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Sample records for bone density loss

  1. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  2. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  3. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  4. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  6. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (palveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  7. Impact of marked weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on bone mineral density and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Data about the impact of bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent weight loss on bone are limited. The objective of the present study was to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone remodeling metabolites and hormones that influence bone trophism in premenopausal women submitted to BS 9.8 months, on average, before the study (OGg, N = 16. The data were compared to those obtained for women of normal weight (CG, N = 11 and for obese women (OG, N = 12. Eight patients in each group were monitored for one year, with the determination of BMD, of serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and osteocalcin, and of urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline. The biochemical determinations were repeated every three months in the longitudinal study and BMD was measured at the end of the study. Parathyroid hormone levels were similar in the three groups. IGF-I levels (CG = 332 ± 62 vs OG = 230 ± 37 vs OGg = 128 ± 19 ng/mL were significantly lower in the operated patients compared to the non-operated obese women. Only OGg patients presented a significant fall in BMD of 6.2% at L1-L4, of 10.2% in the femoral neck, and of 5.1% in the forearm. These results suggest that the weight loss induced by BS is associated with a significant loss of bone mass even at sites that are not influenced by weight overload, with hormonal factors such as IGF-I being associated with this process.

  8. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium supplement if necessary. • Vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and move it into ... bone density test? • Should I take calcium and vitamin D supplements? How much do I need? • Do I need medication for my bone loss? • ...

  9. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment......-length polymorphisms of the ER gene with BMD in Danish postmenopausal women, two studies were undertaken: 1) a cross-sectional study of 499 postmenopausal women, where the ER genotypes and alleles were related to BMD of the hip, spine, and lower forearm; and 2) a longitudinal study of 101 postmenopausal women followed...... up for 18 years. In the latter study, late postmenopausal bone loss in the hip and spine was determined over a period of 6 years in women (mean age of 63 to 69 years), and long-term postmenopausal bone loss in the lower forearm was determined over a period of 18 years in women (mean age of 51 to 69...

  10. Progressive femoral cortical and cancellous bone density loss after uncemented tapered-design stem fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Tobias E; Haeberle, Lothar; Mueller, Lars P; Kress, Alexander; Voelk, Michael; Pfander, David; Forst, Raimund; Schmidt, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Background Aseptic implant loosening and periprosthetic bone loss are major problems after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We present an in vivo method of computed tomography (CT) assisted osteodensitometry after THA that differentiates between cortical and cancellous bone density (BD) and area around the femoral component. Method Cortical and cancellous periprosthetic femoral BD (mg CaHA/mL), area (mm2) and contact area between the prothesis and cortical bone were determined prospectively in 31 patients 10 days, 1 year, and 6 years after uncemented THA (mean age at implantation: 55 years) using CT-osteodensitometry. Results 6 years postoperatively, cancellous BD had decreased by as much as 41% and cortical BD by up to 27% at the metaphyseal portion of the femur; this decrease was progressive between the 1-year and 6-year examinations. Mild cortical hypertrophy was observed along the entire length of the diaphysis. No statistically significant changes in cortical BD were observed along the diaphysis of the stem. Interpretation Periprosthetic CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the technical ability to discriminate between cortical and cancellous bone structures with respect to strain-adapted remodeling. Continuous loss of cortical and cancellous BD at the femoral metaphysis, a homeostatic cortical strain configuration, and mild cortical hypertrophy along the diaphysis suggest a diaphyseal fixation of the implanted stem. CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the potential to become an effective instrument for quality control in THA by means of in vivo determination of periprosthetic BD, which may be a causal factor in implant loosening after THA. PMID:20180716

  11. The relationship between periodontal disease, tooth loss and decreased skeletal bone mineral density in ageing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić Pavičin, Ivana; Dumančić, Jelena; Jukić, Tomislav; Badel, Tomislav

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are both chronic diseases characterised by bone loss. Potential association is of great clinical importance because of multifactorial aetiology and common risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between bone mineral density (BMD), tooth loss and periodontal status taking into account age, number of years since onset of menopause and educational level. With increasing age, number of years since onset of menopause and lower educational level, decreased BMD, deteriorating periodontal status and greater tooth loss are expected. Cross-sectional study included 112 women aged 45-80 years (mean 58.3 years). BMD was determined for lumbar spine region and proximal femur by DEXA technology. Dental status and periodontal status were evaluated clinically and on panoramic radiographs. For the analysis of tooth loss frequency, participants were divided into four age groups. Significant inverse correlation was found between number of lost teeth and BMD at hip region (r = -.227; P = .028) but not at the lumbar spine (r = -.05; P = .669). Several indicators of the periodontal condition were significantly correlated with BMD, but not with postmenopausal period length. Important result is that participants missing one or more incisors or canines had significantly lower mean value of BMD comparing to those who had all the incisors and canines remained. Although osteoporosis is not the main cause of periodontitis, it may be a factor that leads to enhanced periodontal pocket depth and greater risk of tooth loss in ageing women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  13. A Radiographic Comparison of Progressive and Conventional Loading on Crestal Bone Loss and Density in Single Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sorouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crestal bone loss is a biologic complication in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of progressive and conventional loading on crestal bone height and bone density around single osseointegrated implants in posterior maxilla by a longitudinal radiographic assessment technique.Materials and methods: Twenty micro thread implants were placed in 10 patients (two implants per patient. One of the two implants of each patient was assigned to progressive and the other to conventional loading groups. Eight weeks after surgery, conventional implants were restored with a metal ceramic crown and progressive group underwent a progressive loading protocol. The progressive loading group takes different temporary acrylic crowns at 2, 4 and 6 months. After eight months, acrylic crowns were replaced with metal ceramic crown. Computer radiography of both progressive and conventional implants was taken at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. Image analysis was performed to measure height of crestal bone loss and bone density.Results: The mean values of crestal bone loss at month 12 were 0.11 (0.19 mm for progressively and 0.36 (0.36 mm for conventionally loaded implants, with a statistically significant difference (P 0.05.Conclusion: Progressive group showed less crestal bone loss in single osseointegrated implant than conventional group. Bone density around progressively loaded implants showed increase in crestal, middle and apica

  14. Protease inhibitor-associated bone mineral density loss is related to hypothyroidism and related bone turnover acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinai, Ei; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Mizushima, Daisuke; Nishijima, Takeshi; Aoki, Takahiro; Genka, Ikumi; Teruya, Katsuji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-05-01

    Clinical and experiments evidence indicate that protease inhibitors (PI) can cause bone mineral density (BMD) loss. However, the mechanism of such loss remains obscure. This single-center, cross-sectional study included 184 HIV-infected patients treated with PI who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Serum phosphorus, percentage of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (%TRP), thyroid and parathyroid function (iPTH), vitamin D, osteocalcin (OC), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (u-NTx) were measured. The rate of hypothyroidism in PI-users [32/117 (27%)] was double that in non-PI users [8/67 (12%), p = 0.016] and was significantly associated with PI use in multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) 11.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.358-95.17, p = 0.025]. Spine BMD was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients than euthyroid, for both total population (-1.37 vs. -1.00, p = 0.041) and PI users (-1.56 vs. -1.13, p = 0.029). Multivariate regression analysis identified inverse correlation between hypothyroidism and spine BMD [estimate -0.437, 95% CI -0.858 to -0.024, p = 0.042]. OC, DPD and u-NTx were significantly higher in PI users than in non-PI users (p = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). PI use is associated with hypothyroidism as well as bone turnover acceleration, which worsens PI-associated BMD loss. In PI-treated patients, thyroid function tests are warranted to prevent further progression of PI-associated BMD loss. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, H; Reader, R; Murphy, S; Khaw, K T

    1995-05-01

    It has been reported that postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have a higher than expected number of dentures and fewer teeth than women without osteoporosis. The relationship between self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine in 608 men and 874 women, aged 65-76 years, was examined in a cross-sectional study. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-four per cent of men and 27% of women had no natural teeth. There was a consistent decrease in BMD with increasing numbers of teeth lost in men. This relationship was independent of age, body mass index and smoking habit (trochanter r = -0.14, p < 0.0005; Ward's triangle r = -0.1, p < 0.005; and lumbar spine r = -0.07, p < 0.05) with between 5% and 9% difference in mean BMD at various sites between men who had all their teeth and men who had no teeth. There was no significant association between self-reported tooth loss and BMD in women. Tooth loss is associated with lower BMD in men; this relationship is less consistent in women.

  16. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    measurements were identified for different age groups. Age-appropriate testing mode can improve detection of osteoporotic fracture risk in early menopause by determining muscular strength reduction related to BMD loss. This may enable early initiation of preventative therapies. Keywords: osteoporosis, fracture, bone mineral density, postmenopausal, menopause, muscle strength, isokinetic, isometric

  17. The decline in hip bone density after gastric bypass surgery is associated with extent of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, J; Stein, E M; Bessler, M; Della Badia, M; Restuccia, N; Olivero-Rivera, L; McMahon, D J; Silverberg, S J

    2008-10-01

    Bariatric surgery is common and may be associated with deleterious effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to assess bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We conducted a 1-yr prospective longitudinal study at a university hospital bariatric surgery practice and metabolic bone disease unit. Participants included 23 obese (mean body mass index 47 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 20-64 yr. Serum PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide, and BMD were assessed. Patients lost 45 +/- 2 kg 1 yr postoperatively (P rose (P hip (8.0%, P hip: r = 0.65, P = 0.02). Lumbar spine and distal radius sites did not change. After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, there was evidence of calcium and vitamin D malabsorption. Bone turnover increased, and hip bone density rapidly declined. The decline in hip BMD was strongly associated with weight loss itself. Vigilance for nutritional deficiencies and bone loss in patients both before and after bariatric surgery is crucial.

  18. Weight-loss-associated changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover after partial weight regain with or without aerobic exercise in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, P S; Rector, R S; Linden, M A; Warner, S O; Dellsperger, K C; Chockalingam, A; Whaley-Connell, A T; Liu, Y; Thomas, T R

    2012-05-01

    Moderate, long-term weight loss results in the loss of bone mass in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, whether these changes persist during weight maintenance or regain remains to be determined. Overweight or obese (body mass index: 25.8-42.5 kg/m(2)) women (n=40) with at least two risk factors for the metabolic syndrome participated in this 12-month study that examined the effects of prescribed weight loss and regain, with or without exercise, on bone turnover and on bone mineral density (BMD) in a subset of participants (n=24). During the first 6 month, participants lost ≈ 10% of their initial body weight via energy restriction and supervised aerobic exercise. Following weight loss, participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise or a no exercise treatment for the regain (+50% of weight lost) phase. A one-way (time) repeated measures one-factor analysis of variance (RMANOVA) tested the effects of weight loss on BMD and bone turnover, and a two-way RMANOVA (time, exercise) was used to examine the effects of exercise during weight regain. Hip (P=0.007) and lumbar spine (P=0.05) BMD decreased with weight loss, and remained reduced after weight regain with or without exercise. Likewise, the weight-loss-associated increases in osteocalcin (Pexercise. The results of the present study, which is the first to examine changes in bone mass and turnover during carefully controlled weight regain, suggest that weight-loss-induced perturbations in bone mass and turnover persist after partial weight regain, regardless of whether regular weight-bearing aerobic exercise was continued.

  19. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  20. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    years). Genotyping was performed through the restriction cleavage of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genomic DNA with the two restriction enzymes, PvuII and XbaI. Restriction fragment-length polymorphisms were represented as P or p (PvuII) and X or x (XbaI), with the lower case letters signifying......The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment...... the presence of the restriction site. The frequencies of the ER genotypes were similar to previously published genotype frequencies in Caucasian and Asian populations. No significant effect of the ER genotypes or alleles on BMD was found at any site, nor was there a relation between ER genotypes and the rate...

  1. Severe loss of clinical attachment level: an independent association with low hip bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Valéria; Aun, Juliana; Fukuda, Cassia Tiemi; Takayama, Liliam; Latorre, Maria do Rosário; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Rodrigues Pereira, Rosa Maria; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss is a feature of both periodontitis and osteoporosis, and several studies have analyzed whether the periodontal destruction could have been influenced by systemic bone loss. The aim of this study is to assess the association between clinical attachment level (CAL) and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and hip, lifestyle, smoking, sociodemographic factors, and dental clinical variables in postmenopausal women. One hundred forty-eight women were interviewed using a structured written questionnaire and clinically examined. The periodontal examination, which was performed by calibrated investigators, included CAL, probing depth, gingival recession, bleeding on probing (BOP), visible plaque, supragingival calculus, and mean tooth loss. The sample was stratified into two groups: moderate and severe CAL. The moderate group had all sites with CAL ≤5 mm. The severe group had ≥1 site with CAL >5 mm. BMD, measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was assessed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur (grams per square centimeters). Severe CAL was identified in 86 women (58.1%). The multiple linear regression analysis using CAL (dependent variable), adjusted by menopause, education, and family income, demonstrated an inverse relationship of severe CAL with the BMD of the femoral neck (P = 0.015), as well as a positive association of severe CAL with tooth loss (P = 0.000), BOP (P = 0.004), and heavy smokers (P = 0.001). Our study demonstrated that severe CAL was associated with low BMD of the femoral neck and deleterious clinical dental parameters and smoking. Our findings suggest that, in addition to appropriate oral care, individuals with severe CAL may also require additional attention to their systemic bone health.

  2. Dysregulated B cell expression of RANKL and OPG correlates with loss of bone mineral density in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehmia Titanji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with high rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We recently reported that bone loss in the HIV transgenic rat model was associated with upregulation of B cell expression of the key osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, compounded by a simultaneous decline in expression of its physiological moderator, osteoprotegerin (OPG. To clinically translate these findings we performed cross-sectional immuno-skeletal profiling of HIV-uninfected and antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected individuals. Bone resorption and osteopenia were significantly higher in HIV-infected individuals. B cell expression of RANKL was significantly increased, while B cell expression of OPG was significantly diminished, conditions favoring osteoclastic bone resorption. The B cell RANKL/OPG ratio correlated significantly with total hip and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD, T- and/or Z-scores in HIV infected subjects, but revealed no association at the lumbar spine. B cell subset analyses revealed significant HIV-related increases in RANKL-expressing naïve, resting memory and exhausted tissue-like memory B cells. By contrast, the net B cell OPG decrease in HIV-infected individuals resulted from a significant decline in resting memory B cells, a population containing a high frequency of OPG-expressing cells, concurrent with a significant increase in exhausted tissue-like memory B cells, a population with a lower frequency of OPG-expressing cells. These data validate our pre-clinical findings of an immuno-centric mechanism for accelerated HIV-induced bone loss, aligned with B cell dysfunction.

