on 635 standard laboratory animals regarding the absence of any kind of toxicity. The pharmacology researches have been carried out, along with medical, pharmaceutical and biochemical didactic specialists, coming from the Laboratories Departments of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry, Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technique of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy 'Carol Davila', Bucharest. The treatment of the persons exposed to irradiation or heavy metals contamination, in risk areas, and the continuation of the pilot clinical studies on several cases, that could not be solved by regular medical methods and treatments, are in accordance with the Directive 2001/20/CE, of the Parliament of the European Union, which implement the norms of good practice, in clinical studies.(author)

  2. Circulating microRNAs as novel biomarkers for bone diseases - Complex signatures for multifactorial diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Matthias; Heilmeier, Ursula; Weilner, Sylvia; Grillari, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Biomarkers are essential tools in clinical research and practice. Useful biomarkers must combine good measurability, validated association with biological processes or outcomes, and should support clinical decision making if used in clinical practice. Several types of validated biomarkers have been reported in the context of bone diseases. However, because these biomarkers face certain limitations there is an interest in the identification of novel biomarkers for bone diseases, specifically in those that are tightly linked to the disease pathology leading to increased fracture-risk. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most abundant RNA species to be found in cell-free blood. Encapsulated within microvesicles or bound to proteins, circulating miRNAs are remarkably stable analytes that can be measured using gold-standard technologies such as quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR). Nevertheless, the analysis of circulating miRNAs faces several pre-analytical as well as analytical challenges. From a biological view, there is accumulating evidence that miRNAs play essential roles in the regulation of various biological processes including bone homeostasis. Moreover, specific changes in miRNA transcription levels or miRNA secretory levels have been linked to the development and progression of certain bone diseases. Only recently, results from circulating miRNAs analysis in patients with osteopenia, osteoporosis and fragility fractures have been reported. By comparing these findings to studies on circulating miRNAs in cellular senescence and aging or muscle physiology and sarcopenia, several overlaps were observed. This suggests that signatures observed during osteoporosis might not be specific to the pathophysiology in bone, but rather integrate information from several tissue types. Despite these promising first data, more work remains to be done until circulating miRNAs can serve as established and robust diagnostic tools for bone diseases in clinical research, clinical

  3. Graves-Basedow disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One severe aplastic anaemia case who presented autoimmune thyroid disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is described. A 19 year old Polish girldeveloped Graves' hyperthyroidisms 19 months after allogeneic BMT for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) donated from her brother. Her serum was positive for thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (aTPO) while her brother remained euthyroid, seronegative for TSAb, and showed no clinical signs of thyroid pathology. The genetic studies of lymphocytes FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and analysis of STR (short tandem repeated) fragments suggested, that lymphocytes responsible for hyperthyroidisms were of donor origin. (author)

  4. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: A New Player in Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Emma V.; Edwards, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow is a favored site for a number of cancers, including the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma, and metastasis of breast and prostate cancer. This specialized microenvironment is highly supportive, not only for tumor growth and survival but also for the development of an associated destructive cancer-induced bone disease. The interactions between tumor cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts are well documented. By contrast, despite occupying a significant proportion of the bone marrow, the importance of bone marrow adipose tissue is only just emerging. The ability of bone marrow adipocytes to regulate skeletal biology and hematopoiesis, combined with their metabolic activity, endocrine functions, and proximity to tumor cells means that they are ideally placed to impact both tumor growth and bone disease. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of how marrow adipose tissue contributes to bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease.

  5. MRI for response assessment in metastatic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecouvet, F.E.; Larbi, A.; Pasoglou, V.; Omoumi, P.; Michoux, N.; Malghem, J.; Berg, B.C. vande [UCL, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, IREC, Institut de Recherche Clinique, Centre du Cancer, Brussels (Belgium); Tombal, B. [UCL, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Service d' Urologie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, IREC, Institut de Recherche Clinique, Centre du Cancer, Brussels (Belgium); Lhommel, R. [UCL, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, IREC, Institut de Recherche Clinique, Centre du Cancer, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-15

    Beyond lesion detection and characterisation, and disease staging, the quantification of the tumour load and assessment of response to treatment are daily expectations in oncology. Bone lesions have been considered ''non-measurable'' for years as opposed to lesions involving soft tissues and ''solid'' organs like the lungs or liver, for which response evaluation criteria are used in every day practice. This is due to the lack of sensitivity, specificity and measurement capabilities of imaging techniques available for bone assessment, i.e. skeletal scintigraphy (SS), radiographs and computed tomography (CT). This paper reviews the possibilities and limitations of these techniques and highlights the possibilities of positron emission tomography (PET), but mainly concentrates on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Practical morphological and quantitative approaches are proposed to evaluate the treatment response of bone marrow lesions using ''anatomical'' MRI. Recent developments of MRI, i.e. dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), are also covered. (orig.)

  6. Endocrine Labomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory endocrinology forms an integral part of 21 st century endocrinology. Perhaps, no other specialty of medicine is as closely associated with laboratory as endocrinology. This review intends to highlight the challenges faced by an endocrinologist before interpreting a hormone assay report. This review by no means is holistic but intends to highlight some of the pitfalls of laboratory endocrinology and arouse further interest in this important but neglected section of endocrinology. Lack of standardization, as well as rigorous implementation is some of the major challenges facing endocrine assays in our country. It is essential to be aware not only of the details of the method of analysis of a hormone, the pre-analytical requisites, but also disease-specific analytical issues to prevent unnecessary concern both for the patient, as well as the treating physician, as well as needless investigations. Problems with interpretation of serum prolactin, thyroglobulin, steroid hormone assays, rennin assay and vitamin-D assay have been highlighted.

  7. Role of Bone Biopsy in Stages 3 to 4 Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Sprague, Stuart M.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops relatively early in chronic kidney disease as a consequence of impaired phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D homeostasis. The disease state in chronic kidney disease, which includes the histologic features of bone disease, defined as renal osteodystrophy, and the hormonal and biochemical disturbances, have recently been redefined as a disease syndrome and is referred to as “chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder.” As chronic kidney disease progres...

  8. The Application of Bone Marrow Transplantation to the Treatment of Genetic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkman, Robertson

    1986-06-01

    Genetic diseases can be treated by transplantation of either normal allogeneic bone marrow or, potentially, autologous bone marrow into which the normal gene has been inserted in vitro (gene therapy). Histocompatible allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is used for the treatment of genetic diseases whose clinical expression is restricted to lymphoid or hematopoietic cells. The therapeutic role of bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of generalized genetic diseases, especially those affecting the central nervous system, is under investigation. The response of a generalized genetic disease to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be predicted by experiments in vitro. Gene therapy can be used only when the gene responsible for the disease has been characterized. Success of gene therapy for a specific genetic disease may be predicted by its clinical response to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  9. The relationship between endocrine-metabolism system and the liver diseases%内分泌代谢与肝脏疾病之间的相互关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋勇峰; 赵家军

    2010-01-01

    越来越多的研究发现内分泌代谢疾病与肝脏疾病之间是相互影响的,内分泌代谢疾病可以引起肝脏功能的变化,反之,肝脏疾病也可以引起内分泌代谢功能的紊乱.%More and more studies suggest that endocrine-metabolic diseases and liver diseases influence each other. Endocrine-metabolic diseases may lead to abnormal liver function, and liver diseases are found also to cause disturbance of endocrine-metabolic system.

  10. Steroid hormone therapy for female reproductive endocrine disease%女性生殖内分泌疾病与甾体激素治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛姣; 徐望明

    2012-01-01

    女性生殖内分泌功能受神经内分泌系统的支配和调控,因此各种女性生殖内分泌疾病除因生殖内分泌系统本身异常或缺陷外还和神经内分泌有关.甾体激素为女性生殖内分泌疾病治疗中的主要药物.本综述对女性生殖内分泌疾病治疗中常用的甾体激素及其作用机制与用药方案作简单介绍.%The reproductive endocrine system is controlled and regulated by the neuroendocrine system. Various female reproductive endocrine diseases will appear while the reproductive endocrine system and neuroendocrine are abnormal. Steroid hormone therapy is a major treatment for them. This paper reviews the steroid hormone classification, its mechanism and specific usage in female reproductive endocrine disease.

  11. Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, KMA; van Beek, AP; Lentjes, EGWM; Post, JG; van der Luijt, RB; Carnninga-van Dijk, MR; Lips, CJM

    2005-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age. The penetrance of MEN1 a

  12. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Van Veld, P.A.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Radioimmunological determination of the level of luteinizing hormone in the serum in the case of various gonadal disturbances and other endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to determine radioimmunologically the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the serum in the case of various gonadal disturbances and other endocrine diseases with the aid of the double antibody method, and to compare the results within different diagnosis groups to each other and to compare these results with those found in the published literature. It was tested whether and with which accuracy the radioimmunological determination of LH in the serum can contribute to the diagnosis of pituitary gonad diseases and whether in the case of endocrine diseases the accompanying disturbances of the gonadotropin secretion which primarily do not affect the hypothalamo - hypophyso - gonadal circuit are demonstrable. The study results for the diagnosis groups primary and secondary hypogonadism of various genesis, gynacomastia, impotentia coeundi, primary and secondary ovarial insufficiency, hirsutism and adiposity were presented and discussed. (orig.)

  14. Paget's disease diagnosed on bone scintigraphy: Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paget's disease of bone is a chronic bone remodeling disorder. Although most patients are asymptomatic, a variety of symptoms and complications may develop directly from bone involvement or secondarily due to compression by the expanded bone. It is usually diagnosed from radiological and biochemical abnormalities or in advanced cases it becomes clinically evident due to the expanded bone. We report a case of Paget's disease which was detected incidentally during evaluation of nephrolithiasis and polyarthritis but had normal radiographs and normal biochemical markers

  15. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S. R.; Williams, C E; Edwards, R H; Davies, J M

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen consecutive patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease (HD) referred for autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) underwent quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow. Markedly elevated lumbar vertebral marrow T1 values suggestive of bone marrow involvement with HD were seen in four patients, two of whom had no evidence of HD on bilateral iliac crest bone marrow biopsy. Serial studies showed normalisation of T1 values in the post-...

  16. Physiology and molecular characterization of metabolism related mouse models for bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Shen

    2015-01-01

    Bone disorders are commonly associated with various metabolic diseases. Two ENU- induced mutant mouse lines were analyzed to explore the relationship between bone and metabolic phenotypes. SATB2 was proven to regulate bone development. In addition, a previously unknown role of the gene in energy metabolism was uncovered. Only a minor influence on bone homeostasis and energy metabolism could be attributed to the T720A mutation of DLL1.

  17. Clinical relevance of changes in bone metabolism in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pal; Miheller; Katalin; Lrinczy; Peter; Laszlo; Lakatos

    2010-01-01

    Low bone mineral density is an established, frequent, but often neglected complication in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Data regarding the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of low bone mass in IBD has been partially extrapolated from postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, the pathophysiology of bone loss is altered in young patients with IBD. Fracture, a disabling complication, is the most important clinical outcome of low bone mass. Estimation of fracture risk in IBD is difficult. Numerous ...

  18. Roles of FGFs As Paracrine or Endocrine Signals in Liver Development, Health, and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Konishi, Morichika

    2016-01-01

    The liver plays important roles in multiple processes including metabolism, the immune system, and detoxification and also has a unique capacity for regeneration. FGFs are growth factors that have diverse functions in development, health, and disease. The FGF family now comprises 22 members. Several FGFs have been shown to play roles as paracrine signals in liver development, health, and disease. FGF8 and FGF10 are involved in embryonic liver development, FGF7 and FGF9 in repair in response t...

  19. Vitamin D endocrine system and the immune response in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Plebani, M; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Adorini, Luciano; Tincani, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. The presence of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in the cells of the immune system and the fact that several of these cells produce the vitamin D hormone suggested that vitamin D could have immunoregulatory properties, and now potent immunomodulatory activities on dendritic cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as B cells have been confirmed. Serum levels of vitamin D have been found to be significantly lower in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, and type-1 diabetes mellitus than in the healthy population. In addition, it was also found that lower levels of vitamin D were associated with higher disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Promising clinical results together with evidence for the regulation of multiple immunomodulatory mechanisms by VDR agonists represent a sound basis for further exploration of their potential in the treatment of rheumatic autoimmune disorders.

  20. Immuno-neuro-endocrine networks: A study on the inflammatory state of circulating monocytes and CD4+ T cells in psychiatric and endocrine autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Drexhage (Roos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with immune aspects of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autoimmune thyroid disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus and therefore we give a short introduction to each disease.

  1. Treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type B by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Vellodi, A.; Hobbs, J. R.; O'Donnell, N M; Coulter, B S; Hugh-Jones, K.

    1987-01-01

    Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was carried out on a 3 year old girl with Niemann-Pick disease type B. Successful engraftment was achieved, and nine months after the procedure there was definite clearing of the sphingomyelin from the liver and pronounced clearing from the bone marrow. Any patient with Niemann-Pick disease type B complicated by early or severe hepatic impairment should be considered for bone marrow transplantation.

  2. SERUM YKL-40 IS ASSOCIATED WITH BONE DISEASE IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne Kjærsgaard; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S.;

    2007-01-01

     Introduction. The secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 (CHI3L1, HC gp-39) is a potential player in the tumor-host interactions affecting several aspects of multiple myeloma (MM) including bone destruction. Previous studies support a role for YKL-40 in remodelling of the extracellular matrix...... to progression of myeloma-related bone disease. A potential role for YKL-40 in the bone disease of MM must be considered....

  3. Vaspin与内分泌相关疾病的关系%Relationship of vaspin and endocrine related diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红艳; 邸阜生

    2012-01-01

    内脏脂肪组织来源的丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂(vaspin)是新近发现的一种脂肪细胞因子,具有改善葡萄糖耐量,增加胰岛素敏感性的作用.研究发现,vaspin在脂肪组织、肝脏、皮肤、胰腺、下丘脑等器官均有表达,其表达受性别、年龄、饮食、运动、药物及激素等多因素影响.研究表明,vaspin 在内分泌相关疾病的发生、发展中发挥了胰岛素增敏、激素分泌调节及抗炎等重要作用.%Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin),a newly identified adi pocytokine,can improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.Expression of vaspin has been found in adipose tissue,liver,skin,pancreas,and hypothalamus,and can be influenced by multiple factors including gender,age,diet,excise,drugs,and hormone.Studies have demonstrated that vaspin plays an important role in insulin-sensitizing,regulating hormone secretion and anti-inflammatory of endocrine related diseases.

  4. The role of biochemical of bone turnover markers in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease: a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, E; Bergmann, P; Bruyère, O; Delanaye, P; Durnez, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Ferrari, S L; Gielen, E; Goemaere, S; Kaufman, J-M; Toukap, A Nzeusseu; Reginster, J-Y; Rousseau, A-F; Rozenberg, S; Scheen, A J; Body, J-J

    2016-07-01

    The exact role of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the management of metabolic bone diseases remains a topic of controversy. In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aimed to provide a state of the art on the use of these biomarkers in different clinical or physiological situations like in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men, in elderly patients, in patients suffering from bone metastasis, in patients with chronic renal failure, in pregnant or lactating women, in intensive care patients, and in diabetics. We also gave our considerations on the analytical issues linked to the use of these biomarkers, on potential new emerging biomarkers, and on the use of bone turnover biomarkers in the follow-up of patients treated with new drugs for osteoporosis. PMID:27026330

  5. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  6. MicroRNAs in the control of metastatic bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Gillian; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and devastating complication of late stage breast and prostate cancer. Complex interactions between tumor cells, bone cells and a milieu of components in their microenvironment contribute to the osteolytic, osteoblastic or mixed lesions present in patients with metastasis to bone. In the last decade, miRNAs have emerged as key players in cancer progression yet the importance of miRNAs in regulating cancer metastasis to bone is now being appreciated. Here, we emphas...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor Encyclopedia: Pheochromocytoma Encyclopedia: Pituitary Tumor Health Topic: Endocrine Diseases Health Topic: Parathyroid Disorders Health Topic: Pheochromocytoma Health Topic: Thyroid Cancer Genetic ...

  8. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Acromegaly and cancer: an old debate revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Ayuk, John

    2016-10-01

    Based on experimental and animal models, epidemiological data from non-acromegaly populations, and longitudinal and cross-sectional cohorts of patients with acromegaly, a potential association between acromegaly and cancer has long been hypothesized, in particular colorectal cancer, and, to a lesser extent, breast, thyroid and prostate cancers. The exact mechanisms underlying this potential association have not been fully elucidated. Results from studies examining cancer incidence and mortality in acromegaly have been inconsistent, with some demonstrating increased risk, whereas others show no increase. This article reviews the existing data relating to cancer risk and mortality in acromegaly, exploring the limitations of study designs and the impact of changes in disease control and patient outcomes over time. PMID:27089890

  9. Questions from the clinician to the radiologist regarding the diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.; Schmidt, M.

    1986-12-01

    Macromorphological X-ray findings in metabolic bone diseases can be established only in advanced stages. Micromorphological X-ray diagnostic procedures will support the diagnosis even in early stages. Mineralometric examinations are adjuvant methods for early diagnosis and survey of therapy in metabolic bone diseases. The synopsis of parameters of calcium phosphate metabolism, bone histology (histomorphometry) and radiological morphology enables the type and stage of osteopathy to be diagnosed. The supplementary diagnostic methods are helpful in distinguishing bone diseases with increased turnover, inpaired bone modelling and absorption, disturbed mineralization and ectopic calcification. Within the metabolic osteopathies, osteoporosis is gaining more and more importance as a socioeconomic problem; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are of significant relevance. Hyper-, hypoparathyroidism and osteoidosis are diseases at can be cured if diagnosed early.

  10. Lumbar gibbus in storage diseases and bone dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The objective of this study was to review the problem of lumbar gibbus in children with storage diseases and bone dysplasias utilizing plain films and MR imaging. Materials and methods. Clinical histories and radiographic images in five patients with storage diseases [four mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and one mucolipidosis[ and two with achondroplasia were reviewed. The International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (Los Angeles, Calif.), surveyed for all patients with lumbar gibbus and skeletal dysplasias, provided 12 additional cases. Results. All patients had localized gibbus of the upper lumbar spine, characterized by anterior wedging and posterior displacement of the vertebrae at the apex of the curve, producing a beaked appearance. The curve, exaggerated in the sitting or standing position, was most severe in the two patients with MPS-IV (one of whom died). Both developed severe neurologic signs and symptoms requiring surgical intervention. In four patients, MR images demonstrated the apex of the curve to be at or below the conus. Two patients demonstrated anterior herniation of the intervertebral discs at the apex of the curve, though the signal intensity of the intervertebral discs was normal. Conclusion. Lumbar gibbus has important neurologic and orthopedic implications, and is most severe in patients with MPS. The etiology of the gibbus with vertebral beaking is multifactorial and includes poor truncal muscle tone, weight-bearing forces, growth disturbance and anterior disc herniation. The curve is generally at or below the conus. Neurologic complications are unusual, although orthopedic problems can arise. Due to their longer survival, patients with achondroplasia or Morquio's disease are more vulnerable to eventual gibbus-related musculoskeletal complications. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Lumbar gibbus in storage diseases and bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, NY (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, NY (United States); Lachman, R.S. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anyane-Yeboa, K. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, NY (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, NY (United States); Roye, D.P. Jr. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, NY (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to review the problem of lumbar gibbus in children with storage diseases and bone dysplasias utilizing plain films and MR imaging. Materials and methods. Clinical histories and radiographic images in five patients with storage diseases [four mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and one mucolipidosis] and two with achondroplasia were reviewed. The International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (Los Angeles, Calif.), surveyed for all patients with lumbar gibbus and skeletal dysplasias, provided 12 additional cases. Results. All patients had localized gibbus of the upper lumbar spine, characterized by anterior wedging and posterior displacement of the vertebrae at the apex of the curve, producing a beaked appearance. The curve, exaggerated in the sitting or standing position, was most severe in the two patients with MPS-IV (one of whom died). Both developed severe neurologic signs and symptoms requiring surgical intervention. In four patients, MR images demonstrated the apex of the curve to be at or below the conus. Two patients demonstrated anterior herniation of the intervertebral discs at the apex of the curve, though the signal intensity of the intervertebral discs was normal. Conclusion. Lumbar gibbus has important neurologic and orthopedic implications, and is most severe in patients with MPS. The etiology of the gibbus with vertebral beaking is multifactorial and includes poor truncal muscle tone, weight-bearing forces, growth disturbance and anterior disc herniation. The curve is generally at or below the conus. Neurologic complications are unusual, although orthopedic problems can arise. Due to their longer survival, patients with achondroplasia or Morquio`s disease are more vulnerable to eventual gibbus-related musculoskeletal complications. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  13. Autologous bone marrow cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available C Botti, C Maione, A Coppola, V Sica, G CobellisDepartment of General Pathology, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Inadequate blood supply to tissues caused by obstruction of arterioles and/or capillaries results in ischemic injuries – these injuries can range from mild (eg, leg ischemia to severe conditions (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke. Surgical and/or endovascular procedures provide cutting-edge treatment for patients with vascular disorders; however, a high percentage of patients are currently not treatable, owing to high operative risk or unfavorable vascular involvement. Therapeutic angiogenesis has recently emerged as a promising new therapy, promoting the formation of new blood vessels by the introduction of bone marrow–derived stem and progenitor cells. These cells participate in the development of new blood vessels, the enlargement of existing blood vessels, and sprouting new capillaries from existing blood vessels, providing evidence of the therapeutic utility of these cells in ischemic tissues. In this review, the authors describe peripheral arterial disease, an ischemic condition affecting the lower extremities, summarizing different aspects of vascular regeneration and discussing which and how stem cells restore the blood flow. The authors also present an overview of encouraging results from early-phase clinical trials using stem cells to treat peripheral arterial disease. The authors believe that additional research initiatives should be undertaken to better identify the nature of stem cells and that an intensive cooperation between laboratory and clinical investigators is needed to optimize the design of cell therapy trials and to maximize their scientific rigor. Only this will allow the results of these investigations to develop best clinical practices. Additionally, although a number of stem cell therapies exist, many treatments are performed outside international and national regulations and many

  14. Bone mineral disorder in chronic kidney disease: Klotho and FGF23; cardiovascular implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova Villanueva, Laura; Sánchez González, Carmen; Sánchez Tomero, José Antonio; Aguilera, Abelardo; Ortega Junco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular factors are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Bone mineral metabolism disorders and inflammation are pathological conditions that involve increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease. The cardiovascular risk involvement of bone mineral metabolism classical biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, vitamin D and PTH is well known. The newest markers, FGF23 and klotho, could also be implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  15. Rheumatic manifestations of primary and metastatic bone tumors and paraneoplastic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waimann, Christian A; Lu, Huifang; Suarez Almazor, Maria E

    2011-11-01

    Bone tumors can show a wide range of nonspecific rheumatic manifestations. The presence of unexplained or atypical chronic bone pain, an enlarging bone mass, neurovascular compression syndromes, or pathologic fractures should alert us to the possibility of a bone tumor causing these symptoms. These patients must undergo a complete physical examination; adequate imaging; and, if needed, a biopsy to confirm their diagnosis and offer them an opportune treatment. In addition, bone tumors and other malignancies can present remote clinical manifestations and unusual laboratory findings (eg, HOA, hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and hypercalcemia) that may be the first and early manifestation of an occult cancer. These findings should motivate a cancer screening according to age, sex, and personal history. Cancer therapies also have a big impact on bone health, increasing the risk of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and/or osteonecrosis. Rheumatologists should be aware of possible long-term adverse events of cancer treatment to avoid future complications.

  16. Burden of metastatic bone disease from genitourinary malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Peter F; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-11-01

    Bone metastases are common among patients with stage IV genitourinary cancers. Most patients with bone metastases develop at least one debilitating and potentially life-limiting skeletal-related event. These events are associated with increased medical expenses and decreased quality of life. Current guidelines recommend screening for bone metastases in men with high-risk prostate cancer, but guidance for screening and treatment of bone metastases from genitourinary cancers varies by country and setting. Several bisphosphonates have been evaluated in the advanced genitourinary cancer setting. Zoledronic acid has demonstrated efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from a broad range of solid tumors including prostate, renal and bladder cancers, and is recommended for preserving bone health.

  17. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  18. Management of endocrine disease: Mortality remains increased in Cushing's disease despite biochemical remission: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haalen, Femke M; Broersen, Leonie H A; Jorgensen, Jens O; Pereira, Alberto M; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether mortality is increased in patients biochemically cured after initial treatment for Cushing's disease. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up studies in patients cured from Cushing's disease after initial treatment was performed. Eight electronic databases were searched from 1975 to March 2014 to identify potentially relevant articles. Original articles reporting the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for patients cured of Cushing's disease were eligible for inclusion. SMRs were pooled in a random effects model. I(2) statistics was used for quantification of heterogeneity. Eight cohort studies with a total of 766 patients were included. Out of eight studies, seven showed an SMR above 1.0 for cured patients. The pooled SMR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.4-4.2). The I(2) statistics showed evidence for statistical heterogeneity (78%, Q-statistics PCushing's disease even after initial biochemical cure remission, suggesting that cure does not directly reverse the metabolic consequences of long-term overexposure to cortisol. Other conditions such as hypopituitarism, including persistent adrenocortical insufficiency after surgery, may also contribute to the increased mortality risk.

  19. Pathogenesis of Bone Alterations in Gaucher Disease: The Role of Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Marcos Mucci; Paula Rozenfeld

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher, the most prevalent lysosomal disorder, is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder due to a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Glucocerebrosidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of glucosylceramide primarily in cells of mononuclear-macrophage lineage. Clinical alterations are visceral, hematological, and skeletal. Bone disorder in Gaucher disease produces defects on bone metabolism and structure and patients suffer from bone pain and crisis. Skeletal problems include osteopenia,...

  20. [Endocrine problems during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Klaus; Hintze, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disorders may have an important influence on fertility, the course of a pregnancy and fetal development. For example, fertility is decreased and the risk of miscarriage is increased in women with autoimmune disorders, such as Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroiditis. Treatment of endocrine diseases in many cases has to be adapted during the course of a pregnancy. In patients with Addison's disease the dosage of hydrocortisone necessarily has to be increased. This is also valid for the time of delivery. Disorders of the thyroid gland are of great importance during pregnancy. If hypothyroidism is diagnosed in early pregnancy, immediate treatment with levothyroxine should be initiated. Iodine supplementation is strongly recommended in all pregnant and breast-feeding women. Treatment of Graves's disease will be performed during the first trimenon with propylthiouracile, afterwards with methimazole (thiamazole). In contrast, thyrotoxicosis due to hCG should not be treated with methimazole. In this paper, we present an overview on the most important endocrine disorders during pregnancy. PMID:27598917

  1. Bone marrow scintigraphy and computed tomography in myloproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Gilbert, H.S.; Hermann, G.

    1985-05-01

    Peripheral bone marrow (BM) expansion in myeloproliferative disease (MPD) is demonstrated by scintigraphy (scint) with Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (TSC) or Indium III chloride (In). Computed tomography (CT) of the normal adult medullary cavity yields negative attenuation coefficients (AC) which become positive when BM fat is replaced. BM scint and CT of the medullary cavity are obtained in 23 studies in 21 pts: 6 polycythemia vera (PCV), 6 post PCV myeloid metaplasis (MyM), 4 agnogenic MyM, 3 myelodysplasia with refractory anemia, 1 acute myelocytic leukemia and 1 chronic myelocytic with acute leukemic transformation. AC were measured for BM cavity of lower extremities at each third of the femur and tibia. Values ranged from -89 to +289 Hounsfield units. The results are presented in this paper. There was agreement between SCINT and CT in 83% pts and segments. 80% of MB segments with + AC had scint identified BM. BM biopsy of the iliac crest demonstrated fibrosis or blast proliferation in pts with +AC rather than hypercellularity or osteosclerosis. The highest AC values (>200) were seen in pts with blast proliferation and fibrosis. Decreased BM scint visualization and +CT AC correlated with BM fibrosis and may reflect replacement of BM elements or decreased RES function. BM scint and CT are useful to monitor MPD and select BM sites for biopsy.

  2. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  3. Pelvic bone and hip joint hydatid disease revealing a retroperitoneal location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim El Ibrahimi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease produced by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid disease of bone is rarely seen in humans and it has been reported in only 1-2% of cases of echinococcosis. We present a patient who developed hydatid disease of the left pelvic and femoral bones with cartilage destruction of the ipsilateral hip joint revealing a retroperitoneal location of hydatid cyst. Hydatid bone must be present in the differential diagnosis of chronic monoarthritis; the risk is to perform a total hip replacement in a septic environment.

  4. Combined bone scintigraphy and indium-111 leukocyte scans in neuropathic foot disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Park, H.M.; Burt, R.W.; Mock, B.H.; Wellman, H.N.

    1988-10-01

    It is difficult to diagnose osteomyelitis in the presence of neurotrophic osteoarthropathy. We performed combined (99mTc)MDP bone scans and indium-111 (111In) leukocyte studies on 35 patients who had radiographic evidence of neuropathic foot disease and clinically suspected osteomyelitis. The (111In)leukocyte study determined if there was an infection and the bone scan provided the anatomic landmarks so that the infection could be localized to the bone or the adjacent soft tissue. Seventeen patients had osteomyelitis and all showed increased (111In)leukocyte activity localized to the bone, giving a sensitivity of 100%. Among the 18 patients without osteomyelitis, eight had no accumulation of (111In)leukocytes, seven had the (111In)leukocyte activity correctly localized to the soft tissue, two had (111In)leukocyte activity mistakenly attributed to the bone, and one had (111In)leukocyte accumulation in a proven neuroma which was mistakenly attributed to bone. These three false-positive results for osteomyelitis reduced the specificity to 83%. Considering only the 27 patients with a positive (111In)leukocyte study, the combined bone scan and (111In)leukocyte study correctly localized the infection to the soft tissues or bone in 89%. Uninfected neurotrophic osteoarthropathy does not accumulate (111In)leukocytes. We found the combined bone scan and (111In) leukocyte study useful for the detection and localization of infection to soft tissue or bone in patients with neuropathic foot disease.