  3. Dysregulated B Cell Expression of RANKL and OPG Correlates with Loss of Bone Mineral Density in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanji, Kehmia; Vunnava, Aswani; Sheth, Anandi N.; Delille, Cecile; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Sanford, Sara E.; Foster, Antonina; Knezevic, Andrea; Easley, Kirk A.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with high rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We recently reported that bone loss in the HIV transgenic rat model was associated with upregulation of B cell expression of the key osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), compounded by a simultaneous decline in expression of its physiological moderator, osteoprotegerin (OPG). To clinically translate these findings we performed cross-sectional immuno-skeletal profiling of HIV-uninfected and antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected individuals. Bone resorption and osteopenia were significantly higher in HIV-infected individuals. B cell expression of RANKL was significantly increased, while B cell expression of OPG was significantly diminished, conditions favoring osteoclastic bone resorption. The B cell RANKL/OPG ratio correlated significantly with total hip and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), T- and/or Z-scores in HIV infected subjects, but revealed no association at the lumbar spine. B cell subset analyses revealed significant HIV-related increases in RANKL-expressing naïve, resting memory and exhausted tissue-like memory B cells. By contrast, the net B cell OPG decrease in HIV-infected individuals resulted from a significant decline in resting memory B cells, a population containing a high frequency of OPG-expressing cells, concurrent with a significant increase in exhausted tissue-like memory B cells, a population with a lower frequency of OPG-expressing cells. These data validate our pre-clinical findings of an immuno-centric mechanism for accelerated HIV-induced bone loss, aligned with B cell dysfunction. PMID:25393853

  4. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  5. Biologicals and bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory joint diseases are associated with extra-articular side effects including bone involvement.There is an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. The pathogeneses of local and generalized bone loss share a common pathway. Early and active rheumatoid arthritis is associated with

  6. Computer Aided Modeling to Determine the Effectiveness of Resistive Exercises as Countermeasures for Bone Mineral Density Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the loss of gravitational loading, astronauts have a tendency to lose bone mineral density in their lumbar spine and lower extremities on orbit. NASA requires astronauts to perform exercises during space flight to help reduce the amount of demineralization. To test these exercises on earth, 17 week bed rest studies are conducted that consist of specific diet and exercise regimes. Developing a finite element model of these exercises will help to quantify the stress distribution imposed by of each of these exercises. To help develop this model, MRI images are acquired from individuals participating in the bed rest studies. The MRIs can be used to create a subject specific model of each individual for testing. The MRIs are processed in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Transfer System program to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of the femur for evaluation. Modifications were made to the MRIDTS that simplified the model creation process. These modifications made it possible to construct two separate models of different portions of a bone simultaneously and then later connect them manually. This helped alleviate the warping problem associated with the drastic changes in geometry found in some body parts, such as the joints. The code was also modified to incorporate material properties of various bone components into the model. Interior meshing was also incorporated into the program to allow for both the cortical shell and the entire bone to be modeled. A prototype model of the right femur of an adult female is being constructed and tested to determine the feasibility of finite element analysis as a tool for evaluating exercise effectiveness. The model is being run through the ANSYS finite element program on the Alabama Super Computer Network. After the model is validated, models of bedrest subjects can be generated to investigate exercise countermeasures.

  7. Sex Differences in the Effects of Weight Loss Diets on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition: POUNDS LOST Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; de Souza, Russell J; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss is associated with reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective was to address the role of changes in fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) in BMD decline in both sexes. A 2-year randomized controlled trial, the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS-LOST). The setting was the general community. Enrolled were 424 overweight and obese participants (mean age, 52 ± 9 y; 57% females). Intervention included weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Main outcome measures were change in spine, total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and sex differences after dietary intervention. At baseline, a stronger correlation between BMD and body composition measurements was observed in women, primarily with LM (r = 0.419, 0.507, and 0.523 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively; all P < .001). In men, only LM correlated with hip BMD (r = 0.298; P < .001). Mean weight loss at 2 years was -6.9%, without differences among diets. Two-year changes in BMD were 0.005 (P = .04), -0.014 (P < .001), and -0.014 g/cm(2) (P < .001), at the spine, TH, and FN, respectively. These changes directly correlated with changes in LM in women (r = 0.200, 0.324, and 0.260 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively), whereas FM loss correlated only with changes in TH BMD (0.274; P < .001). In men, changes in LM (-0.323; P < .001) and FM (-0.213; P = .027) negatively correlated with changes in spine BMD. Weight loss diets result in sex-specific effects on BMD. Although men exhibited a paradoxical increase in spine BMD, women tended to decrease in BMD at all sites.

  8. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  9. Change in Bone Mineral Density During Weight Loss with Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Beavers, Daniel P; Martin, Sarah B; Marsh, Anthony P; Lyles, Mary F; Lenchik, Leon; Shapses, Sue A; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2017-10-12

    To examine the effect of exercise modality during weight loss on hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese, older adults. This analysis compared data from two 5-month, randomized controlled trials of caloric restriction (CR; inducing 5-10% weight loss) with either resistance training (RT) or aerobic training (AT) in overweight and obese, older adults. Participants in the RT + CR study underwent 3 days/week of 8 upper/lower body exercises (3 sets, 10 repetitions at 70% 1 RM) and participants in the AT+CR study underwent 4 days/week of treadmill walking (30 min at 65-70% heart rate reserve). BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 5 months. A total of 123 adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, 67% female, 81% Caucasian) participated in the RT+CR (n = 60) and AT+CR (n = 63) interventions. Average weight loss was 5.7% (95% CI: 4.6-6.7%) and 8.2% (95% CI: 7.2-9.3%) in RT+CR and AT+CR groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, race, baseline BMI and BMD, and weight change, differential treatment effects were observed for total hip and femoral neck (both p resistance, rather than aerobic, training during CR may attenuate loss of hip and femoral neck BMD in overweight and obese older adults. Findings warrant replication from a long-term, adequately powered, RCT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with low lumbar spine bone mineral density and accelerated bone loss in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartland, Alison; Skarratt, Kristen K; Hocking, Lynne J

    2012-01-01

    the functional P2RX7 SNPs are associated with lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), a key determinant of vertebral fracture risk, in post-menopausal women. We genotyped 506 post-menopausal women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) for the above SNPs. Lumbar spine BMD...... SNPs (n=48) had nearly ninefold greater annualised percent change in LS-BMD than subjects who were wild type at the six SNP positions (n=84; rate of loss=-0.94%/year and -0.11%/year, respectively, P=0.0005, unpaired t-test). This is the first report that describes association of the c.946A (p.Arg307Gln...

  11. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  12. The effects of weight loss approaches on bone mineral density in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, S; Hunter, G R; Kazemi, A; Shab-Bidar, S

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the impact of weight loss strategies including calorie restriction and exercise training on BMD in adults using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Weight reduction results in reduced BMD at the hip, but has less effect on the spine. Both calorie restriction and a combination of calorie restriction and exercise result in a decrease in hip bone density, whereas weight loss response to exercise training without dietary restriction leads to increased hip BMD. Findings are not consistent on the effect of weight loss on bone mineral density (BMD). We conducted a systematic review on the randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of weight loss strategies, including calorie restriction and exercise programs on BMD in adults. A structured and comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was undertaken up to March 2016. Study-specific mean differences (MD) were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to find possible sources of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-two randomized controlled trials met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed no significant difference on total BMD (MD 0.007, 95 % CI -0.020-0.034, p = 0.608). In contrast, the pooled data of studies showed a significant effect of weight loss on hip BMD (MD -0.008, 95 % CI -0.09 to -0.006 g/cm(2), p calorie restriction interventions longer than 13 months showed a significant decreased in lumbar spine BMD. Weight loss led to significant decreases at the hip and lumbar spine BMD but not at the total. Weight loss response following calorie restriction resulted in a decrease in hip and lumbar spine bone density especially more than 1 year; whereas an exercise-induced weight loss did not.

  13. Metabolic-mineral study in patients with renal calcium lithiasis, severe lithogenic activity and loss of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; De Haro-Muñoz, Tomas De; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in patients with severe lithogenic activity and compared their metabolisms with those in patients without lithiasis or with mild lithogenic activity. From a sample of 182 patients, those with osteopenia/osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine were studied separately in a two-pronged study. 66 patients with bone mineral densities (BMDs) lithiasis (n = 15); group A2 with lithiasis and mild lithogenic activity (n = 22); and group A3 with lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity (n = 29). Similarly, 86 patients with BMDs lithiasis (n = 15); group B2 with lithiasis and mild lithogenic activity (n = 29); and group B3 with lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity (n = 42). Patients from group A3 exhibited significantly higher levels of bone remodelling markers as compared to groups A1 and A2. Urinalysis also revealed higher excretion of calcium in 24-hour assessments in this group. Patients from group B3 differed from groups B1 and B2 mainly in bone remodelling markers and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, which were significantly elevated in patients from group B3. Patients with calcium lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity in addition to osteopenia/osteoporosis present with higher levels of hypercalciuria and negative osseous balance, which possibly perpetuate and favour lithiasic activity.

  14. Heterogeneity of spine bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskey, M.A.; Crisp, A.J.; Compston, J.E.; Khaw, K.-T. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    This short communication investigates how accurate bone density measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4 or L2-L4) reflects the bone density of vertebrae where many compression fractures occur (T12 and L1). The ability of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (Lunar DPX and Hologic QDR-1000) to determine the bone density of T12 was also investigated. (Author).

  15. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  16. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  17. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... patients, suggesting that BMD alone, and not the bone microarchitecture, is affected in MS. However, larger studies are needed to verify these findings and to establish the role of TBS in MS. As in the background population, physical activity and non-smoking habits are associated with better bone health...

  18. Heritability of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S; Benmalek, A; Guaydier-Souquières, G; Sabatier, J P; Marcelli, C

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of genetic background as a determinant of peak bone mass. We compared lumbar spine bone mineral density in 175 girls with a bone age of 16 years or older and in their premenopausal mothers. We also investigated the influence of a family history of osteoporosis on lumbar spine bone mineral density in 275 women and their 559 daughters. In the 175 mother-daughter pairs, heritability (h2) was significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0001) for lumbar spine bone mineral density (h2 = 53%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 28.5-77.6%), bone mineral content (h2 = 62.3%; 95% CI = 37.7-86.8%), bone mineral density adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 56%; CI = 31.5-80.5%), and bone mineral content adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 68.2%; CI = 43.6-92.7%). However, the heritability estimations lacked accuracy, as shown by the wide 95% CIs. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were found in 16.4% and 1% of the mothers, respectively. In the subgroup defined by osteopenia or osteoporosis in the mother, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly higher in the daughters than in the mothers (0.994 +/- 0.095 g/cm2 versus 0.895 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P < 0.0001), whereas the opposite was true in the subgroup defined by normal bone mass in the mothers (1.068 +/- 0.110 g/cm2 versus 1.109 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P = 0.0003). Nevertheless, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly lower in the daughters of low-bone-mass women than in those of normal-bone-mass women (0.994 +/- 0.009 g/cm2 versus 1.069 +/- 0.012 g/cm2; P = 0.0006). These findings suggest a role of genetic factors inherited from the father and also indicate that bone mass gains during adulthood contribute to achievement of the optimal peak bone mass. In the family history study, bone mass was lower in the subjects with a family history of osteoporosis (123 of the 559 daughters, Z-scores normalized for height, weight, and pubertal status: bone mineral density Z-score, -0.054 +/- 1.104; bone mineral

  19. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, E.; Bartstra, J.; Verhaar, H.J.; Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  20. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, E., E-mail: e.pompe@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bartstra, J. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC − University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oudkerk, M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Lammers, J.-W.J. [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  1. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  2. Interleukin-10 inhibits bone resorption: a potential therapeutic strategy in periodontitis and other bone loss diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  3. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  4. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paker N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most DXA (dual-energy x-ray absorbtiometry manufacturers are not able to provide specific reference values for their equipment yet. The mean bone mineral density can vary among different populations.The aim of this study was to identify local reference values from a group of Turkish women living in Istanbul, in order to compare with the results obtained from other countries. We measured BMD at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, forearm, and total body in 205 healthy women between ages 20–79. They are all residents in Istanbul. Bone mineral density measurement was performed by DXA equipment. All measurements were made by an experienced technician in our hospital, using the same DXA equipment. Subjects enrolled in the study also filled in a questionnaire before the test.The mean age at menopause was 46.29 (± 14.28 years. Peak bone mineral density values were obtained in the 20–39 year age group when measured at the ultradistal radius, however, peak values were in the 30–39 age group when measurements were made at other sites. The number of women who had bone loss was higher with the forearm measurements compared to measurements made from the spine and femur. Bone mineral density values measured from the spine, hip, and forearm in our study group were lower than the values from American and European women, on the other hand, total body bone mineral density values from our group were higher than the values reported from western countries. Bone mass from different populations varies due to genetic and geographical factors. We, therefore, suggest that each country should use their localized reference values for bone mineral density measurement.

  5. Effects of Tai Chi and Walking Exercises on Weight Loss, Metabolic Syndrome Parameters, and Bone Mineral Density: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tai Chi and walking are both moderate-intensity physical activity (PA that can be easily practiced in daily life. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of these two PAs on weight loss, metabolic syndrome parameters, and bone mineral density (BMD in Chinese adults. We randomized 374 middle-aged subjects (45.8 ± 5.3 years into 12-week training (45 minutes per day, 5 days per week of Tai Chi (n=124 or self-paced walking (n=121 or control group (n=129. On average, Tai Chi and walking groups lost 0.50 and 0.76 kg of body weight and 0.47 and 0.59 kg of fat mass after intervention, respectively. The between-group difference of waist circumference (WC and fasting blood glucose (FBG was −3.7 cm and −0.18 mmol/L for Tai Chi versus control and −4.1 cm and −0.22 mmol/L for walking versus control. No significant differences were observed regarding lean mass, blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMD compared to control. Change in lean mass, not fat mass or total weight loss, was significantly correlated to the change in BMD. Our results suggest that both of these two PAs can produce moderate weight loss and significantly improve the WC and FBG in Hong Kong Chinese adults, with no additional effects on BMD.

  6. Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Andrew W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis, the alkaline diet, and related products are marketed to the general public. Websites, lay literature, and direct mail marketing encourage people to measure their urine pH to assess their health status and their risk of osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1 low urine pH, or 2 acid excretion in urine [sulfate + chloride + 1.8x phosphate + organic acids] minus [sodium + potassium + 2x calcium + 2x magnesium mEq] in fasting morning urine predict: a fragility fractures; and b five-year change of bone mineral density (BMD in adults. Methods Design: Cohort study: the prospective population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion (urine pH and urine acid excretion in fasting morning with the incidence of fractures (6804 person years. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion with changes in BMD over 5-years at three sites: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip (n = 651. Potential confounders controlled included: age, gender, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity, smoking, calcium intake, vitamin D status, estrogen status, medications, renal function, urine creatinine, body mass index, and change of body mass index. Results There were no associations between either urine pH or acid excretion and either the incidence of fractures or change of BMD after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Urine pH and urine acid excretion do not predict osteoporosis risk.

  7. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  9. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  10. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  11. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  12. Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers rapid loss of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in bone epiphyses and a loss of cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) in bone diaphyses, increasing fracture risk for people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to measure trabecular BMD and cortical CSA loss at several previously unexamined lower-limb sites (4% fibula, 12% femur, 86% tibia, cortical) in individuals with SCI. Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, we scanned 13 participants wit...

  13. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  14. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  15. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  16. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  17. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  18. [The relationship of nutritional status, body and mandibular bone mineral density, tooth loss and fracture risk (FRAX) in pre-and postmenopausal women with periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, de Los Angeles; Dávalos-Vázquez, Karla Fabiola; Jiménez-Méndez, Carolina; Jiménez-Mendoza, Daniel; Olivarez-Padrón, Luis Ángel; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-06-01

    During menopause there is weight gain and a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) that has been related with periodontal disease (incidence between 5-30%); therefore, it is essential to assess the risk factors related with anthropometry and BMD. To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI), skeletal composition, waist circumference, tooth loss, fracture risk, BMD of the spine, hip, femur, and mandible in pre and post-menopausal women with periodontitis. We studied 60 women aged 35-60 years, divided in 4 groups (n = 15): premenopausal women without periodontitis; Experimental group 1: premenopausal women with periodontitis; Experimental group 2: postmenopausal women without periodontitis; and Experimental group 3: postmenopausal women with periodontitis. Periodontitis was diagnosed by means of a computerized digital periodontal probe; BMD of the mandible by means of digital radiograph with X ray conversion, the number of teeth by digital panoramic radiograph. We measured: BMI, skeletal composition, waist circumference, risk fracture by the FRAX questionnaire. The variables with a negative correlation with periodontitis were: weight, BMI, and BMD of the mandible with risk fracture (p fracture risk is associated with low weight and BMI and low BMD of the mandible. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Bone mineral density scans in veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bass

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bass1,2, Etienne Pracht1,3, Philip Foulis4,51VISN 8 Patient Safety Center of Inquiry, Tampa, FL; 2School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4James A Haley VA Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA; 5Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAGoals: Recent findings suggest the prevalence of osteoporosis among men is under-recognized. The patient population of the Veterans Health Administration (VA is predominantly male and many elderly veterans may be at risk of osteoporosis. Given the lack of data on male osteoporosis, we provide initial insight into diagnostic procedures for patients at one VA medical center. Procedures: A review and descriptive analysis of patients undergoing radiological evaluation for osteoporosis at one VA medical center.Results: We identified 4,919 patients who had bone mineral density scans from 2001–2004. VA patients receiving bone mineral density scans were commonly white, male, over age 70 and taking medications with potential bone-loss side effects.Conclusions: While further research is needed, preliminary evidence suggests that the VA screens the most vulnerable age groups in both genders. Heightened awareness among primary care providers of elderly male patients at risk of osteoporosis can lead to early intervention and improved management of this age-related condition.Keywords: bone mineral density scans, osteoporosis, veterans

  20. Bone Loss Among Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Sharma, Anjali; Yin, Michael T

    2016-12-01

    Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART. As bone loss and resulting increases in fracture incidence are a natural consequence of aging, there is now concern regarding the long-term consequences of HIV/ART-associated premature bone loss, given the transition of the HIV/AIDS population into an older age demographic. The development of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of bone disease within the context of HIV and ART has been an important recent step in raising awareness of the problem and the implications of bone fracture for patient health. Significant progress has also been made in recent years in dissecting the complex and multifactorial mechanisms driving bone loss in HIV/ART and the role of underlying immunological disruption in skeletal dysmorphogenesis. This review examines recent progress in the field and studies by Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)-associated investigators, inside and outside of the WIHS cohort, aimed at identifying skeletal abnormalities, quantifying facture incidence, management, and understanding underlying mechanisms in people living with HIV in the context of chronic ART.

  1. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  2. Evaluating Bone Loss in ISS Astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D; Spector, Elisabeth R; Johnston, Smith L; Tarver, William J

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the Medical Assessment Test used at the NASA Johnson Space Center to evaluate whether prolonged exposure to spaceflight increases the risk for premature osteoporosis in International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The DXA scans of crewmembers' BMD during the first decade of the ISS existence showed precipitous declines in BMD for the hip and spine after the typical 6-mo missions. However, a concern exists that skeletal integrity cannot be sufficiently assessed solely by DXA measurement of BMD. Consequently, use of relatively new research technologies is being proposed to NASA for risk surveillance and to enhance long-term management of skeletal health in long-duration astronauts. Sibonga JD, Spector ER, Johnston SL, Tarver WJ. Evaluating bone loss in ISS astronauts.

  3. Bone density in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorwali, Abdulsalam A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the bone mineral density (B/d) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to study the effect of disease activity and steroid therapy on BMD. Thirty Saudi female patients with RA and 10 Saudi healthy females matched for age as controls were the material of this work. Patients were attending the out-patient clinic of Makkah Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Center, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between November 2002 and July 2003. All patients were subjected to clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray (DXA) in the lumbar spine at L2-4 and in the femoral bone (femoral neck, wards triangle and trochanteric). The results of our study showed a significant decrease in BMD in RA patients compared with healthy controls (spine = 0.863 +/-2.29 versus 1.289 +/- 0.54 g/cm2, p<0.05; total femoral = 0.755 +/-0.27 versus 1.06 +/-0.49 g/cm2, p<0.05; femoral neck = 0.725 +/-0.25 versus 1.008 +/-0.482 g/cm2, p<0.05; ward s triangle = 0.586 +/-0.21 versus 0.909 +/-0.43 g/cm2, p<0.05 and trochanteric = 0.607 +/-0.225 versus 0.898 +/-0.419 g/cm2, p<0.05). The decreased BMD correlated significantly with the impairment of functional activity, increased disease activity and with the use of steroids. There was no correlation between the decreased BMD and the body weight, height, age and the duration of the disease. We conclude that the impairment functional activity, increased disease activity and the use of steroids for long periods are the major determinants of BMD of both spinal and femoral bone in rheumatoid patients. (author)

  4. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per volume. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA), a means of measuring BMD, is the most widely used and most thoroughly studied bone ...

  5. The osteoimmunology of alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    The mineralized structure of bone undergoes constant remodeling by the balanced actions of bone-producing osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). Physiologic bone remodeling occurs in response to the body's need to respond to changes in electrolyte levels, or mechanical forces on bone. There are many pathological conditions, however, that cause an imbalance between bone production and resorption due to excessive OCL action that results in net bone loss. Situations involving chronic or acute inflammation are often associated with net bone loss, and research into understanding the mechanisms regulating this bone loss has led to the development of the field of osteoimmunology. It is now evident that the skeletal and immune systems are functionally linked and share common cells and signaling molecules. This review discusses the signaling system of immune cells and cytokines regulating aberrant OCL differentiation and activity. The role of these cells and cytokines in the bone loss occurring in periodontal disease (PD) (chronic inflammation) and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) (acute inflammation) is then described. The review finishes with an exploration of the emerging role of Notch signaling in the development of the immune cells and OCLs that are involved in osteoimmunological bone loss and the research into Notch signaling in OTM and PD.

  6. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  7. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  8. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  9. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  10. Menopausal bone loss and estrogen replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meema, S; Meema, H E

    1976-07-01

    Throughout adult life the bone mineral mass of the radius is greater in males than in females. In males, it decreases after 60 years of age, while in females, it decreases earlier, at approximately 50 years, and the loss is greater. At the average age of 67 years, one half of the normal white female population has less than the normal amount of bone in the radius. Premenopausal women over the age of 50 do not show any decline of bone mineral mass, while in postmenopausal women, regardless of age, there is a loss of bone mass related to the number of years after menopause. Castrated women have significantly less bone mass than premenopausal women of the same average age. No decrease in cortical thickness of the radius was found in oophorectomized women treated with estrogens after castration. In a long-term, follow-up study, untreated postmenopausal women (after a natural or an artifical menopause) showed a significant loss of bone mass, while estrogen-treated, postmenopausal women showed no such loss. Estrogen treatment thus appears to prevent postmenopausal bone loss.

  11. Policosanol prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mendoza, S; Gámez, R; Mendoza, N; González, J

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, abnormal bone architecture and increased fracture risk. Ovariectomy impairs bone mass and metabolism in rats and ovariectomized rats are considered as a suitable model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mevalonate is required for producing lipoids that are important in osteoclast activity and thus drugs affecting mevalonate production can prevent bone loss in rodents. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through an indirect regulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether policosanol could prevent bone loss in the bones of ovariectomized rats by comparing its effects with those induced by estradiol. Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly distributed in four groups: a sham-operated group treated with Tween/H2O vehicle and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg/day) or policosanol (50 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 3 months. At treatment completion the rats were sacrificed, their bones removed and variables of bone resorption and formation were investigated by histomorphometry. Ovariectomy increased trabecular separation but diminished the number and thickness of trabecules. Estradiol and policosanol prevented these effects compared with ovariectomized controls. Both treatments also prevented an increase in the number of osteoclasts and their surface area induced by ovariectomy. Estradiol, but not policosanol, significantly prevented an increase of osteoblast surface area compared with ovariectomized controls. In conclusion, policosanol prevented bone loss and decreased bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that it should be potentially useful in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  12. Premature hair graying and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr-Walker, B J; Evans, M C; Ames, R W; Clearwater, J M; Reid, I R

    1997-11-01

    In a recent case-control study, premature hair graying was found to be associated with osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk factor for osteoporosis. We report a reexamination of this possibility in 293 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects experiencing onset of hair graying in their 20s tended to have lower bone mineral density throughout the skeleton (adjusted for age and weight) than those with onset of graying later in life. The same was true for those in whom the majority of their hair was gray by the age of 40 yr (n = 16), in whom bone density was reduced by 7% in the femoral neck, 8% in the femoral trochanter, and 4% in the total body (P gray. Bone density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle showed similar trends that were not significant. However, premature hair graying explained only 0.6-1.3% of the variance in bone mineral density within the population. We conclude that premature hair graying is associated with low bone density, but that its infrequency in the normal postmenopausal population leads to its accounting for only a tiny fraction of the variance of bone density.

  13. Osteopenia in anorexia nervosa: specific mechanisms of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennkh, C; de Zwaan, M; Bailer, U; Strnad, A; Nagy, C; el-Giamal, N; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Vytiska, E; Huber, J; Kasper, S

    1999-01-01

    Osteopenia is a well recognized medical complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). The mechanism of bone loss is not fully understood and there is uncertainty about its management. New markers of bone turnover have been developed. C-terminal type 1 propeptide (PICP) is a measure of bone formation and urinary pyridinolines such as deoxypyridinoline (DPYRX) and serum carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide (ICTP) are markers of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to examine these bone markers in patients with AN. Twenty female patients with AN and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of AN patients was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Lumbar bone density was significantly reduced in the AN group compared to standardised values of thirty year old adults (t-score 83.2%, S.D. 12.1). Femoral neck bone density showed an even greater reduction (t-score 79.4%, S.D. 13.5). We found a significant negative correlation between femoral BMD and the duration of the illness. Femoral BMD correlated significantly with minimal body weight (r(16) = 0.504, p = 0.033). The markers of bone resorption were significantly higher in the patients with AN compared to the values of the control group (ICTP t(30) = -2.15, p = 0.04, DPYRX t(25) = -2.26, p = 0.033), whereas the markers of bone formation did not differ significantly between the groups. AN appears to be a low turn over state associated with increased bone resorption without concomitant bone formation. This pattern differs from osteopenia in menopausal women and should, therefore, lead to the development of specific therapeutic strategies in AN associated osteopenia. Hormone replacement therapy as well as calcium and vitamine D-supplementation are so far discussed controversially. Long-term treatment studies are warranted.