  5. From “Kidneys Govern Bones” to Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Bone Disorder: A Crosstalk between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of “Kidneys Govern Bones.” Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD and diabetes mellitus. Two signaling pathways essential for calcium-phosphate metabolism can mediate the effect of kidneys in bone homeostasis, one requiring renal production of bioactive vitamin D and the other involving an endocrine axis based on kidney-expressed Klotho and bone-secreted fibroblast growth factor 23. Disruption of either pathway can lead to calcium-phosphate imbalance and vascular calcification, accelerating metabolic bone disorder. Chinese herbal medicine is an adjunct therapy widely used for treating CKD and diabetes. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a Chinese herbal formulation, Shen-An extracts, in diabetic nephropathy and renal osteodystrophy. We believe that the smart combination of Eastern and Western concepts holds great promise for inspiring new ideas and therapies for preventing and treating complications of CKD and diabetes.

  6. From “Kidneys Govern Bones” to Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Bone Disorder: A Crosstalk between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xin-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of “Kidneys Govern Bones.” Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. Two signaling pathways essential for calcium-phosphate metabolism can mediate the effect of kidneys in bone homeostasis, one requiring renal production of bioactive vitamin D and the other involving an endocrine axis based on kidney-expressed Klotho and bone-secreted fibroblast growth factor 23. Disruption of either pathway can lead to calcium-phosphate imbalance and vascular calcification, accelerating metabolic bone disorder. Chinese herbal medicine is an adjunct therapy widely used for treating CKD and diabetes. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a Chinese herbal formulation, Shen-An extracts, in diabetic nephropathy and renal osteodystrophy. We believe that the smart combination of Eastern and Western concepts holds great promise for inspiring new ideas and therapies for preventing and treating complications of CKD and diabetes.

  7. Clinical application of high resolution computed tomography of temporal bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzaki, J.; Saito, S.; Shiga, H. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-11-01

    Using CT/T 8800 with high spatial resolution, target imaging of the various temporal bone diseases was performed. Coronal and axial scans were made. Target imaging is an effective means of studying patients with cholesteatomas, semicircular canal fistula, diseases of the internal auditory canal (acoustic neuroma, or stenosis) and inner ear anomaly (hypoplasia, or distension of the vestibulum). The results of the comparison of CT and polytomography of the temporal bone were as follows: 1. In most cases, the pathological process was demonstrated with CT scans better than or same as with polytomograms. 2. The radiation dose of CT scan is low. 3. The axial images of the temporal bone were easily obtained with CT. 4. CT is more effective than polytomography in the diagnosis and evaluation of the temporal bone involved by tumor and cholesteatoma, especially attic cholesteatoma. 5. In cases with temporal bone fracture, acoustic neuroma or other intracranial diseases, contrast-enhanced CT can be done.

  8. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 Caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women with hirs......OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women...

  9. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked...... and capillarization, with the development of continuous sheets of basement membrane material beneath endothelial cells....

  10. Scedosporium apiospermum in chronic granulomatous disease treated with an HLA matched bone marrow transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Gompels, M M; Bethune, C A; Jackson, G; Spickett, G P

    2002-01-01

    A patient with chronic granulomatous disease who was being treated with steroids was diagnosed with a soft tissue Scedosporium apiospermum infection. Despite extensive treatment with antifungals progression to involve solid tissue (bone) occurred. Treatment required an HLA matched bone marrow transplant, which led to complete clearance of the fungal infection, although the patient subsequently died.

  11. Improvement of Lumbar Bone Mass after Infliximab Therapy in Crohn’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn’s disease (CD have a high risk of developing osteoporosis, but the mechanisms underlying bone mass loss are unclear. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone resorption.

  12. Burden of metastatic bone disease from genitourinary malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, P.F.A.; Abrahamsson, P.A.; Bukowski, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bone metastases are common among patients with stage IV genitourinary cancers. Most patients with bone metastases develop at least one debilitating and potentially life-limiting skeletal-related event. These events are associated with increased medical expenses and decreased quality of life. Current

  13. Female Reproduction and Systemic Endocrine Diseases%女性生殖内分泌与全身内分泌疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张以文

    2013-01-01

    现代内分泌系统的概念已涉及几乎全身组织或细胞。下丘脑促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)-促性腺激素(Gn)脉冲分泌激活是启动卵巢轴功能的关键。其与4个下丘脑内分泌系统存在复杂的联系。神经内分泌免疫网络、神经内分泌营养调节网络也影响GnRH-Gn脉冲分泌或卵巢配子生成及性激素合成。介绍全身主要内分泌疾病对女性生殖的影响,并通过介绍一个心理神经内分泌失调疾病---功能性下丘脑性无排卵(functional hypothalamic anovulation,FHA),阐述应激对全身及女性生殖的影响。%The modern endocrine system has been conceptually expanded to almost all tissues or cells of human body. Activation of the pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic GnRH-Pituitary Gn is the key step of initiating ovarian function, which is related to other four hypothalamic endocrine systems. Both the neuroendocrine-immune network and neuroendocrine-nutrition regulating network also impact the GnRH-Gn pulsatile secretion or ovarian gametogenesis, as well as steroidogenesis. This paper discussed the influence of systemic endocrine diseases on female reproduction,and elucidated the effects of stress on the systemic endocrine organs and ovarian axis by a psychoneuroendocrine disorder, functional hypothalamic anovulaton.

  14. Frequency and Risk Factors of Endocrine Complications in Turkish Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samim Özen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define frequency and risk factors of abnormalities in growth, puberty, thyroid function, and bone and carbohydrate metabolisms in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD. Materials and Methods: Endocrine problems including short stature, puberty and thyroid disorders, and carbohydrate and bone metabolisms in 50 Turkish children and adolescents with SCD were evaluated. Relationships among sex, disease type, blood transfusions, exchange and exacerbation frequency, ferritin levels, and endocrine pathologies were investigated. Results: The mean age of the study group was 13.1±2.9 years. Weights and heights of 12 participants (24% were below -2 standard deviations and 4 participants (8% had malnutrition. Mean difference (±standard deviation between bone and chronological age of patients was -1.73±1.86 years. Fifty percent of patients had at least one endocrine abnormality other than vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in 3 patients (6%, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 1 female patient (2%, and small testicular volume in respect to age in 3 male patients (8.5% were seen. Growth hormone deficiency was detected in 1 (2% female patient, and hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 3 patients (6%; 1 central case, 2 cases of primary hypothyroidism. At vertebral level, 5 patients (11.1% had osteopenia and 1 patient (2.2% had osteoporosis, while 5 patients (11.1% had osteopenia at femur neck level. The most common endocrine abnormality was vitamin D deficiency. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D was deficient in 63.2% and insufficient in 18.4% of patients. Sex, disease type, blood transfusion frequency, exacerbation frequency, and ferritin levels were not related to endocrine pathologies. As the age was increased, standard deviation scores of femur neck bone mineral density was decreased (r =-0.56; p<0.05. Vitamin D was lower in patients whose weights and/or heights were below -2 standard deviations from the mean

  15. Emerging strategies and therapies for treatment of Paget’s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown JP

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laëtitia Michou, Jacques P BrownLaval University, Department of Medicine, CHUQ (CHUL Research Centre and Division of Rheumatology, Quebec City, QC, CanadaAbstract: Paget’s disease of bone (PDB is a progressive monostotic or polyostotic metabolic bone disease characterized by focal abnormal bone remodeling, with increased bone resorption and excessive, disorganized, new bone formation. PDB rarely occurs before middle age, and it is the second most frequent metabolic bone disorder after osteoporosis, affecting up to 3% of adults over 55 years of age. One of the most striking and intriguing clinical features is the focal nature of the disorder, in that once the disease is established within a bone, there is only local spread within that bone and no systemic dissemination. Despite many years of intense research, the etiology of PDB has still to be conclusively determined. Based on a detailed review of genetic and viral factors incriminated in PDB, we propose a unifying hypothesis from which we can suggest emerging strategies and therapies. PDB results in weakened bone strength and abnormal bone architecture, leading to pain, deformity or, depending on the bone involved, fracture in the affected bone. The diagnostic assessment includes serum total alkaline phosphatase, total body bone scintigraphy, skull and enlarged view pelvis x-rays, and if needed, additional x-rays. The ideal therapeutic option would eliminate bone pain, normalize serum total alkaline phosphatase with prolonged remission, heal radiographic osteolytic lesions, restore normal lamellar bone, and prevent recurrence and complications. With the development of increasingly potent bisphosphonates, culminating in the introduction of a single intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg, these goals of treatment are close to being achieved, together with long-term remission in almost all patients. Based on the recent pathophysiological findings, emerging strategies and therapies are

  16. Therapy of endocrine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L; Juul, A

    2013-01-01

    hypogonadism, and azoospermia in the majority of cases. Until recently, infertility was considered an untreatable condition in KS. However, with the development of new advanced assisted reproductive techniques such as testicular sperm extraction (TESE) combined with ICSI it seems that KS patients should...

  17. Diagnosis of endocrine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Enrico; Pacella, Claudio M; Hegedus, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    be performed on an outpatient basis. The risk of major complications, after adequate training, is very low. Importantly, thyroid function is preserved. Currently, percutaneous ethanol injection for cystic lesions and thermal ablation, with laser or radiofrequency, for solid nodules are increasingly used...

  18. Development, validation and characterization of a novel mouse model of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2014-11-01

    The etiology of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD) is poorly understood but the hallmark of ABD is a lack of bone turnover. ABD occurs in renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and is suspected to occur in elderly patients on long-term anti-resorptive therapy. A major clinical concern of ABD is diminished bone quality and an increased fracture risk. To our knowledge, experimental animal models for ABD other than ROD-ABD have not been developed or studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a mouse model of ABD without the complications of renal ablation, and to characterize changes in bone quality in ABD relative to controls. To re-create the adynamic bone condition, 4-month old female Col2.3Δtk mice were treated with ganciclovir to specifically ablate osteoblasts, and pamidronate was used to inhibit osteoclastic resorption. Four groups of animals were used to characterize bone quality in ABD: Normal bone controls, No Formation controls, No Resorption controls, and an Adynamic group. After a 6-week treatment period, the animals were sacrificed and the bones were harvested for analyses. Bone quality assessments were conducted using established techniques including bone histology, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and biomechanical testing. Histomorphometry confirmed osteoblast-related hallmarks of ABD in our mouse model. Bone formation was near complete suppression in the No Formation and Adynamic specimens. Inhibition of bone resorption in the Adynamic group was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. Normal bone mineral density and architecture were maintained in the Adynamic group, whereas the No Formation group showed a reduction in bone mineral content and trabecular thickness relative to the Adynamic group. As expected, the No Formation group had a more hypomineralized profile and the Adynamic group had a higher mean mineralization profile that is

  19. Surgery or radiotherapy for the treatment of bone hydatid disease: a retrospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengru Xie

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: This retrospective case series describes, for the first time, the clinical outcomes in a series of patients treated with radiotherapy for bone hydatid disease. Although no direct comparison between the treatment groups could be made due to methodological limitations of the study design, this study indicates that well-designed prospective randomized controlled clinical trials assessing radiotherapy may be warranted in patients with inoperable hydatid disease of the bones.

  20. Bone Allografts: What Is the Risk of Disease Transmission with Bone Allografts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calculated to be one in 2.8 billion [Russo 1995]. Therefore, the established exclusionary criteria combined with ... bone allograft. J Periodontol 1992;12:979–983. Russo R, Scarborough N. Inactivation of viruses in demineralized ...

  1. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral density (125I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups

  2. Bone Disease in Myeloma: The Claws of CRAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rafael; Jain, Tania

    2016-03-15

    A dynamic approach to use bisphosphonates according to biomarkers of bone metabolism is presented in the Z-MARK study by Raje and colleagues. This is a major step forward toward a rational approach to bisphosphonate usage.

  3. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  4. Endocrine Tumor: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a roadmap to this full guide. About the endocrine system The endocrine system is made up of cells that produce hormones. ... of sugar in the blood. Part of the endocrine system is the neuroendocrine system, which is made up ...

  5. Paget’s Disease of Bone Presented as Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Tafakhori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paget’s disease is a focal bone disorder manifested as bone overgrowth and disrupted bone integrity as a result of accelerated bone remodelling rate. Rarely, Paget’s disease of the base of the skull results in hydrocephalic dementia, and the triad of normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome is a much more scarce entity.Case Report: Herein, we report an elderly woman who presented in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome due to Paget’s bone disease. Furthermore, we have reviewed relevant previous studiesConclusion: Paget’s disease can be presented as normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome

  6. Contemporary Approaches for Identifying Rare Bone Disease Causing Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Farber, Charles R; Clemens, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the speed and accuracy of DNA sequencing, together with increasingly sophisticated mathematical approaches for annotating gene networks, have revolutionized the field of human genetics and made these once time consuming approaches assessable to most investigators. In the field of bone research, a particularly active area of gene discovery has occurred in patients with rare bone disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) that are caused by mutations in single genes. ...

  7. Altered interaction and distribution of glycosaminoglycans and growth factors in mucopolysaccharidosis type I bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Sandra D K; Wagemans, Tom; IJlst, Lodewijk; Bronckers, Antonius L J J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Everts, Vincent; Wijburg, Frits A; van Vlies, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) comprise a group of lysosomal storage disorders characterized by deficient degradation and subsequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Progressive bone and joint disease are a major cause of morbidity, and current therapeutic strategies have limited effect on these symptoms. By elucidating pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone disease, new therapeutic targets may be identified. Longitudinal growth is regulated by interaction between GAGs and growth factors. Because GAGs accumulate in the MPSs, we hypothesized that altered interaction between growth factors and GAGs contribute to the pathogenesis of MPS bone disease. In this study, binding between GAGs from MPS I chondrocytes and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was not significantly different from binding of FGF2 to GAGs from control chondrocytes. FGF2 signaling, however, was increased in MPS I chondrocytes after incubation with FGF2, as compared to control chondrocytes. Using bone cultures, we demonstrated decreased growth of WT mouse bones after incubation with FGF2, but no effect on MPS I bone growth. However, MPS I bones showed decreased growth in the presence of GAGs from MPS I chondrocytes. Finally, we demonstrate altered GAG distribution in MPS I chondrocytes, and altered GAG, FGF2 and Indian hedgehog distribution in growth plates from MPS I mice. In summary, our results suggest that altered interaction and distribution of growth factors and accumulated GAGs may contribute to the pathogenesis of MPS bone disease. In the future, targeting growth factor regulation or the interaction between in growth factors and GAGs might be a promising therapeutic strategy for MPS bone disease. PMID:27105565

  8. Imaging Paget's disease of bone-from head to toe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortis, K.; Micallef, K. [Medical Imaging Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida (Malta); Mizzi, A., E-mail: adrian.mizzi@gov.mt [Medical Imaging Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida (Malta)

    2011-07-15

    Paget's disease of the bone is a common, non-inflammatory, metabolic, skeletal disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by an increase in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and compensatory excessive osteoblast activation. Prevalence increases with age, and a pronounced geographical variation is well documented. The disease is often an incidental finding on a radiological examination requested for an unrelated indication. The osteolytic, mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic, and osteosclerotic phases may occur in the same patient and same bone in a synchronous or metachronous fashion. Radiological features in each phase mirror the histopathological appearances, and are distinctive enough to establish a diagnosis with confidence. Using multi-technique imaging, this review illustrates the most common and the not so common radiological patterns of involvement in Paget's disease of bone observed at our centre during the past 20 years.

  9. Alcohol Related Endocrine Disorders and Alcoholic Liver Disease%酒精相关内分泌障碍及肝脏疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 盛利霞; 汤宜朗

    2015-01-01

    目的:介绍酒精所致的内分泌障碍及酒精性肝病(ALD)的机制及治疗进展。方法:对近年文献进行复习。结果:本文对酒精对内分泌系统的影响及所致的功能障碍(尤其是对 HPA 轴、HPT 轴及性腺轴的影响)的机制、治疗的进展,酒精性肝病的发生机制、分类及治疗进展进行了介绍。结论:酒精可导致内分泌系统功能障碍及肝功能障碍,酒精引起的障碍早期或可通过戒酒逆转,但晚期病变(如肝硬化)则很难逆转。对晚期患者,除戒酒之外,支持治疗是主要的手段。%Objective:To review the updates on alcohol-related endocrine disorders and alcoholic liver disease mechanism and treatment. Methods:Literature review and hand-picked literature. Results:We review the mechanism(especially the influence on the HPA axis,the HPT axis and the gonad axis)and treatment of alcohol related endocrine disorders,and the mechanism,classification and treatment of alcoholic liver disease(ALD). Conclusion:Alcohol can cause endocrine disorders and liver damage. While some dis-orders are reversible by stop drinking,some(such as cirrhosis)are not. For advanced or patients in terminal stage,in addition to stop-ping drinking,supportive care plays an important role.

  10. [Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ: role in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and insulin independent diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchyns'ka, I I; Stefaniuk, M F

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review of the modern literature is devoted to the problem of regarding the adipose tissue as not only a repository of energy supplies but an active endocrine organ as well whose activity exerts a definite effect on the function of many bodily systems. Specific emphasis is directed toward aspects of the function of certain secretory proteins involved in the process of the arterial pressure regulation and/or organs injuring.

  11. Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

  12. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis with Cushing's disease and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome responsive to proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.

    1981-09-01

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary.

  13. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis with Cushing's disease and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome responsive to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary

  14. S-MRI score: A simple method for assessing bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M. [Radiology (Magnetic Resonance) Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud (I-CS), Zaragoza (Spain); Mota, J. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medimagen, Barcelona (Spain); Alfonso, P. [Radiology (Magnetic Resonance) Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud (I-CS), Zaragoza (Spain); Pocovi, M. [Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology Department, Zaragoza University (Spain); Giraldo, P. [Haematology Department, Miguel Servet University Hospital, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: pgiraldo@salud.aragon.es

    2007-04-15

    Semi quantitative MRI is a very useful procedure for evaluating the bone marrow burden (BMB) in Gaucher disease (GD). Score systems have been applied to obtain a parameter for evaluating the severity of bone disease. Our purpose was to test a simple, reproducible and accurate score to evaluate bone marrow involvement in GD patients. MRI was performed in spine, pelvis and femora at diagnosis in 54 adult GD1 patients, 61.1% of whom were female. Three MRI patterns and punctuation in each location were defined: normal, 0; non-homogeneous infiltration subtypes reticular, 1; mottled, 2; diffuse, 3; and homogeneous infiltration, 4. This score was called Spanish-MRI (S-MRI). Two independent observers applied the S-MRI and bone marrow burden score and compared the differences using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Correlation rank test was calculated. In 46 patients (85.2%), bone involvement was observed. Thirty-nine (72.3%) had their spine affected, 35 (64.8%) pelvis and 33 (61.2%) femora. Fourteen patients had bone infarcts, 14 avascular necrosis, 2 vertebral fractures and 2 bone crises. Correlation analysis between S-MRI and BMB was (r {sup 2} = .675; p = .0001). No evidence of correlation was observed between CT activity and S-MRI nor between CT activity and BMB. We have found a relationship between genotype and bone infiltration according to S-MRI site and complications. S-MRI is a simple method that provides useful information to evaluate bone infiltration and detect silent complications. Our results correlated with the BMB score but offer higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for classifying the extent of bone disease.

  15. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low b...

  16. The influence of genetic variability and proinflammatory status on the development of bone disease in patients with Gaucher disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gervas-Arruga

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency. Bone complications are the major cause of morbidity in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1. Genetic components strongly influence bone remodelling. In addition, chronic inflammation produced by Gaucher cells induces the production of several cytokines, which leads to direct changes in the bone remodelling process and can also affect the process indirectly through other immune cells. In this study, we analysed the association between bone mineral density (BMD, bone marrow burden score, and relevant genetic polymorphisms related to bone metabolism, as well as profiles of proinflammatory cytokines in a GD1 cohort. This study included 83 patients distributed according to bone status. BMD was measured with DXA and broadband ultrasound attenuation; bone marrow involvement was evaluated using MRI. We also analysed 26 SNPs located in 14 genes related to bone metabolism. To assess proinflammatory status, we analysed IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα in plasma samples from 71 control participants and GD1 patients. SNP genotype proportions and BMD differed significantly between ESRI c.453-397T>C and VDR c.1024+283G>A variants. We also observed significant associations between GD1 genotypes and bone affectation. When patients were stratified by spleen status, we observed significant correlations between non-/splenectomized groups and Spanish MRI (S-MRI score. Across genotype proportions of non-/splenectomized patients and S-MRI, we observed significant differences in ESRI c.453-397T>C, VDR c.-83-25988G>A, and TNFRSF11B c.9C>G polymorphisms. We observed different significant proinflammatory profiles between control participants, treatment-naïve patients, and patients on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT; between non-/splenectomized patients (between untreated and ERT-treated patients and among those with differing GBA

  17. Contemporary Approaches for Identifying Rare Bone Disease Causing Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles R.Farber; Thomas L.Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the speed and accuracy of DNA sequencing, together with increasingly sophisti-cated mathematical approaches for annotating gene networks, have revolutionized the field of human genetics and made these once time consuming approaches assessable to most investigators. In the field of bone research, a particularly active area of gene discovery has occurred in patients with rare bone disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) that are caused by mutations in single genes. In this perspective, we highlight some of these technological advances and describe how they have been used to identify the genetic determinants underlying two previously unexplained cases of OI. The widespread availability of advanced methods for DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis can be expected to greatly facilitate identification of novel gene networks that normally function to control bone formation and maintenance.

  18. TGF-βand BMP signaling in osteoblast, skeletal development, and bone formation, homeostasis and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengrui Wu; Guiqian Chen; and Yi-Ping Li

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis. Both the Smad and p38 MAPK signaling pathways converge at transcription factors, for example, Runx2 to promote osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte differentiation from mesenchymal precursor cells. TGF-βand BMP signaling is controlled by multiple factors, including the ubiquitin–proteasome system, epigenetic factors, and microRNA. Dysregulated TGF-βand BMP signaling result in a number of bone disorders in humans. Knockout or mutation of TGF-βand BMP signaling-related genes in mice leads to bone abnormalities of varying severity, which enable a better understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone and the signaling networks underlying osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. There is also crosstalk between TGF-β/BMP signaling and several critical cytokines’ signaling pathways (for example, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, PTHrP, and FGF) to coordinate osteogenesis, skeletal development, and bone homeostasis. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte differentiation, skeletal development, cartilage formation, bone formation, bone homeostasis, and related human bone diseases caused by the disruption of TGF-β/BMP signaling.

  19. Sudeck-type dystrophy in Paget's disease of bone. An anatomico-radiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, R

    1985-03-01

    Anatomico-radiological study of a humerus with Paget's disease and unhealed fracture makes it possible to demonstrate the uneven development of the disease according to local conditions. The possible role of a bone dystrophy similar to that in Sudeck's disease which might - along with a slow virus infection - be involved in the development of Paget's disease is discussed. The discussion is based on the present case, on two previous studies as well as on data found in the literature. PMID:2580661

  20. A Small Molecule, Odanacatib, Inhibits Inflammation and Bone Loss Caused by Endodontic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Liang; Chen, Wei; McConnell, Matthew; Zhu, Zheng; Li, Sheng; Reddy, Michael; Eleazer, Paul D; Wang, Min; Li, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Periapical disease, an inflammatory disease mainly caused by dental caries, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of humans, affecting both children and adults. The infection travels through the root, leading to inflammation, bone destruction, and severe pain for the patient. Therefore, the development of a new class of anti-periapical disease therapies is necessary and critical for treatment and prevention. A small molecule, odanacatib (ODN), which is a cathepsin K (Ctsk) inhibito...

  1. Pain and bone disease: a patient’s view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain in thalassemia proves to be an emergent issue even if it is not possible to correlate it definitely to bone disease, but we strongly believe that a multidisciplinary approach, may be as decisive in this case as it was in the struggle against thalassemia. In fact, we strongly believe that the involvement of various specialists such as endocrinologists, orthopedist, anesthesiologist, in a close team coordinated by a specialist in thalassemia is absolutely necessary for achieving our aims. First of all, we need to implement clinical trials to identify the mechanisms of disease, to find the optimal management of the problem in order to provide new therapeutic methods for preventing the thalassemia-induced osteoporosis and to reduce the presence of very disabling pain for patients. Patients’ expectations for the future are to continuously improve the quality of life. To do that it is needed to identify pathways to prevent all the complications of thalassemia that cause widespread pain, above all osteoporosis. Although we have seen that osteoporosis is not the sole cause of pain for thalassemia patients, it is true that this seems to have a great incidence in thalassemia patients and it gives a significant contribute to an increased pain. 地中海贫血疼痛亟待解决,即使它可能与和骨病毫不相关,但我们坚信可以找到一种战胜地中海贫血症的多学科结合疗法。 事实上,如果要完成我们的目标,绝对有必要邀请一名地中海贫血专家,在内分泌学家、矫形外科医师和麻醉学家组成的队伍的配合下紧密展开工作。 首先,我们需要开展临床试验,确认发病机制,找出疾病最佳的控制方法,以找到预防地中海贫血诱发骨质疏松症的新疗法和减少疼痛的频率。 病患者对未来的期望是能够不断地提高自己的生活质量。要做到,病患者需要找到预防地中海贫血所有并发症引起的疼痛的方

  2. Dlk1/FA1 is a novel endocrine regulator of bone and fat mass and its serum level is modulated by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Ding, Ming; Jensen, Charlotte H;

    2007-01-01

    Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta-like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differen......Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta-like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell...... differentiation. Here, we studied the effects of circulating FA1 on fat and bone mass in vivo by generating mice expressing high serum levels of FA1 (FA1 mice) using the hydrodynamic-based gene transfer procedure. We found that increased serum FA1 levels led to a significant reduction in total body weight, fat...... mass, and bone mass in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced bone mass in FA1 mice was associated with the inhibition of mineral apposition rate and bone formation rates by 58 and 72%, respectively. Because FA1 is colocalized with GH in the pituitary gland, we explored the possible modulation of serum FA1...

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  4. A Case Report of Hydatid Disease in Long Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fanian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst, caused by echinococcus granulosa, can produce tissue cyst everywhere in body. Skeletal cystic lesion is rare especially in long bones like tibia and because of its unusual presentation, its diagnosis may easily be missed, unless be kept in mind.

  5. Chronic osteomyelitis: bone and gallium scan patterns associated with active disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone and gallium scans are used to assess osteomyelitis patients with prior bone disease. To refine the criteria for interpreting these scans, the data from 136 consecutive patients with clinically suspected osteomyelitis were reviewed. Active osteomyelitis was diagnosed with surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 patients, excluded with the same criteria in 16, and excluded by clinical follow-up for at least 6 months in 71. Five different scintigraphic patterns were found. The true-positive and false-positive ratios, the likelihood ratios, and posterior probabilities for active osteomyelitis in each pattern were calculated. Only one pattern (gallium uptake exceeding bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake) was indicative of active disease. Other patterns slightly raised or decreased the probability of disease. The extent of these changes varies directly with the prior probability of disease, determined from patient-specific factors (e.g., clinical data, laboratory data, findings on plain films) known best by the referring clinician

  6. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  7. 神经-内分泌-免疫网络与炎症性肠病%Neuro-endocrine-immune network and inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁川评; 王玮; 柳巨雄

    2010-01-01

    炎症性肠病(inflammatory bowel disease,IBD)是一种病因不明的慢性胃肠道炎症性疾病,他主要包括克罗恩病(Crohn's disease,CD)和溃疡性结肠炎(ulcerative colitis,UC).近年来,大量研究表明,其发病机制与神经-内分泌免疫网络(neuro-endocrine-immune network)密切相关.因此本文分别从下丘脑-自主神经系统轴(hypothalamus-autonomic nervous system axis,HANS)、下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴(hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,HPA)和免疫三个方面阐述该网络在IBD发生发展过程中的重要作用.

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone Disease in Multiple Myeloma: Spotlight on Spinal Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease is observed in almost 80% of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma patients, and spine is the bone site that is more frequently affected by myeloma-induced osteoporosis, osteolyses, or compression fractures. In almost 20% of the cases, spinal cord compression may occur; diagnosis and treatment must be carried out rapidly in order to avoid a permanent sensitive or motor defect. Although whole body skeletal X-ray is considered mandatory for multiple myeloma staging, magnetic resonance imaging is presently considered the most appropriate diagnostic technique for the evaluation of vertebral alterations, as it allows to detect not only the exact morphology of the lesions, but also the pattern of bone marrow infiltration by the disease. Multiple treatment modalities can be used to manage multiple myeloma-related vertebral lesions. Surgery or radiotherapy is mainly employed in case of spinal cord compression, impending fractures, or intractable pain. Percutaneous vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty can reduce local pain in a significant fraction of treated patients, without interfering with subsequent therapeutic programs. Systemic antimyeloma therapy with conventional chemotherapy or, more appropriately, with combinations of conventional chemotherapy and compounds acting on both neoplastic plasma cells and bone marrow microenvironment must be soon initiated in order to reduce bone resorption and, possibly, promote bone formation. Bisphosphonates should also be used in combination with antimyeloma therapy as they reduce bone resorption and prolong patients survival. A multidisciplinary approach is thus needed in order to properly manage spinal involvement in multiple myeloma.