  14. The effects of visceral obesity and androgens on bone: trenbolone protects against loss of femoral bone mineral density and structural strength in viscerally obese and testosterone-deficient male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, D G; Elliott, G E; Beck, B R; Forwood, M R; Du Toit, E F

    2016-03-01

    In males, visceral obesity and androgen deficiency often present together and result in harmful effects on bone. Our findings show that both factors are independently associated with adverse effects on femoral bone structure and strength, and trenbolone protects rats from diet-induced visceral obesity and consequently normalises femoral bone structural strength. In light of the rapidly increasing incidence of obesity and osteoporosis globally, and recent conjecture regarding the effects of visceral adiposity and testosterone deficiency on bone health, we investigated the effects of increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass on femoral bone mineral density (BMD), structure and strength in normal weight rats with testosterone deficiency. Male Wistar rats (n = 50) were fed either standard rat chow (CTRL, n = 10) or a high-fat/high-sugar diet (HF/HS, n = 40). Following 8 weeks of feeding, rats underwent sham surgery (CTRL, n = 10; HF/HS, n = 10) or orchiectomy (HF/HS + ORX, n = 30). Following a 4-week recovery period, mini-osmotic pumps containing either vehicle (CTRL, n = 10; HF/HS, n = 10; HF/HS + ORX, n = 10), 2.0 mg kg day(-1), testosterone (HF/HS + ORX + TEST, n = 10) or 2.0 mg kg day(-1) trenbolone (HF/HS + ORX + TREN, n = 10) were implanted for 8 weeks of treatment. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending tests were used to assess bone mass, structure and strength of femora. Diet-induced visceral obesity resulted in decreased bone mineral area (BMA) and content (BMC) and impaired femoral stiffness and strength. Orchiectomy further impaired BMA, BMC and BMD and reduced energy to failure in viscerally obese animals. Both TEST and TREN treatment restored BMA, BMC, BMD and energy to failure. Only TREN reduced visceral adiposity and improved femoral stiffness and strength. Findings support a role for both visceral adiposity and testosterone deficiency as independent risk factors

  15. Tooth loss and bone mineral density in postmenopausal South Korean women: The 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Soon-Hyuck; Han, Seung-Beom; Han, Kyung-Do; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the association between the number of remaining teeth and bone mineral density (BMD) using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2010. This study enrolled 7315 Korean subjects (3364 men over 50 years of age and 3951 postmenopausal women). BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at three sites: the total femur (TF), femur neck (FN), and lumbar spine (LS). The number of teeth present was categorized into four groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-25, and ≥26 teeth). More remaining teeth were significantly associated with a higher BMD at the TF, FN, and LS in postmenopausal women after adjusting for all the covariates, but not in elderly men. In both sexes, subjects with a normal BMD tended to have more remaining teeth than those who were diagnosed with osteopenia and osteoporosis. A lower prevalence of osteoporosis was also significantly associated with more remaining teeth (number of teeth ≥26) in postmenopausal women. This trend was statistically significant in osteoporosis at the FN (p for trend=0.019). The number of remaining teeth was associated with osteoporosis, especially at the FN, in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The significance of HIV to bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Weis, Nina; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2017-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry scan should be considered in HIV-infected men ≥ 50 years and postmenopausal women. In case of osteoporosis, bisphosphonate treatment should follow guidelines for the general population. Future research should focus on pathogenesis and prevention of bone density loss in HIV.......The life expectancy in well-treated HIV-infected persons approaches that of the general population, but HIV-infected persons have a greater incidence of fractures and osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mineral density is observed primarily during the first 1-2 years of antiretroviral therapy. Dual X...

  17. Rapid cortical bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Stein, Emily M; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Komandah-Kosseh, Mafo; Zhang, Chiyuan A; McMahon, Donald J; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may have high rates of bone loss and fractures, but microarchitectural and biochemical mechanisms of bone loss in CKD patients have not been fully described. In this longitudinal study of 53 patients with CKD Stages 2 to 5D, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), and biochemical markers of bone metabolism to elucidate effects of CKD on the skeleton. Median follow-up was 1.5 years (range 0.9 to 4.3 years); bone changes were annualized and compared with baseline. By DXA, there were significant declines in areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip and ultradistal radius: -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.1 to -0.6) and -2.4% (95% CI -4.0 to -0.9), respectively. By HRpQCT at the distal radius, there were significant declines in cortical area, density, and thickness and increases in porosity: -2.9% (95% CI -3.7 to -2.2), -1.3% (95% CI -1.6 to -0.6), -2.8% (95% CI -3.6 to -1.9), and +4.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 6.4), respectively. Radius trabecular area increased significantly: +0.4% (95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), without significant changes in trabecular density or microarchitecture. Elevated time-averaged levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers predicted cortical deterioration. Higher levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted decreases in trabecular network heterogeneity. These data suggest that significant cortical loss occurs with CKD, which is mediated by hyperparathyroidism and elevated turnover. Future investigations are required to determine whether these cortical losses can be attenuated by treatments that reduce PTH levels and remodeling rates. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  19. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Barlow, Lindsay N.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Castillo, Alesha B.; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W.; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L.; Nelson, O. Lynne; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2009-01-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus a...

  20. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  1. Bone loss after bariatric surgery: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2014-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective and increasingly common treatment for severe obesity and its many comorbidities. The side-effects of bariatric surgery can include detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Bone disease in patients who have had bariatric surgery is affected by preoperative abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism related to severe obesity. Changes that arise after bariatric surgery are specific to procedure type: the most pronounced abnormalities in calciotropic hormones and bone loss are noted after procedures that result in the most malabsorption. The most consistent site for bone loss after all bariatric procedures is at the hip. There are limitations of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology in this population, including artefact introduced by adipose tissue itself. Bone loss after bariatric surgery is probably multifactorial. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in gut hormones. Few data for fracture risk in the bariatric population are available, and this is a crucial area for additional research. Treatment should be geared toward correction of nutritional deficiencies and study of bone mineral density in high-risk patients. We explore the skeletal response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for changes, and strategies for management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  3. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Lukka, Himu; Cheung, Patrick; Corbett, Tom; Briones-Urbina, Rosario; Vieth, Reinhold; Ehrlich, Lisa; Kiss, Alex; Danjoux, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT

  4. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  5. Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers rapid loss of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in bone epiphyses and a loss of cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) in bone diaphyses, increasing fracture risk for people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to measure trabecular BMD and cortical CSA loss at several previously unexamined lower-limb sites (4% fibula, 12% femur, 86% tibia, cortical) in individuals with SCI. Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, we scanned 13 participants with SCI longitudinally and 16 on one occasion; 21 participants without SCI served as controls. In the first year post-SCI, 15% to 35% of BMD was lost at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal fibula. Bone loss at the distal fibula accelerated between 1 and 2 years post-SCI. BMD at these sites reached a steady state value of ~50% of the non-SCI value 4 years post-SCI. At the tibia diaphysis, cortical CSA decline was slower, eventually reaching 65% of the non-SCI value. Because of the extensive loss of bone observed at these sites, careful consideration needs to be given to the dose of musculoskeletal stress delivered during rehabilitation interventions like standing, muscle electrical stimulation, and aggressive stretching of spastic muscles.

  6. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  7. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases...

  8. Management of bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo, Eugenia; Bonjoch, Anna; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral density is an emerging problem in persons living with HIV infection. Earlier and more rapid bone demineralization has been attributed not only to the high prevalence of traditional risk factors, but also to specific HIV-related factors. The aim of this guidance is to stimulate an appropriate management of osteoporosis in this population, to identify patients at risk and to better manage them. Appropriate screening of HIV-infected subjects to identify those at risk for bone fractures is described, as well as the recommended interventions. American and European recommendations in HIV-infected and non-infected populations were considered. As the etiology of bone loss is multifactorial, many factors have to be addressed. Overall, recommendations on traditional risk factors are the same for HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects. However, we should consider some specific factors in the HIV-infected population, including an appropriate antiretroviral therapy in patients with low bone mineral density, and probably novel strategies that could provide an additional benefit, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, although data supporting this approach are scant. Some personal opinions are highlighted on the management of bone health in HIV-infected subjects, mainly on the use of FRAX(®) score and DXA scans. In addition, the need to implement new strategies to delay demineralization is remarked upon.

  9. Vitamin C reverses hypogonadal bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, ...

  10. Impact exercise and bone density in premenopausal women with below average bone density for age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen G; Walkley, Jeff W; Rich, Peter A

    2015-11-01

    To study the effects of two home-based impact exercise programs on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in adult premenopausal women with below average aBMD for age (negative Z-scores; 40.8 years; n = 107). Two unilateral impact exercise programs were employed, one targeting the total hip and lumbar spine (n = 42 pairs), the other the distal radius (n = 24 pairs) with some individuals performing both. Force plate data were used to establish exercise loading characteristics (peak loads, time to peak), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided bone data. Calcium intake, health and extraneous physical activity (PA) were determined by survey. Exercise for both hip and spine consisted of unilateral landings from adjustable steps (maximum height 63.5 cm) while impacts were delivered to the forearm by arresting falls against a wall. An exercise log was used to provide the exercise prescription, record each exercise bout and any injuries. Participants were randomly assigned to exercise or control groups and pair-matched (age, BMI, Z-score, aBMD). Compliance was calculated as the number of sessions completed divided by the total prescribed number (mean ~50 %). The programs delivered significant gains pre to post at each site compared with significant losses in controls (forearm: 3.9 vs -3.9 %; total hip: 2.0 vs -2.6 %; lumbar spine: 2.8 vs -2.9 % exercise and controls, respectively, all p exerciser lost bone at the target site regardless of compliance which was strongly correlated with bone gains (R (2) = 0.53-0.68, all p exercise provides an effective means of improving below average aBMD without supervision in this at risk population.

  11. Bone mineral density and elemental composition of bone tissues in "red-boned" Guishan goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenchen; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Huarong; Wang, Weizhong; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Changrong; Gao, Shizheng

    2012-12-01

    Red-colored bones were first found in Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were subsequently designated red-boned Guishan goats. However, the difference remains unclear between the bone mineral density (BMD) or elemental composition in bones between red-boned Guishan goats and common Guishan goats. Analysis of femoral bone samples by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed an increase in bone mineral density in the femoral diaphysis and distal femur of red-boned Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The data revealed that BMD increased in both the red-boned and common Guishan goats from 18 to 36 months of age. The data also indicated that the ratio of the BMD values of red-boned to common Guishan goats was higher at 36 months of age than they were at 18 months of age. Furthermore, the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, barium, zinc, manganese, and aluminum were significantly higher in red-boned Guishan goats than common Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The results indicate that the red-boned Guishan goats were linked to the elevated levels of mineral salts observed in the bones and that this in turn may be linked to the elevated BMD levels encountered in red-boned Guishan goats. These reasons may be responsible for the red coloration in the bones of red-boned Guishan goats.

  12. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  13. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grund, Birgit; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Isaksson, Rachel L.; Shlay, Judith C.; Martinez, Esteban; Reiss, Peter; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Carr, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) Design: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain.

  14. Bone-Density Tests: When You Need Them - and When You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They do not need the test. They should exercise regularly and get plenty of calcium and vitamin D. This is the best way to prevent bone loss. The bone scan has risks. A bone-density test gives out a small amount of radiation. ...

  15. Bone loss rate in adrenal incidentalomas: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, I; Torlontano, M; Carnevale, V; Guglielmi, G; Cammisa, M; Trischitta, V; Scillitani, A

    2001-11-01

    Although by definition patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) do not have evident clinical syndromes, they may frequently suffer from subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). This is of some importance because of evidence that SH may lead to clinical complications, including bone loss. Thus, the understanding of bone involvement due to SH may be extremely important in the management of AI. Unfortunately, the available data on bone mineral density (BMD) in AI patients come from cross-sectional studies, which, to further complicate our understanding, are also conflicting, probably due to a different selection of patients and/or the variability in cortisol secretion (CS) often described in AI. To gain further insight about this topic, we performed a longitudinal study evaluating the rate of spinal and femoral bone loss levels in 24 females with AI. AI subjects were subdivided in two groups on the basis of the median of urinary cortisol secretion (UFC): group I (n = 12; UFC, 140.4 nmol/24 h). Spinal BMD was measured by both single energy quantitative computed tomography (L1-L4) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; L2-L4), and femoral BMD was determined by DXA. Bone loss rate was expressed as the change in z-score per yr. The spinal bone loss rate was higher (P < 0.005) in group II than in group I when measured by both quantitative computed tomography (-0.19 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.15) and DXA (-0.19 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.11). Moreover, CS and spinal bone loss rate were significantly correlated when patients were considered together. In conclusion, our data show that 1) AI patients with higher CS have increased lumbar trabecular bone loss rate than those with lower CS; and 2) the degree of spinal bone loss rate is related to the degree of CS. Thus, lumbar spine (LS) BMD has to be evaluated for well balanced decision-making on the treatment of choice for AI female patients.

  16. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.B.; Guanzon, M.L.V.V.; Balderas, J.A.J.; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).The design used is cross-sectional study. The study include 23 females and 22 males, with 3 to 4 subjects for each age range of 5. The methods used was bone mass density measurements on the lumbar spine and the femur using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DPXI lunar) were taken. The values were also age-matched and matched with that of a young adult based on programmed Caucasian norm provided by Lunar Co. The values were then scattered against age for each sex. Ten (10) cc of blood was also extracted from the patients, with 5 cc of blood separated for future studies. Patients were also interviewed as to their lifestyle, diet, use of contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement treatment, using a Filipino version of the revised questionnaire on the WHO Study on osteoporosis. The mean bone mass density at the L21.4 level for females was 1.12±0.11 g/cm 2 and 0,91±0.11 g/cm 2 at the femur. The highest BMD in both the lumbar spine femoral neck measurements among females was achieved between the ages 30-35 years of age with the lowest BMD occurring between 15-20 yrs. old and incidentally in 2 subjects with ages between 40-44. There seems to be little bone loss among beyond the age 35, unlike in the females. Bone mass density among a sample Metro Manila residents was determined using DEXA and the measurements on the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These were age-matched with that of young adult based on Caucasian norm provided by the Lunar Co. Peak bone mass density in the L2L4 level among the females is reached between the ages 30-35 years old, after which there is progressive bone loss with values in the 45-50 years old approximating the values in the 15-19 years old age range. A similar pattern is seen in the measurements taken at the femoral neck. Among males, the peak BMD is reached during the 30-35 years old, but there seems to be no rapid decline or rapid bone

  17. Association between Sclerostin and Bone Density in Chronic SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Leslie R.; Sudhakar, Supreetha; Danilack, Valery; Tun, Carlos; Lazzari, Antonio; Gagnon, David R.; Garshick, Eric; Battaglino, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in profound bone loss due to muscle paralysis and the inability to ambulate. Sclerostin, a Wnt signaling pathway antagonist produced by osteocytes, is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Short-term studies in rodent models have demonstrated increased sclerostin in response to mechanical unloading that is reversed with reloading. These studies suggest that complete spinal cord injury, a condition resulting in mechanical unloading of the paralyzed lower extremities, will be associated with high sclerostin levels. We assessed the relationship between circulating sclerostin and bone density in 39 subjects with chronic SCI and 10 without SCI. We found that greater total limb bone mineral content was significantly associated with greater circulating levels of sclerostin. Sclerostin levels were reduced, not elevated, in subjects with SCI who use a wheelchair compared to those with SCI who walk regularly. Similarly, sclerostin levels were lower in subjects with SCI who use a wheelchair compared to persons without SCI who walk regularly. These findings suggest that circulating sclerostin is a biomarker of osteoporosis severity, not a mediator of ongoing bone loss, in long-term, chronic paraplegia. This is in contrast to the acute sclerostin-mediated bone loss demonstrated in animal models of mechanical unloading where high sclerostin levels suppress bone formation. As these data indicate important differences in the relationship between mechanical unloading, sclerostin, and bone in chronic SCI compared to short-term rodent models, it is likely that sclerostin is not a good therapeutic target to treat chronic SCI-induced osteoporosis. PMID:22006831

  18. Bioactive silica nanoparticles reverse age-associated bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ha, Shin-Woo; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Beck, George R

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that in vitro, engineered 50nm spherical silica nanoparticles promote the differentiation and activity of bone building osteoblasts but suppress bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Furthermore, these nanoparticles promote bone accretion in young mice in vivo. We have now investigated the capacity of these nanoparticles to reverse bone loss in aged mice, a model of human senile osteoporosis. Aged mice received nanoparticles weekly and bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and bone turnover were quantified. Our data revealed a significant increase in BMD, bone volume, and biochemical markers of bone formation. Biochemical and histological examinations failed to identify any abnormalities caused by nanoparticle administration. Our studies demonstrate that silica nanoparticles effectively blunt and reverse age-associated bone loss in mice by a mechanism involving promotion of bone formation. The data suggest that osteogenic silica nanoparticles may be a safe and effective therapeutic for counteracting age-associated bone loss. Osteoporosis poses a significant problem in the society. Based on their previous in-vitro findings, the authors' group investigated the effects of spherical silica nanoparticles in reversing bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis. The results showed that intra-peritoneal injections of silica nanoparticles could increase bone mineral density, with little observed toxic side effects. This novel method may prove important in future therapy for combating osteoporosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Bone density does not reflect mechanical properties in early-stage arthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, CC; Hvid, I

    2001-01-01

    Subchondral cancellous bone specimens were removed from 10 human postmortem early-stage arthrotic proximal tibiae (mean age 73 (63-81) years) and 10 age- and gender-matched normal proximal tibiae. The early-stage arthrosis was confirmed histologically and the specimens were divided into 4 groups...... energy, and an increase in ultimate strain of arthrotic cancellous bone. Bone volume fraction, apparent density, apparent ash density, and collagen density were higher in cancellous bone with arthrosis, but no differences were found in tissue density, mineral and collagen concentrations between arthrotic...... cancellous bone and the 3 controls. None of the mechanical properties of arthrotic cancellous bone could be predicted by the physical/compositional properties measured. The increase in bone tissue in early-stage arthrotic cancellous bone did not make up for the loss of mechanical properties, which suggests...

  20. CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, M; García-Giralt, N; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Servitja, S; Balcells, S; Pecorelli, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Tusquets, I; Nogués, X

    2015-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (Pbone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Sclerostin Antibody Reverses Bone Loss by Increasing Bone Formation and Decreasing Bone Resorption in a Rat Model of Male Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Villasenor, Kelly S; Niu, Qing-Tian; Asuncion, Frank J; Xia, Xuechun; Grisanti, Mario; Wronski, Thomas J; Simonet, W Scott; Ke, Hua Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and an increased risk of fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis. We treated 9-month-old ORX Sprague Dawley rats (3 months after ORX) subcutaneously twice weekly with vehicle or Scl-Ab (5 or 25 mg/kg) for 6 weeks (n = 10 per group). Both doses of Scl-Ab fully reversed the BMD deficit in the lumbar spine and femur and tibia in ORX rats. Microcomputed tomography showed that the bone mass in the fifth lumbar vertebral body, femur diaphysis, and femoral neck were dose-dependently restored by Scl-Ab. The bone strength at these sites increased significantly with Scl-Ab to levels matching those of sham-operated controls and correlated positively with improvements in bone mineral content, demonstrating bone quality maintenance. Dynamic histomorphometry of the tibial diaphysis and second lumbar vertebral body demonstrated that Scl-Ab significantly increased bone formation on periosteal, endocortical, and trabecular surfaces and significantly decreased bone resorption on endocortical and trabecular surfaces. The effects of Scl-Ab on increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption led to restoration of bone mass and strength in androgen-deficient rats. These findings support the ongoing evaluation of Scl-Ab as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in men. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  2. Is miniscrew primary stability influenced by bone density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marquezan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary stability is absence of mobility in the bone bed after mini-implant placement and depends on bone quality among other factors. Bone quality is a subjective term frequently considered as bone density. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate bone density in two bovine pelvic regions and verify the primary stability of miniscrews inserted into them. Forty bone blocks were extracted from bovine pelvic bones, 20 from iliac and 20 from pubic bone, all of them containing cortical bone about 1 mm thick. Half of the sections extracted from each bone were designated for histological evaluation of bone density (trabecular bone area - TBA and the other half for bone mineral density (BMD evaluation by means of central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Then, twenty self-drilling miniscrews (INPÒ, São Paulo, Brazil 1.4 mm in diameter and 6 mm long were inserted into the bone blocks used for BMD evaluation. Peak implant insertion torque (IT and pull-out strength (PS were used for primary stability evaluation. It was found that iliac and pubic bones present different bone densities, iliac bone being less dense considering BMD and TBA values (P > 0.05. However, the miniscrew primary stability was not different when varying the bone type (P < 0.05. IT and PS were not influenced by these differences in bone density when cortical thickness was about 1 mm thick.

  3. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  4. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) show microstructural bone loss during hibernation but preserve bone macrostructural geometry and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Stoll, Danielle M; Mantila, Emily R; Fahrner, Bryna K; Carey, Hannah V; Donahue, Seth W

    2011-04-15

    Lack of activity causes bone loss In most animals. Hibernating bears have physiological processes to prevent cortical and trabecular bone loss associated with reduced physical activity, but different mechanisms of torpor among hibernating species may lead to differences in skeletal responses to hibernation. There are conflicting reports regarding whether small mammals experience bone loss during hibernation. To investigate this phenomenon, we measured cortical and trabecular bone properties in physically active and hibernating juvenile and adult 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, previous genus name Spermophilus). Cortical bone geometry, strength and mineral content were similar in hibernating compared with active squirrels, suggesting that hibernation did not cause macrostructural cortical bone loss. Osteocyte lacunar size increased (linear regression, P=0.001) over the course of hibernation in juvenile squirrels, which may indicate an osteocytic role in mineral homeostasis during hibernation. Osteocyte lacunar density and porosity were greater (+44 and +59%, respectively; Phibernating compared with active squirrels, which may reflect a decrease in osteoblastic activity (per cell) during hibernation. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was decreased (-20%; P=0.028) in hibernating compared with physically active adult squirrels, but was not different between hibernating and active juvenile squirrels. Taken together, these data suggest that 13-lined ground squirrels may be unable to prevent microstructural losses of cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation, but importantly may possess a biological mechanism to preserve cortical bone macrostructure and strength during hibernation, thus preventing an increased risk of bone fracture during remobilization in the spring.

  5. Bone loss and human adaptation to lunar gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T. S.; Strauss, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Long-duration space missions and establishment of permanently manned bases on the Moon and Mars are currently being planned. The weightless environment of space and the low-gravity environments of the Moon and Mars pose an unknown challenge to human habitability and survivability. Of particular concern in the medical research community today is the effect of less than Earth gravity on the human skeleton, since the limits, if any, of human endurance in low-gravity environments are unknown. This paper provides theoretical predictions on bone loss and skeletal adaptation to lunar and other nonterrestrial-gravity environments based upon the experimentally derived relationship, density approximately (mass x gravity)(exp 1/8). The predictions are compared to skeletal changes reported during bed rest, immobilization, certrifugation, and spaceflight. Countermeasures to reduce bone losses in fractional gravity are also discussed.

  6. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  7. Bone Density After Teriparatide Discontinuation in Premenopausal Idiopathic Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adi; Kamanda-Kosseh, Mafo; Recker, Robert R; Lappe, Joan M; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; Cremers, Serge; Bucovsky, Mariana; Stubby, Julie; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Without antiresorptive therapy, postmenopausal women lose bone mass after teriparatide (TPTD) discontinuation; estrogen treatment prevents bone loss in this setting. It is not known whether premenopausal women with regular menses lose bone mass after teriparatide discontinuation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that normally menstruating premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) will maintain teriparatide-associated bone mineral density (BMD) gains after medication cessation. Twenty-one premenopausal IOP women previously enrolled in an open-label pilot study of teriparatide (20 mcg for 18-24 mo), had substantial BMD increases at the lumbar spine (LS; 10.8 ± 8.3%), total hip (TH; 6.2 ± 5.6%), and femoral neck (7.6 ± 3.4%). For this study, BMD was remeasured 2.0 ± 0.6 years after teriparatide cessation. Fifteen women, who had gained 11.1 ± 7.2% at LS and 6.1 ± 6.5% at TH and were premenopausal at teriparatide completion, were followed without antiresorptive treatment. Two years after completing teriparatide, BMD declined by 4.8 ± 4.3% (P = .0007) at the LS. In contrast, BMD remained stable at the femoral neck (-1.5 ± 4.2%) and TH (-1.1 ± 3.7%). Those who sustained LS bone loss >3% (-7.3 ± 2.9%; n = 10), did not differ from those with stable LS BMD (0.1 ± 1.1%; n=5) with regard to baseline body mass index, BMD at any site, or duration of followup, but were significantly older at re-evaluation (46 ± 3 vs 38 ± 7; P = .046), had larger increases in LS BMD during teriparatide treatment and higher cancellous bone remodeling on transiliac biopsy at baseline and completion of teriparatide treatment. Serum bone turnover markers did not differ at baseline or teriparatide completion, but tended to be higher at the re-evaluation timepoint in those with post-teriparatide bone loss. These findings lead us to conclude that premenopausal women with IOP, particularly those over 40, may require antiresorptive treatment to prevent bone loss after

  8. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  9. Alveolar bone loss in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkarim, Maher; Bissada, Nabil; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad; Ficara, Anthony; Siegel, Burton

    2005-04-01

    Obesity was found to be significantly associated with periodontal disease prevalence as measured by probing depth and clinical attachment loss. The aim of this study was to examine if obesity correlates with chronic periodontitis as diagnosed by radiographic alveolar bone loss. Four hundred subjects > or =18 years old were included; 200 with body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m2 (obese) and 200 with BMI periodontitis. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with periodontitis in the uni-variate regression analysis (OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.55-3.63). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, employment, diabetes, marital status, and number of teeth present, obese subjects were found to be 1.86 times more likely to have periodontitis (95% CI, 0.99-3.51) than non-obese ones. When the sample was stratified based on age, the multivariate association was statistically significant among individuals or = 40 years of age the association was statistically insignificant (OR = 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.95). Stratifying the sample based on gender and smoking status revealed a stronger association among females than males (OR = 3.14 vs. 1.95) and among non-smokers than smokers (OR = 3.36 vs. 2.22). Obesity is associated with increased prevalence of periodontitis as measured by radiographic alveolar bone loss, especially among younger individuals. Prevention and management of obesity may be considered to promote better systemic and periodontal health.

  10. Recursos fisioterapêuticos na prevenção da perda da densidade mineral óssea com lesão medular Physiotherapy resources on bone mineral density loss prevention in patients with spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os tratamentos fisioterápicos destinados a prevenção, estabilização ou lentificação da perda da densidade mineral óssea em pacientes portadores de lesão medular. Foram encontrados poucos trabalhos que se destinaram aos tratamentos fisioterápicos para desmineralização óssea. Em relação aos tipos de tratamentos encontrados foram: estimulação elétrica funcional, estimulação elétrica funcional com bicicleta ergométrica, ortostatismo e deambulação. Estes tratamentos são bastante questionáveis não tendo um consenso na metodologia, apresentando muitas controvérsias em relação à eficácia dos tratamentos, que serão discutidos no decorrer deste trabalho.This work is bibliographic review about the physiotherapy treatments for the attenuation, prevention and stabilization or slowing down of the bone mineral density loss in spinal cord injured patients. There are few studies focusing the efficiency the physiotherapy treatment for bone demineralization. The kinds of treatments found were: functional electrical stimulation, functional electrical stimulation with an bycicle ergometry, orthostatic and deambulation. These treatments are much questionable, and with no consensus on the methodology, with the lot of controversies in relation to the efficacy of the treatments, which are going to be discussed in the development of this study.

  11. Bone mineral density among female sports participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare

    2006-02-01

    Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive

  12. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  13. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN SJOGREN'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Sliornikova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study mineral density of bone tissue (BMD in female pts with Sjogren's syndrome (SS depending on menstrual statute and to evaluate the effect on it of long-term (for 5 years and more therapy by prednizolone in dosage 2.5-5 mg/day on the state of bone tissue. Material and methods. 120 female pts aged 30-63 were examined by densitometry of low back and femoral neck with «Hologic 1000». Results. Comparison of obtained results with reference base data enabled to reveal negative effect of prednizolo- nc on bone tissue mineralization, clearly demonstrated at the beginning of glucocorticosteroid therapy in peri- menopausa. It was also noted that menopausa began earlier in pts taking prednizolone (at 43.9±5.1 y/o as compared with untreated ones (at 4S.9±4.5 y/o; there were notable effect of the age of menopausa beginning on BMD and lower effect of the duration of postmenopausa. Rare (3.3% development of osteoporosis in women of reproductive age associated with long-term non-correctable hypergammaglobulinemia and damage of renal tubular apparatus.

  14. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  15. Bone Density and Dental External Apical Root Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Morford, Lorri Ann; Hartsfield, James Kennedy

    2016-12-01

    When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors, and disease status all can influence a patients' overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR).