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone Disease in Multiple Myeloma: Spotlight on Spinal Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Tosi

    2013-01-01

    Bone disease is observed in almost 80% of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma patients, and spine is the bone site that is more frequently affected by myeloma-induced osteoporosis, osteolyses, or compression fractures. In almost 20% of the cases, spinal cord compression may occur; diagnosis and treatment must be carried out rapidly in order to avoid a permanent sensitive or motor defect. Although whole body skeletal X-ray is considered mandatory for multiple myeloma staging, magnetic...

  10. Echinococcal disease of the bone: An unusual cause of a pathological fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Goodier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is caused by the larva of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multiloccularis and is endemic in many rural areas of Southern Africa. Echinococcosis of the bone is an unusual manifestation of echinococcal disease and a rare cause of a lytic lesion of bone. This report describes a 30-yr old female who presented with an Echinococcal cyst of the right radius complicated by a pathological fracture.

  11. Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiya, Mikihito; Giro, Gabriela; Taubman, Martin A.; Han, Xiaozhe; Marcia P.A. Mayer; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD) are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, ...

  12. Multiple Bone and Joint Diseases in a Nigerian Sickle Cell Anaemia: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Olaniyi, John A.; Alagbe, Adekunle E.; Olutoogun, Toluwalase A.; Busari, Oluwasogo E.

    2012-01-01

    This case highlights the fact that bone involvement is the commonest clinical manifestation of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) both in the acute settings such as painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and as a source of chronic, progressive debility such as avascular necrosis (AVN), chronic osteomyelitis and fixed flexion deformity of joints. Protracted multiple bone involvement i.e. bilateral femoral and left humeral chronic osteomyelitis, Left elbow, Left knee and right humeral septic arthritis toge...

  13. The impact of methods for estimating bone health and the global burden of bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Zoë A; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem through its association with age related fractures. Fracture rates are generally higher in caucasian women than in other populations. Important determinants include estrogen deficiency in women, low body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, poor dietary calcium intake, physical inactivity, certain drugs and illnesses. Thus, modification of physical activity and dietary calcium/vitamin D nutrition should complement high risk approaches. In addition, the recently developed WHO algorithm for evaluation of 10-year absolute risk of fracture provides a means whereby various therapies can be targeted cost-effectively to those at risk. Risk factors, together with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical indices of bone turnover, can be utilised to derive absolute risks of fracture and cost-utility thresholds at which treatment is justified. These data will provide the basis for translation into coherent public health strategies aiming to prevent osteoporosis both in individuals and in the general population.

  14. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson's disease: is there any difference between genders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Tonuk, Burak; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Tombak, Yasemin; Comoglu, Selcuk; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density, vitamin D level, and frequencies of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Parkinson's disease and to compare male and female patients with the controls separately. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred fifteen Parkinson's disease patients (47 males, 68 females; age range: 55-85 years) and 117 age- and gender-matched controls (47 males, 70 females) were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum D vitamin levels of each participant were recorded. [Results] The mean lumbar spine, femur neck, and total femur bone mineral density levels, T-scores, and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in Parkinson's disease patients in both genders. Furthermore, osteoporosis rates were found be significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients compared with female controls. [Conclusion] Data from the present study revealed that while osteoporosis was significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients, all Parkinson's disease patients had lower bone mineral density scores and vitamin D levels compared with the controls regardless of gender, suggesting that clinicians should pay attention to the osteoporosis risk in Parkinson's disease and that adequate preventive measures should be taken in order to limit the future risk due to osteoporotic fractures. PMID:27630398

  15. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson's disease: is there any difference between genders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Tonuk, Burak; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Tombak, Yasemin; Comoglu, Selcuk; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density, vitamin D level, and frequencies of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Parkinson's disease and to compare male and female patients with the controls separately. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred fifteen Parkinson's disease patients (47 males, 68 females; age range: 55-85 years) and 117 age- and gender-matched controls (47 males, 70 females) were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum D vitamin levels of each participant were recorded. [Results] The mean lumbar spine, femur neck, and total femur bone mineral density levels, T-scores, and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in Parkinson's disease patients in both genders. Furthermore, osteoporosis rates were found be significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients compared with female controls. [Conclusion] Data from the present study revealed that while osteoporosis was significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients, all Parkinson's disease patients had lower bone mineral density scores and vitamin D levels compared with the controls regardless of gender, suggesting that clinicians should pay attention to the osteoporosis risk in Parkinson's disease and that adequate preventive measures should be taken in order to limit the future risk due to osteoporotic fractures.

  16. Toll样受体和内分泌代谢性疾病%Toll-like receptors and endocrine and metabolic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛勤敏; 边帆; 沈晟晖

    2010-01-01

    经典的内分泌腺通过神经系统、激素、细胞因子、生长因子与其他器官进行广泛的联系.Toll样受体(TLRs)在多种内分泌细胞和免疫细胞中表达,其研究日益受到关注.TLRs的持续高度激活可导致相应内分泌代谢性疾病的发生,其中TLR-2和TLR4的缺陷导致小鼠在类似全身炎性反应综合征(SIRS)条件下,发生肾上腺皮质应激应答功能障碍;TLR-3在甲状腺疾病的发病机制中发挥特殊作用.TLRs信号途径的激活伴有特定细胞因子和趋化因子的上调,可导致内分泌腺肿瘤的发生;而在胰岛中表达的TLRs增加了胰岛对病毒感染的易感性.%Endocrine glands link with other tissues via nervous system, hormone, cytokines and growth factors. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been found in several endocrine and immune cells within endocrine glands. Close attention has been paid on its research. However, excessive activation of these receptors contributes to several endocrine and metabolic diseases. TLR-2 and TLR-4 deficiency results in impaired adrenal corticosterone stress response in mice under systemic inflammatory response syndrome-like conditions(SlRS). TLR-3 plays a specific role in thyroid pathophysiology. Activation of TLRs signaling pathways is associated with upregulation of certain cytokines and chemokines, it may contribute to tumorigene-sis. The expression of TLRs in normal pancreatic islets makes islets sensitive to viral infection.

  17. Bone diseases in rabbits with hyperparathyroidism:computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Rong-jie; CONG De-gang; SHEN Bao-zhong; HAN Ming-jun; WU Zhen-hua

    2006-01-01

    Background Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) occurs at an early age and has a high disability rate. Unfortunately,confirmed diagnosis in most patients is done at a very late stage, when the patients have shown typical symptomsand signs, and when treatment does not produce any desirable effect. It has become urgent to find a method thatwould detect early bone diseases in HPT to obtain time for the ideal treatment. This study evaluated the accuracyof high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with spiral computed tomography (SCT) scan indetecting early bone diseases in HPT, through imaging techniques and histopathological examinations on ananimal model of HPT.Methods Eighty adult rabbits were randomly divided into two groups with forty in each. The control group wasfed normal diet (Ca:P = 1:0.7); the experimental group was fed high phosphate diet (Ca:P = 1:7) for 3, 4, 5, or6-month intervals to establish the animal model of HPT. The staging and imaging findings of the early bonediseases in HPT were determined by high field MRI and SCT scan at the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th month. Each rabbitwas sacrificed after high field MRI and SCT scan, and the parathyroid and bones were removed for pathologicalexamination to evaluate the accuracy of imaging diagnosis.Results Parathyroid histopathological studies revealed hyperplasia, osteoporosis and early cortical boneresorption. The bone diseases in HPT displayed different levels of low signal intensity on T1WI and low tointermediate signal intensity on T2WI in bone of stage 0, Ⅰ, Ⅱ or Ⅲ, but showed correspondingly absent, probable,osteoporotic and subperiosteal cortical resorption on SCT scan.Conclusion High field MRI combined with SCT scan not only detects early bone diseases in HPT, but alsoindicates staging, and might be a reliable method of studying early bone diseases in HPT.

  18. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of radiation disease. Problems involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells still is one of the major means available for treatment of radiation injuries. The decisive indication is the diagnostic of irreversible damage to the hemopoietic stem cells, which becomes manifest about 5 or 6 days after exposure, by severe granulocytopenia and simultaneous, progressive thrombopenia. The radiation dose provoking such severe injury is estimated to be at least 9-10 Gy of homogeneous whole-body irradiation. Preparatory measures for transplantation include proof of tissue compatibility of donor and patient, sufficient immunosuppression prior to and/or after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. The donor's marrow should be free of T-cells. In spite of preparatory treatment, complications such as immunological reactions or disturbance of organ functions are to be very probable. These are treated according to therapy protocols. (orig./MG)

  19. Deregulation of Bone Forming Cells in Bone Diseases and Anabolic Effects of Strontium-Containing Agents and Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Tan; Binbin Zhang; Xiaomei Zhu; Ping Ao; Huajie Guo; Weihong Yi; Guang-Qian Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Age-related bone loss and osteoporosis are associated with bone remodeling changes that are featured with decreased trabecular and periosteal bone formation relative to bone resorption. Current anticatabolic therapies focusing on the inhibition of bone resorption may not be sufficient in the prevention or reversal of age-related bone deterioration and there is a big need in promoting osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. Enhanced understanding of the network formed by key signaling pathways ...

  20. Dlk1/FA1 Is a Novel Endocrine Regulator of Bone and Fat Mass and Its Serum Level Is Modulated By Growth Hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B.M.; Ding, M.; Jensen, C.H.;

    2007-01-01

    Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. FA1 (fetal antigen 1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We have previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell...... differentiation. Here, we studied the effects of circulating FA1 on fat and bone mass in vivo by generating mice expressing high serum levels of FA1 (FA1-mice) using the hydrodynamic-based gene transfer procedure (HGTP). We found that increased serum FA1 levels led to a significant reduction in total body weight......, fat mass and bone mass in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced bone mass in FA1-mice was associated with the inhibition of mineral apposition rate and bone formation rates by 58% and 72% respectively. Since FA1 is co-localized with growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary gland, we explored the possible...

  1. The CT flare response of metastatic bone disease in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiou, Christina; deSouza, Nandita M. (Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)), email: Christina.Messiou@icr.ac.uk; Cook, Gary (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)); Reid, Alison H.M.; Attard, Gerhardt; Dearnaley, David; deBono, Johann S. (Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom))

    2011-06-15

    Background New or worsening bone lesions in patients responding to treatment, known as the flare phenomenon is well described on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, but to our knowledge has not previously been described on CT. The appearance of new or worsening bone sclerosis on CT in patients with prostate cancer may therefore be erroneously classified as disease progression. Purpose To assess the incidence of osteoblastic healing flare response at 3-month CT assessment in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and to identify associated features that enable differentiation from progressive metastatic bone disease at 3 months. Material and Methods CT scans of 67 patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer undergoing treatment were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to clinical outcome. Changes in number, size, and density of metastatic bone lesions were documented and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) in soft tissue lesions, alkaline phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, and 99mTc-MDP bone scans were used for correlation. Results Of the 39 patients who had 3- and 6-month follow-up, eight patients (21%) demonstrated an increase in number, size, or density of sclerotic lesions on the 3-month CT scan despite improvement in PSA and soft tissue lesions. Three out of eight patients (8%) maintained partial response/remained stable at follow-up and were defined as showing a flare response: in this group bone metastases evident on CT showed a qualitative and quantitative increase in density and no lesions faded at 3 months. In contrast, in all patients who progressed at 3 months by PSA/RECIST criteria (n = 8) bone lesions showed a mixed pattern with some lesions increasing and others decreasing in density. Conclusion The incidence of flare response of metastatic bone disease evident at 3-month post-treatment CT in patients with prostate cancer undergoing systemic treatment is 8%. In patients with falling PSA and stable/responding soft tissue

  2. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described.

  3. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagiya, Tadayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides) RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described. PMID:27529224

  4. Bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult still's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanegae, Futoshi; Tada, Yoshifumi; Ohta, Akihide; Ushiyama, Osamu; Suzuki; Noriaki; Koarada, Syuichi; Haruta, Yoshio; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Nagasawa, Kohei [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the features and the usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and the assessment of Adult Still's disease (ASD) by retrospective case review. Gallium scintigraphy have been done for 11 cases of ASD (3 males and 8 females) and 4 females were positive. Among these, 67 Ga-citrate was accumulated to the bone marrow in all 4 cases and to the major joints in 2 cases. Positive cases were rather serious and administered more immunosuppressants than negative cases. In order to characterize gallium scintigraphy findings of ASD, i.e. bone marrow accumulation, we analyzed 130 cases of collagen vascular disease. Although 101 cases (77.7%) were positive, only 7 cases (5.4%) showed the accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-citrate to the bone marrow. These include 3 cases with ASD, and 1 case with systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis and Sjogren's syndrome. We also accumulated 18 patients who exhibited bone marrow accumulation of {sup 69}Ga-citrate, and found that 7 patients had collagen vascular and their related diseases. In conclusion, bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy is a specific feature of collagen vascular diseases, especially ASD, and it is suggested that cases with positive gallium scintigraphy in ASD can be serious and resistant to treatment. (author)

  5. 低钾血症与内分泌性疾病的探讨%Study on the Low Potassium and Endocrine Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红艳; 谷伟军(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Low potassium is one of the most common electrolyte disorder in clinic. Causes of low potassium levels are inadequate intake, excessive discharge or changes in the distribution of internal and external potassium. Among them, causes by endocrine disorders of hypokalemia in patients with clinical mainly include primary aldosteronism increase in disorder, and secondary aldosteronism hyperplasia, Cushing's syndrome (CS), pheochromocytoma, congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia (CAH), Liddle's syndrome, syndrome of renal tubular acidosis and hypokalemia periodic paralysis, Bartter,and Gitelman comprehensive syndrome etc.. The main causes of the disease of the endocrine disease include renal loss of potassium and the transfer of extracellular potassium ions into the cell. This paper mainly introduces the related endocrine diseases of these two factors.%低钾血症是临床上最常见的电解质紊乱之一。引起低钾血症的原因有摄入不足、排出过多或者细胞内外钾分布的变化。其中,由内分泌性疾病导致的低钾血症临床上主要有原发性醛固酮增多症、继发性醛固酮增多症、库欣综合征(Cushing综合征)、嗜铬细胞瘤、先天性肾上腺皮质增生症(congenital adrenal hyperplasia,CAH)、Liddle综合征、肾小管酸中毒、低钾周期性麻痹、Bartter综合征、Gitelman综合征等。内分泌性疾病导致低钾血症的原因主要有肾性失钾以及细胞外钾离子转移到细胞内,本文主要介绍这两种原因导致低钾血症的相关内分泌疾病。

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient......, with its associated increased fracture risk, vascular calcification, and accelerated mortality fracture risk. Peritoneal dialysis, however, bears a lower risk than hemodialysis (HD). The approach to CKD-MBD prophylaxis and treatment in the elderly PD patient is similar to other CKD patients, with some...

  7. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Infusion (AMBI therapy for Chronic Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar JS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver Cirrhosis is the end stage of chronic liver disease which may happen due to alcoholism, viral infections due to Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C viruses and is difficult to treat. Liver transplantation is the only available definitive treatment which is marred by lack of donors, post operative complications such as rejection and high cost. Autologous bone marrow stem cells have shown a lot of promise in earlier reported animal studies and clinical trials. We have in this study administered in 22 patients with chronic liver disease, autologous bone marrow stem cell whose results are presented herewith.

  8. Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Elverdin, Juan C; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (palveolar bone loss, while Pb showed spontaneous bone loss also. In conclusion, these results show that lead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease.

  9. SPECT/CT in the assessment of bone scintigraphy in staging of patients with oncologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to assess the role of single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/ CT) for characterizing nonconclusive lesions, observed by planar WB bone scintigraphy and to evaluate the impact of SPECT/CT on oncologic patient management. Data from 269 patients with oncologic diseases who had undergone WB BS for staging and 29 of them with nonconclusive lesions, passed SPECT/CT of a selected volume, were retrospectively analyzed. Planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT images were independently evaluated in separate sessions to minimize recall bias. Among the 269 WB BS, in 37 patients multiple bone metastases were confirmed. In 161 patients degenerative lesions in the skeleton were defined, 42 patients were with normal bone scan and in 29 patients the results were nonconclusive for bone metastases. The fused scan after SPECT/CT imaging confirmed bone metastases in 11 (38%) patients with 27 new metastatic lesions and benign degenerative lesions in 18 patients. SPECT/CT is better than planar WB BS for characterizing equivocal lesions that are observed by bone scintigraphy, thus SPECT/CT can have a significant impact on patient management in staging the oncologic disease. (authors)

  10. Current perspectives on bisphosphonate treatment in Paget’s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wat WZM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Winnie Zee Man Wat Department of Medicine, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong Abstract: Paget’s disease of bone is a chronic metabolic bone disease with focal increase in bone turnover. The exact etiology of the disease is uncertain, although genetic and environmental factors are believed to be important. Bisphosphonate is the main class of medication being used to control disease activity via its antiresorptive effect. This review discusses the controversies concerning the use of bisphosphonates in the treatment of Paget’s disease of bone, the efficacy of different bisphosphonates in controlling disease activity, and the possible rare side effects of bisphosphonates. Symptoms are the main indication for treatment in Paget’s disease of bone. As treatment benefits in asymptomatic individuals remain controversial and nonevidence based, the decision to treat these patients should be individualized to their risk and benefit profiles. There are several trials conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different regimes of bisphosphonates for treating Paget’s disease of bone. Most trials used biochemical markers rather than clinical symptoms or outcomes as parameters for comparison. Zoledronate is an attractive option as it can achieve high rates of biochemical remission and sustain long duration of suppression by a single dose. Atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw are two rare and severe side effects reported, possibly related to the use of bisphosphonates in patients with osteoporosis and malignancy-induced hypercalcemia. As the regimes of bisphosphonates used for treating Paget’s disease of bone are different from those two diseases, the risks of developing these two possible side effects are expected to be very low, although this remains unknown. Vitamin D and calcium supplement should be given to patients at risk of vitamin D insufficiency when given zoledronate, as symptomatic

  11. Surviving radiation disease with and without bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It appears that the damage done by bone marrow transplantation far outweights its advantages. Victims of high radiation doses died from their injuries before they could benefit from the transplant functions. Following lower doses, the transplant was seen to take, but led to detrimental effects in the majority of patients. The few who survived the procedure did so because the graft had been rejected. It would be much wiser, if the time and energy needed for a transplantation were dedicated to an adequate cell substitution therapy carried out until such time that the patient's own stem cells are repaired. (orig./MG)

  12. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  13. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.)

  14. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Chikayama, Satoshi [Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Compapy (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.).

  15. SPECTRUM OF DISEASES DIAGNOSED BY BONE MARROW EXAMINATION IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Hematological diseases are quite frequent in population and mostly present with anemia. Although diagnosed mostly by clinical examination and simple investigations , bone marrow examination is confirmatory for the diagnosis. Bone marrow aspiration is simple and safe invasive procedure. Spectrum of hematological diseases in the developing countries is different from those observed in developed countries. OBJECTIVE : There is a lack of information about the exact relative prevalence of hematological disorders especially in Central India that’s why this study was undertaken to correlate clinico - hematological and bone marrow findings. MATERIAL AND METHOD S : It is a retrospective study of 345 cases who underwent bone marrow examination in Department Of Pathology , Gandhi Medical College , Bhopal. RESULTS : In our study age range of cases was 2 - 80 years with male: female ratio of 1.28:1. Most common diseases observe d were megaloblastic anemia (41.81% , dimorphic anemia (16.72% , hypoplastic anemia (9.09% , ITP (8.36% and infective pathology (4.72%. In Hematological malignancies (20.28% , most common were AML (6.95% of overall & 34.28% of malignant diseases % follo wed by ALL (4.92 % overall and 24.28% % of malignancies. 3 cases of Gaucher’s disease were also reported.96.81% patients were anemic while 44.92% were pancytopenic. Most common presenting symptoms were fever (44.92% and bleeding manifestations (30.14% w hich include ecchymosis , epistaxis , pete chiae , me lena , hematuria and hematemesis. Splenomegaly , hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy were found in 35.65% , 21.15% and 14.78% of cases respectively. CONCLUSION : In our study final diagnosis could be made in majori ty of cases (92.76% by bone marrow examination , although having varied clinical presentations such as fever , bleeding manifestations , ascites , hepatomegaly , splenomegalyetc and usually associated with anemia / pancytopenia/ thrombocytopenia

  16. Endocrine hypertension in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Claudia E; Schellenberg, Stefan; Wenger, Monique

    2010-03-01

    Hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary. In animals with idiopathic hypertension, persistently elevated blood pressure is not caused by an identifiable underlying or predisposing disease. Until recently, more than 95% of cases of hypertension in humans were diagnosed as idiopathic. New studies have shown, however, a much higher prevalence of secondary causes, such as primary hyperaldosteronism. In dogs and cats, secondary hypertension is the most prevalent form and is subclassified into renal and endocrine hypertension. This review focuses on the most common causes of endocrine hypertension in dogs and cats.

  17. The use of bone scintigraphy to detect active Hansen's disease in mutilated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutilation of extremities was very frequent in patients affected by leprosy in the past; although it is now much less common, it is still seen, mainly in patients with long-term disease. In general, mutilation of the nose and ears is caused by the bacillus and mutilation of the hands and feet a consequence of chronic trauma. Leprosy must be chronically treated and any decision to interrupt therapy is based on laboratory tests and biopsy. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure which could be of great value in to determining disease activity. We studied eight patients (five males and three females, aged 64-73 years) who presented with mutilation of the nose (2), ear (1), feet (3) or foot and hand (2). Conventional three-phase bone scintigraphy (750 MBq) and X-ray examinations of the affected areas were performed in all patients. Bone scintigraphy was abnormal in four patients (the presence of bacilli was confirmed by biopsy in two of them), and normal in the other four. In all patients except for the one with ear mutilation, radiography only showed the absence of bone. We conclude that bone scintigraphy is very useful to determine disease activity in cases of mutilation caused by leprosy. It seems to be superior to conventional radiography and may enable bone biopsies to be avoided. (orig.)

  18. Comparative diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy and roentgenography in children with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavailloles, F.; Brauner, M.; Dandine, M.; Lonchampt, M.F.; Esteban, C.; Bensahel, H.; Patois, E.; Alperovitch, A.; Bock, B.

    1985-01-01

    To compare the value of hip roentgenograms and bone scintigraphy in Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease, a double blind study was done in 153 children, of whom 51 had LCP. Each procedure was read separately by two investigators who had no knowledge of clinical data. Variations across investigators were less significant for roentgenograms than for bone scans. Agreement on diagnosis between the two investigators was 95% for roentgenograms, against only 89% for bone scans. As regards the detailed analysis of each separate finding upon bone scintigraphy and assessment of this procedure's prognostic value, major discrepancies occurred between the two investigators. Diagnostic accuracy was very similar for the two procedures. Both bone scintigraphy and roentgenography showed a 0.86 sensitivity. Specificities were 0.93 and 0.99 respectively. For the subgroup of patients with early-stage LCP disease (33 cases), scintigraphy identified a slightly greater number of cases than roentgenography (0.88 and 0.76 respectively). Some disagreements between our results and those previously published in the literature may stem from biases such as the criteria for entering patients into the study or for establishing the final diagnosis. Roentgenography is obviously the first procedure to perform in a child with a painful hip or a limp. However, the results may be inconclusive in early-stage disease. In such cases, scintigraphy is needed and often avoids unnecessary traction or diagnostic delay.

  19. Rosai-Dorfman Disease with Epidural and Spinal Bone Marrow Involvement: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oner, A.Y.; Akpek, S.; Tali, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Gazi Univ. School of Medicine. Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), or Rosai-Dorfman disease, is a rare histiocytic disorder that typically presents with chronic, self-limiting cervical lymphadenopathy. Although this disease mainly affects histiocytes, there are a few reports of bone marrow infiltration. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a promising technology in differentiating between various bone marrow pathologies. We here present conventional magnetic resonance imaging and DWI features of a patient with SHML and bone marrow involvement.

  20. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  1. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  2. Cytopenia and Bone Marrow Dysplasia in a Case of Wilson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Aarathi R; Usha, M; Mallya, Pooja; Rau, A T K

    2014-09-01

    We describe a sixteen year old with Wilson's disease on copper chelation and subsequent high dose oral zinc who developed severe anemia and neutropenia. Bone marrow aspirate done to evaluate the cause of bicytopenia revealed trilineage dysplasia. Correlating the clinical context with bone marrow and biochemical parameters, copper deficiency was suspected and he was given a trial of therapy, following which the hematological parameters improved. This case highlights hypocupremia as a reversible cause of bone marrow dysplasia in patients with Wilson's disease on chelation, where serum copper levels are not useful in the diagnosis. We also believe that monitoring of the blood counts in patients on copper chelation may provide a clue to impending copper deficiency.

  3. Cardiovascular Risk and Mineral Bone Disorder in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Staude

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has been coined recently to highlight that the disturbed mineral and bone metabolism is a major contributor to vascular calcification and finally cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by clinical, biochemical and/or histological findings, i.e. i biochemical alterations in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and their key player parathyroid hormone (PTH, Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23, klotho and vitamin-D, ii the occurrence of vascular and/or soft tissue calcification, and iii an abnormal bone structure and/or turnover. Apart from the combined and synergistic action of "traditional" and uremia-related risk factors, promoters and inhibitors of calcification have to be considered as well. This review will focus on the disturbed mineral metabolism as the triggering force behind distortion of vascular integrity and cardiovascular malfunction in CKD patients.

  4. Cardiovascular risk and mineral bone disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, Hagen; Jeske, Susann; Schmitz, Karin; Warncke, Gert; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has been coined recently to highlight that the disturbed mineral and bone metabolism is a major contributor to vascular calcification and finally cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by clinical, biochemical and/or histological findings, i.e. i) biochemical alterations in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and their key player parathyroid hormone (PTH), Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), klotho and vitamin-D, ii) the occurrence of vascular and/or soft tissue calcification, and iii) an abnormal bone structure and/or turnover. Apart from the combined and synergistic action of "traditional" and uremia-related risk factors, promoters and inhibitors of calcification have to be considered as well. This review will focus on the disturbed mineral metabolism as the triggering force behind distortion of vascular integrity and cardiovascular malfunction in CKD patients.

  5. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  6. A small molecule, odanacatib, inhibits inflammation and bone loss caused by endodontic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Chen, Wei; McConnell, Matthew; Zhu, Zheng; Li, Sheng; Reddy, Michael; Eleazer, Paul D; Wang, Min; Li, Yi-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Periapical disease, an inflammatory disease mainly caused by dental caries, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of humans, affecting both children and adults. The infection travels through the root, leading to inflammation, bone destruction, and severe pain for the patient. Therefore, the development of a new class of anti-periapical disease therapies is necessary and critical for treatment and prevention. A small molecule, odanacatib (ODN), which is a cathepsin K (Ctsk) inhibitor, was investigated to determine its ability to treat this disease in a mouse model of periapical disease. While Ctsk was originally found in osteoclasts as an osteoclast-specific lysosomal protease, we were surprised to find that ODN can suppress the bacterium-induced immune response as well as bone destruction in the lesion area. X rays and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) showed that ODN treatment had significant bone protection effects at different time points. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining show that ODN treatment dramatically decreased F4/80+ macrophages and CD3+ T cells in the lesion areas 42 days after infection. Consistent with these findings, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed low levels of proinflammatory mRNAs (for tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 23α) and corresponding cytokine expression in the ODN-treated disease group. The levels of mRNA for Toll-like receptors 4, 5, and 9 also largely decreased in the ODN-treated disease group. Our results demonstrated that ODN can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone erosion, and immune response. These results indicate that application of this small molecule offers a new opportunity to design effective therapies that could prevent periapical inflammation and revolutionize current treatment options. PMID:25583522

  7. Suspected fetal skeletal malformations or bone diseases: how to explore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassart, Marie [Erasme Hospital, Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Although US has proved reliable for the prenatal detection of skeletal abnormalities, the precise diagnosis of a dysplasia is often difficult to make before birth (especially in the absence of a familial history) due to their various phenotypic presentations, the variability in the time at which they manifest and often, the lack of precise molecular diagnosis. In addition to the accuracy of the antenatal diagnosis, it is very important to establish a prognosis. This is a clinically relevant issue as skeletal dysplasias may be associated with severe disability and may even be lethal. We will therefore describe the respective role of two-dimensional (2-D) US, three-dimensional (3-D) US and CT in the antenatal assessment of skeletal malformations. (orig.)

  8. Paget's Disease of Bone and Osteoarthritis: Different Yet Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain relief techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture and nutritional supplements. In certain cases, surgery on ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIH Office of ...

  9. Information for Patients about Paget's Disease of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications of Paget’s disease: Fractures. Surgery may allow fractures to heal in better position. Severe degenerative arthritis. Hip or knee replacement may be considered if disability is severe ...

  10. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor, methoxychlor, reduces lean body mass and bone mineral density and increases cortical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Heather S; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Buckendahl, Patricia; Dunn, Michael G; Shupper, Peter; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous estrogen has beneficial effects on mature bone and negatively affects the developing skeleton, whereas the effect of environmental estrogens is not known. Methoxychlor (MXC) is a synthetic estrogen known as a persistent organochlorine and used as a pesticide. Methoxychlor and its metabolites display estrogenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity and may therefore influence bone. Fifty-eight male fetal and neonatal rats were exposed to either: a negative control (DMSO), 0.020, 100 mg/kg MXC, or 1 mg/kg β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB; positive control). Rats were treated daily for 11 days, from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day (PND) 7 or for 4 days during the postnatal period (PND 0-7). All rats were analyzed at PND-84. Total body, femur, spine, and tibia areal bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), lean body mass (LBM) and fat were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone geometry and volumetric (v) BMD were measured using micro-computed tomography and biomechanical properties using three-point bending were assessed. Rats exposed to EB or MXC (at either the high and/or low dose), independent of exposure interval showed lower body weight, LBM, tibia and femur BMD and length, and total body BMD and BMC than DMSO control group (p ≤ 0.05). Methoxychlor and EB exposure increased cortical porosity compared to DMSO controls. Trabecular vBMD, number and separation, and cortical polar moment of inertia and cross-sectional area were lower due to EB exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). Early MXC exposure compromises cortical porosity and bone size at maturity, and could ultimately increase the risk of fracture with aging.

  11. Chronic kidney disease and bone fracture: a growing concern

    OpenAIRE

    Nickolas, Thomas L.; Leonard, Mary B.; Shane, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility to fracture is increased across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moreover, fracture in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) results in significant excess mortality. The incidence and prevalence of CKD and ESKD are predicted to increase markedly over the coming decades in conjunction with the aging of the population. Given the high prevalence of both osteoporosis and CKD in older adults, it is of the utmost public health relevance to be able to assess fract...

  12. NIEMANN PICK DISEASE DIAGNOSED ON BONE MARROW ASPIRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Amita; Ankit; Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Niemann - pick disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder affecting 1 in 2,50,000 children. We are describing here, a case of Niemann - pick disease in a 19 months old female baby, who presented with distension of abdomen for 9 months and she was not able to sit or stand u n til this age. On examina tion of abdomen there was hepatosplenomegaly. Ultrasound abdomen also revealed hepatosplenomegaly along with multiple mesenteric and periportal lymph no...

  13. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu; E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei; O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted; K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O.̈. Ljunggren; R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho; P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  14. Bone marrow diseases in children significance of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M.; Kaiser, W.; Zeitler, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the study of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities in bone marrow diseases in children. The technic turned out to be interesting, its main advantages are: high sensitivity, good contrast, visualization of vascular structures, but its disadvantages are inferior detail resolution of periosteal changes and low specificity.

  15. Patient and implant survival following joint replacement because of metastatic bone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michala S; Gregersen, Kristine G; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas;

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from a pathological fracture or painful bony lesion because of metastatic bone disease often benefit from a total joint replacement. However, these are large operations in patients who are often weak. We examined the patient survival and complication rates after total joint...

  16. Photon-deficient bone scan lesion as a precursor of active Paget's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, M.M.J.R.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Blom, J. (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Leiden (Netherlands)); Harinck, H.I.J. (Clinical Investigation Unit, Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Leiden, Netherands)

    1984-05-15

    A case is presented in which a Pagetoid lesion was demonstrated as a photon-deficient area (cold spot) on the bone scan. This area changed into a hot spot 3 years after its discovery. Clinical and radiological observations provide evidence that a scintigraphically photon-deficient area may represent a precursor of active Paget's disease.

  17. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients.

  18. D-dimer assay in Egyptian patients with Gaucher disease: correlation with bone and lung involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Eman M; Tantawy, Azza A G; Adly, Amira A M; Kader, Hossam A; Ismail, Eman A R

    2011-04-01

    Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder. Bone and lung involvement are two major causes of morbidity in this disease. D-dimer is a reliable indicator of active microvascular thrombosis, even in patients without overt hypercoagulation. This study aimed to assess D-dimer levels in Gaucher disease, correlating this marker to clinical characteristics and radiological parameters to investigate its role as a potential predictor for the occurrence and severity of skeletal and pulmonary manifestations. The study population consisted of 56 Egyptian patients with Gaucher disease, 36 had type 1 Gaucher disease (64.3%) and 20 had type 3 Gaucher disease (35.7%). Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled as a control group. D-dimer levels were significantly higher in all patients with Gaucher disease compared with controls (P < 0.001). Patients with type 3 showed significantly higher D-dimer concentrations compared with type 1 (P < 0.001). Pulmonary involvement was present in a significant proportion among type 3 Gaucher patients (P < 0.05), whereas bone changes were present in a higher percentage in type 1 compared with type 3 Gaucher patients. D-dimers were significantly higher in patients with abnormal MRI findings of the long bones and in those with ground glass appearance on high-resolution computerized tomography of the chest compared with patients with normal radiology (P < 0.001). Splenectomized patients displayed significantly higher D-dimer levels compared with nonsplenectomized patients (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that D-dimer is significantly elevated in Gaucher disease, particularly type 3, and may be considered as a potential marker of risk prediction of bone and lung involvement that could be used to monitor treatment response.

  19. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of or replacing specific hormones can treat many endocrine disorders in children and adolescents, some of which include: ... System Your Child's Growth Female Reproductive System Activity: Endocrine System Word! Hormones Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Your Endocrine ...

  20. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  1. Acute bone crises in sickle cell disease: the T1 fat-saturated sequence in differentiation of acute bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To prove the hypothesis that acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells (RBCs) in bone marrow, and to evaluate the unenhanced T1 fat-saturated (fs) sequence in the differentiation of acute bone infarction from acute osteomyelitis in patients with sickle-cell disease. Materials and methods: Two studies were undertaken: an experimental study using in-vitro packed red blood cells and normal volunteers, and a retrospective clinical study of 86 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. For the experimental study containers of packed RBCs were placed between the knees of four healthy volunteers with a saline bag under the containers as an additional control, and were scanned with the pre-contrast T1-fs sequence. Signal intensity (SI) ratios were obtained for packed RBCs:skeletal muscle and packed RBCs:saline. For the clinical study, the SIs of normal bone marrow, packed RBCs, bone and/or soft-tissue lesions, and normal skeletal muscle of 74 patients (86 MRI studies) were measured using unenhanced, T1 fat-saturated MRI. The ratios of the above SIs to normal skeletal muscle were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-one of 86 MRI studies were included in the final analysis. The ratios of SIs for normal bone marrow, packed red cells, bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis, and soft-tissue lesions associated with bone infarct, compared with normal skeletal muscle were (mean ± SD) 0.9 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.7, 1.7 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3, and 2.2 ± 0.7, respectively. The difference in the ratio of SIs of bone infarcts and osteomyelitis was significant (p = 0.003). The final diagnoses were bone infarction (n = 50), acute osteomyelitis (n = 1), and co-existent bone infarction and osteomyelitis (n = 2). Seven patients who had suspected osteomyelitis underwent image-guided aspiration. Conclusion: Acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells in the bone marrow. The

  2. Contemporary management of metastatic bone disease: tips and tools of the trade for general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert H; Randall, R Lor; Benevenia, Joseph; Berven, Sigurd H; Raskin, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease has a significant effect on a patient's mortality and health-related quality of life. An aging US population and improved survival rates of patients with cancer have led to an increase in the incidence of symptomatic bony metastatic lesions that may require orthopaedic care. Skeletal-related events in neoplastic disease include pain, pathologic fracture, hypercalcemia, and neural compression, including spinal cord compression. The clinical evaluation and diagnostic study of a patient with a skeletal lesion of unknown etiology should be approached carefully. In patients with widespread metastatic disease, the treatment of a skeletal-related event may be limited to stabilization of the pathologic fracture or local disease control. The treatment of metastatic bone disease is guided by the nature of the skeletal-related event, the responsiveness of the lesion to adjuvant care, and the overall condition and survival expectations of the patient. Impending pathologic fractures are often more easily treated, with less morbidity and easier recovery for patients, than completed fractures. Quality of life is the most important outcome measure in these patients. When surgery is indicated, the approach, choice of fixation, and use of adjuvant should allow for immediate and unrestricted weight bearing. Because metastatic lesions to the skeleton have a limited capacity for spontaneous healing, surgical fixation should be durable for the life expectancy of the patient. In the epiphyseal region of long bones, replacement arthroplasty is generally preferred over internal fixation. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions can generally be addressed with intramedullary nailing or plate fixation with adjuvant. The specific treatment of acetabular lesions is dictated by the anatomy and the degree of bone loss. Spinal stability and neural compromise are important considerations in choosing a strategy for managing spine tumors. Effective surgical approaches to metastatic

  3. Turner′s syndrome presenting as metabolic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner′s syndrome is a genetic disorder with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome with characteristic phenotypic features. The prevalence of renal anomalies in turner syndrome is 30-40%. However, the renal function is usually normal. We report a case of Turner′s syndrome presenting with chronic kidney disease and renal osteodystrophy.

  4. Reno-endocrinal disorders: A basic understanding of the molecular genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful management of endocrine diseases is greatly helped by the complete understanding of the underlying pathology. The knowledge about the molecular genetics contributes immensely in the appropriate identification of the causative factors of the diseases and their subsequent management. The fields of nephrology and endocrinology are also interrelated to a large extent. Besides performing the secretory functions, the renal tissue also acts as target organ for many hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH, atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP, and aldosterone. Understanding the molecular genetics of these hormones is important because the therapeutic interventions in many of these conditions is related to shared renal and endocrine functions, including the anemia of renal disease, chronic kidney disease, mineral bone disorders, and hypertension related to chronic kidney disease. Their understanding and in-depth knowledge is very essential in designing and formulating the therapeutic plans and innovating new management strategies. However, we still have to go a long way in order to completely understand the various confounding causative relationships between the pathology and disease of these reno-endocrinal manifestations.

  5. Chemical and biomechanical characterization of hyperhomocysteinemic bone disease in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell David S

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS deficiency and characterized by distinctive alterations of bone growth and skeletal development. Skeletal changes include a reduction in bone density, making it a potentially attractive model for the study of idiopathic osteoporosis. Methods To investigate this aspect of hyperhomocysteinemia, we supplemented developing chicks (n = 8 with 0.6% dl-homocysteine (hCySH for the first 8 weeks of life in comparison to controls (n = 10, and studied biochemical, biomechanical and morphologic effects of this nutritional intervention. Results hCySH-fed animals grew faster and had longer tibiae at the end of the study. Plasma levels of hCySH, methionine, cystathionine, and inorganic sulfate were higher, but calcium, phosphate, and other indices of osteoblast metabolism were not different. Radiographs of the lower limbs showed generalized osteopenia and accelerated epiphyseal ossification with distinct metaphyseal and suprametaphyseal lucencies similar to those found in human homocystinurics. Although biomechanical testing of the tibiae, including maximal load to failure and bone stiffness, indicated stronger bone, strength was proportional to the increased length and cortical thickness in the hCySH-supplemented group. Bone ash weights and IR-spectroscopy of cortical bone showed no difference in mineral content, but there were higher Ca2+/PO43- and lower Ca2+/CO32- molar ratios than in controls. Mineral crystallization was unchanged. Conclusion In this chick model, hyperhomocysteinemia causes greater radial and longitudinal bone growth, despite normal indices of bone formation. Although there is also evidence for an abnormal matrix and altered bone composition, our finding of normal biomechanical bone strength, once corrected for altered morphometry, suggests that any increase in the risk of long bone fracture in human hyperhomocysteinemic

  6. 99mTc-MDP bone imaging Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soon Yong [School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    The pathology of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease be can described as a vascular disturbance leading to necrosis and subsequent revascularization of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the detection of areas with both decreased and increased vascular supply. The authors analyzed the scintigraphic findings of 14 cases of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease at Kyung Hee University Hospital from Mar. '81 to Oct. '82. The results were as follows: 1. Scintigraphy revealed area of absent radioactivity in 14 cases; lateral 2/3 portion of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center was involved in 9 cases among 14 cases, and also increased radioactivity in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, or proximal metaphysis of femur were associated in 7 cases. 2. Three cases had radiographically normal hip, whereas scintigraphy reviewed distinctly absent radioactivity in femoral epiphyseal ossification center. 3. Magnification of hip imaging using a pinhole collimator provided good definition of presence and extent of pathologic defect or uptake in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, and metaphysis. Bone imaging provided earlier and more accurate information concerning the extent of the necrotic and revascularization process of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease than the radiographys alone.

  7. Distribution and Characteristics of Diseases in Endocrine Emergency Consultation%内分泌急诊会诊疾病分布及特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈适; 邢小平; 顾锋; 柴晓峰; 平凡; 潘慧

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨北京协和医院内分泌急诊会诊的疾病分布。方法回顾2010年3月1日至2011年2月28日北京协和医院内分泌科会诊医师处理的急诊会诊病例,分析疾病分布情况及特点。结果内分泌急诊会诊患者共196例,会诊病例最常见为电解质紊乱(69例,35.2%),其次为甲状腺疾病(56例,28.6%)和糖代谢异常(49例,25.0%)。电解质紊乱以低钠血症最为多见(65.2%)。冬春季节内分泌急诊会诊病例(110例)多于夏秋季节(86例),电解质紊乱患者比例也高于夏秋季节(39.1%比30.2%)。重症医学科急诊会诊患者中,甲状腺功能正常的病态综合征占28.6%。结论内分泌急诊会诊疾病谱发生一定变化,电解质紊乱在内分泌急诊会诊中占重要地位,应予高度重视。%Objective To describe the disease distribution in endocrine emergency consultation. Meth-ods The pattern and characteristics of emergency cases encountered by endocrinology chief resident of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from March 1, 2010 to February 28, 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 196 patients received consultation in the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit. The most common diagnosis was electrolyte disturbance ( 69 cases, 35. 2%) , followed by thyroid disease ( 56 cases, 28. 6%) and carbohydrate metabolic disorder (49 cases, 25. 0%) . Hyponatremia was the most common electro-lyte disturbance (65. 2%) . The number of emergency consultation cases in winter and spring (110 cases) excee-ded that in autumn and summer (86 cases), so did the proportion of electrolyte disturbance cases (39. 1% vs. 30. 2%) . The euthyroid sick syndrome was common in the Intensive Care Unit in the analyzed consultation cases (28. 6%) . Conclusion Disease pattern in endocrine emergency consultation cases has changed. Electrolyte disturbance becomes a common and important disease in endocrine emergency consultation and we should there-fore pay

  8. Age and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noth, R H; Mazzaferri, E L

    1985-02-01

    The pattern of age-induced changes in each endocrine system is unique. Both hormone levels and target organ responsivity are altered in the aging endocrine-cardiovascular system. Serum levels of vasopressor hormones both increase (norepinephrine) and decrease (renin, aldosterone). Target organ responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in the heart and probably also in vascular smooth muscle decrease due to postreceptor changes. These effects contribute to the clinical problems of hypertension and orthostatic hypotension which characterize the elderly. Aging produces mild carbohydrate intolerance and a minimal increase in fasting serum glucose in healthy, nonobese individuals, primarily due to decreasing postreceptor responsiveness to insulin. Aging decreases the metabolism of thyroxine, including its conversion to triiodothyronine, but clinically significant alterations of thyroid hormone levels do not occur. Changes in the end-organ response to thyroid hormones, however, significantly alter the clinical presentation of thyroid diseases. Aging shifts the serum vasopressin-serum osmolality relationship toward higher serum vasopressin levels probably due to altered baroreceptor input, probably contributing to the tendency toward hyponatremia in the elderly. Aging slows the metabolism of cortisol, but glucocorticoid levels in the human are essentially unaltered by age. However, recent data indicate that delta-5 adrenal steroids decrease markedly in both men and women. Nodules in the anterior pituitary, the thyroid, and the adrenal increase in frequency with aging. Finally, the reproductive system is primarily altered by endocrine cell death, by unknown mechanisms, resulting in decreased estrogen and testosterone levels in women and men. This most obvious age-related endocrine change turns out to be incompletely understood and is not representative of most age-related endocrine changes. Despite characterization of these many age-related alterations in endocrine systems

  9. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F. Anders [Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Inst. of Medical Sciences (Sweden). Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes

    2006-12-15

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented.

  10. Conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the prognostic evaluation of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniklides, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlstedt, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerholm, T. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Moberg, A. [Dept of Orthopedics, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    Purpose: The role of conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in predicting the outcome of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease was investigated. Material and Methods: The 75 children reviewed (86 hips) were followed up to the primary healing of the disease. The findings at conventional radiography (obtained at presentation, at the time of maximum capital head involvement, and at the end of the healing process of the disease) were compared to early bone scintigraphy features. Results and Conclusion: Bone scintigraphy provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the necrotic process than initial radiographs. Moreover if could determine revascularization and consequently the stage of the disease. The method was, however, unable to predict the outcome of the disease in some of the cases, particularly if it was performed late after the onset of symptoms. Conventional radiography provided important information about other parameters such as `head-at`risk` signs which facilitated treatment selection. Of thse signs not only lateral subluxation but also metaphyseal changes strongly predispose to severe deformity of the hip joint. (orig.).

  11. Laser technologies in treatment of degenerative-dystrophic bone diseases in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushkin, Ivan A.; Privalov, Valery A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Noskov, Nikolay V.; Neizvestnykh, Elena A.; Kotlyarov, Alexander N.; Shekunova, Yulia G.

    2014-03-01

    Two low invasive laser technologies for treatment of degenerative-dystrophic bone diseases in children are presented. The first is the transcutaneous laser osteoperforation developed by us and initially applied for treatment of different inflammatory and traumatic diseases (osteomyelitides, osteal and osteoarticular panaritiums, delayed unions, false joints, and others). Now the technology was applied to treatment of aseptic osteonecrosis of different localizations in 134 children aged from 1 to 16 years, including 56 cases with necrosis of femoral head (Legg-Calve-Perthes disease), 42 with necrosis of 2nd metatarsal bone head (Kohler II disease), and 36 with necrosis of tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease). The second technology is the laser intracystic thermotherapy for treatment of bone cysts. The method was applied to 108 children aged from 3 to 16 years with aneurismal and solitary cysts of different localizations. In both technologies a 970 nm diode laser was used. The suggested technologies increase the efficiency of treatment, reduce its duration, can be performed on outpatient basis, which resulted in great economical effect.

  12. Detection of Unknown sites of multiple enchondroma (Ollier′s Disease mimicking like metastasis using bone scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koramadai Karuppusamy Kamaleshwaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ollier′s disease characterized by multiple skeletal enchondroma is a rare noninherited disease of unknown etiology. Majority of the skeletal enchondroma are present in the metaphyses and diaphysis of tubular limb bones. Ollier′s disease has a predilection for unilateral distribution. Malignant changes in Ollier′s disease may occur in adult patients. Radionuclide bone scanning is one method used to assess lesions depicted on radiographs or magnetic resonance images that are presumed to be enchondromas. Furthermore, a bone scan may give a clue to the multifocality of the disease. We report a case of right first phalangeal enchondroma in a 23-year-old male, who underwent bone scintigraphy detected multifocal asymmetric right side involvement of radius, humerus, femur, and tibia which confirm a diagnosis of Ollier′s disease.

  13. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Comparison of conventional radiography, MR imaging, bone scintigraphy and arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniklides, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerholm, T. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Moberg, A. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlstedt, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    In a prospective study of 22 patients (24 hips) with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) the findings at conventional radiography, arthrography, bone scintigraphy and MR imaging, obtained at the time of diagnosis, were compared. MR was superior to conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the detection of the extent of involvement in the femoral head. Arthrography was as good as or better than MR imaging in determining the shape of the articular surfaces and the occurrence of lateral subluxation. Conventional radiography was less sensitive in identifying the degree of lateral subluxation and the extent of the necrosis in the femoral head. MR imaging provided anatomical and pathophysiological information about the extent and location of head involvement as well as the degree of lateral subluxation. Revascularisation was more clearly demonstrated with MR than with bone scintigraphy, irrespective of symptom duration. (orig.).

  14. Prevention and Control of Secondary Disease following Allogenic Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the various methods found to be effective in preventing or ameliorating acute secondary disease in rodents and primates. Selective physical elimination of lymphoid cells by centrifugation over a discontinuous albumin gradient, post-transplantation administration of cyclophosphamide, amethopterin or ALS and the selection of histocompatible bone-marrow donors are considered to be the most promising methods in primares. It is not known to what extent delayed secondary disease will occur in monkeys and man in cases where acute secondary disease has been successfully avoided. (author)

  15. Increased serum IgE concentrations during infection and graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, S. A.; Rogers, T. R.; Perry, D; Hobbs, J R; Riches, P G

    1984-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations estimated in 25 bone marrow transplant recipients during episodes of infection or graft versus host disease, or both, were raised not only in some patients with acute graft versus host disease but also in many patients with infection. Raised values were not seen in chronic graft versus host disease. The routine estimation of serum IgE in bone marrow transplant recipients had minimal value because of the lack of specificity of the IgE response.

  16. Bone Mineral Densitometry Findings of Children with Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of Celiac Disease (CD on children’s bone is the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD. Osteoporosis is a consequence of this decrease and usually manifests in adult ages. Studies in CD patients generally show that bone density of these patients can be different at the same ages for the same duration of disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age and bone mineral density of CD patients at first diagnosis. Material and Methods: Ninety one patients (M/F: 36/55; age range: 3-16; mean age: 9.6±3.5 with diagnosis of CD were included in the study. BMD survey from L1-L4 lumbar spine and total hip of the patients was evaluated at presentation. We evaluated the patients in 3 groups according to their ages: Group 1: pre-school (3-7 years old, Group 2: elementary school (8-11 years old and Group 3: adolescent (12-16 years old. Results were compared using Student’s t test and correlation analysis. Results: The mean disease duration of the patients was 16.4±16.3 months. Mean height and weight of the patients were 124.8±17.9 cm and 27±9.3 kg, respectively and height and weight of 37 patients were in ≤ 3. percentile according to age. The BMD values of both lumbar spine and total hip and Z-scores of lumbar region were in mild correlation with age (r>0.5. There was significant difference between mean ages of patients with low bone mass for chronological age and normal bone densitometry values (p<0.05. There were 27, 36 and 28 patients in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. The difference between mean BMD values of these groups were statistically significant (p<0.05. The mean values of lumbar Z- scores of patients were -1.08±1.27, -1.42±1, -1.86±1.14, respectively for these three groups. Conclusion: Bone mineral densities of CD patients in childhood were lower in elder children at the time of diagnosis. This confirms the opinion that the diagnosis at earlier age results better treatment

  17. Low bone mineral density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Charlotte E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is common in patients with COPD but the likely multi-factorial causes contributing to this condition (e.g. sex, age, smoking, therapy mask the potential contribution from elements related to COPD. In order to study osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD related to COPD, we studied a well-defined group of patients and controls. Methods BMD, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, circulating bone biomarkers and biochemistry were determined in 30 clinically stable male ex-smokers with confirmed COPD and 15 age matched "ex-smoker" male controls. None of the patients were on inhaled corticosteroids or received more than one short course of steroids. Results Mean (SD FEV1% predicted of patients was 64(6%, the majority having Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD II airflow obstruction. There were 5/30 patients and 1/15 controls who were osteoporotic, while a further 17 patients and 5 controls were osteopenic. The BMD at the hip was lower in patients than controls, but not at the lumbar spine. Mean values of procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide and osteocalcin, both markers of bone formation, and Type 1 collagen β C-telopeptide, a marker of bone resorption, were similar between patients and controls. However, all bone biomarkers were inversely related to hip BMD in patients (r = -0.51, r = -0.67, r = -0.57, p Conclusions Men with COPD had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia than age matched male controls, with a marked difference in BMD at the hip. Bone biomarkers suggest increased bone turnover.

  18. Effects of dietary phosphate on adynamic bone disease in rats with chronic kidney disease--role of sclerostin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana C; Ferrari, Guaraciaba O; Neves, Katia R; Cavallari, Raquel T; Dominguez, Wagner V; Dos Reis, Luciene M; Graciolli, Fabiana G; Oliveira, Elizabeth C; Liu, Shiguang; Sabbagh, Yves; Jorgetti, Vanda; Schiavi, Susan; Moysés, Rosa M A

    2013-01-01

    High phosphate intake is known to aggravate renal osteodystrophy along various pathogenetic pathways. Recent studies have raised the possibility that dysregulation of the osteocyte Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is also involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related bone disease. We investigated the role of dietary phosphate and its possible interaction with this pathway in an experimental model of adynamic bone disease (ABD) in association with CKD and hypoparathyroidism. Partial nephrectomy (Nx) and total parathyroidectomy (PTx) were performed in male Wistar rats. Control rats with normal kidney and parathyroid function underwent sham operations. Rats were divided into three groups and underwent pair-feeding for 8 weeks with diets containing either 0.6% or 1.2% phosphate: sham 0.6%, Nx+PTx 0.6%, and Nx+PTx 1.2%. In the two Nx+PTx groups, serum creatinine increased and blood ionized calcium decreased compared with sham control group. They also presented hyperphosphatemia and reduced serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. Fractional urinary excretion of phosphate increased in Nx+PTx 1.2% rats despite lower PTH and FGF23 levels than in sham group. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a decrease in bone formation rates. The Nx+PTx 1.2% group had lower bone volume (BV/TV), higher osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, and higher SOST and Dickkopf-1 gene expression than the Nx+PTx 0.6% group. Nx+PTx 0.6% rat had very low serum sclerostin levels, and Nx+PTx 1.2% had intermediate sclerostin levels compared with sham group. Finally, there was a negative correlation between BV/TV and serum sclerostin. These results suggest that high dietary phosphate intake decreases bone volume in an experimental model of CKD-ABD, possibly via changes in SOST expression through a PTH-independent mechanism. These findings could have relevance for the clinical setting of CKD-ABD in patients who low turnover bone disease might be attenuated

  19. Effects of dietary phosphate on adynamic bone disease in rats with chronic kidney disease--role of sclerostin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Ferreira

    Full Text Available High phosphate intake is known to aggravate renal osteodystrophy along various pathogenetic pathways. Recent studies have raised the possibility that dysregulation of the osteocyte Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is also involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD-related bone disease. We investigated the role of dietary phosphate and its possible interaction with this pathway in an experimental model of adynamic bone disease (ABD in association with CKD and hypoparathyroidism. Partial nephrectomy (Nx and total parathyroidectomy (PTx were performed in male Wistar rats. Control rats with normal kidney and parathyroid function underwent sham operations. Rats were divided into three groups and underwent pair-feeding for 8 weeks with diets containing either 0.6% or 1.2% phosphate: sham 0.6%, Nx+PTx 0.6%, and Nx+PTx 1.2%. In the two Nx+PTx groups, serum creatinine increased and blood ionized calcium decreased compared with sham control group. They also presented hyperphosphatemia and reduced serum parathyroid hormone (PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 levels. Fractional urinary excretion of phosphate increased in Nx+PTx 1.2% rats despite lower PTH and FGF23 levels than in sham group. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a decrease in bone formation rates. The Nx+PTx 1.2% group had lower bone volume (BV/TV, higher osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, and higher SOST and Dickkopf-1 gene expression than the Nx+PTx 0.6% group. Nx+PTx 0.6% rat had very low serum sclerostin levels, and Nx+PTx 1.2% had intermediate sclerostin levels compared with sham group. Finally, there was a negative correlation between BV/TV and serum sclerostin. These results suggest that high dietary phosphate intake decreases bone volume in an experimental model of CKD-ABD, possibly via changes in SOST expression through a PTH-independent mechanism. These findings could have relevance for the clinical setting of CKD-ABD in patients who low turnover bone disease might

  20. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  1. Effect of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on bone disease in postmenopausal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nanda, Kavinderjit S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data are available on the contribution of chronic HCV infection to the development of bone disease in postmenopausal women. We studied whether women who acquired HCV infection through administration of HCV genotype 1b-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin from a single source had decreased bone mineral density (BMD) or altered levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs), compared with women who spontaneously resolved infection or age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: From a cohort of postmenopausal Irish women, we compared BMD, determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and a panel of BTMs in 20 women chronically infected with HCV (PCR(+)), 21 women who had spontaneously resolved infection (PCR(-)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of BTMs and BMD were similar in PCR(+) and PCR(-) women and healthy age-matched controls. However, there was an increased frequency of fractures in PCR(+) (n = 6) compared with PCR(-) women (n = 0, P = .007). PCR(+) women with fractures were postmenopausal for a longer time (median, 15.5, range, 5-20 years vs 4.5, range, 1-20 years in PCR(+) women without fractures; P = .033), had lower BMD at the hip (0.79, range, 0.77-0.9 g\\/cm(2) vs 0.96, range, 0.81-1.10 g\\/cm(2); P = .007), and had a lower body mass index (23.7, range 21.2-28.5 kg\\/m(2) vs 25.6, range 22.1-36.6 kg\\/m(2); P = .035). There was no difference in liver disease severity or BTMs in PCR(+) women with or without fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV infection did not lead to discernable metabolic bone disease in postmenopausal women, but it might be a risk factor for bone fractures, so preventive measures should be introduced. To view this article\\'s video abstract, go to the AGA\\'s YouTube Channel.

  2. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized.

  3. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A.; Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo H.; Silva-Junior, Almir J.; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M.; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized. PMID:26649049

  4. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chro...

  5. The Insulin and IGF-I Pathway in Endocrine Glands Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Malaguarnera; Alaide Morcavallo; Antonino Belfiore

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine cancers are a heterogeneous group of diseases that may arise from endocrine cells in any gland of the endocrine system. These malignancies may show an aggressive behavior and resistance to the common anticancer therapies. The etiopathogenesis of these tumors remains mostly unknown. The normal embryological development and differentiation of several endocrine glands are regulated by specific pituitary tropins, which, in adult life, control the function and trophism of the endocrine g...