  16. Reduced bone mineral density in men after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anijar J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation is associated with rapid bone loss and an increased prevalence and incidence of fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD of 30 heart transplant (HT recipients to that of 31 chronic heart failure (CHF patients waiting for transplantation and to determine their biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormone levels. The BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were also obtained. The mean age of the two groups did not differ significantly. Mean time of transplantation was 25.4 ± 21.1 months (6 to 88 months. Except for the albumin levels, which were significantly higher, and magnesium levels, which were significantly lower in HT patients when compared to CHF patients, all other biochemical parameters and hormone levels were within the normal range and similar in the two groups. Both groups had lower BMD of the spine and proximal femur compared to young healthy adults. However, the mean BMD of HT patients was significantly lower than in CHF patients at all sites studied. Bone mass did not correlate with time after transplantation or cumulative dose of cyclosporine A. There was a negative correlation between BMD and the cumulative dose of prednisone. These data suggest that bone loss occurs in HT patients mainly due to the use of corticosteroids and that in 30% of the patients it can be present before transplantation. It seems that cyclosporine A may also play a role in this loss.

  17. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P

    2017-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect ...

  18. Bone mineral density of the coracoid process decreases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranger, Jean Sébastien; Maqdes, Ali; Pujol, Nicolas; Desmoineaux, Pierre; Beaufils, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Surgical options in the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability are numerous. The Latarjet procedure is one of the most common procedures performed. It has been previously demonstrated that bone mineral density decreases with age. This reduction thus increases the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related iatrogenic, traumatic or pathological fractures. The objective of this study was to quantify the bone mineral density of the coracoid process in different age groups. The hypothesis was that mineral bone density of the coracoid process decreases with age. Using the hospital's electronic database, 60 patients who underwent a shoulder CT scan were randomly selected retrospectively. Four groups of 15 were formed with mean ages of 20, 30, 40 and 50 years. Bone density, length, width and thickness of the coracoid process 10 mm from the tip were measured four times by two different evaluators. Bone density was expressed in Hounsfield units (HU). The mean bone mineral density of the coracoid process significantly decreased with age (p < 0.0001). A lower but insignificant difference of bone mineral density was observed in females. A good inter- and intra-observer reliability was found for bone mineral density measurement of the coracoid process (0.67 and 0.7, respectively). The bone mineral density of the coracoid process diminishes with age, thus confirming our hypothesis. There is a good inter- and intra-observer reliability of our CT scan-based coracoid process bone mineral density measurement rendering it reproducible in daily clinical practice. IV.

  19. Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.

  20. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  1. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  2. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones......-ray absoptiometry (r = 0.86, p Relative to this age-related loss, the reported short...... sites and a precision that potentially allows for relatively short observation intervals. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  3. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures....... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a compact and portable scanner using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) to predict major osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: This prospective study included a cohort of 15,542 men and women aged 18-95 years, who underwent a BMD scan in Danish Health...... Examination Survey 2007-2008. BMD at the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand was measured using RA (Alara MetriScan®). These data were merged with information on incident fractures retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry comprising the International...

  4. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  5. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  7. An investigation on the bone density of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yan; Huang Zhaomin; Meng Quanfei; Da Rengrong; Zhang Suidong; Weng Jianping

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the morbidity and pattern of osteoporosis in the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Methods: Bone density of lumbar vertebra, hip and whole body were measured in 48 patients with NIDDM and in 35 health people aged 30-35 years. All the patients were diagnosed by the standards introduced by the WHO committee in 1985. Outcome were measured by using t text, analysis of variance and coefficient of multiple correlation. Results: Bone density decreased in all the 48 patients with NIDDM, in which 25 (52.1%) patients were diagnosed as osteoporosis. In the patients with NIDDM and osteoporosis, there was a higher rate of the decrease of the bone density of hip (14.1% in male and 15.6% in female respectively) than that of lumbar vertebra. Conclusions: There is a higher morbidity of osteoporosis in the patients with NIDDM. The loss of the bone density might start at the hip. The bone mineral content of whole body lose markedly. And the longer the NIDDM and the menopause exist, the more obvious the decrease of the bone density is. The mechanism of the phenomena is considered as a result of not only the increased loss of calcium and absorption of the bone tissue induced by the secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also the decreased level of the serum insulin-like growth factor, which inhibits the bone formation

  8. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.E.H.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valasek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandor, G.K.; Marcian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  9. Novel Radiomitigator for Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A-S; Shirazi-fard, Y.; Terada, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Steczina, S.; Medina, C.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone loss can occur with radiotherapy patients, accidental radiation exposure and during long-term spaceflight. Bone loss due to radiation is due to an early increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and bone resorption, resulting in an imbalance in bone remodeling. Furthermore, exposure to high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation will impair the bone forming progenitors and reduce bone formation. Radiation can be classified as high-LET or low-LET based on the amount of energy released. Dried Plum (DP) diet prevents bone loss in mice exposed to total body irradiation with both low-LET and high-LET radiation. DP prevents the early radiation-induced bone resorption, but furthermore, we show that DP protects the bone forming osteoblast progenitors from high-LET radiation. These results provide insight that DP re-balances the bone remodeling by preventing resorption and protecting the bone formation capacity. This data is important considering that most of the current osteoporosis treatments only block the bone resorption but do not protect bone formation. In addition, DP seems to act on both the oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. Finally, we have preliminary data showing the potential of DP to be radio-protective at a systemic effect and could possible protect other tissues at risk of total body-irradiation such as skin, brain and heart.

  10. Effects of COLIA1 polymorphisms and haplotypes on perimenopausal bone mass, postmenopausal bone loss and fracture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Bofill, N; Husted, Camilla L.; Harsløf, Torben

    2011-01-01

    mineral density (BMD) and increased bone turnover at menopause and after 10 years of follow-up. Introduction We wanted to investigate whether the -1997G/T, -1663indelT and +1245G/T polymorphisms in the COLIA1 gene are associated with perimenopausal bone mass, early postmenopausal bone loss and interact.......015±0.006 g/cm2 and 0.017±0.006 g/cm2, respectively (pchanges in bone mass and fracture risk and no overall interaction with the effects of hormone therapy could be demonstrated for any of the polymorphisms in COLIA1. Conclusions The -1997G/T polymorphism...... and haplotype 3 are significantly associated with perimenopausal bone mass, and these effects were sustained up to 10 years after menopause. No association between the -1663indelT or +1245G/T polymorphisms and peri- or postmenopausal bone mass could be demonstrated....

  11. Bone mineral density and mammographic density in Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Heidi; Rice, Megan S.; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Torres, Gabriela; Blanco, Margarita; Tamayo-Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is a putative marker for lifetime exposure to estrogen. Studies that have explored whether BMD is a determinant of mammographic density (MD) have observed inconsistent results. Therefore, we examined this potential association in a sample of women (N=1,516) from the clinical sub-cohort in the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort (N=115,315). Methods We used multivariable linear regression to assess the association between quartiles of BMD and percent MD, as well as total dense and non-dense area of the breast, stratified by menopausal status. We also examined the associations by body mass index (BMI) (<30kg/m2,, ≥30kg/m2). Results Overall, there was no association between BMD and MD among premenopausal women. However, when we stratified by BMI, there was a modest inverse association between BMD and percent MD (difference between extreme quartiles= −2.8, 95%CI: −5.9, 0.27, p-trend=0.04) among women with BMI <30 kg/m2, but a positive association among obese women (comparable difference=5.1, 95%CI: 0.02, 10.1, p-trend=0.03; p-interaction<0.01). Among postmenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were positively associated after adjustment for BMI (p-trend<0.01). Postmenopausal women in the highest two quartiles of BMD had 4–5 percentage point higher percent MD compared to women in the lowest quartile. The association did not differ by BMI in postmenopausal women (p-interaction=0.76). Conclusion Among obese premenopausal women as well as postmenopausal women, BMD was positively associated with percent MD. Among leaner premenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were modestly inversely associated. These findings support the hypothesis that cumulative exposure to estrogen (as measured by BMD) may influence MD. PMID:26463740

  12. Outcomes of bone density measurements in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Rowbotham, David S

    2016-01-29

    Some guidelines recommend that patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease undergo bone density scanning. We assessed the bone density results in a cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We searched bone density reports over two 5-year periods in all patients from Auckland District Health Board (2008-12) and in patients under 65 years from Counties Manukau District Health Board (2009-13) for the term 'coeliac.' Reports for 137 adults listed coeliac disease as an indication for bone densitometry. The average age was 47 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2), and 77% were female. The median time between coeliac disease diagnosis and bone densitometry was 261 days. The average bone density Z-score was slightly lower than expected (Z-score -0.3 to 0.4) at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but 88-93% of Z-scores at each site lay within the normal range. Low bone density was strongly related to BMI: the proportions with Z-score 30 kg/m(2) were 28%, 15%, 6% and 0% respectively. Average bone density was normal, suggesting that bone density measurement is not indicated routinely in coeliac disease, but could be considered on a case-by-case basis for individuals with strong risk factors for fracture.

  13. The effect of bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, S.; Veneberg, J.G.; Wink, F.R.; Bos, R.; Brouwer, E.; Van Der Veer, E.; Bootsma, H.; Van Roon, E.N.; Maas, F.; Spoorenberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not only characterized by excessive bone formation, but also by excessive bone loss which may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD). So far, little is known about the effect of treatment with bisphosphonates on BMD in patients with AS. Objectives: To

  14. Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Habdan, Ibrahim M.; Al-Mulhim, Fatma A.; El-Hassan, Abdallah Y.

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the

  15. AICRG, Part II: Crestal bone loss associated with the Ankylos implant: loading to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cherng-Tzeh; Morris, Harold F; Ochi, Shigeru; Walker, Lori; DesRosiers, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The Ankylos endosseous dental implant is a new implant design that will be available in the United States in early 2004. It features an internal tapered abutment connection, a smooth polished collar without threads at the coronal part of the implant body, and a roughened surface with variable threads on the body of the implant fixture. A precise, tapered, conical abutment connection eliminates the microgap often found in 2-stage implant systems. This microgap may allow the accumulation of food debris and bacteria, as well as micromovement between the parts during clinical function, both of which can lead to a localized inflammation and crestal bone loss. The purpose of this section of the study was to assess any crestal bone loss associated with this new implant. The clinical performance of this new implant design was studied under well-controlled clinical conditions. Over 1500 implants were placed and restored. The vertical crestal bone loss was measured "directly" between the time of implant placement and uncovering, using a periodontal probe. Serial dental radiographs were taken between loading, and the 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up visits to determine "indirect" crestal bone loss within a specific period. Bone loss varied among the participating centers from less than 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm. The largest amount of bone loss occurred between the time of placement and uncovering. Following loading, the mean bone loss for all implants for a period of 3 years was about 0.2 mm/y. The extent of the crestal bone loss after loading was minimal for patients regardless of age, gender, prosthetic applications, bone density, and remote or crestal incisions, as well as for smokers or nonsmokers. Bone loss per year is well within the guidelines of 0.2 mm/y proposed by others.

  16. Measurement of bone density in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Doyle, Shevaun M; Vogiatzi, Maria G

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive synopsis of pediatric bone density. Osteoporosis of the adult is a well established clinical problem, and algorithms to diagnose and treat this disease are recognized throughout the medical community. Osteoporosis or 'low bone mass' in pediatrics, on the other hand, is a rather new and evolving area, with certain unique diagnostic and clinical challenges. Recent findings in the literature include benefits and limitations of pediatric bone densitometry techniques, proper interpretation of the results of these various techniques, efforts to establish standards and guidelines for diagnosing low bone mass in children and adolescents, optimization of bone growth and mineral accrual for life, pediatric bone mineral density and fracture risk prediction, as well as a clearer awareness of bone fragility in children. Throughout the last decade, great strides have been made in our understanding of pediatric metabolic bone disease. These will be the focus of this review.

  17. Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has been associated with prolonged survival and consequently with an increase in the prevalence of decreased bone mineral density. Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) is gaining popularity as an appropriate tool for determination of bone mineral density profiles in ...

  18. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben; Odgaard, Anders; Vesterby, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone strength. It is questionable whether this per se increases fracture risk. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  20. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  1. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  2. Glucocorticoid: A potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Wenbin; Xue, Yanru; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Jingbao; Shang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to conditions of microgravity, including actual spaceflight and simulated microgravity, results in numerous negative alterations to bone structure and mechanical properties. Although there are abundant researches on bone loss in microgravity, the explicit mechanism is not completely understood. At present, it is widely accepted that the absence of mechanical stimulus plays a predominant role in bone homeostasis disorders in conditions of weightlessness. However, aside from mechanical unloading, nonmechanical factors such as various hormones, cytokines, dietary nutrition, etc. are important as well in microgravity induced bone loss. The stress-induced increase in endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) levels is inevitable in microgravity environments. Moreover, it is well known that GCs have a detrimental effect to bone health at excess concentrations. Therefore, GC plays a potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss. This review summarizeds several studies and their prospective solutions to this hypothesis.

  3. Biologically rational ways of bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Based on own and literature date to define biologically rational elements of complex approach to bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. Nowadays there are two points of view regarding bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. The first favor pharmaceuticals as a basic and physical exercises as additional. According to the second, therapeutic and prophylactic significance of physical exercises in maintenance and development of structural and functional capacities of musculoskeletal system is fundamental. The latter approach correspond to evolutionary formed biological model in that muscles act upon levers - bones that connected by means of joints and provide the movement of the body against gravity. The present work from pathogenethically point of view establish the systemic approach to the bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. It is based on physical exercises while additional pharmacotherapy that should aim for optimization of regulatory function of bone cells, first of all osteocytes providing for adaptational reorganisation of bone structures.

  4. The Effect of Combined Exercise on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghasemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The best way to prevent osteoporosis, at old age is to prevent bone loss and at young age is trying to keep bones healthy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined exercise on bone mineral density of premenopausal females. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted among 20 premenopausal females between 40 and 45 years old, which were randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control groups in Hamadan city, during year 2016. The experimental group completed a 12-week combined exercise-training program (6 weeks in water and 6 weeks on land, three times a week and 70 minutes per session. Before and after the 12 weeks, femoral bone mineral density in all samples was measured by DEXA bone mineral densitometry. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 21 software using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent and paired t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Bone mineral density of femoral neck and total hip of the experimental group, had significant differences with corresponding areas of the control group (P <0.05. In other words, the results revealed that 12 weeks of combined exercise increases femoral bone mineral density in the experimental group with a significant decrease in the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, to prevent a decrease in bone mineral density during the menopausal period, combined exercises are recommended for females at this age.