  6. Development and Regeneration in the Endocrine Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of two compartments that deliver digestive enzymes and endocrine hormones to control the blood sugar level. The endocrine pancreas consists of functional units organized into cell clusters called islets of Langerhans where insulin-producing cells are found in the core and surrounded by glucagon-, somatostatin-, pancreatic polypeptide-, and ghrelin-producing cells. Diabetes is a devastating disease provoked by the depletion or malfunction of insulin-producing beta-cell...

  7. Radiological features of Paget disease of bone associated with VCP myopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farpour, Farzin [University of California, Department of Radiology, VA Long Beach Health Care, Irvine, CA (United States); Queens Hospital Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [University of California, Department of Radiology, VA Long Beach Health Care, Irvine, CA (United States); Donkervoort, Sandra; Vanjara, Pari [University of California, Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Irvine, CA (United States); Smith, Charles [University of Kentucky, Department of Neurology and Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, Lexington, KY (United States); Martin, Barbara [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Osann, Kathryn [University of California, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Irvine, CA (United States); Kimonis, Virginia E. [University of California, Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Irvine, CA (United States); UC Irvine Medical Center, Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Orange, CA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Mutations in the Valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene cause a unique disorder characterized by classic Paget disease of bone (PDB), inclusion body myopathy, and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Our objective was to analyze the radiographic features of PDB associated with VCP mutations since there is a dearth of literature on the PDB component of VCP disease. Radiographic bone surveys were examined in 23 individuals with VCP mutation and compared with their unaffected relatives. Laboratory testing relevant for VCP disease was performed in all individuals. Of the 17 affected individuals with clinical manifestations of VCP disease, 16 of whom had myopathy, radiographic analysis revealed classic PDB in 11 individuals (65%). The mean age of diagnosis for myopathy was 43.8 years and for PDB was 38.1 years of age. Radiological evidence of PDB was seen in one individual (16%) amongst six clinically asymptomatic VCP mutation carriers. Alkaline phosphatase was a useful marker for diagnosing PDB in VCP disease. Radiographic findings of classic PDB are seen in 52% of individuals carrying VCP mutations at a significantly younger age than conventional PDB. Screening for PDB is warranted in at-risk individuals because of the benefit of early treatment with the new powerful bisphosphonates that hold the potential for prevention of disease. (orig.)

  8. Radiological features of Paget disease of bone associated with VCP myopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in the Valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene cause a unique disorder characterized by classic Paget disease of bone (PDB), inclusion body myopathy, and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Our objective was to analyze the radiographic features of PDB associated with VCP mutations since there is a dearth of literature on the PDB component of VCP disease. Radiographic bone surveys were examined in 23 individuals with VCP mutation and compared with their unaffected relatives. Laboratory testing relevant for VCP disease was performed in all individuals. Of the 17 affected individuals with clinical manifestations of VCP disease, 16 of whom had myopathy, radiographic analysis revealed classic PDB in 11 individuals (65%). The mean age of diagnosis for myopathy was 43.8 years and for PDB was 38.1 years of age. Radiological evidence of PDB was seen in one individual (16%) amongst six clinically asymptomatic VCP mutation carriers. Alkaline phosphatase was a useful marker for diagnosing PDB in VCP disease. Radiographic findings of classic PDB are seen in 52% of individuals carrying VCP mutations at a significantly younger age than conventional PDB. Screening for PDB is warranted in at-risk individuals because of the benefit of early treatment with the new powerful bisphosphonates that hold the potential for prevention of disease. (orig.)

  9. ACTINOMYCES NAESLUNDII ISOLATED FROM BONE MARROW BIOPSIES OBTAINED FROM PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT LYMPHORETICULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Mobedi

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Different types of Actinomyces spp isolated from the oral cavity of human in healthy as well as in pathological state. Internally it is only found in association with pathological organs. Recently Actinomyces naeslundii has been isolated from blood culture of a leukemic patient. Present studies indicate the association of this microorganism with cells obtained from bone marrow by punction in more than 40 percent of patients of patients with malignant lymphoreticular disease.

  10. ACTINOMYCES NAESLUNDII ISOLATED FROM BONE MARROW BIOPSIES OBTAINED FROM PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT LYMPHORETICULAR DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Mobedi, I; J.Vandyoussefi; H.Rassa; HA.Fardin

    1981-01-01

    Different types of Actinomyces spp isolated from the oral cavity of human in healthy as well as in pathological state. Internally it is only found in association with pathological organs. Recently Actinomyces naeslundii has been isolated from blood culture of a leukemic patient. Present studies indicate the association of this microorganism with cells obtained from bone marrow by punction in more than 40 percent of patients of patients with malignant lymphoreticular disease.

  11. Case report 496: Intraosseous gas in Proteus mirabilis osteomyelitis complicating bone infarcts in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, A.C.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Stull, M.A.; Truwit, C.L.

    1988-10-01

    Plain film radiographs showed dramatic changes of this rare complication of sickle cell disease in an adult patient, eventually resulting in bilateral amputations of the lower extremities. Cross table radiographs of the knees showed the air-fluid levels without soft tissue swelling or periosteal reaction. The balance of the studies performed confirmed and refined the initial impression that infarction and infection had occurred within the medullary spaces of four long bones. The offending organism was Proteus mirabilis.

  12. Pulmonary, Gonadal, and Central Nervous System Status after Bone Marrow Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Mark C.; Hardy, Karen; Edwards, Sandie; Adamkiewicz, Thomas; Barkovich, James; Bernaudin, Francoise; Buchanan, George R.; Bunin, Nancy; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giller, Roger; Haut, Paul R.; Horan, John; Hsu, Lewis L.; Kamani, Naynesh; Levine, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, multicenter investigation of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) between 1991 and 2000. To determine if children were protected from complications of SCD after successful BMT, we extended our initial study of BMT for SCD to conduct assessments of the central nervous system (CNS) and of pulmonary function 2 or more years after transplantation. In addition, the impact on g...

  13. Bone Disease in Medullary Sponge Kidney and Effect of Potassium Citrate Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fabris, Antonia; Bernich, Patrizia; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Marchionna, Nicola; Canciani, Chiara; Nouvenne, Antonio; Zamboni, Mauro; Lupo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: In medullary sponge kidney (MSK)—a common malformative renal condition in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis—hypercalciuria, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis, and hypocitraturia are common. Clinical conditions with concomitant hypercalciuria and/or incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis are almost invariably associated with bone disease, making osteopathy highly likely in MSK, too. Patients with MSK have never been investigated for osteopathy; neither h...

  14. Vanishing bone disease of the orbital roof: now you see it, now you don't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a rare case of vascularised orbital roof and calvarial erosions with an associated venous malformation. In the absence of infection, malignancy, trauma and eosinophillic granuloma, the closest previously described entity is vanishing bone disease. Computed tomography (CT), MRI, catheter angiography and pathology were all important in the diagnostic workup to enable surgical planning for biopsy and reconstruction. Ongoing CT and MRI follow-up imaging will determine future treatment planning.

  15. Computed tomography of the petrous bone in otosclerosis and Meniere's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to examine if, in the case of otosclerosis and Meniere's disease, one could obtain more information with high resolution computer tomography than with conventional polytomography. In the first part of this thesis a brief survey of some principles of computer tomography is given and a computer tomographic atlas of the normal petrous bone in the otoradiologic planes used in this study. In the introduction of the second part some aspects of otosclerose are discussed (definition, clinical aspects). Subsequently a treatment is given of a part of the histopathology referring to the otospongiotic and otosclerotic changes in the labyrinthine capsule. A survey is given of preceding studies on the petrous bone in the case of otosclerosis; in these studies mostly classical planigraphic techniques were employed. In the third part some general aspects of Meniere's disease are discussed: definition, incidence, clinical aspects and pathophysiology. It is assumed that the symptoms of Meniere's disease are caused by an overpressure in the endolymphatic areas of the labyrinthum ('hydrops'), however till now a proof for this is still not given. The ductus endolympathicus, which passes through a channel in the petrous bone (the vestibular aqueduct), plays a role in the drainage of endolymph. Stagnation of this drainage could cause hydrops. (Auth.)

  16. Systemic mast cell disease (SMCD) and bone pain. A case treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Systemic mast cell disease (SMCD) is a rare disease characterized by a multitopic proliferation of cytologically and/or functionally abnormal tissue mast cells. SMCD preferentially involves the skin, spleen, liver, lymph nodes and the bone marrow. The cause of SMCD is unknown. Bony pain, caused by mast cell infiltration of the marrow cavity, is present in up to 28% of cases and is frequently chronic and difficult to palliate with medical therapy. Case Report: We report one case of refractory bone pain in a 54-year-old female Caucasian patient with advanced SMCD and associated bony involvement, which was treated with radiotherapy for pain palliation. Between 1995 and 1998, the patient was irradiated at four different locations: 1) right shoulder and proximal right humerus, 2) both hands, 3) both knees, 4) left humerus with a total dose of 40 Gy in 2.0 or 2.5 Gy daily fractions. Results: Different results of pain palliation were achieved. In one location the pain was reduced for 55 months until her death due to disease progression, whereas in two other locations a pain control was maintained for 3 and 6 months after radiotherapy. In one location, no pain reduction was achieved. Severe side effects were not observed. Conclusion: Palliative radiotherapy has a role in the control of severe intractable bone pain in patients with advanced SMCD, though in some cases the effect may be short or incomplete. The observed palliation of pain can even differ in the same patient. (orig.)

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and low bone mass: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Low bone mass (osteopenia and osteoporosis is one of the effects associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is very little data from Saudi Arabia on COPD and low bone mass. This retrospective study was done to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in COPD patients attending King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU, Alkhobar. Patients and Methods: After obtaining the ethical approval from the research committee, all patients seen between at the King Fahd Hospital of the University between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The inclusion criteria included a follow up of a minimum 2 years, and the Medical Records should have the details of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 , blood bone profile and bone biomarkers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan. Patients were labeled as osteopenia if the T score was -<1 to <-2.5 and osteoporosis of <-2.5 as per the WHO definition of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Results: Seventy-three patients were being followed in the clinics and 49 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The average age was 60.6 ± 10.47 years; males were 43 and females 6. Three (6.1% were normal and the remaining 46 (93.9% were with low bone mass. Thirty-two (65.3% were osteoporotic and 14 (28.57% were osteopenic. The average duration of COPD was 4.5 ± 6.2 years. Majority (n = 36, 73.4% of patients were in the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD class II and III. FEV 1 was significantly lower in the patients with low bone mass 1.66 ± 0.60 versus 3.61 ± 0.58 (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Our study shows that over 90% of Saudi Arabian patients with COPD suffer from osteopenia and osteoporosis and unfortunately they remain under-diagnosed and undertreated.

  18. Clinical advances in endocrine and metabolic disease of 2014%2014内分泌代谢疾病临床进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绵; 张力辉; 苏胜偶

    2015-01-01

    2014年,中华医学会糖尿病学分会,中华医学会内分泌学分会,美国临床糖尿病学会(ADA),美国内分泌学会(TES),美国内分泌医师协会(AACE)等组织颁布了一些新的指南和共识,涉及糖尿病、甲状腺疾病、肥胖、肢端肥大症、催乳素瘤、原发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症、维生素 D 缺乏等,同时还有一些重要研究和荟萃分析发表,现就其中主要进展进行盘点。%In 2014,Chinese Diabetes Society,Chinese Society of Endocrinology,American diabetes association (ADA),the Endocrine Society(TES),American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists(AACE)and others published some new guidelines and consensuses on diabetes mellitus,thyroid disease,obesity,acromegaly, prolactinoma, primary hyperparathyroidism,deficiency of vitamin D,etc.Meanwhile,some clinical studies and meta-analysis were published.Here,we review some of the main advances.

  19. Multiple myeloma mesenchymal stromal cells: Contribution to myeloma bone disease and therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio; Garcia-Gomez; Fermin; Sanchez-Guijo; M; Consuelo; del; Caizo; Jesus; F; San; Miguel; Mercedes; Garayoa

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy inwhich clonal plasma cells proliferate and accumulate within the bone marrow. The presence of osteolytic le-sions due to increased osteoclast(OC) activity and sup-pressed osteoblast(OB) function is characteristic of the disease. The bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells(MSCs) play a critical role in multiple myeloma patho-physiology, greatly promoting the growth, survival, drug resistance and migration of myeloma cells. Here, we specifically discuss on the relative contribution of MSCs to the pathophysiology of osteolytic lesions in light of the current knowledge of the biology of my-eloma bone disease(MBD), together with the reported genomic, functional and gene expression differences between MSCs derived from myeloma patients(pMSCs) and their healthy counterparts(dMSCs). Being MSCs the progenitors of OBs, pMSCs primarily contribute to the pathogenesis of MBD because of their reduced osteogenic potential consequence of multiple OB inhibi-tory factors and direct interactions with myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Importantly, pMSCs also readily contribute to MBD by promoting OC formation and ac-tivity at various levels(i.e., increasing RANKL to OPG expression, augmenting secretion of activin A, uncou-pling ephrinB2-EphB4 signaling, and through augment-ed production of Wnt5a), thus further contributing to OB/OC uncoupling in osteolytic lesions. In this review, we also look over main signaling pathways involved in the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and/or OB activity, highlighting amenable therapeutic targets; in parallel, the reported activity of bone-anabolic agents(at preclinical or clinical stage) targeting those signaling pathways is commented.

  20. Multiple myeloma mesenchymal stromal cells: Contribution to myeloma bone disease and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin; Del Cañizo, M Consuelo; San Miguel, Jesus F; Garayoa, Mercedes

    2014-07-26

    Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy in which clonal plasma cells proliferate and accumulate within the bone marrow. The presence of osteolytic lesions due to increased osteoclast (OC) activity and suppressed osteoblast (OB) function is characteristic of the disease. The bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play a critical role in multiple myeloma pathophysiology, greatly promoting the growth, survival, drug resistance and migration of myeloma cells. Here, we specifically discuss on the relative contribution of MSCs to the pathophysiology of osteolytic lesions in light of the current knowledge of the biology of myeloma bone disease (MBD), together with the reported genomic, functional and gene expression differences between MSCs derived from myeloma patients (pMSCs) and their healthy counterparts (dMSCs). Being MSCs the progenitors of OBs, pMSCs primarily contribute to the pathogenesis of MBD because of their reduced osteogenic potential consequence of multiple OB inhibitory factors and direct interactions with myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Importantly, pMSCs also readily contribute to MBD by promoting OC formation and activity at various levels (i.e., increasing RANKL to OPG expression, augmenting secretion of activin A, uncoupling ephrinB2-EphB4 signaling, and through augmented production of Wnt5a), thus further contributing to OB/OC uncoupling in osteolytic lesions. In this review, we also look over main signaling pathways involved in the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and/or OB activity, highlighting amenable therapeutic targets; in parallel, the reported activity of bone-anabolic agents (at preclinical or clinical stage) targeting those signaling pathways is commented.

  1. The gastrointestinal endocrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Track, Norman S.

    1980-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endocrinology is the study of the hormonal regulation of digestion. A number of characterized polypeptide hormones have been localized in specific gastroenteropancreatic endocrine cells. The fact that some of these hormones are also found in nerve and brain cells has given rise to the concept of a gut-brain axis. The functional capacities of these endocrine cells are determined by their anatomic location; the luminal exposure of gastroenteric endocrine cells represents an add...

  2. Kidney bone disease and mortality in CKD: revisiting the role of vitamin D, calcimimetics, alkaline phosphatase, and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Shah, Anuja; Duong, Uyen; Hechter, Rulin C; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2010-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the traditional syndromes known as renal osteodystrophy, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency are related to mortality in persons with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The so-called 'kidney bone disease', also known as 'mineral and bone disorders', is defined to include bone disorders, mineral disarrays, and vascular calcification. We have identified 14 common and clinically relevant conditions of contemporary nature that are related to the kidney bone disease, including calcitriol (active vitamin D) deficiency, 25(OH)-vitamin D deficiency, biochemical hyperparathyroidism, relatively low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, increased serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasemia), elevated fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, high turnover bone disease, adynamic bone disease, uremic osteoporosis, vascular calcification, hyper- and hypophosphatemia, and hyper- and hypocalcemia. We present a critical review of these 14 conditions with emphasis on patient survival and other pertinent clinical outcomes. We also review unresolved controversies surrounding the management of these conditions by administration of nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol), vitamin D receptor activators (calcitriol, alphacalcidiol, doxercalciferol), D-mimetics (paricalcitol, maxacalcitol), calcimimetics (cinacalcet), recombinant PTH (teriparatide), and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand modulators (denosumab); compare mortality predictability of PTH and alkaline phosphatase; and examine potential risks of bone disorders and mineral disarrays in CKD patients. PMID:20671739

  3. Pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria for rickets and osteomalacia - proposal by an expert panel supported by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and The Japan Endocrine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Minagawa, Masanori; Okazaki, Ryo; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Rickets and osteomalacia are diseases characterized by impaired mineralization of bone matrix. Recent investigations revealed that the causes for rickets and osteomalacia are quite variable. While these diseases can severely impair the quality of life of the affected patients, rickets and osteomalacia can be completely cured or at least respond to treatment when properly diagnosed and treated according to the specific causes. On the other hand, there are no standard criteria to diagnose rickets or osteomalacia nationally and internationally. Therefore, we summarize the definition and pathogenesis of rickets and osteomalacia, and propose the diagnostic criteria and a flowchart for the differential diagnosis of various causes for these diseases. We hope that these criteria and flowchart are clinically useful for the proper diagnosis and management of patients with these diseases. PMID:26156530

  4. Pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria for rickets and osteomalacia--proposal by an expert panel supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research, and the Japan Endocrine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Minagawa, Masanori; Okazaki, Ryo; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    Rickets and osteomalacia are diseases characterized by impaired mineralization of bone matrix. Recent investigations have revealed that the causes of rickets and osteomalacia are quite variable. Although these diseases can severely impair the quality of life of affected patients, rickets and osteomalacia can be completely cured or at least respond to treatment when properly diagnosed and treated according to the specific causes. On the other hand, there are no standard criteria to diagnose rickets or osteomalacia nationally and internationally. Therefore, we summarize the definition and pathogenesis of rickets and osteomalacia, and propose diagnostic criteria and a flowchart for the differential diagnosis of various causes of these diseases. We hope that these criteria and the flowchart are clinically useful for the proper diagnosis and management of these diseases. PMID:26197863

  5. Pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria for rickets and osteomalacia - proposal by an expert panel supported by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and The Japan Endocrine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Minagawa, Masanori; Okazaki, Ryo; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Rickets and osteomalacia are diseases characterized by impaired mineralization of bone matrix. Recent investigations revealed that the causes for rickets and osteomalacia are quite variable. While these diseases can severely impair the quality of life of the affected patients, rickets and osteomalacia can be completely cured or at least respond to treatment when properly diagnosed and treated according to the specific causes. On the other hand, there are no standard criteria to diagnose rickets or osteomalacia nationally and internationally. Therefore, we summarize the definition and pathogenesis of rickets and osteomalacia, and propose the diagnostic criteria and a flowchart for the differential diagnosis of various causes for these diseases. We hope that these criteria and flowchart are clinically useful for the proper diagnosis and management of patients with these diseases.

  6. Pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria for rickets and osteomalacia--proposal by an expert panel supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research, and the Japan Endocrine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Minagawa, Masanori; Okazaki, Ryo; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    Rickets and osteomalacia are diseases characterized by impaired mineralization of bone matrix. Recent investigations have revealed that the causes of rickets and osteomalacia are quite variable. Although these diseases can severely impair the quality of life of affected patients, rickets and osteomalacia can be completely cured or at least respond to treatment when properly diagnosed and treated according to the specific causes. On the other hand, there are no standard criteria to diagnose rickets or osteomalacia nationally and internationally. Therefore, we summarize the definition and pathogenesis of rickets and osteomalacia, and propose diagnostic criteria and a flowchart for the differential diagnosis of various causes of these diseases. We hope that these criteria and the flowchart are clinically useful for the proper diagnosis and management of these diseases.

  7. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  8. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in Paget's disease of bone-correlation of regional microcirculation and bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicher, M. [University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet zu Koeln, Radiologische Klinik, Koeln (Germany); Kasperk, C. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Medicine, Division of Osteology, Heidelberg (Germany); Daniels, M.; Hosch, W. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U.; Delorme, S. [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional microcirculation in Paget's disease of bone (PD) with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI). Additionally, we correlated regional bone perfusion with alkaline phosphatase as serum marker of bone turnover. We examined 71 patients with PD (27 men, 44 women, 67{+-}10 years) localized at the axial and appendicular skeleton. Contrast uptake was analyzed using a two-compartment model with the output variables amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. Color-coded parametric images were generated to visualize microcirculation. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP) were compared with DCE-MRI parameters. Amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep} were significantly increased in PD compared to unaffected bone (A{sub PD} 0.81{+-}0.24 vs. A{sub control} 0.34{+-}0.1 and k{sub ep} {sub PD} 4.0 {+-}2.86 vs. k{sub ep} {sub control} 1.73 {+-}0.88, p <0.001). There was a significant correlation (r{sub s}=0.5-0.7) of DCE-MRI parameters and AP at the axial (pelvis, spine) and appendicular skeleton (femur, tibia). The long bones showed increased circulation of the advancing peripheral zones and no vascularization of the central part, which had been replaced by fatty tissue. Regional microcirculation in PD is inhomogeneous with focal areas of excessive hypervascularity, especially in the advancing peripheral zone. There is a significant correlation of bone circulation and bone turnover in PD. DCE-MRI might therefore be a diagnostic tool for monitoring therapeutic effects of bisphoshonates in Paget's disease of bone. (orig.)

  9. Is chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) really a syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mario; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Vervloet, Marc G; Brandenburg, Vincent; Bover, Jordi; Goldsmith, David; Larsson, Tobias E; Massy, Ziad A; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    The concept of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) does not appear to fulfil the requirements for a syndrome at first glance, but its definition has brought some clear-cut benefits for clinicians and patients, including wider and more complex diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the management of this challenging set of issues. Admittedly, not all components of CKD-MBD are present in all patients at all times, but these are highly interrelated, involving mineral and bone laboratory abnormalities, clinical and histological bone disease and finally, cardiovascular disease. The presence of typical biological bone ossification processes in an ectopic anatomical location in CKD has helped to define the existence of an unprecedented bone-vascular relationship, extending its interest even to other medical specialities. For now, we believe that CKD-MBD does not reach full criteria to be defined as a syndrome. However, this novel concept has clearly influenced current clinical guidelines. The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF/KDOQI™) guidelines in 2003 for instance recommended that calcium-based phosphate binders should be avoided to treat hyperphosphataemia in the presence of cardiovascular calcifications. In 2009, the KDIGO and other guidelines reinforced and extended this recommendation by stating that it is reasonable to choose oral phosphate binder therapy by taking into consideration other components of CKD-MBD. Similarly, it is also considered reasonable to use information on vascular/valvular calcification to guide the management of CKD-MBD. Our current assumption as a working group 'CKD-MBD' is that CKD-MBD has the potential to be defined a true syndrome, such as a constellation of concurrent signs and symptoms that suggest a common underlying mechanism for these components as opposed to the term disease. The term 'syndrome' also implies that in any patient at risk due to the presence of one or a few

  10. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

  11. Large Somatostatin-Producing Endocrine Carcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater in Association with GIST in a Patient with von Recklinghausen?s Disease. Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H Sakorafas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Somatostatin-producing endocrine tumors of the duodenum are very rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. These tumors may be associated with von Recklinghausen’s disease. Case report We present the case of a 49- year-old female patient with von Recklinghausen’s disease and an incidentally diagnosed ampullary neoplasm. The patient was treated with a classical pancreaticoduodenectomy. At surgery, a mass was found in the greater curve of the stomach which was resected using the classic Whipple procedure. Histology and immunohistochemistry showed that the duodenal tumor was an ampullary somatostatin-producing endocrine carcinoma while the gastric tumor was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is alive, without tumor recurrence, six years after surgery. Conclusion Somatostatin-producing endocrine tumors of the duodenum are rare tumors, often associated with von Recklinghausen’s disease; these neoplasms should be treated aggressively using radical surgical resection. Although local resection may be appropriate for small duodenal somatostatin-producing tumors, a pancreaticoduodenectomy is usually required for larger tumors.

  12. Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla;

    2015-01-01

    epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69% probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing (sic)4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also......-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of (sic)7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly (sic)15 billion annual associated costs in the EU. These estimates...

  13. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  14. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling.

  15. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  16. The endocrine quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  17. Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joe George; Hosahithlu K Ganesh; Shrikrishna Acharya; Tushar R Bandgar; Vyankatesh Shivane; Anjana Karvat; Shobna J Bhatia; Samir Shah; Padmavathy S Menon; Nalini Shah

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, 9 female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism ( n = 37), hepatitis B ( n = 25) and hepatitis C ( n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2. RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level.

  18. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80–10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16–19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality. PMID:27082592

  19. Soy isoflavones avert chronic inflammation-induced bone loss and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lightfoot Stan A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from epidemiological, clinical and animal studies suggests a link may exist between low bone density and cardiovascular disease, with inflammatory mediators implicated in the pathophysiology of both conditions. This project examined whether supplementation with soy isoflavones (IF, shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, could prevent tissue expression of TNF-α and the development of skeletal pathology in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Methods Eight-week old, intact, female C57BL/6J mice were used. In Phase 1, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-dose response study (0, 0.133, 1.33 and 13.3 μg/d was conducted to determine the LPS dose to use in Phase 2. The results indicated the 1.33 μg LPS/d dose produced the greatest decrease in lymphocytes and increase in neutrophils. Subsequently, in Phase 2, mice were randomly assigned to one of six groups (n = 12–13 per group: 0 or 1.33 μg LPS/d (placebo or LPS in combination with 0, 126 or 504 mg aglycone equivalents of soy IF/kg diet (Control, Low or High dose IF. Mice were fed IF beginning 2 wks prior to the 30-d LPS study period. Results At the end of the study, no differences were detected in final body weights or uterine weights. In terms of trabecular bone microarchitecture, μCT analyses of the distal femur metaphysis indicated that LPS significantly decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV and number (TbN, and increased separation (TbSp. Trabecular bone strength (i.e. total force and stiffness were also compromised in response to LPS. The High IF dose provided protection against these detrimental effects on microarchitecture, but not biomechanical properties. No alterations in trabecular thickness (TbTh, or cortical bone parameters were observed in response to the LPS or IF. Immunohistomchemical staining showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α was up-regulated by LPS in the endothelium of small myocardial arteries and arterioles as well as the tibial

  20. Overexpression of RANKL in osteoblasts: a possible mechanism of susceptibility to bone disease in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, Martial; Braux, Julien; Jourdain, Marie-Laure; Guillaume, Christine; Bour, Camille; Gangloff, Sophie; Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise Le; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Jacquot, Jacky; Velard, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Bone fragility and loss are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and the lack of effective therapeutic options means that treatment is more often palliative rather than curative. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of CF-related bone disease (CFBD) is necessary to develop new therapies. Defective CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein and chronic inflammation in bone are important components of the CFBD development. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) drive the regulation of bone turnover. To investigate their roles in CFBD, we evaluated the involvement of defective CFTR in their production level in CF primary human osteoblasts with and without inflammatory stimulation, in the presence or not of pharmacological correctors of the CFTR. No major difference in cell ultrastructure was noted between cultured CF and non-CF osteoblasts, but a delayed bone matrix mineralization was observed in CF osteoblasts. Strikingly, resting CF osteoblasts exhibited strong production of RANKL protein, which was highly localized at the cell membrane and was enhanced in TNF (TNF-α) or IL-17-stimulated conditions. Under TNF stimulation, a defective response in OPG production was observed in CF osteoblasts in contrast to the elevated OPG production of non-CF osteoblasts, leading to an elevated RANKL-to-OPG protein ratio in CF osteoblasts. Pharmacological inhibition of CFTR chloride channel conductance in non-CF osteoblasts replicated both the decreased OPG production and the enhanced RANKL-to-OPG ratio. Interestingly, using CFTR correctors such as C18, we significantly reduced the production of RANKL by CF osteoblasts, in both resting and TNF-stimulated conditions. In conclusion, the overexpression of RANKL and high membranous RANKL localization in osteoblasts are related to defective CFTR, and may worsen bone resorption, leading to bone loss in patients with CF. Targeting

  1. Doença óssea em Mieloma Múltiplo Bone disease in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania T. M. Hungria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As principais manifestações clínicas do mieloma múltiplo estão relacionadas à destruição óssea. Esta doença óssea pode levar a fraturas patológicas, compressão da medula espinhal, hipercalcemia e dor, sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade. Estas complicações resultam do desequilíbrio da reabsorção e formação óssea, decorrente do aumento da atividade osteoclástica. Este aumento é mediado pela liberação de fatores ativadores dos osteoclastos, que são produzidos no microambiente da medula óssea por células tumorais e não tumorais. Os bisfosfonatos são inibidores específicos da atividade osteoclástica e são eficazes no tratamento da hipercalcemia associada às neoplasias malignas e podem reduzir o aparecimento de complicações esqueléticas. Estudos recentes identificaram novas moléculas como o receptor de ativação nuclear kappa B (RANK, seu ligante (RANKL, osteoprotegerina (OPG, e a proteína inflamatória dos macrófagos-1alfa, que estão envolvidas na ativação e diferenciação dos osteoclastos, enquanto que a proteína dikkopf-1 inibe a formação óssea osteoblástica. Estas novas moléculas parecem não só interferir na biologia da destruição óssea do mieloma, mas também com a sobrevida e crescimento tumoral, sendo novos alvos para o desenvolvimento de drogas antimieloma. Estudos recentes com anticorpo monoclonal anti-RANKL são promissores. O tratamento da doença óssea do mieloma múltiplo inclui principalmente o uso de bisfosfonatos, radioterapia e procedimentos cirúrgicos.The major clinical manifestation of multiple myeloma is related to osteolytic bone destruction. Bone disease can lead to pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemia, and pain, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. These complications result from asynchronous bone turnover wherein increased osteoclastic bone resorption is not accompanied by a comparable increase in bone formation

  2. The Biomechanical Testing for the Assessment of Bone Quality in an Experimental Model of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksztulska-Kolanek, Ewa; Znorko, Beata; Michałowska, Małgorzata; Pawlak, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Mineral metabolism disturbances are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have been classified as a new clinical entity, also known as CKD-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD). A decrease in the bone strength, whose clinical manifestation is a tendency for fracture, has been recognized as an important component of CKD-MBD. Because of ethical issues, measurements of the bone strength in the human body are usually limited to noninvasive techniques, such as radiography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the assays of bone turnover biomarkers. However, it has been postulated recently that the evidence concerning bone strength based solely on the determination of the bone quantity may be insufficient and that bone quality should also be examined. In this regard, an animal model of CKD can represent an experimental tool to test the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. Despite the many available methods that are used to diagnose metabolic bone disorders and predict fracture risk especially in small rodents with CKD, it turns out that the most appropriate are biomechanical tests, which can provide information about the structural and material properties of bone. The present review summarizes and discusses the principles for carrying out selected biomechanical tests (3-point bending test and compression test) and their application in clinical practice. PMID:26680019

  3. Bone marrow transplantation in the prevention of intellectual disability due to inherited metabolic disease: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhiala, P

    2009-07-01

    Many inherited metabolic diseases may lead to varying degrees of brain damage and thus also to intellectual disability. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used for over two decades as a form of secondary prevention to stop or reverse the progress of the disease process in some of these conditions. At the population level the impact of BMT on the prevalence of intellectual disability is minute, but at the individual level its impact on the prognosis of the disease and the well-being of the patient can be substantial. The dark side of BMT use is the burden of side effects, complications and transplantation-related mortality in less successful cases. The ethical issues involved in this therapy are discussed in this review. PMID:19567689

  4. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  5. The effect of naturally occurring chronic kidney disease on the micro-structural and mechanical properties of bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Shipov

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing public health concern worldwide, and is associated with marked increase of bone fragility. Previous studies assessing the effect of CKD on bone quality were based on biopsies from human patients or on laboratory animal models. Such studies provide information of limited relevance due to the small size of the samples (biopsies or the non-physiologic CKD syndrome studied (rodent models with artificially induced CKD. Furthermore, the type, architecture, structure and biology of the bone of rodents are remarkably different from human bones; therefore similar clinicopathologic circumstances may affect their bones differently. We describe the effects of naturally occurring CKD with features resembling human CKD on the skeleton of cats, whose bone biology, structure and composition are remarkably similar to those of humans. We show that CKD causes significant increase of resorption cavity density compared with healthy controls, as well as significantly lower cortical mineral density, cortical cross-sectional area and cortical cross-sectional thickness. Young's modulus, yield stress, and ultimate stress of the cortical bone material were all significantly decreased in the skeleton of CKD cats. Cancellous bone was also affected, having significantly lower trabecular thickness and bone volume over total volume in CKD cats compared with controls. This study shows that naturally occurring CKD has deleterious effects on bone quality and strength. Since many similarities exist between human and feline CKD patients, including the clinicopathologic features of the syndrome and bone microarchitecture and biology, these results contribute to better understanding of bone abnormalities associated with CKD.

  6. Inhibition of autoimmune Chagas-like heart disease by bone marrow transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Guimaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi manifests in mammals as Chagas heart disease. The treatment available for chagasic cardiomyopathy is unsatisfactory.To study the disease pathology and its inhibition, we employed a syngeneic chicken model refractory to T. cruzi in which chickens hatched from T. cruzi inoculated eggs retained parasite kDNA (1.4 kb minicircles. Southern blotting with EcoRI genomic DNA digests revealed main 18 and 20 kb bands by hybridization with a radiolabeled minicircle sequence. Breeding these chickens generated kDNA-mutated F1, F2, and F3 progeny. A targeted-primer TAIL-PCR (tpTAIL-PCR technique was employed to detect the kDNA integrations. Histocompatible reporter heart grafts were used to detect ongoing inflammatory cardiomyopathy in kDNA-mutated chickens. Fluorochromes were used to label bone marrow CD3+, CD28+, and CD45+ precursors of the thymus-dependent CD8α+ and CD8β+ effector cells that expressed TCRγδ, vβ1 and vβ2 receptors, which infiltrated the adult hearts and the reporter heart grafts.Genome modifications in kDNA-mutated chickens can be associated with disruption of immune tolerance to compatible heart grafts and with rejection of the adult host's heart and reporter graft, as well as tissue destruction by effector lymphocytes. Autoimmune heart rejection was largely observed in chickens with kDNA mutations in retrotransposons and in coding genes with roles in cell structure, metabolism, growth, and differentiation. Moreover, killing the sick kDNA-mutated bone marrow cells with cytostatic and anti-folate drugs and transplanting healthy marrow cells inhibited heart rejection. We report here for the first time that healthy bone marrow cells inhibited heart pathology in kDNA+ chickens and thus prevented the genetically driven clinical manifestations of the disease.

  7. Genomic deletion of a long-range bone enhancer misregulatessclerostin in Van Buchem disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, Gabriela G.; Kneissel, Michaela; Keller, Hansjoerg; Baptist, Myma; Chang, Jessie; Collette, Nicole M.; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-15

    Mutations in distant regulatory elements can negatively impact human development and health, yet due to the difficulty of detecting these critical sequences we predominantly focus on coding sequences for diagnostic purposes. We have undertaken a comparative sequence-based approach to characterize a large noncoding region deleted in patients affected by Van Buchem disease (VB), a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia. Using BAC recombination and transgenesis we characterized the expression of human sclerostin (sost) from normal (hSOSTwt) or Van Buchem(hSOSTvb D) alleles. Only the hSOSTwt allele faithfully expressed high levels of human sost in the adult bone and impacted bone metabolism, consistent with the model that the VB noncoding deletion removes a sost specific regulatory element. By exploiting cross-species sequence comparisons with in vitro and in vivo enhancer assays we were able to identify a candidate enhancer element that drives human sost expression in osteoblast-like cell lines in vitro and in the skeletal anlage of the E14.5 mouse embryo, and discovered a novel function for sclerostin during limb development. Our approach represents a framework for characterizing distant regulatory elements associated with abnormal human phenotypes.

  8. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ...... metabolising system using liver S9 mixtures or hepatic rat microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, to be able to detect effects and predict mixture effects. In addition, a new hypothesis have emerge concerning a potential role of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and the development of obesity and obesity related diseases. AIM: This PhD project aimed to gain more information regarding...

  9. Higher bone turnover is related to spinal radiographic damage and low bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis patients with active disease: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Arends

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is characterized by excessive bone formation and bone loss. Our aim was to investigate the association of bone turnover markers (BTM with spinal radiographic damage and bone mineral density (BMD in AS patients with active disease. METHODS: 201 consecutive AS outpatients of the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS cohort were included. Serum markers of bone resorption (C-telopeptides of type-I collagen, sCTX and bone formation (procollagen type-I N-terminal peptide, PINP; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BALP were measured. Z-scores were used to correct for the normal influence that age and gender have on bone turnover. Radiographs were scored by two independent readers according to modified Stoke AS Spinal Score (mSASSS. The presence of complete bridging (ankylosis of at least two vertebrae was considered as measure of more advanced radiographic damage. Low BMD was defined as lumbar spine and/or hip BMD Z-score ≤ -1. RESULTS: Of the 151 patients with complete data, 52 (34% had ≥ 1 complete bridge, 49 (33% had ≥ 1 syndesmophyte (non-bridging, and 50 (33% had no syndesmophytes. 66 (44% had low BMD. Patients with bridging had significantly higher sCTX and PINP Z-scores than patients without bridging (0.43 vs. -0.55 and 0.55 vs. 0.04, respectively. Patients with low BMD had significantly higher sCTX Z-score than patients with normal BMD (-0.08 vs. -0.61. After correcting for gender, symptom duration, and CRP, sCTX Z-score remained significantly related to the presence of low BMD alone (OR: 1.60, bridging alone (OR: 1.82, and bridging in combination with low BMD (OR: 2.26. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study in AS patients with active and relatively long-standing disease demonstrated that higher serum levels of sCTX, and to a lesser extent PINP, are associated with the presence of complete bridging. sCTX was also associated with low BMD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm that serum levels of s

  10. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted......The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  11. The Impact of Conventional and Biological Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs on Bone Biology. Rheumatoid Arthritis as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Sofia Carvalho; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-08-01

    The bone and the immune system have a very tight interaction. Systemic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), induce bone loss, leading to a twofold increase in osteoporosis and an increase of fragility fracture risk of 1.35-2.13 times. This review focuses on the effects of conventional and biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on bone biology, in the context of systemic inflammation, with a focus on RA. Published evidence supports a decrease in osteoclastic activity induced by DMARDs, which leads to positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown if this effect could be translated into fracture risk reduction. The combination with antiosteoclastic drugs can have an additional benefit.

  12. Functional bracing for delayed union of a femur fracture associated with Paget's disease of the bone in an Asian patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuta Masashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paget's disease of the bone is a common metabolic bone disease in most European countries, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Conversely, this disease is rare in Scandinavia, Asia, and Africa. In Japan, it is extremely rare, with a prevalence of 0.15/100000. Paget's disease is a localized disorder of bone remodeling. Excessive bone resorption and abnormal bone formation result in biomechanically weakened bone and predispose patients to fracture. Delayed union and non-union of fractures have been reported in patients with Paget's disease. Therefore, open reduction and internal fixation of fractures has been recommended to prevent such complications. Here we report an unusual case of a 63-year-old Asian woman with delayed union of a femur fracture secondary to Paget's disease, which was treated successfully by functional bracing.

  13. Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors. Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers. Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions.

  14. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This thes

  15. Skeleton and Glucose Metabolism: A Bone-Pancreas Loop

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bone has been considered a structure essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic function. Recent advances in bone biology have highlighted the importance of skeleton as an endocrine organ which regulates some metabolic pathways, in particular, insulin signaling and glucose tolerance. This review will point out the role of bone as an endocrine “gland” and, specifically, of bone-specific proteins, as the osteocalcin (Ocn), and proteins involved in bone remodeling, as osteopr...

  16. Patterns of bone diseases in transfusion-dependent homozygous thalassaemia major: predominance of osteoporosis and desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the radiographic skeletal changes in transfusion-dependent homozygous β-thalassaemia. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of radiographs of 41 homozygous β-thalassaemic patients over 3 years. These included 55 left hand radiographs for bone age, 37 chest radiographs, 7 scanograms of lower limbs, 8 knee radiographs and 3 skull radiographs. The radiographs were evaluated for the skeletal changes owing to medullary expansion, as well as for the skeletal dysplasia related to desferrioxamine therapy. The combined cortical width of the mid shaft of the second metacarpal was measured on left hand radiographs to assess osteoporosis. Results: Sixteen patients had radiographic evidence of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. These included metaphyseal sclerosis in long bone (n=16), irregular sclerosis at the costochondral junction (n=3) and platyspondyly (n= 1). Two patients had radiographic evidence of medullary expansion with widening of medulla and marked thinning of cortex in the tubular bones. Osteoporosis, as indicated by thinning of metacarpal cortex, was noted in 17 patients (8 with and 9 without desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia). Conclusions: With provision of the modern regime of regular transfusion and desferrioxamine chelation, desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia was a much more frequently detected radiographic abnormality in β-thalassaemia major than radiographic features owing to medullary expansion. Osteoporosis, as indicated by thinned metacarpal cortices, remained a frequent feature irrespective of the status of the skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  17. Patterns of bone diseases in transfusion-dependent homozygous thalassaemia major: predominance of osteoporosis and desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yu-Leung; Pang, Lai-Man [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin (Hong Kong); Chik, Ki-Wai; Li, Chi-Kong [Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng, Jack C.Y. [Department Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2002-07-01

    Objective: To study the radiographic skeletal changes in transfusion-dependent homozygous {beta}-thalassaemia. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of radiographs of 41 homozygous {beta}-thalassaemic patients over 3 years. These included 55 left hand radiographs for bone age, 37 chest radiographs, 7 scanograms of lower limbs, 8 knee radiographs and 3 skull radiographs. The radiographs were evaluated for the skeletal changes owing to medullary expansion, as well as for the skeletal dysplasia related to desferrioxamine therapy. The combined cortical width of the mid shaft of the second metacarpal was measured on left hand radiographs to assess osteoporosis. Results: Sixteen patients had radiographic evidence of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. These included metaphyseal sclerosis in long bone (n=16), irregular sclerosis at the costochondral junction (n=3) and platyspondyly (n= 1). Two patients had radiographic evidence of medullary expansion with widening of medulla and marked thinning of cortex in the tubular bones. Osteoporosis, as indicated by thinning of metacarpal cortex, was noted in 17 patients (8 with and 9 without desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia). Conclusions: With provision of the modern regime of regular transfusion and desferrioxamine chelation, desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia was a much more frequently detected radiographic abnormality in {beta}-thalassaemia major than radiographic features owing to medullary expansion. Osteoporosis, as indicated by thinned metacarpal cortices, remained a frequent feature irrespective of the status of the skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  18. Expression and significance of IL-18 in the bone marrow of patients with hema tological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 饶青; 郑国光; 曹震宇; 马小彤; 李戈; 林永敏; 耿以琪; 吴克复

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels of IL-18 in the bone marrow of both normal subjects a nd patients with hematological diseases and to determine the possible significan ce of IL-18 in pathogenesis of some hematological malignancies. Methods The IL-18 mRNA levels in the bone marrow of 140 patients with hematological dis eases and 15 normal donors were determined by the semi-quantitative reverse tra nscriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical method was used to detect IL-18 protein in 12 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The possible regulation of IL-18 for proliferation of some leukemia cells was investigated using antisense techniques.Results IL-18 mRNA levels were obviously higher in the patients with leukemia or other malignant hematological diseases (OMHD) than in normal donors. However, no sign ificant difference was found in the level of transcription between patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and normal controls. Immunohistochemical method c onfirmed the presence of IL-18 protein in 10 out of 12 AML cases with positive transcription. By 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium b romide (MTT) assay, IL-18 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASON) clearly inhibi ted the growth of J6-1 and HL-60 cells (42% and 12% inhibited, respectively) i n a dose-dependant manner.Conclusions IL-18 was detected at elevated levels in the bone marrow of patients with some hematological malignancies, and might be involved in the proliferation of certai n leukemic cells in vivo through an autocrine mechanism.

  19. Interleukin-1 gene polymorphism disease activity and bone mineral metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine whether interleukin-1α and 1β gene polymorphism is associated with rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and bone mineral metabolism, and whether there is any relationship between IL-1β and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) motif gene. Methods IL-1 gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 65 RA patients who met American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria and 60 controls. From genomic DNA, 2 polymorphisms in each gene for IL1α-889 and IL-1β+3953 were typed by PCR-RFLP and HLA-DRB1 allele typing was also undertaken by PCR-SSOP. Some clinical and laboratory parameters were collected. The allelic frequencies and carriage rates were compared between RA patients and controls and between patients with active and quiescent disease. Comparison was also made between IL-1 polymorphism and parameters of bone mineral metabolism and between patients with the HLA-DRB1 RA motif plus IL-1β2 and patients without the two alleles. Fisher test and the analysis of variance was used to analyze the data.Results There was no significant difference in the frequency and carriage rate of IL-1α polymorphisms between RA patients and the controls. The β2/2 genotype of IL-1β was more common in female RA patients compared with controls (P=0.001). A lower carriage rate of IL-1β2 occurred in male RA patients (P=0.001). A higher carriage rate of IL-1α2 is associated with a higher ESR (P=0.008), HAQ score (P=0.03), and vit-D3 (P<0.001), but conversely a lower SJC (p=0.002), a lower RF (P=0.002) and a lower BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.001). A higher frequency of IL-1α1 is associated with a lower CRP value (P=0.009). An increased IL-1β2 carriage is associated with active rheumatoid disease as indicated by a higher CRP (P<0.001), ESR (P<0.001) and pain score (P=0.001) and a higher BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.007), lower vit-D3 and. Udpd/Crea level The presence of the HLA DRB1 RA motif and IL-1β allele 2 at same time did not contribute to disease activity

  20. Caloric test results in Paget ́s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Fuente-Cañibano R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Paget's disease, the most common neurological complication relates to the temporal bone involvement intrapetrous level. Vestibular symptoms are common in Paget's disease, but you can pass easily overlooked for its mild intensity. The literature is not clear regarding the result of caloric testing.Methods: The study comprised 50 patient s, 30 patients with PD without skull involvement, 13 patients with skull involvement and without temporal involvement and 7 patients with PD with skull and temporal involvement in scintigraphy. Results: 22% of patient s in the sample had history crises dizzying and yet 46% had deficits in vestibular caloric test result.Conclusions: We found no statistically significant differences between the groups in the analysis of EP vestibular deficit.

  1. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  2. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the most common cause of endocrine-related female infertility in the United States. An estimated 1 in 10 women of childbearing age has PCOS, and it can occur in females as young as 11 years of age. In ...

  3. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    . To improve knowledge on possible influences of endocrine disrupters on female reproductive system, the effects of EDCs on genital malformations in females and the development of mammary glands were studied in the present project. AIMS: The aims for the studies on male and female mammary gland development......BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...

  4. Persistent Comorbidities in Cushing’s Syndrome after Endocrine Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Resmini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was assumed that resolution of hypercortisolism in Cushing syndrome (CS was followed by normalization of morbidity; however, in the last decade evidence is accumulating that patients with cured CS still have increased morbidity and mortality after the biochemical control of hypercortisolism. Patients with CS have an increased cardiovascular and metabolic risk and persistent accumulation of central fat, with an unfavorable adipokine profile, not only during the active phase of the disease but also long after biochemical remission. Clinical management should be particularly careful in identifying global cardiovascular risk, as a primary goal during the followup of these patients, aimed at improving global vascular morbidity. Moreover bone mass is reduced not only due to the endogenous hypercortisolism but also due to duration and dose of exogenous glucocorticoid (GC replacement therapy after surgery. Thus, therapy in operated patients with inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis should be reduced to the lowest dose and duration possible. Specific treatments should be considered in patients with decreased bone mass, aimed at reducing the increased fracture incidence. Finally, cognitive and health related quality of life impairments, described in active disease, are still abnormal after endocrine cure. Thus, residual morbidity persists in cured CS, suggesting irreversibility of GC-induced phenomena, typical of chronic hypercortisolism.

  5. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson’s disease: is there any difference between genders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Tonuk, Burak; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Tombak, Yasemin; Comoglu, Selcuk; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density, vitamin D level, and frequencies of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease and to compare male and female patients with the controls separately. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred fifteen Parkinson’s disease patients (47 males, 68 females; age range: 55–85 years) and 117 age- and gender-matched controls (47 males, 70 females) were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum D vitamin levels of each participant were recorded. [Results] The mean lumbar spine, femur neck, and total femur bone mineral density levels, T-scores, and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in Parkinson’s disease patients in both genders. Furthermore, osteoporosis rates were found be significantly higher only in female Parkinson’s disease patients compared with female controls. [Conclusion] Data from the present study revealed that while osteoporosis was significantly higher only in female Parkinson’s disease patients, all Parkinson’s disease patients had lower bone mineral density scores and vitamin D levels compared with the controls regardless of gender, suggesting that clinicians should pay attention to the osteoporosis risk in Parkinson’s disease and that adequate preventive measures should be taken in order to limit the future risk due to osteoporotic fractures. PMID:27630398

  6. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  7. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Munteanu Constantin; Hoteteu Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides) are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inf...

  8. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2015-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. PMID:27207564

  9. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor pathway upregulation in the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma is associated with lytic bone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ida B; Christensen, Jacob H; Lyng, Maria Bibi;

    2013-01-01

    using bone marrow biopsies (BMBs) of patients with MM and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and healthy volunteers (HV). BMBs (N = 110) obtained at diagnosis were snap-frozen and used to evaluate gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction....... LBD was evaluated using standard radiographs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on matched bone marrow plasma and immunohistochemistry on matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies. Gene expression of HGF, SDC1, and MET in BMBs were significantly altered in MM versus HV...... and MGUS, and HGF and MET correlated with the extent of LBD. A significant correlation between gene and protein expression levels was observed for SDC1 (Syndecan-1) and HGF. The HGF bone marrow plasma level was significantly lower in MM patients with no/limited versus advanced LBD. Our novel approach using...

  11. Novel Lesions of Bones and Joints Associated with Chikungunya Virus Infection in Two Mouse Models of Disease: New Insights into Disease Pathogenesis.

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    Brad A Goupil

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is an arbovirus spread predominantly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, and causes debilitating arthralgia and arthritis. While these are common manifestations during acute infection and it has been suggested they can recur in patients chronically, gaps in knowledge regarding the pathogenesis still exist. Two established mouse models were utilized (adult IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice to evaluate disease manifestations in bones and joints at various timepoints. Novel lesions in C57BL/6J mice consisted of periostitis (91% and foci of cartilage of necrosis (50% of mice at 21 DPI. Additionally, at 21 DPI, 50% and 75% of mice exhibited periosteal bone proliferation affecting the metatarsal bones, apparent via histology and μCT, respectively. μCT analysis did not reveal any alterations in trabecular bone volume measurements in C57BL/6J mice. Novel lesions demonstrated in IRF 3/7 -/- -/- mice at 5 DPI included focal regions of cartilage necrosis (20%, periosteal necrosis (66%, and multifocal ischemic bone marrow necrosis (100%. Contralateral feet in 100% of mice of both strains had similar, though milder lesions. Additionally, comparison of control IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice demonstrated differences in cortical bone. These experiments demonstrate novel manifestations of disease similar to those occurring in humans, adding insight into disease pathogenesis, and representing new potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Additionally, results demonstrate the utility of μCT in studies of bone and joint pathology and illustrate differences in bone dynamics between mouse strains.

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 23 contributes to diminished bone mineral density in childhood inflammatory bowel disease

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    El-Hodhod Mostafa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diminished bone mineral density (BMD is of significant concern in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Exact etiology is debatable. The recognition of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a phosphaturic hormone related to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α makes it plausible to hypothesize its possible relation to this pathology. Methods In this follow up case control study, BMD as well as serum levels of FGF23, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 and 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 were measured in 47 children with IBD during flare and reassessed in the next remission. Results Low BMD was frequent during IBD flare (87.2% with significant improvement after remission (44.7%. During disease flare, only 21.3% of patients had vitamin D deficiency, which was severe in 12.8%. During remission, all patients had normal vitamin D except for two patients with Crohn’s disease (CD who remained vitamin D deficient. Mean value of serum FGF23 was significantly higher among patients with IBD during flare compared to controls. It showed significant improvement during remission but not to the control values. 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3, FGF23, serum calcium and urinary phosphorus were significant determinants of BMD in IBD patients. Conclusions We can conclude that diminished BMD in childhood IBD is a common multifactorial problem. Elevated FGF23 would be a novel addition to the list of factors affecting bone mineral density in this context. Further molecular studies are warranted to display the exact interplay of these factors.

  13. [Functional endoscopic ethmoid bone revision in inflammatory paranasal sinus diseases in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küttner, K; Siering, U; Looke, G; Eichhorn, M

    1992-05-01

    A total of 57 children aged between 5 and 15 years underwent endoscopic ethmoid surgery for recurrent acute or chronic rhinogenic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis associated with bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis, early rhinogenous orbital complications and paranasal sinus disease associated with mucoviscidosis. The indications for surgical intervention are based on symptoms, the findings on nasal endoscopy and a CT scan of the paranasal sinuses in the coronal plane. The preoperative examination shows that in childhood there are endoscopically detectable anatomical variations of the ethmoid bone (pneumatised middle nasal concha, reversed curvature of the middle turbinate and contact between the uncinate process and the turbinate) that create the conditions for the development of inflammatory paranasal sinus diseases. Careful elimination of these obstructions can accomplish complete cure of the inflammation, and early orbital complications can be treated effectively by combination of surgery with infusion of antibiotics. All surgery was performed under endotracheal anaesthesia using the endoscopic technique described by Messerklinger. The follow-up period was between 6 and 18 months. With the exception of children suffering from mucoviscidosis, cure of the paranasal sinus disease and rhinomanometrically demonstrable improvement of the nasal breathing was achieved in all cases. On the basis of our results a conservative endoscopic approach is recommended as an effective surgical method for the treatment of paranasal sinus disease in childhood. PMID:1612930

  14. Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wiercigroch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H2 receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H3 receptor antagonist and H1 receptor agonist is used in the treatment of Ménière’s disease.Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results.Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H1 and H2 receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed.

  15. [Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercigroch, Marek; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H₁ receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H₂ receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H₃ receptor antagonist and H₁ receptor agonist) is used in the treatment of Ménière's disease. Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results. Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts). Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed. PMID:24018454

  16. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Lebouvier

    2015-11-01

    SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products.

  17. The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Bone Mass in Patients with Asthma and Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Karadağ Saygı

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators have become a key element in the maintenance treatment of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmanory disease (COPD. It is well known that long-term systemic steroid use causes osteoporosis, whereas inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators have been discussed to be cause of such side-affect. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of long term inhaled/oral steroids and bronchodilators on bone mineral density (BMD with asthma and COPD. Fifty-three patients with bronchial asthma (n=44 and COPD (n=9 were enrolled in this study. BMD were measured and risk factors for osteoporosis were detected. BMD measurements of lumbar area of the spine (L2-4, neck of femur and femoral ward’s triangle zone were performed by the dual energy x-ray absorptiometer (LUNAR. 53 patients evaluated in three groups according to treatment type; 26 patients were using inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators (group 1, 18 patients were using only bronchodilators (group 2 and 9 patients were using (group 3 oral corticosteroids and bronchodilators. There were significant differences between group 3 and other two groups in terms of BMD, T and Z scores of the lumbar and femoral neck (p0.05. As a result, we suggest that systemic corticosteroids negatively affect bone mineral density more than inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD.

  18. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  19. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fassio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself.

  20. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  1. CT Features of Bone Flare Phenomena of Metastatic Bone Disease in Lung Cancer%肺癌骨转移骨闪烁现象的CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱艳芳; 文智; 许晓燕; 王永丽; 于莹莹; 赵艳萍

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe bone flare phenomena has been well described on bone scintigraphy for efficacy monitoring up to now, but our knowledge has been rarely described on MSCT, the phenomena may be erroneously classiifed as disease progression. This article intends to evaluate the existence and CT features of bone flare phenomena of metastatic bone disease in lung cancer patients treated with ibandronate, to raise awareness of this phenomenon.Materials and Methods The clinical and image data of 45 patients with bone metastases of lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed prior to treatment and 3, 6 months after treatment, the change of CT value and CT features 3 months after treatment between bone flare phenomena group, progressive disease group 1 and progressive disease group 2 were compared.Results The incidence of bone flare phenomena was 6.7% (3/45). 3 months after treatment, CT value of the bone flare phenomena group and progressive disease group 1 changed when compared with before treatment, the differences were statistically signiifcant (t=-5.787 and-2.788,P0.05) of CT value in the progressive disease group 2 after 3 months' treatment. After 3 months' treatment, the bone flare phenomena group mostly appeared as osteogenic sclerosis of osteolytic lesions, while the cases of progressive disease group mostly appeared as new periosteal reaction of the lesion, or osteogenic/mixed lesion combined with osteolytic damages, the difference between the two groups was statistically signiifcant (χ2=10.139, 8.041 and 4.154,P0.05).Conclusion In patients treated with ibandronate, when there is therapeutic effect evaluation standard of bone metastases (disease progression) and clinical comprehensive curative effect evaluation standard (effective) discordance at 3 months after treatment, it can be interpreted as bone flare phenomena, and the change of CT features contributes to the differential diagnosis of bone flare phenomena with progressive disease.%目的:骨闪烁现象在核

  2. Clinical benefits of biochemical markers of bone turnover in Egyptian children with chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karam A Mahdy; Hanaa H Ahmed; Fathia Mannaa; Azza Abdel-Shaheed

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels with the etiology and clinical condition of patients with chronic liver disease.METHODS: Eighty children with hepatocellular damage were divided into 3 groups according to the etiology of disease infection: bilharziasis (9 patients), hepatitis B virus (HBV, 12 patients) and hepatitis C virus (HCV, 29 patients). The Child score index was found as A in 24 patients, B in 22 patients, C in 4 patients. Thirty healthy children served as control group. HBsAg, HBcAbIgM,HBcAbIgG, and anti-HCV were detected using ELISA technique. HCV-RNA was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Antibilharzial antibodies were detected by indirect haemagglutination test. Liver function tests were performed using autoanalyser. Serum IGF-1, osteocalcin and PTH levels were measured by ELISA technique. Abdominal ultrasonography was also conducted.RESULTS: Serum IGF-1 level was significantly lower in all patient groups with liver diseases, while serum osteocalcin and PTH levels were significantly elevated in patients with HBV and HCV infections compared with the control group. Serum osteocalcin and PTH concentrations were measured with the severity of liver disease from Child A to C. Child A patients unexpectedly showed significantly reduced IGF-1 levels in comparison to patients staged as Child B or C. Serum osteocalcin level was negatively correlated with albumin (14.7 ± 0.54 vs 3.6± 0.10, P < 0.05), while that for PTH was positively correlated with total protein (70.1 ± 2.17 vs 6.7 + 0.10,P < 0.05) in patients with HCV infection.CONCLUSION: Low serum IGF-1 level seems to play a critical role in the bone loss in patients with chronic liver disease. Elevated biochemical markers of bone remodeling suggest high-turnover in patients with viral infection and reflect severity of the clinical stage.