  5. Bone Activity Biomarkers and Bone Mineral Density in Children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were subjected to biochemical assessment that included osteocalcin (OC), total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (tALP and bALP), isomerized beta form of type I collagen cross-linked telopeptide (β-Crosslaps) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Patients with CKD also had their bone mineral ...

  6. Calcium metabolism, vitamin D and bone mineral density after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, T L; Paganotto, M; Radominski, R B; Kulak, C M; Borba, V C

    2015-02-01

    Lower bone mineral density, vitamin D deficiency, lower lean body mass, greater loss of excess weight, and increased bone turnover are complications found after bariatric surgery correlated in the literature with increased risk of fractures. The prevention and treatment of such complications should begin immediately after surgery. The aims of the study were to evaluate bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery by the Wittgrove technique after 1 year of the procedure and correlate it with body composition, weight loss, 25OH vitamin D levels, and markers of bone metabolism. The operated group (OG) participated in a clinical consultation; a blood sample taken and a body composition; and bone mineral density assessment by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The results were compared with a control group (CG). Fifty-six subjects in the OG and 27 in the CG were included. The bone mineral density (BMD), after the surgery, at the lumbar spine (LS) was lower in the OG than in the CG. There was a positive correlation between total body (TB) BMD with 25OHD, body mass index (BMI), and lean mass and an inverse correlation with percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 60.41% (OG) and in 16.6% (CG). PTH was higher in the OG, with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 41.7%. In 26.5% and 14.2% of the OG, ALP and OC levels were above the reference values. In deficiency with high prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover was detected. The prevention of bone loss should be initiated in the first months after surgery, which is a period associated with severe muscle loss and increased bone turnover.

  7. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is associated with low spinal bone density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Christensen, Finn; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt

    2013-01-01

    Spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis share many symptoms and the same treatment, but their causes remain unclear. Bone mineral density has been suggested to play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in spinal bone density between spinal stenosis......% osteopenic compared to only 9% of spinal stenosis patients being osteoporotic and 30% osteopenic (P = 0.01). Pain levels tended to increase with poorer bone status (P = 0.06). Patients treated surgically for symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis have much lower bone mass than patients of similar age...

  8. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  9. Evaluating the risk of osteoporosis through bone mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, S.A.; Khaliq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disorder, characterized by loss of bone mass density. Osteoporosis affects more than 30 percent of post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis is often associated with restricted body movement, pain and joint deformities. Early identification and early intervention can help in reducing these complications. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the burden of Osteoporosis in Urban setting of Sindh among women of different age groups and to access the effect of different protective measures that can reduce the risk of Osteoporosis. Method: In this study, 500 women's of 3 major cities of Sindh were approached by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Women bearing age 20 years or more were included. Women who fall under inclusion criteria were screened for BMD (Bone mineral density) test and were classified as Healthy, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic based on their T-score. The association of different protective measures and risk of osteoporosis was assessed by prevalence relative risk (PRR). Result: The result of this study indicate that the burden of Osteoporosis is very high among the women of Sindh, only 17.4 percent (84) women were found to have normal BMD score. The life style of majority of women was sedentary. The PRR calculated for Exposure to sunlight, regular exercise, and use of nutritional supplement was 12.5, 5.19 and 2.72 folds respectively. Conclusion: The results of study reveal that exposure to sunlight, regular physical exercise and use of nutritional supplements found to be effective in reducing the risk of osteoporosis among women of all age group. Health education and promotion toward osteoporosis prevention can significantly contribute in reducing the morbidity of osteoporosis. (author)

  10. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  11. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  12. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  13. Effect of sex hormones on bone density during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, V.; Roe, T.F.; Wells, T.R.; Senac, M.O. Jr.; Landing, B.; Libaneti, C.; Cann, C.E.; Schulz, E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of special phantoms permitted precise measurement of vertebral mineral content by CT in the very young. The normal standards for spinal trabecular bone of children aged 0-18 years are presented. Although there is no age-related difference in bone density before puberty, there is a significant increase in bone mineral content after puberty. The increase in sex hormones during puberty accounts for the increased density. Longitudinal studies analyzing vertebral density changes in castrated rabbits after testosterone and estradiol administration are discussed

  14. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  15. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... (r = -0.12 to -0.15, p mass parameters and response to alendronate treatment, which...... indicated that risk of low bone mass and increased bone loss caused by thinness could be compensated by alendronate treatment. In conclusion, thinness is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in postmenopausal women. Because the response to alendronate treatment is independent...

  16. Patterns of bone density evaluation in a community population treated with aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; O'Malley, A James; Fisher, Maxine; Daniel, Gregory W; Winer, Eric P; Keating, Nancy L

    2012-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) increase the risk of bone loss and fracture. Guidelines recommend routine bone density screening for women on AIs, but there are few data regarding the incorporation of these guidelines into clinical practice. We assessed bone density testing in a community-based cohort of breast cancer patients treated with AIs. By means of encounter and pharmacy data from WellPoint plans in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, we assessed bone density testing among 9,138 women aged ≥50 years with breast cancer who were treated with AIs between 2002 and 2008. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with baseline bone density testing in women initiating an AI, and among a subset of 2,086 women treated with AIs for at least 2 years, with testing during the first 2 years of therapy. Only 41.6 % of women underwent bone density testing when initiating AI therapy. Rates of bone density testing increased over time, but were lower for women who were older, lived in the Northeast (vs. other regions), had been treated with prior proton pump inhibitor or tamoxifen therapy, lived in areas with lower educational attainment, or were enrolled in a health maintenance organization (vs. other insurance types) (all P < 0.05). Among women treated with AIs for at least 2 years, 59.9 % of women underwent bone density testing during the first 2 years of AI therapy. Rates of testing were lower for women living in the Midwest or West (vs. Northeast), living in areas with lower education levels, enrolled in health maintenance organizations (vs. other insurance types), and with prior tamoxifen use. In conclusion, most women initiating AI therapy, and 40 % of those on long-term therapy, did not undergo recommended bone density evaluation in this community-based population. Attention is needed to insure that unnecessary fractures are avoided in breast cancer patients taking AIs.

  17. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  18. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  19. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  20. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response...

  1. Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measu...

  2. Bone loss following knee arthroplasty: potential treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasso, Michele; Beaufils, Philippe; Cerciello, Simone; Schiavone Panni, Alfredo

    2014-04-01

    The management of bone loss is a crucial aspect of the revision knee arthroplasty. Bone loss can hinder the correct positioning and alignment of the prosthetic components, and can prevent the achievement of a stable bone-implant interface. There is still controversy regarding the optimal management of knee periprosthetic bone loss, especially in large defects for which structural grafts, metal or tantalum augments, tantalum cones, porous metaphyseal sleeves, and special prostheses have been advocated. The aim of this review was to analyze all possible causes of bone loss and the most advanced strategies for managing bony deficiency within the knee joint reconstruction. Most significant and recent papers about the management of bone defects during revision knee arthroplasty were carefully analyzed and reviewed to report the most common causes of bone loss and the most effective strategies to manage them. Modular metal and tantalum augmentation showed to provide more stable and durable knee revisions compared to allografts, limited by complications such as graft failure, fracture and resorption. Moreover, modular augmentation may considerably shorten operative times with a potential decrease of complications, above all infection which has been frequently associated to the use of allografts. Modular augmentation may significantly reduce the need for allografting, whose complications appear to limit the long-term success of knee revisions.

  3. Effects of Denosumab on Bone Metabolic Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients Treated with Glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Masato; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Togashi, Masaru; Wakui, Hideki; Takahashi, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture. Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices. BMD at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as a percentage of the young adult mean (%YAM). Results Denosumab therapy significantly reduced serum NTX and BAP levels from baseline after 12 months (from 19.2 to 13.9 nmol BCE/L; from 11.9 to 9.2 U/L, respectively). In 18 patients treated with bisphosphonates before the start of denosumab therapy, the improvements in the LSBMD and FNBMD values were 1.5%YAM/year and 1.1%YAM/year, respectively. The LSBMD and FNBMD values were both significantly higher 12 months after denosumab therapy (3.5%YAM/year and 3.0%YAM/year, respectively). The LSBMD gain was significantly higher after denosumab therapy than during bisphosphonate therapy. No fractures were observed in any patients during denosumab therapy. Conlusion Denosumab is effective and safe in preventing bone resorption and BMD loss in patients treated with long-term GCs for inflammatory diseases. This is the first study showing a significant increase in not only LSBMD but also FNBMD in GC-induced osteoporosis after denosumab therapy.

  4. Relationship between sex hormone levels, bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Gonadal steroid hormones play a crucial role during skeletal growth and maturation in both men and women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of sex hormone levels, bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy Moroccan men. Methods: 142 Moroccan men who ...

  5. Urinary and Anthropometrical Indices of Bone Density in Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements on the x-ray of the 2nd metacarpal of the right hand and 2h fasting urine sample were used in a cross sectional study to assess urinary indices of bone density (bone mass, percentage cortical area, PCA) in 94 healthy Nigerian adults aged between 19-72 years. Body mass index (BMI) was also estimated.

  6. Reverse total shoulder glenoid baseplate stability with superior glenoid bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise J; Duquin, Thomas R; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2017-10-01

    Superior wear of the glenoid bone is common in patients with rotator cuff arthropathy. This can become a treatment challenge for patients who require shoulder arthroplasty. In reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), glenoid bone loss may affect the stability of baseplate fixation. The primary purpose of this biomechanical laboratory study was to assess the initial fixation stability of RSA glenosphere baseplates in the presence of variable amounts of superior glenoid bone loss. High-density solid rigid polyurethane foam (30 pounds/cubic foot) was machined to model the glenoid with variable superior defects that provided different levels of support (100%, 90%, 75%, and 50%) for the glenosphere baseplate. The samples were cyclically loaded (0-750 N at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles) at a 60° glenohumeral angle. The micromotion and migration of the baseplate were calculated from displacement data captured during the loading tests with an array of 3 linear variable differential transformers mounted around the baseplate. Micromotion was significantly greater in samples with 50% defects compared with those with smaller defects. Migration was significantly greater after testing for all defect sizes. Initial fixation of RSA glenosphere baseplates was significantly reduced in models with 50% bone loss on the superior edge compared with models with less bone loss in this high-density bone foam model. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  8. Antiepileptic drug-induced bone loss in young male patients who have seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andress, Dennis L; Ozuna, Judy; Tirschwell, David; Grande, Lucinda; Johnson, Meshell; Jacobson, Arnold F; Spain, William

    2002-05-01

    Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy is a known risk factor for bone loss and fractures. Vitamin D deficiency is frequently cited as a cause for bone loss in patients who have seizures. To determine whether men who have seizures, but who are otherwise healthy, suffer substantial bone loss in the hip while taking AEDs. We prospectively examined femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 81 consecutive men, aged between 25 and 54 years old (mean age, 45 years), who were attending an outpatient seizure clinic. Low BMD values were analyzed for known risk factors for bone loss. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were repeated in 54 patients, 12 to 29 months later (mean, 19 months), to assess the rate of change in BMD over time. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (P<.001) and time receiving AEDs (P<.003) were the 2 important risk factors associated with low femoral neck BMD. Neither vitamin D deficiency, hypogonadism, cigarette smoking, nor excess alcohol intake were associated with low BMD after correcting for age and time on AEDs. Longitudinal analysis of femoral neck BMD revealed that only those in the youngest age group (25-44 years) showed significant declines in femoral neck BMD (1.8% annualized loss; 95% confidence interval, -3.1 to -0.9; P<.003) while receiving AED therapy. There was no evidence that a specific type of AED was more causally related to bone loss in this group although most patients were taking phenytoin sodium or carbamazepine during the longitudinal assessment. Long-term AED therapy in young male patients who have seizures causes significant bone loss at the hip in the absence of vitamin D deficiency. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning of the hip is useful in identifying patients who are particularly susceptible to rapid bone loss while taking AEDs.

  9. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  10. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  11. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  12. Assessment of alveolar bone mineral density as a predictor of lumbar fracture probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Yoshitomo; Arita, Seizaburo; Honda, Mitsugi; Sugishita, Takeshi; Kamada, Aiko; Ikeo, Takashi; Miki, Takami; Fujita, Takuo

    2013-05-01

    Osteoporosis and tooth loss have been linked with advancing age, but no clear relationship between these conditions has been proven. Several studies of bone mineral density measurements of the jaw and spine have shown similarities in their rate of age-related deterioration. Thus, measurements of jawbone density may predict lumbar vertebral bone density. Using jawbone density as a proxy marker would circumvent the need for lumbar bone measurements and facilitate prediction of osteoporotic spinal fracture susceptibility at dental clinics. We aimed to characterize the correlation between bone density in the jaw and spine and the incidence of osteoporotic spinal fractures. We used computerized radiogrammetry to measure alveolar bone mineral density (al-BMD) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure lumbar bone mineral density (L-BMD). L-BMD and al-BMD in 30 female patients (average age: 59 ± 5 years) were correlated with various patient attributes. Statistical analysis included area under the curve (AUC) and probability of asymptomatic significance (PAS) in a receiver operating characteristic curve. The predictive strength of L-BMD T-scores (L-BMD[T]) and al-BMD measurements for fracture occurrence was then compared using multivariate analysis with category weight scoring. L-BMD and al-BMD were significantly correlated with age, years since menopause, and alveolar bone thickness. Both were also negatively correlated with fracture incidence. Category weight scores were -0.275 for a L-BMD(T) fracture occurrence than L-BMD. Our results suggest the possible association between al-BMD and vertebral fracture risk. Assessment of alveolar bone density may be useful in patients receiving routine dental exams to monitor the clinical picture and the potential course of osteoporosis in patients who may be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.