  3. Osteoblast CFTR inactivation reduces differentiation and osteoprotegerin expression in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis-related bone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Stalvey

    Full Text Available Low bone mass and increased fracture risk are recognized complications of cystic fibrosis (CF. CF-related bone disease (CFBD is characterized by uncoupled bone turnover--impaired osteoblastic bone formation and enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Intestinal malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency and inflammatory cytokines contribute to CFBD. However, epidemiological investigations and animal models also support a direct causal link between inactivation of skeletal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR, the gene that when mutated causes CF, and CFBD. The objective of this study was to examine the direct actions of CFTR on bone. Expression analyses revealed that CFTR mRNA and protein were expressed in murine osteoblasts, but not in osteoclasts. Functional studies were then performed to investigate the direct actions of CFTR on osteoblasts using a CFTR knockout (Cftr-/- mouse model. In the murine calvarial organ culture assay, Cftr-/- calvariae displayed significantly less bone formation and osteoblast numbers than calvariae harvested from wildtype (Cftr+/+ littermates. CFTR inactivation also reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured murine calvarial osteoblasts. Although CFTR was not expressed in murine osteoclasts, significantly more osteoclasts formed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ bone marrow cultures. Indirect regulation of osteoclastogenesis by the osteoblast through RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling was next examined. Although no difference in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (Rankl mRNA was detected, significantly less osteoprotegerin (Opg was expressed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ osteoblasts. Together, the Rankl:Opg ratio was significantly higher in Cftr-/- murine calvarial osteoblasts contributing to a higher osteoclastogenesis potential. The combined findings of reduced osteoblast differentiation and lower Opg expression suggested a possible defect in canonical Wnt signaling. In fact, Wnt3a and PTH-stimulated canonical Wnt

  4. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced a

  5. Bone marrow derived stem cells for the treatment of end-stage liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margini, Cristina; Vukotic, Ranka; Brodosi, Lucia; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2014-07-21

    End-stage disease due to liver cirrhosis is an important cause of death worldwide. Cirrhosis results from progressive, extensive fibrosis and impaired hepatocyte regeneration. The only curative treatment is liver transplantation, but due to the several limitations of this procedure, the interest in alternative therapeutic strategies is increasing. In particular, the potential of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) therapy in cirrhosis has been explored in different trials. In this article, we evaluate the results of 18 prospective clinical trials, and we provide a descriptive overview of recent advances in the research on hepatic regenerative medicine. The main message from the currently available data in the literature is that BMSC therapy is extremely promising in the context of liver cirrhosis. However, its application should be further explored in randomized, controlled trials with large cohorts and long follow-ups. PMID:25083082

  6. Role of RANKL-RANK/Osteoprotegerin Pathway in Cardiovascular and Bone Disease Associated with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Currier, Judith S.; Yang, Otto O.; Brown, Todd T

    2016-01-01

    Patients with HIV-1 infection often develop multiple complications and comorbidities, including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis has been identified as a possible common link between osteoporosis and vascular diseases. Since the discovery of this axis, much has been learned about its role in controlling skeletal biology and less about its role in the context of vascular biology. However, the exact role of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis in HIV infection is not completely understood. In this review we examine the mechanisms by which inflammation and immune dysregulation in HIV-1 infection may impact bone turnover and atherogenesis through perturbations in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis. PMID:25102334

  7. Targeting the molecular and cellular interactions of the bone marrow niche in immunologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozowski, Jaime M; Billard, Matthew J; Tarrant, Teresa K

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations have expanded our knowledge of the regulatory bone marrow (BM) niche, which is critical in maintaining and directing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation. Osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells are niche components in close association with HSCs and have been more clearly defined in immune cell function and homeostasis. Importantly, cellular inhabitants of the BM niche signal through G protein-coupled surface receptors (GPCRs) for various appropriate immune functions. In this article, recent literature on BM niche inhabitants (HSCs, osteoblasts, MSCs, CAR cells) and their GPCR mechanistic interactions are reviewed for better understanding of the BM cells involved in immune development, immunologic disease, and current immune reconstitution therapies. PMID:24408534

  8. [Affective disorders: endocrine and metabolic comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Links between affective and endocrine-metabolic disorders are numerous and complex. In this review, we explore most frequent endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. On the one hand, these comorbidities imply numerous iatrogenic effects from antipsychotics (metabolic side-effects) or from lithium (endocrine side-effects). On the other hand, these comorbidities are also associated with affective disorders independently from medication. We will successively examine metabolic syndrome, glycemic disturbances, obesity and thyroid disorders among patients with affective disorders. Endocrinemetabolic comorbidities can be individually encountered, but can also be associated. Therefore, they substantially impact morbidity and mortality by increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Two distinct approaches give an account of processes involved in these comorbidities: common environmental factors (iatrogenic effects, lifestyle), and/or shared physiological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, we provide a synthesis of important results and recommendations related to endocrine-metabolic comorbidities in affective disorders : heavy influence on morbidity and mortality, undertreatment of somatic diseases, importance of endocrine and metabolic side effects from main mood stabilizers, impact from sex and age on the prevalence of comorbidities, influence from previous depressive episodes in bipolar disorders, and relevance of systematic screening for subclinical (biological) disturbances. PMID:25550238

  9. Potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in management of Alzheimer's disease in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Hanaa H; Atta, Hazem M; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Aglan, Hadeer A

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been called the disease of the century with significant clinical and socioeconomic impacts. Pharmacological treatment has limited efficacy and only provides symptomatic relief without long-term cure. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop novel and effective medications for AD. Stem cell-based therapy is a promising approach to handling neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the possible therapeutic role of single intravenous injection of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) after 4 months in management of AD in the experimental model. The work also extended to compare the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs with 2 conventional therapies of AD; rivastigmine and cerebrolysin administered daily. BM-MSCs were able to home at the injured brains and produced significant increases in the number of positive cells for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and survivin expression, as well as selective AD indicator-1 (seladin-1) and nestin gene expression. Histopathological examination indicated that BM-MSCs could remove beta-amyloid plaques from hippocampus. Significant improvement in these biomarkers was similar to or better sometimes than the reference drugs, clearly showing the potential therapeutic role of BM-MSCs against AD through their anti-apoptotic, neurogenic and immunomodulatory properties. PMID:25044885

  10. Potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in management of Alzheimer's disease in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Hanaa H; Atta, Hazem M; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Aglan, Hadeer A

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been called the disease of the century with significant clinical and socioeconomic impacts. Pharmacological treatment has limited efficacy and only provides symptomatic relief without long-term cure. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop novel and effective medications for AD. Stem cell-based therapy is a promising approach to handling neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the possible therapeutic role of single intravenous injection of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) after 4 months in management of AD in the experimental model. The work also extended to compare the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs with 2 conventional therapies of AD; rivastigmine and cerebrolysin administered daily. BM-MSCs were able to home at the injured brains and produced significant increases in the number of positive cells for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and survivin expression, as well as selective AD indicator-1 (seladin-1) and nestin gene expression. Histopathological examination indicated that BM-MSCs could remove beta-amyloid plaques from hippocampus. Significant improvement in these biomarkers was similar to or better sometimes than the reference drugs, clearly showing the potential therapeutic role of BM-MSCs against AD through their anti-apoptotic, neurogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  11. Activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) functions in inflammatory bone and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, Rainer; Eferl, Robert; Scheinecker, Clemens; Redlich, Kurt; Smolen, Josef; Schonthaler, Helia B; Kenner, Lukas; Tschachler, Erwin; Wagner, Erwin F

    2008-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) (Fos/Jun) is a transcriptional regulator composed of members of the Fos and Jun families of DNA binding proteins. The functions of AP-1 were initially studied in mouse development as well as in the whole organism through conventional transgenic approaches, but also by gene targeting using knockout strategies. The importance of AP-1 proteins in disease pathways including the inflammatory response became fully apparent through conditional mutagenesis in mice, in particular when employing gene inactivation in a tissue-specific and inducible fashion. Besides the well-documented roles of Fos and Jun proteins in oncogenesis, where these genes can function both as tumor promoters or tumor suppressors, AP-1 proteins are being recognized as regulators of bone and immune cells, a research area termed osteoimmunology. In the present article, we review recent data regarding the functions of AP-1 as a regulator of cytokine expression and an important modulator in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. These new data provide a better molecular understanding of disease pathways and should pave the road for the discovery of new targets for therapeutic applications.

  12. Bone scintigraphy as cornerstone in the diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, F J; Cambil-Molina, T; Ríos-Martín, J J; de la Riva-Pérez, P A; Calvo-Morón, C; Castro-Montaño, J

    2016-01-01

    The Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is an extremely rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The main difficulty for its diagnosis lies in the wide variety of non-specific symptoms and signs that can occur in the disease process, leading, therefore, to there being no clear-cut algorithm as a guide for an optimal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. An 81-year-old male with history of diabetes insipidus was admitted due to non-specific respiratory signs. Imaging techniques revealed osteoblastic lesions in the lumbar spine. Whole-body bone-scintigraphy (BS) was performed, in which lesions involving the axial and appendicular skeleton, with different rates of osteoblastic activity, were observed. This highlighted a symmetrical severely intense uptake in the knees, leading to an accurate biopsy specimen that enabled making the definitive diagnosis. BS is a widely available, safe, and inexpensive technique that shows a characteristic pattern of uptake for ECD, thus its use is highly recommended for screening and guiding biopsy if clinical suspicion exists. Furthermore, when the scintigraphy pattern is incidentally observed, biopsy of increased uptake areas (tibia preferably) is mandatory in order to rule out the disease. PMID:26750553

  13. Graft versus host disease in the bone marrow, liver and thymus humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Greenblatt

    Full Text Available Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice. The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/γc(-/- delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model.

  14. Autotransplantation of bone marrow-derived stem cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, I; Melamed, E; Offen, D

    2007-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive degeneration of selective neural populations. This selective hallmark pathology and the lack of effective treatment modalities make these diseases appropriate candidates for cell therapy. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing precursors that reside in the bone marrow and may further be exploited for autologous transplantation. Autologous transplantation of MSCs entirely circumvents the problem of immune rejection, does not cause the formation of teratomas, and raises very few ethical or political concerns. More than a few studies showed that transplantation of MSCs resulted in clinical improvement. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the beneficial outcome have yet to be defined. Possible rationalizations include cell replacement, trophic factors delivery, and immunomodulation. Cell replacement theory is based on the idea that replacement of degenerated neural cells with alternative functioning cells induces long-lasting clinical improvement. It is reasoned that the transplanted cells survive, integrate into the endogenous neural network, and lead to functional improvement. Trophic factor delivery presents a more practical short-term approach. According to this approach, MSC effectiveness may be credited to the production of neurotrophic factors that support neuronal cell survival, induce endogenous cell proliferation, and promote nerve fiber regeneration at sites of injury. The third potential mechanism of action is supported by the recent reports claiming that neuroinflammatory mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, inhibiting chronic inflammatory stress might explain the beneficial effects induced by MSC transplantation. Here, we assemble evidence that supports each theory and review the latest studies that have placed MSC transplantation into the spotlight of biomedical research.

  15. UNREMITTING EARLY STAGE HODGKIN’S DISEASE: REPORT OF 7 CASES AND BONE MARROW TISSUE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tamiolakis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow is infrequently implicated in early stages of Hodgkin’s disease. We studied the immunohistochemical bone marrow tissue of 7 out of 20 cases with early stage Hodgkin’s disease of the mixed cellularity variant, diagnosed by lymph node biopsy at initial presentation, not responding to radiotherapy alone, in order to examine possible marrow attack. A statistically significant prevalence of CD45, CD45RO, and CD4 positive infiltrates, to the advantage of unremitting hosts, was found. The predominance of CD4-positive cells in the bone marrow space might be suggestive of involvement in the process and could explain the abnormal cytokine production leading to reduced T-cell immunity and inefficient antitumor response despite the existence of a vast majority of reactive infiltrating immune cells.

  16. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piert, Morand [Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich (Germany); Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Stahlschmidt, Anke; Becker, Georg A. [Radiopharmacy Section, PET Center, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jahn, Michael; Zittel, Tilman T. [Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K{sub 1} values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (f{sub H2O}) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K{sub 1} values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (K{sub i}), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of K{sub i} and k{sub 3} (P<0.05), which was mainly caused by an increase of the fraction of bound tracer in tissue (P<0.01). In contrast, f{sub H2O}, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [{sup 18}F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [{sup 18}F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean f{sub H2O} and K{sub i} values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [{sup 18}F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease

  17. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K1 values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (fH2O) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [15O]H2O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [18F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K1 values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (Ki), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of Ki and k3 (PH2O, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [18F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [18F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean fH2O and Ki values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [18F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [18F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy is mainly related to an up-regulation of the amount of ionic exchange of [18F]fluoride with the bone matrix, while tracer delivery remains unchanged. (orig.)

  18. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V;

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...... or embryo models for the evaluation of possible consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds is discussed. Furthermore, possible consequences of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds for the embryo transfer industry are addressed....

  19. Regulation of Sclerostin Expression in Multiple Myeloma by Dkk-1: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Myeloma Bone Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Homare; Santo, Loredana; Wein, Marc N; Hu, Dorothy Z; Cirstea, Diana D; Nemani, Neeharika; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Raines, Sarah E; Kuhstoss, Stuart Allen; Munshi, Nikhil C; Kronenberg, Henry M; Raje, Noopur S

    2016-06-01

    Sclerostin is a potent inhibitor of osteoblastogenesis. Interestingly, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients have high levels of circulating sclerostin that correlate with disease stage and fractures. However, the source and impact of sclerostin in MM remains to be defined. Our goal was to determine the role of sclerostin in the biology of MM and its bone microenvironment as well as investigate the effect of targeting sclerostin with a neutralizing antibody (scl-Ab) in MM bone disease. Here we confirm increased sclerostin levels in MM compared with precursor disease states like monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering MM. Furthermore, we found that a humanized MM xenograft mouse model bearing human MM cells (NOD-SCID.CB17 male mice injected intravenously with 2.5 million of MM1.S-Luc-GFP cells) demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of mouse-derived sclerostin, suggesting a microenvironmental source of sclerostin. Associated with the increased sclerostin levels, activated β-catenin expression levels were lower than normal in MM mouse bone marrow. Importantly, a high-affinity grade scl-Ab reversed osteolytic bone disease in this animal model. Because scl-Ab did not demonstrate significant in vitro anti-MM activity, we combined it with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. Our data demonstrated that this combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor burden and improved bone disease in our in vivo MM mouse model. In agreement with our in vivo data, sclerostin expression was noted in marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts of MM patient bone marrow samples. Moreover, MM cells stimulated sclerostin expression in immature osteoblasts while inhibiting osteoblast differentiation in vitro. This was in part regulated by Dkk-1 secreted by MM cells and is a potential mechanism contributing to the osteoblast dysfunction noted in MM. Our data confirm the role of sclerostin as a potential therapeutic target in MM bone disease

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia: the Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1 and 2 are genetic diseases that are inherited as autosomal traits. The major clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 include the so-called "3 P's": parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors, including gastroenteroneuroendocrine tumors. Genetic testing can be performed on patients and the potential carriers of the menin gene mutation, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is less straightforward than multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Most likely, the main advantage of genetic testing in MEN1 is to exclude from further studies those who are negative for the genetic mutation if they belong to a family with a known history of MEN1. In Chile, we started with rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene genetic testing (MEN2 15 years ago. We carried out a prophylactic total thyroidectomy to prevent medullary thyroid carcinoma in a three-year-old girl who presented with microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 90% of the individuals who tested positive using a genetic test achieved a biochemical cure compared with only 27% of patients who receive a clinical diagnosis. Mutations are mainly located in exon 11; the most common is C634W, rather than C634R. Hypertensive crisis was the cause of death in three patients, and extensive distant metastases occurred in nine (including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B of 14 patients. Earlier recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the other features of the disease, especially pheochromocytoma, will improve the survival rate of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  1. Machine learning based analytics of micro-MRI trabecular bone microarchitecture and texture in type 1 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gulshan B; Robertson, Douglas D; Laney, Dawn A; Gambello, Michael J; Terk, Michael

    2016-06-14

    Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, affecting bone metabolism, structure and strength. Current bone assessment methods are not ideal. Semi-quantitative MRI scoring is unreliable, not standardized, and only evaluates bone marrow. DXA BMD is also used but is a limited predictor of bone fragility/fracture risk. Our purpose was to measure trabecular bone microarchitecture, as a biomarker of bone disease severity, in type 1 GD individuals with different GD genotypes and to apply machine learning based analytics to discriminate between GD patients and healthy individuals. Micro-MR imaging of the distal radius was performed on 20 type 1 GD patients and 10 healthy controls (HC). Fifteen stereological and textural measures (STM) were calculated from the MR images. General linear models demonstrated significant differences between GD and HC, and GD genotypes. Stereological measures, main contributors to the first two principal components (PCs), explained ~50% of data variation and were significantly different between males and females. Subsequent PCs textural measures were significantly different between GD patients and HC individuals. Textural measures also significantly differed between GD genotypes, and distinguished between GD patients with normal and pathologic DXA scores. PCA and SVM predictive analyses discriminated between GD and HC with maximum accuracy of 73% and area under ROC curve of 0.79. Trabecular STM differences can be quantified between GD patients and HC, and GD sub-types using micro-MRI and machine learning based analytics. Work is underway to expand this approach to evaluate GD disease burden and treatment efficacy.

  2. Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  3. HIV and Bone Disease: A Perspective of the Role of microRNAs in Bone Biology upon HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola E.; DeLa Cadena, Raul A.; Sawaya, Bassel E.

    2013-01-01

    Increased life expectancy and the need for long-term antiretroviral therapy have brought new challenges to the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures is increased in HIV-infected patients; thus optimal strategies for risk management and treatment in this group of patients need to be defined. Prevention of bone loss is an important component of HIV care as the HIV population grows older. Understanding the mechanisms by which HIV infection...

  4. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions.

  5. Treatment for Progressive Hearing Loss Due to Paget's Disease of Bone - A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Tanahashi, Shigeaki; Mizuta, Keisuke; Kato, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Paget's disease is a common bone remodeling disorder that typically begins with excessive bone resorption in the elderly. Bilateral progressive hearing loss is the most frequently encountered complication of Paget's disease. The types of hearing loss identified by audiometry are conductive, sensorineural, or both. However, the precise mechanism of hearing loss remains unclear, and the treatment has been controversial. We present a 73-year-old man who suffered from bilateral progressive hearing loss due to Paget's disease. Potent bisphosphonates, oral risedronate in daily adjusted dosages for 6 months, did not decrease or suppress the worsening of the hearing loss. The Nucleus CI24 Contour electrode array was successfully inserted on the left side without surgical and postoperative complications. The Japanese open set monosyllable word recognition test in a sound field at 65 dB had a result of 74%. This cochlear implantation can be an indication for cases of profound hearing loss due to Paget's disease. PMID:26915163

  6. INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISM ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF α-D3 FOR RENAL BONE DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝春; 傅淑霞; 戴秀华

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effectiveness of Vitamin D receptor (VDR)gene polymorphism on renal bone disease with α-D3.Methods VDR genotype was tested in 150 patients suffering from chronic renal failure using RFLPS method meanwhile the patients’ thyroxin in wholephase blood was assessed using radioactive and immune methods, and the bone specific mass (BUA) of right heel was detected by quantitative ultrasound before and eight weeks after the medication began.Results The incidence of the disease for BB type was 80%, for Bb was 60.87%, and for bb was 50. 5%. The difference of cure rates(P<0.05) was significant, being 100% for BB, 75.03% for Bb and 81.64% for bb.Conclusion The VDR genotype has important impact upon the occurrence of renal bone disease for chronic renal filure patients. Patients with BB genotype and b-equal grade have a low incidence rate for renal bone disease and those with α-D3 have good effects.

  7. What Is Women's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy lifestyle and harness the power to prevent endocrine disorders, the Power of Prevention. Childhood Childhood is a ... frequent at this time. Learning how to prevent endocrine disorders during this age is pivotal. Young Women At ...

  8. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hy...

  9. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A. van; Papazova, D.A.; Oosterhuis, N.R.; Gremmels, H.; Giles, R.H.; Fledderus, J.O.; Joles, J.A.; Verhaar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  10. Bone mineral metabolism in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklingausen disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramala, Luigi; Giustini, Sandra; Zinnamosca, Laura; Marinelli, Cristiano; Colangelo, Luciano; Cilenti, Giuseppina; Formicuccia, Maria Chiara; D'Erasmo, Emilio; Calvieri, Stefano; Letizia, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by specific cutaneous features (neurofibromas, "café-au-lait" spots of the skin) and alterations of several tissue (nervous, vascular) and bone deformities, such as scoliosis, congenital pseudoarthrosis and bone dysplasia of tibia. Moreover, several studies have shown systemic involvement of bone tissue in NF1 patients, leading to reduced bone mass. The aim of our study was to evaluate some bone mineral metabolism parameters before and after calcium and vitamin D supplementation in NF1 patients. We evaluated in 70 NF1 consecutive patients the mineral metabolism and bone mineral density compared with 40 normal subjects. We showed bone alterations in 35% of patients and the increase of bone formation markers, such as bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (41.2 ± 15.5 vs. 25.6 ± 8.7 UI; P 60%). Moreover, we revealed a significant reduction of bone mass density at spine (L1-L4) (0.935 ± 0.13 vs. 1.110 ± 0.17 g/cm(2); P mineral bone involvement, with vitamin D deficiency; calcium and vitamin D supplementation is necessary to restore these bone mineral metabolic alterations. PMID:22120694

  11. Bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Effect of disease activity and glucocorticoid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Halberg, P; Kollerup, G;

    1998-01-01

    The bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has previously been examined, but the results are conflicting. In the present study the bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial and the appendicular skeleton was examined by means of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The bone...

  12. Normal Parathyroid Function with Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Treated Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lemieux

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7±3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9. In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH (3.77±0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28±0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001, which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score, patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60±0.96 SDs, P<0.05 and lumbar spine (-0.76±1.15 SDs, P<0.05. T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3±0.9 SDs, P<0.0001 and lumbar spine (-1.4±1.35 SDs, P<0.0001, with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  13. Glomerular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  14. Epidemiological study of Paget's disease of bone in a zone of the Province of Salamanca (spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone Paget's disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Spain. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of the disease in a zone situated in the northwestern sector of the Province of Salamanca (Spain) using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a stratified sampling according to the residence, age and sex of the inhabitants of the zone. A sampling error of 5% and a confidence level of 95% were considered; these afforded a sample of 378 units. Final choice of the subjects was based on a random pathway method. Data collection was accomplished with a personal interview using a 31-item questionnaire and analytical screening (AP and GGT). The field work was carried out over a one-year period. The data were input onto a calculation sheet for analysis and epidemiological interpretation. Finally, clinico-radiological confirmation of the cases deemed positive in the screening was accomplished. The prevalence of PBD in the zone studied is 5.7% (95% CI: 4.5-6.9). The highest percentage of patients lies within the age group between 70-79 years; most of these patients were women. The mean residence time in the zone was 66 years. According to the findings, this geographic zone has a high prevalence of PBD

  15. Quality Indices Of Jaw Bone Tissue In Screening Diagnostics Of Parodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Konev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work is to develop and motivate screening methods of the estimation of paradontal tissues by digital X-ray study. The used methods are X-ray digital scene with estimation of bone tissue density in program Trophy 2000, clinically anatomical parallels of bone tissue density and their qualitative indices. Parallels between qualitative indices of bones of mandibular alveolar process and bone tissue density of these areas have been revealed. It is reasonable to carry out the estimation of bone tissue density indices for revealing early stages of parodontal pathology

  16. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  17. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Thakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. MEN1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder, due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610 amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life-expectancy and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to that for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by pre-symptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1-tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multi-disciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.

  18. Compromised cortical bone compartment in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with microvascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Hansen, Stinus; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased fracture risk despite a normal or elevated bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess parameters of peripheral bone microarchitecture, estimated bone strength and bone......-resolution peripheral quantitative tomography (HR-pQCT) was used to assess bone structure at the non-dominant distal radius and tibia. Estimated bone strength was calculated using finite element analysis. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured in all participants. RESULTS: After adjusting for BMI, MVD......+ patients displayed lower cortical volumetric BMD (P=0.02) and cortical thickness (P=0.02) and higher cortical porosity at the radius (P=0.02) and a trend towards higher cortical porosity at the tibia (P=0.07) compared to controls. HR-pQCT parameters did not differ between MVD- and control subjects...

  19. Paradoxical acute hypercalcemic effect of salmon calcitonin in patients having Paget's disease of bone after treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, P D; Chapuy, M C; Meunier, P J

    1984-05-01

    The hypocalcemia following administration of calcitonin may be an index to disease activity in Paget's disease of bone. Therefore, we assessed the effect of a single injection of 100 MRC units of salmon calcitonin (SCT) on plasma calcium in 28 patients with active Paget's disease before and after 6 months of treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) at a dose of 400 mg/day (3 patients), 800 mg/day (8 patients), 1.600 mg/day (9 patients) or 2.600 mg/day (8 patients). The mean SCT-induced hypocalcemia was reduced by Cl2MDP and there was a significant positive correlation between the decrease of serum calcium induced by SCT and bone resorption evaluated by the number of osteoclasts on bone biopsy taken in pagetic iliac crest. After Cl2MCP treatment, 5 patients manifested a paradoxical hypercalcemic response to SCT injection ranging from +0.3 mg/dl to +0.5 mg/dl, which was sustained over the 9 hours following injection. As these patients had a dramatic inhibition of bone resorption induced by Cl2 MDP, it is suggested that the hypercalcemic response to SCT might reflect persistence or exaggeration of the early hypercalcemic effect of CT which reportedly precedes the hypocalcemic response to SCT. PMID:6234216

  20. Intracerebroventricular transplanted bone marrow stem cells survive and migrate into the brain of rats with Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Gu; Zhongxia Zhang; Dongsheng Cui; Yanyong Wang; Lin Ma; Yuan Geng; Mingwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was stereotaxically injected into the right substantia nigra compact and ventral tegmental area of rats to establish Parkinson’s disease models. The rats then received a transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells that were previously isolated, cultured and labeled with 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine in vitro. Transplantation of the bone marrow stromal cells significantly decreased apomorphine-induced rotation time and the escape latency in the Morris water maze test as compared with rats with untreated Parkinson’s disease. Immunohistochemical staining showed that, 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine-immunoreactive cells were present in the lateral ventricular wall and the choroid plexus 1 day after transplantation. These immunoreactive cells migrated to the surrounding areas of the lateral cerebral ventricle along the corpus callosum. The results indicated that bone marrow stromal cells could migrate to tissues surround the cerebral ventricle via the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and fuse with cells in the brain, thus altering the phenotype of cells or forming neuron-like cells or astrocytes capable of expressing neuron-specific proteins. Taken together, the present findings indicate that bone marrow stromal cells transplanted intracerebroventricularly could survive, migrate and significantly improve the rotational behavior and cognitive function of rats with experimentally induced Parkinson’s disease.

  1. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT, [(18)F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information. PMID:26690712

  2. A New Data Analysis System to Quantify Associations between Biochemical Parameters of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Rodriguez

    Full Text Available In hemodialysis patients, deviations from KDIGO recommended values of individual parameters, phosphate, calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH, are associated with increased mortality. However, it is widely accepted that these parameters are not regulated independently of each other and that therapy aimed to correct one parameter often modifies the others. The aim of the present study is to quantify the degree of association between parameters of chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD.Data was extracted from a cohort of 1758 adult HD patients between January 2000 and June 2013 obtaining a total of 46.141 records (10 year follow-up. We used an advanced data analysis system called Random Forest (RF which is based on self-learning procedure with similar axioms to those utilized for the development of artificial intelligence. This new approach is particularly useful when the variables analyzed are closely dependent to each other.The analysis revealed a strong association between PTH and phosphate that was superior to that of PTH and Calcium. The classical linear regression analysis between PTH and phosphate shows a correlation coefficient is 0.27, p<0.001, the possibility to predict PTH changes from phosphate modification is marginal. Alternatively, RF assumes that changes in phosphate will cause modifications in other associated variables (calcium and others that may also affect PTH values. Using RF the correlation coefficient between changes in serum PTH and phosphate is 0.77, p<0.001; thus, the power of prediction is markedly increased. The effect of therapy on biochemical variables was also analyzed using this RF.Our results suggest that the analysis of the complex interactions between mineral metabolism parameters in CKD-MBD may demand a more advanced data analysis system such as RF.

  3. Crohn's Disease and Primary Alveolar Bone Loss A literature Review and Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xing-xing; ZHANG Wen-feng; CHEN Xin-min; ZHAO Yi-fa

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease of unknown cause. Intraoral tissues can be affected occasionally. Oral lesions most frequently appear in lips, gingival tissue, and buccal mucosa. We reported here a case of a 24-year-old man with a 6-month history of mouth ulceration and 2-month history of occasional obdominal pain. Histopathological diagnosis was Crohn's disease. Clinical examinations revealed established intestinal lesions, mouth ulcerations, thickening of the antral mucosa and an unusual pattern presentation rarely previously reported in the literature: generalized alveolar bone loss without obvious periodontitis and history of steroids use.%克罗恩病是一种病因尚不明确的慢性肠道炎性肉芽肿性疾病.偶有口腔组织受累,损害主要见于唇、颊黏膜及牙龈.本文报道一例有口腔病变的克罗恩病,24岁,男性,口腔溃疡不愈半年,伴有2月腹痛史.口腔溃疡活检病理诊断为克罗恩病.临床检查发现除了消化道病损、口腔溃疡、上颌窦黏膜增厚外,出现了罕见的广泛牙槽骨吸收,而患者无牙周病及激素用药史,这一特点在以前的文献中未见报道.

  4. 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy in myeloma bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Evaluation of the role of scintigraphy with 99mTc-Sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) in the detection of bone marrow involvement in patients (pts) with multiple myeloma (MM) and in follow-up. 62 pts with MM and 38 pts with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) were enrolled in this study. Forty-seven out sixty-two MM pts had active disease (AD), 10/62 were in complete remission (CR) and 5/62 in partial remission (PR) after chemotherapy. Whole-body scans were obtained 10 min after the i.v. injection of 740 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI in anterior and posterior view. The scans were scored semiquantitatively according to extension and intensity of tracer uptake. All 38 MGUS pts had a negative 99mTc-MIBI scan. As to the MM pts, 49/62 pts (44 with AD, 4 with PR and 1 with CR) had a positive 99mTc-MIBI scan, while the 99mTc-MIBI scan was negative in 13/62 pts (9 with CR, 1 with PR and 3 with AD). The overall sensitivity of the scintigraphic procedure was 92 % while specificity was 97 %. A total of 42 follow-up scans with 99mTc-MIBI were performed in 30 MM pts after high-dose chemotherapy, with an average follow-up duration of 14.6 ± 8.9. The follow-up 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy was positive in 14/15 of the AD pts, while 6/8 negative scans were observed in the CR pts; the seven PR pts exhibited in five cases a negative scan and in two a mild scintigrafic positivity. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the follow-up scan were, respectively, 86 % and 75 %. In six patients, one at the diagnosis and five showing a positive 99mTc-MIBI scan during the follow-up, 740 MBq of 99mTc-TF was administered within two days with the same acquisition protocol. The scans provided substantially identical information. 99mTc-TF provided a mildly higher contrast between lesion and background activities. The results obtained in this study provide additional evidence indicating that 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy closely reflects myeloma disease activity in

  5. [Ethanol metabolism and pathobiochemistry of organ damage--1992. IV. Ethanol in relation to the cardiovascular system. Hematologic, immunologic, endocrine disorders and muscle and bone damage caused by ethanol. Fetal alcohol syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1993-01-01

    Peripheral vasodilatation with increased cardiac output, tachycardia and increased blood pressure are described after alcohol administration. An increased HDL-cholesterol is found in moderate drinkers (both HDL-2 and HDL-3 fractions), with diminishing risk of coronary heart diseases. Acute ethanol intake causes an increased the level of triglycerides without changes in HDL-cholesterol level. This may be put into correlation with higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in so-called "week-end" drinkers. Alcohol abuse may result in central diabetes insipidus. An increased elimination of lactate diminishes tubular secretion of uric acid with subsequent secondary hyperuricemia. Ethanol reduced the number of lymphocytes, reduces phagocytosis by macrophages and diminishes the activity of NK-cells. Bone marrow cellulity diminishes with the subsequent reduction in erythropoiesis, trombopoiesis and leukopoiesis. Alcohol may cause sideropenic and megaloblastic anemia. There are two forms of alcohol muscle injury: the acute one, with myonecrosis and inflammatory reaction, and chronic one, with muscle weakness and atrophy. Alcohol is one of etiologic factors of osteoporosis. An acute intoxication result in transitory hypoparatthyreoidism, while chronic ethanol intake make grow the PTH level and decreases the level of D vitamin metabolises. Stimulation of cortisol secretion, decrease of testosterone level and a reversible decrease of T3 and T4 levels have been described following ethanol administration. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suffers alteration in alcoholics, and secondary amenorrhea is observed in female alcoholics. Ethanol behaves as an agonist on GABA receptor. Fetal alcohol syndrome together with Down's syndrome and spina bifida are the most frequent reasons of mental retardation in developed countries. Toxicity of ethanol affects the whole pregnancy period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Predictors of bone disease in Egyptian prepubertal children with β-thalassaemia major

    OpenAIRE

    Tantawy, Azza A.G.; El-Bostany, Eman A.; Matter, Randa M; El-Ghoroury, Eman A.; Ragab, Shadia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Thalassaemic osteopathy is a multifactorial disorder and limited information exists about bone accrual and bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal thalassaemic children. The study aimed to investigate some potential genetic and biochemical bone markers as possible early predictors of BMD variations in children with β-thalassaemia major (TM) before puberty. Material and methods Thirt-one prepubertal children with β-TM, and 43 matched controls were subjected to BMD assessment by ...

  7. Femoral head vascularisation in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: comparison of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MRI with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamer, Sylvie; Dorgeret, Sophie; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Hassan, Max; Sebag, Guy H. [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 boulevard Serurier, 75935 Paris Cedex (France); Lariboisiere-Saint-Louis University, Paris (France); Khairouni, Abdeslam; Mazda, Keyvan; Bacheville, Eric; Pennecot, Georges F. [Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Bloch, Juliette [Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2002-08-01

    Heading AbstractBackground. It has been reported that MRI using a dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction technique can allow the early identification of ischaemia and the pattern of revascularisation in Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease with increased spatial and contrast resolution. Therefore, dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction (DGS) MRI may be a possible non-ionising substitute for bone scintigraphy.Objective. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare DGS MRI and bone scintigraphy in the assessment of femoral head perfusion in LCP disease.Materials and methods. Twenty-six DGS MR images and bone scintigraphies of 25 hips in 23 children were obtained at different stages of LCP disease; three stage I, 12 stage II, six stage III and five stage IV (Waldenstroem classification). The extent of necrosis, epiphyseal revascularisation pathways (lateral pillar, medial pillar, and/or transphyseal perfusion) and metaphyseal changes were analysed.Results. Total agreement between both techniques was noted in the depiction of epiphyseal necrosis (kappa=1), and metaphyseal abnormalities (kappa=0.9). DGS MRI demonstrated better revascularisation in the lateral (kappa=0.62) and medial pillars (kappa=0.52). The presence of basal transphyseal reperfusion was more conspicuous with MRI.Conclusions. DGS MRI allows early detection of epiphyseal ischaemia and accurate analysis of the different revascularisation patterns. These changes are directly related to the prognosis of LCP disease and can aid therapeutic decision making. (orig.)

  8. Bone marrow transplantation in the rat. I. Histologic correlations and quantitation of cellular infiltrates in acute graft-versus-host disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Renkonen, R; Häyry, P.

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to define which cytologic manifestations of inflammation are characteristic of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), the authors have analyzed hematologic reconstitution in the bone marrow, spleen, and blood of bone marrow transplant recipients and correlated these events to concomitant cytologic changes in the parenchymal target organs. After bone marrow transplantation from Lewis to BN strain, the strongest inflammatory changes were observed in the liver, a "model" parenchy...

  9. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Nascimento CM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassiane Merigo do Nascimento,1 Tiago Cassol,2 Fernanda Soares da Silva,3 Maria Lucia Bonfleur,4 Carlos Augusto Nassar,5 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar5 1Biologica Science and Health Center, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; 2State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; Department of 3Pharmacy, 4Fisiology, 5Periodontology, Dental School, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 control group, 2 control and ligature group; 3 cafeteria group; and 4 cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01. Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. Keywords: periodontal disease, radiography, obesity

  10. Zearalenone endocrine system catch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the contamination of our environment with thousands of both natural and man-made chemicals which affect the endocrine system of humans and animals. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to mimic or block the action of hormones and therefore disrupt sexual development in utero. EDCs are organochlorine pesticides, dioxin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, alkylpolyethoxylates, plastic additives and phytoestrogens (occurring naturally in foods: isoflavones coumenestans and zearalenone. The structure of zearalenone is similar to the structure of estrogens and it enables binding to the estrogenic receptors. DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis was present 12 h after dosing thus indicating a conclusion that there was apoptosis. Apoptosis is the principal mechanism contributing to germ cell depletion and testicular atrophy following zearalenone exposure.

  11. Endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-11-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity is a serious global public health challenge. Although the obesity epidemic is largely fueled by poor nutrition and lack of exercise, certain chemicals have been shown to potentially have a role in its aetiology. A substantial body of evidence suggests that a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which interfere with endocrine signalling, can disrupt hormonally regulated metabolic processes, especially if exposure occurs during early development. These chemicals, so-called 'obesogens' might predispose some individuals to gain weight despite their efforts to limit caloric intake and increase levels of physical activity. This Review discusses the role of EDCs in the obesity epidemic, the latest research on the obesogen concept, epidemiological and experimental findings on obesogens, and their modes of action. The research reviewed here provides knowledge that health scientists can use to inform their research and decision-making processes. PMID:26391979

  12. Endocrine and metabolic adaptations to pregnancy; impact of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Sylvie Hauguel-de; Lassance, Luciana

    2015-10-01

    Adaptations of maternal endocrine and metabolic homeostasis are central to successful pregnancy. They insure that an adequate and continuous supply of metabolic fuels is available for the growing fetus. Healthy pregnancy is classically described as a mild diabetogenic state with significant adjustments in both insulin production and sensitivity. The placenta contributes to the endocrine adaptations to pregnancy through the synthesis of various hormones which may impact insulin action. Obesity has the highest prevalence among metabolic disease in pregnancy. This article summarizes the literature addressing the endocrine and metabolic adaptations implemented during normal pregnancy. Mechanisms of regulation are further examined in the context of maternal obesity.

  13. Temporary brittle bone disease: relationship between clinical findings and judicial outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Paterson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide differential diagnosis for the child with unexplained fractures including non-accidental injury, osteogenesis imperfecta and vitamin D deficiency rickets. Over the last 20 years we and others have described a self-limiting syndrome characterised by fractures in the first year of life. This has been given the provisional name temporary brittle bone disease. This work had proved controversial mostly because the fractures, including rib fractures and metaphyseal fractures, were those previously regarded as typical or even diagnostic of non-accidental injury. Some have asserted that the condition does not exist. Over the years 1985 to 2000 we investigated 87 such cases with fractures with a view to determining the future care of the children. In 85 of these the judiciary was involved. We examined the clinical and radiological findings in the 33 cases in which there was a judicial finding of abuse, the 24 cases in which the parents were exonerated and the 28 cases in which no formal judicial finding was made. The three groups of patients were similar in terms of demographics, age at fracturing and details of the fractures. The clinical similarities between the three groups of patients contrasts with the very different results of the judicial process.

  14. Dietary phosphorus excess: a risk factor in chronic bone, kidney, and cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized. PMID:24038251

  15. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  16. Co-existent Paget’s Disease of the Bone, Prostate Carcinoma Skeletal Metastases and Fracture on Skeletal Scintigraphy-Lessons to be Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke I Sonoda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone scintigraphy, despite being non-specific, is a very sensitive and simple investigation for patients with active Paget’s disease of the bone. Skeletal metastases and Paget’s disease may co-exist in the elderly patients as both conditions are commonly seen in this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation may help to improve the diagnostic specificity of a bone scintigram. We report a patient in whom concurrent Paget’s disease and a rib fracture became evident only on repeat scintigraphy following successful treatment of prostate carcinoma skeletal metastases.

  17. Endocrine profile of β-thalassemia major patients followed from childhood to advanced adulthood in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chronic iron overload resulting from frequent transfusions, poor compliance to efficient chelation therapy and chronic liver disease is basically responsible for the most severe complications of thalassemia major (TM. Before conventional treatment, TM was entirely childhood disease with a very short survival. Today, survival improved to 40–50 years and becomes a prevalent disease of adulthood and in the near future it will be one of senility. Furthermore, clinical phenotype of TM is changing with age and appearance of severe complications from the heart and endocrine glands that require special health care from well-informed specialists. Objectives: The aims of our study were to: (1 Imprint the clinical profile of long-lived TM patients; (2 evaluate retrospectively the cumulative incidence of endocrine diseases; (3 identify potential risk factors; and (4 orient the physicians in the modified clinical phenotype and the relative patients' health needs. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study followed from childhood to adulthood by the same physician in a tertiary thalassemia clinic. Participants: Forty-three long-lived TM patients (mean age: 50.3 ± 10.8 years; range: 45.8–59.5 years; 23 females were studied. Patients and Methods: An extensive medical history, with detailed clinical and laboratory data, endocrine complications, and current treatments, was obtained. Results: The data indicate that 88.4% of adult TM patients suffered from at least one endocrine complication. The majority of patients developed endocrine complications in the second decade of life when serum ferritin level was very high (12/23 TM female and 8/20 TM male patients, the serum ferritin levels at the diagnosis were above 5.000 ng/ml. Conclusions: These data underline that endocrine and bone complications in adult TM patients are highly prevalent and necessitate close monitoring, treatment, and follow-up. Physicians' strategies to optimize chelation therapy

  18. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) accounts for 1-2% of total pancreatic tumors and 0.4-1.5% of autopsy cases, reflecting the recently increasing trend. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (2004), PET is classified by the type of hormone produced by the tumor and its biological behavior. Together with the classical clinical images and hormone markers, 11C-5-HTP-Positron emission tomography, OctreoScan ([111In-DTPA0] octreotide) scintigram, selective arterial calcium injection (SACI)-test and intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) are used for diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, if supposed to be curative and tolerable. In case of a well-differentiated endocrine tumor, with no indication of resection or interventional radiology (IVR), somatostatin analog is another therapy showing stable disease status for a long period. Systemic chemotherapy, including 5-fluorouracil (FU)+streptozotocin, and streptozotocin+doxorubicin, are used in cases of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma, and cisplatin+etoposide are applied for poorly-differentiated endocrine carcinoma (or small cell carcinoma). Recent studies focus on molecular target therapy including small molecules and monoclonal antibody, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. (author)

  20. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health. PMID:26414233

  1. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on the haemopoietic bone marrow monitored by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Stenver, D; Jensen, M;

    1990-01-01

    Volume selective magnetic resonance (MR) proton spectroscopy was used to investigate changes in the haemopoietic bone marrow in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Significant changes could be detected in the spectra 14 days a......, as well as investigating bone marrow response from different modes of rHuEPO administration....

  2. The effects of untreated and treated HIV infection on bone disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, Aoife G

    2013-11-20

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in those with HIV, associated with higher bone turnover and a higher prevalence of fractures. This review explores low BMD in HIV, focusing on underlying mechanisms and relationships between low BMD and HIV infection, immune dysfunction, and antiretroviral therapy (ART).

  3. Osseous and Nonosseous Bone Scan Findings in Liver Transplant Candidates with end-stage Chronic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seval Erhamamcı; Ayşe Aktaş; Tatiana Bahçeci; Kevser Kavak

    2013-01-01

    Objective: End-stage chronic liver disease (CLD) adversely affects the function of multiple organ systems including the skeletal system. The aim of this study was to assess osseous and nonosseous bone scintigraphy (BS) findings in liver transplant (LT) candidates with end-stage CLD. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated BS findings in 50 consecutive patients with end-stage CLD who were undergoing preoperative assessment for LT from January 2006 to December 2011. All the patients were analyzed...

  4. [Endocrine and other medical causes of abnormal fatigability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, U

    1991-11-01

    Many endocrine diseases can cause fatigue. Tiredness is a frequent symptom of primary and secondary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, excessive glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid production, primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, primary and secondary hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia in the male, acromegaly, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. A great number of medical diseases other than those mentioned in the articles on cardiological and pneumological fatigue can also cause abnormal tiredness (infectious diseases, hematological, renal, hepatic, gastrointestinal and rheumatological disturbances, vasculitis and malignant tumors). The pathogenesis of tiredness caused by endocrine or medical illnesses, i.e. how the sensation of fatigue is produced, is not clear. The fatigue of the various endocrine or other medical diseases is not disease-specific, i.e. its characteristics do not differentiate it from the fatigue of other illnesses. PMID:1754971

  5. Bone disease in patients with haemophilia A and B--where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, P; Karras, S N; Goulis, D G

    2015-01-01

    It is evident that haemophilia A and B are associated with decreased bone mass in both adults and children. Decreased physical activity and vitamin D deficiency are some of the major factors leading to bone loss. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may also contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD). However, definite conclusions regarding the exact prevalence and pathogenesis of osteoporosis cannot be conducted yet, due to the small sample size and significant heterogeneity among studies. Discordant findings with regard to the skeletal site of low BMD have also been reported. Furthermore, data on fracture risk are sparse. The use of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) for assessing fracture risk, regular BMD assessment at the age of 25 and thereafter, careful evaluation of risk factors associated with bone loss and optimal calcium and vitamin D intake are recommended. Long-term prophylactic factor replacement therapy, resistance exercise and bisphosphonates, in severe cases of increased fracture risk, can prevent bone loss. PMID:25251867

  6. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  7. Electromagnetic Fields and Human Endocrine System

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Karasek; Marta Woldanska-Okonska

    2004-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) are commonly present in daily life all over the world. Moreover, EMF are used in the physiotherapy of many diseases because of their beneficial effects. There is widespread public concern that EMF may have potential consequences for human health. Although experimental animal studies indicate that EMF may influence secretion of some hormones, the data on the effects of EMF on human endocrine system are scarce. Most of the results concent...

  8. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  9. Computed tomography of the inner ear: size of anatomical structures in the normal temporal bone and in the temporal bone of patients with Meniere's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, Gabriele A.; Boom, Martin van den; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E. [University of Technology (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Martino, Ercole Di; Westhofen, Martin [University of Technology (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, Andreas [University of Technology (RWTH) Aachen, Institute of Anatomy, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to obtain reference values for the sizes of anatomical structures of the inner ear on computed tomography (CT) images and to compare these values with those obtained from patients with Meniere's disease. CT images of the temporal bone of 67 patients without inner ear pathology and 53 patients with Meniere's disease have been evaluated. CT was performed in the sequential mode (1-mm slice thickness, 120 kV, 125 mA). Anatomical structures, such as the length and the width of the cochlea and of the vestibule, the height of the basal turn, the length and the width of the cochlear, the vestibular and the singular aqueduct and the internal auditory meatus and the diameter of the semicircular canals, were measured, using a dedicated postprocessing workstation. Reference values from the control group could be obtained. In the patients with Meniere's disease, the length and the width of the vestibular aqueduct were smaller, compared with the values from the control group. The values obtained from the control group can serve as reference values for adult patients. The different sizes of anatomical structures of the control group and of patients suffering from Meniere's disease suggest that functional impairment might be related to subtle morphological changes. (orig.)

  10. Utility of unenhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted MRI in children with sickle cell disease - can it differentiate bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of bone infarcts and acute osteomyelitis. The clinical differentiation between a bone infarct and acute osteomyelitis is a diagnostic challenge. Unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated MR images have been proposed as a potential tool to differentiate bone infarcts from osteomyelitis. To evaluate the reliability of unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated MRI for differentiation between bone infarcts and acute osteomyelitis in children with SCD. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 children (20 boys, 11 girls; mean age 10.6 years, range 1.1-17.9 years) with SCD and acute bone pain who underwent MR imaging including unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated images from 2005 to 2010. Complete clinical charts were reviewed by a pediatric hematologist with training in infectious diseases to determine a clinical standard to define the presence or absence of osteomyelitis. A pediatric radiologist reviewed all MR imaging and was blinded to clinical information. Based on the signal intensity in T1-W fat-saturated images, the children were further classified as positive for osteomyelitis (low bone marrow signal intensity) or positive for bone infarct (high bone marrow signal intensity). Based on the clinical standard, 5 children were classified as positive for osteomyelitis and 26 children as positive for bone infarct (negative for osteomyelitis). The bone marrow signal intensity on T1-W fat-saturated imaging was not significant for the differentiation between bone infarct and osteomyelitis (P = 0.56). None of the additional evaluated imaging parameters on unenhanced MRI proved reliable in differentiating these diagnoses. The bone marrow signal intensity on unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated MR images is not a reliable criterion to differentiate bone infarcts from osteomyelitis in children. (orig.)

  11. Utility of unenhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted MRI in children with sickle cell disease - can it differentiate bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jorge; Bedoya, Maria A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Green, Abby M. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Oncology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego; Ho-Fung, Victor [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of bone infarcts and acute osteomyelitis. The clinical differentiation between a bone infarct and acute osteomyelitis is a diagnostic challenge. Unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated MR images have been proposed as a potential tool to differentiate bone infarcts from osteomyelitis. To evaluate the reliability of unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated MRI for differentiation between bone infarcts and acute osteomyelitis in children with SCD. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 children (20 boys, 11 girls; mean age 10.6 years, range 1.1-17.9 years) with SCD and acute bone pain who underwent MR imaging including unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated images from 2005 to 2010. Complete clinical charts were reviewed by a pediatric hematologist with training in infectious diseases to determine a clinical standard to define the presence or absence of osteomyelitis. A pediatric radiologist reviewed all MR imaging and was blinded to clinical information. Based on the signal intensity in T1-W fat-saturated images, the children were further classified as positive for osteomyelitis (low bone marrow signal intensity) or positive for bone infarct (high bone marrow signal intensity). Based on the clinical standard, 5 children were classified as positive for osteomyelitis and 26 children as positive for bone infarct (negative for osteomyelitis). The bone marrow signal intensity on T1-W fat-saturated imaging was not significant for the differentiation between bone infarct and osteomyelitis (P = 0.56). None of the additional evaluated imaging parameters on unenhanced MRI proved reliable in differentiating these diagnoses. The bone marrow signal intensity on unenhanced T1-W fat-saturated MR images is not a reliable criterion to differentiate bone infarcts from osteomyelitis in children. (orig.)

  12. The management of metastatic bone disease with the combination of bisphosphonates and radiotherapy: from theory to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V; Kardamakis, D

    2009-03-01

    Bone metastases are common in the event of malignancy and are inevitably associated with serious complications that may deteriorate the quality of life (QOL) of patients and threaten life. Both radiotherapy (RT) and bisphosphonates (BPs) have an established role in the management of metastatic bone disease. Many clinical trials have demonstrated their effectiveness when used as sole treatment modalities, but only a few have evaluated their therapeutic value when applied concomitantly. We herein discuss the pathophysiology of bone metastases and the potential interactions between RT and BPs. Moreover, the results of both animal models and clinical studies are presented in detail. Apart from aspects of normal tissue tolerance, other interactions include spatial cooperation and additive or super-additive effects. The latter brings about a synergistic activity that results in an enhanced reossification, improved bone stability and microarchitecture, and increased mechanical strength, as documented through animal model studies. The results of published clinical studies investigating the effectiveness of concomitant application of RT and BPs are promising, reporting a significant clinical and radiologic response. More specifically, a significant reduction of pain scores and a worth noticing improvement in QOL and performance status (PS) were noted, accompanied by a considerable increase in bone density. Pain relief was accompanied by a marked reduction in analgesic opioid need. The enhanced reossification may be responsible for the improved therapeutic response, since it was shown that the correlation between pain and bone density is negative and strong. Although promising and encouraging, the results of such studies should be corroborated by larger, randomized trials.

  13. Fetal and neonatal endocrine disruptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ünüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different f...

  14. Fetal and Neonatal Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ünüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different f...

  15. Examining the effects of hyperglycemia on pancreatic endocrine function in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the impact of hyperglycemia on pancreatic endocrine function promotes our understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia-related disease.......Investigating the impact of hyperglycemia on pancreatic endocrine function promotes our understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia-related disease....

  16. The Rho-GEF Kalirin regulates bone mass and the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su; Eleniste, Pierre P; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Mandela, Prashant; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E; Allen, Matthew R; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2014-03-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Dysregulation in the activity of the bone cells can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Kalirin is a novel GTP-exchange factor protein that has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling and dendritic spine formation in neurons. We examined Kalirin expression in skeletal tissue and found that it was expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Furthermore, micro-CT analyses of the distal femur of global Kalirin knockout (Kal-KO) mice revealed significantly reduced trabecular and cortical bone parameters in Kal-KO mice, compared to WT mice, with significantly reduced bone mass in 8, 14 and 36week-old female Kal-KO mice. Male mice also exhibited a decrease in bone parameters but not to the level seen in female mice. Histomorphometric analyses also revealed decreased bone formation rate in 14week-old female Kal-KO mice, as well as decreased osteoblast number/bone surface and increased osteoclast surface/bone surface. Consistent with our in vivo findings, the bone resorbing activity and differentiation of Kal-KO osteoclasts was increased in vitro. Although alkaline phosphatase activity by Kal-KO osteoblasts was increased in vitro, Kal-KO osteoblasts showed decreased mineralizing activity, as well as decreased secretion of OPG, which was inversely correlated with ERK activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that deletion of Kalirin directly affects osteoclast and osteoblast activity, leading to decreased OPG secretion by osteoblasts which is likely to alter the RANKL/OPG ratio and promote osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, Kalirin may play a role in paracrine and/or endocrine signaling events that control skeletal bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone mass. PMID:24380811

  17. The role of 18F–NaF PET/CT in metastatic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Araz

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Although further prospective clinical studies in specific cancer populations are indicated to set the place of 18F–NaF PET/CT in diagnostic scheme, the results of this pilot study from our country support the superiority of 18F–NaF PET/CT in investigation of bone metastasis over 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 18F-FDG PET/CT in various malignancies. 18F–NaF PET/CT is coming forward as a single step bone seeking study, considering all the advantages, but especially potential of detecting occult metastases and reliably directing patient management.

  18. Myeloma bone and extra-medullary disease: Role of PET/CT and other whole-body imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Giuseppe; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Ferrari, Cristina; Racanelli, Vito; Maggialetti, Nicola; Dammacco, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy. Although it can affect different organs, the bone compartment stands out both in terms of prevalence and clinical impact. Despite the striking advances in MM therapy, bone disease can remarkably affect the patient's quality of life. The occurrence and extension of bone marrow and extra-medullary involvement should be carefully assessed to confirm the diagnosis, to locate and whenever possible prevent dreadful complications such as pathological fractures and spinal cord compression, and to establish suitable therapeutic measures. Many imaging techniques have been proposed for the detection of MM skeletal involvement. With the development of more sophisticated imaging tools, it is time to use the right technique at the right time. Based on the review of the literature and our own experience, this article discusses advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging methods in the work-up of MM patients, with particular emphasis on the role that PET/CT can play. It is emphasized that whole body low-dose computed tomography should be the preferred imaging technique at baseline. However, bone marrow infiltration and extra-medullary manifestations are better detected by whole body magnetic resonance imaging. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography, on the other hand, combines the benefits of the two mentioned imaging procedures and is particularly useful not only for the detection of osteolytic lesions unrevealed by conventional X-ray, but also in the assessment of prognosis and therapeutic response. PMID:26997302

  19. High serum YKL-40 concentration is associated with severe bone disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne Kærsgaard; Abildgaard, N.; Johansen, J.S.;

    2008-01-01

    higher total X-ray score (P = 0.003) and higher levels of the markers of bone resorption serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (P = 0.003), urine pyridinoline (P = 0.04) and urine deoxypyridinoline (P = 0.002), while the levels of urine N-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (NTX-1) and the...... markers of bone formation equalled those seen in patients with a normal serum YKL-40. Serum YKL-40 level (beta = 7.6; P = 0.002) and urine NTX-1 (log(2)) (beta = 3.5; P = 0.006) were independent predictors of total X-ray score at diagnosis. Patients with elevated serum YKL-40 at diagnosis had shorter time......Objectives: In multiple myeloma (MM) YKL-40 is present in the bone marrow microenvironment and is suggested to play a role in remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Here, the association between serum YKL-40 and severity of bone disease in MM is investigated. Methods: Serum YKL-40 was measured in...

  20. Natural history of malignant bone disease in breast cancer and the use of cumulative mean functions to measure skeletal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Matthew R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone metastases are a common cause of skeletal morbidity in patients with advanced cancer. The pattern of skeletal morbidity is complex, and the number of skeletal complications is influenced by the duration of survival. Because many patients with cancer die before trial completion, there is a need for survival-adjusted methods to accurately assess the effects of treatment on skeletal morbidity. Methods Recently, a survival-adjusted cumulative mean function model has been generated that can provide an intuitive graphic representation of skeletal morbidity throughout a study. This model was applied to the placebo-control arm of a pamidronate study in patients with malignant bone disease from breast cancer. Results Analysis by bone lesion location showed that spinal metastases were associated with the highest cumulative mean incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs, followed by chest and pelvic metastases. Metastases located in the extremities were associated with an intermediate incidence of SREs, and those in the skull were associated with the lowest incidence of SREs. Conclusion Application of this model to data from the placebo arm of this trial revealed important insight into the natural history of skeletal morbidity in patients with bone metastases. Based on these observations, treatment for the prevention of SREs is warranted regardless of lesion location except for metastases on the skull.