  13. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, T; Andon, M B; Rollings, N; Martel, J K; Landis, J R; Demers, L M; Eggli, D F; Kieselhorst, K; Kulin, H E

    1993-08-18

    To evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation on bone acquisition in adolescent white girls. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of 18 months of calcium supplementation on bone density and bone mass. Ninety-four girls with a mean age of 11.9 + 0.5 years at study entry. University hospital in a small town. Calcium supplementation, 500 mg/d calcium as calcium citrate malate; controls received placebo pills. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine and total body were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and calcium excretion from 24-hour urine specimens. Calcium intake from dietary sources averaged 960 mg/d for the entire study group. The supplemented group received, on average, an additional 354 mg/d of calcium. The supplemented group compared with the placebo group had greater increases of lumbar spine bone density (18.7% vs 15.8%; P = .03), lumbar spine bone mineral content (39.4% vs 34.7%; P = .06), total body bone mineral density (9.6% vs 8.3%; P = .05), and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (90.4 vs 72.9 mg/d; P = .02), respectively. Increasing daily calcium intake from 80% of the recommended daily allowance to 110% via supplementation with calcium citrate malate resulted in significant increases in total body and spinal bone density in adolescent girls. The increase of 24 g of bone gain per year among the supplemented group translates to an additional 1.3% skeletal mass per year during adolescent growth, which may provide protection against future osteoporotic fracture.

  14. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presents a complex behaviour involving heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties. Moreover, bone is a living tissue; therefore, its microstructure and mechanical .... It is familiar in the consumer market as a simple instrument for estimating body fat. Due to its benefits and features, it is used for calculating muscle ...

  15. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with bone mineral density (BMD) loss have not been characterized consistently. OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study assessed effects of mometasone furoate (MF) administered via dry powder inhaler on BMD of patients with persisten...

  16. Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew M; Schenker, Mara L; Ahn, Jaimo; Willett, Nick J

    2017-09-01

    Segmental bone loss remains a challenging clinical problem for orthopaedic trauma surgeons. In addition to the missing bone itself, the local tissues (soft tissue, vascular) are often highly traumatized as well, resulting in a less than ideal environment for bone regeneration. As a result, attempts at limb salvage become a highly expensive endeavor, often requiring multiple operations and necessitating the use of every available strategy (autograft, allograft, bone graft substitution, Masquelet, bone transport, etc.) to achieve bony union. A cost-sensitive, functionally appropriate, and volumetrically adequate engineered substitute would be practice-changing for orthopaedic trauma surgeons and these patients with difficult clinical problems. In tissue engineering and bone regeneration fields, numerous research efforts continue to make progress toward new therapeutic interventions for segmental bone loss, including novel biomaterial development as well as cell-based strategies. Despite an ever-evolving literature base of these new therapeutic and engineered options, there remains a disconnect with the clinical practice, with very few translating into clinical use. A symposium entitled "Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss," was presented at the 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society Conference to further explore this engineering-clinical disconnect, by surveying basic, translational, and clinical researchers along with orthopaedic surgeons and proposing ideas for pushing the bar forward in the field of segmental bone loss. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1855-1864, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of sodium fluoride on bone density in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, M W; Russell, J E; Avery, J; Wergedal, J E; Baylink, D J

    1992-05-01

    In addition to increasing bone volume, fluoride has been demonstrated to increase ash weight and mineral density. To determine whether newly formed or older bone is most affected by fluoride treatment, bone from chickens receiving fluoridated water was fractionated into lower density (recently formed) and higher density (more mature) specific gravity fractions. Fluoride was administered to the chickens for different lengths of time (4 or 13 weeks) or at varying doses for a 4-week period (0, 4.2, 16.8 mmol/liter drinking water). Fluoride treatment caused a shift in the mineral density profile, showing an increased proportion of mineral distribution in the more mature, higher density fractions. To determine whether this density gradient shift was due to increased maturation rate of bone or decreased resorption and mineralization rates, [3H]proline and 45Ca were injected 5 days and 24 hours prior to sacrifice, respectively. The distributions of both 3H or 45Ca, as percentages of total counts incorporated, were shifted by fluoride treatment into more mature, higher density fractions. Expressing the number of counts as a percent of the bone in each fraction (total hydroxyproline or Ca) revealed an increased incorporation of both 3H and 45Ca into the higher specific gravity fractions 2.0-2.2. These results suggest that fluoride treatment increases bone maturation and the rate of secondary mineralization in the cortical bone. Such changes in the quality of more mature, well-mineralized bone, in humans as well as animals, may have a significant influence on brittleness and strength.

  18. An expression relating breaking stress and density of trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajapakse, C.S.; Thomsen, J.S.; Ortiz, J.S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the principal diagnostic tool used in clinical settings to diagnose and monitor osteoporosis. Experimental studies on ex vivo bone samples from multiple skeletal locations have been used to propose that their breaking stress bears a power-law relationship to volumetric...... previously published data on bone samples from iliac crest and vertebral body. It represents the experimental biomechanical data at least as well as the power-law, and provides means for extrapolating results from small biopsy samples to an entire bone. In addition, changes caused by trabecular thinning...

  19. The role of stromal cells in inflammatory bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, C; Pap, T; Buckley, C D; Naylor, A J

    2017-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, local and systemic bone loss and a lack of compensatory bone repair. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are the most abundant cells of the stroma and a key population in autoimmune diseases such as RA. An increasing body of evidence suggests that these cells play not only an important role in chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia, but also impact bone remodelling. Under inflammatory conditions FLS release inflammatory cytokines, regulate bone destruction and formation and communicate with immune cells to control bone homeostasis. Other stromal cells, such as osteoblasts and terminally differentiated osteoblasts, termed osteocytes, are also involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and are dysregulated during inflammation. This review highlights our current understanding of how stromal cells influence the balance between bone formation and bone destruction. Increasing our understanding of these processes is critical to enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies with which to treat bone loss in RA. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  20. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

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    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  1. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45 Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45 Ca content and 45 Ca/dry and 45 Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  2. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  3. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2017-03-01

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R 2 =0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):90-94.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Suppression Effect of Astaxanthin on Osteoclast Formation In Vitro and Bone Loss In Vivo

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    Yun-Ho Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction of the bone mineral density (BMD and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone, which lead to bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Astaxanthin (AST has a variety of biological activities, such as a protective effect against asthma or neuroinflammation, antioxidant effect, and decrease of the osteoclast number in the right mandibles in the periodontitis model. Although treatment with AST is known to have an effect on inflammation, no studies on the effect of AST exposure on bone loss have been performed. Thus, in the present study, we examined the antiosteoporotic effect of AST on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX mice and its possible mechanism of action. The administration of AST (5, 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks suppressed the enhancement of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. The bone mineral density (BMD and bone microarchitecture of the trabecular bone in the tibia and femur were recovered by AST exposure. Moreover, in the in vitro experiment, we demonstrated that AST inhibits osteoclast formation through the expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT c1, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, TRAP, and cathepsin K without any cytotoxic effects on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs. Therefore, we suggest that AST may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  6. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

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    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  7. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

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    Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4 anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward′s triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause.

  8. Temporal bone imaging in osteogenesis imperfecta patients with hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, F.K.R.; Casselman, J.W.; Leenheer, E.M. De; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an autosomal-dominant connective-tissue disorder, predominantly characterized by bone fragility. Conductive hearing loss develops in half of the OI patients and often progresses to mixed loss. Findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients from Antalya, Turkey

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    Ibrahim Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We assessed the bone mineral density and related parameters in nine adults, thirty-eight pubertal, prepubertal totally forty-seven patients with thalassemia major living in Antalya, Turkey. Materials and Methods. We measured height and pubertal staging in last five years by six-month intervals. Average ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were calculated for last three years. The levels of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine were measured in 24 h urine, and those of parathormone, IGF 1, osteocalcine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatine, blood glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase were determined in serum, and also the bone mineral density was measured. Results. The average L1–L4 bone mass density was 27.1±10.1 g cm−2; the average bone mineral content was 0.65 ± 0.11 g. of the patients with a Z-score under 2.5. A moderate relationship was found between the bone mass density age and height. Subjects in low pubertal staging and short stature (<3% percentile have significantly lower bone mass densities P<0.001. Conclusion. he prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients with thalassemia major, possibly related to delayed puberty.

  10. The Effect Of Body Mass Index On Bone Mineral Density In Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

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    Burcu Yanık

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to determine the relationship between bone mineral density and body mass index in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: 54 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Age and time of menopause were recorded. Smoking, alcohol and exercise status were also recorded. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. The patients were separated into four groups according to their body mass index, as underweight, ideal weight, over-weight and obese. Bone mineral density in all the patients was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry from antero-posterior lumbar and right proximal femoral regions. For L2-4 and the femoral neck, bone mineral density and t scores were determined. Results: The study was performed in 54 postmenopausal women, ranging in age from 51 to 79 years. 22 (%40.8 of the patients were obese, 24 (%44.4 were overweight and 8 (%14.8 had ideal weight. There were no patients in underweight group. There were no difference in age, smoking, time of menopause, bone mineral density and t-scores among the groups. There was statistically significant correlation between body mass index and bone mineral density of the femoral neck (r =0.407, p=0.002, and femoral neck t-scores (r =0.297, p=0.029. There was no significant correlation between the body mass index and lumbar bone mineral density and lumbar t-scores (p >0.05. Conclusion: Body mass index was found to be related to bone mineral density of the femoral neck. Our findings suggest that maintenance of adequate body mass is important for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:56-9

  11. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery reduces bone mineral density and induces metabolic acidosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegg, Kathrin; Gehring, Nicole; Wagner, Carsten A; Liesegang, Annette; Schiesser, Marc; Bueter, Marco; Lutz, Thomas A

    2013-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery leads to bone loss in humans, which may be caused by vitamin D and calcium malabsorption and subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, because these conditions occur frequently in obese people, it is unclear whether they are the primary causes of bone loss after RYGB. To determine the contribution of calcium and vitamin D malabsorption to bone loss in a rat RYGB model, adult male Wistar rats were randomized for RYGB surgery, sham-operation-ad libitum fed, or sham-operation-body weight-matched. Bone mineral density, calcium and phosphorus balance, acid-base status, and markers of bone turnover were assessed at different time points for 14 wk after surgery. Bone mineral density decreased for several weeks after RYGB. Intestinal calcium absorption was reduced early after surgery, but plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased, while levels of active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D increased after surgery. RYGB rats displayed metabolic acidosis due to increased plasma lactate levels and increased urinary calcium loss throughout the study. These results suggest that initial calcium malabsorption may play a key role in bone loss early after RYGB in rats, but other factors, including chronic metabolic acidosis, contribute to insufficient bone restoration after normalization of intestinal calcium absorption. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is not involved in postoperative bone loss. Upregulated vitamin D activation may compensate for any vitamin D malabsorption.

  12. Running exercise alleviates trabecular bone loss and osteopenia in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Svasti, Saovaros; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2014-06-15

    A marked decrease in β-globin production led to β-thalassemia, a hereditary anemic disease associated with bone marrow expansion, bone erosion, and osteoporosis. Herein, we aimed to investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microstructure in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice and to determine whether endurance running (60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 12 wk in running wheels) could effectively alleviate bone loss in BKO mice. Both male and female BKO mice (1-2 mo old) showed growth retardation as indicated by smaller body weight and femoral length than their wild-type littermates. A decrease in BMD was more severe in female than in male BKO mice. Bone histomorphometry revealed that BKO mice had decreases in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness, presumably due to suppression of osteoblast-mediated bone formation and activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, the latter of which was consistent with elevated serum levels of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-1α and -1β. As determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, running increased cortical density and thickness in the femoral and tibial diaphyses of BKO mice compared with those of sedentary BKO mice. Several histomorphometric parameters suggested an enhancement of bone formation (e.g., increased mineral apposition rate) and suppression of bone resorption (e.g., decreased osteoclast surface), which led to increases in trabecular bone volume and trabecular thickness in running BKO mice. In conclusion, BKO mice exhibited pervasive osteopenia and impaired bone microstructure, whereas running exercise appeared to be an effective intervention in alleviating bone microstructural defect in β-thalassemia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Short-Term Hypoxia Accelerates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats by Suppressing Osteoblastogenesis but Enhancing Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixin; Wang, Jia; Sun, Dawei; Xin, Jingyi; Wang, Liping; Huang, Dong; Wu, Weichi; Xian, Cory J

    2016-08-23

    BACKGROUND Although it has been reported that hypoxic exposure can attenuate hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and some other diseases, effects of hypoxia on osteoporosis are still unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS The current study investigated whether short-term hypoxic exposure (in comparison with normoxic conditions) affects bone metabolism in normal or ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats in an vivo study. Micro-computed tomography bone volume/structural analyses, histological examination, and serum bone turnover biochemical assays were used. In addition, the expressions of some associated major regulatory molecules were measured in osteoblastic cultures. RESULTS While the 14-day hypoxic exposure did not change the bone-remodeling process in normal adult female rats, it decreased bone volume, osteoclast density, and serum bone formation marker (alkaline phosphatase) level, but increased osteoclast density and serum bone resorption marker (C-telopeptide of collagen) level in OVX rats. The bone marrow adipocyte number and serum fatty acid binding protein-4 level were increased in OVX-hypoxic rats compared with OVX-normoxic rats. Consistently, in human MG-63 osteoblastic cultures, the hypoxic condition suppressed protein expression of osteogenic transcriptional factors Runx2 and osterix, elevated protein expression of osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, but reduced that of osteoclastogenic inhibitor osteoprotegerin. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that, although no change occurred in the bone-remodeling process in normal adult female rats after hypoxic exposure, under the estrogen-deficient osteoporotic condition, the hypoxic condition can alter the bone microenvironment so that it may further impair osteoblastic differentiation and enhance osteoclastic formation, and thus reduce bone formation, enhance bone resorption, and accelerate bone loss.

  14. Effect of Cistanches Herba Aqueous Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rat

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    Zaiguo Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of traditional Chinese medicine Cistanches Herba extract (CHE to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized (OVX rat, Cistanches Herba extract (CHE was administered intragastrically to the rats. Female rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (40 mg kg−1, i.p., and their ovaries were removed bilaterally. The rats in the sham-operated group were anesthetized, laparotomized, and sutured without removing their ovaries. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, the OVX rats were randomly divided into three groups and orally treated with H2O (OVX group or CHE (100 or 200 mg kg−1 daily for 3 months. The sham-operated group (n = 8 was orally treated with H2O. After 3 months, the total body bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, Bone biomechanical index, blood mineral levels and blood antioxidant enzymes activities were examined in sham-operated, ovariectomized and Cistanches Herba extract treated rats. Results showed that Cistanches Herba extract treatment significantly dose-dependently enhanced bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, maximum load, displacement at maximum load, stress at maximum load, load at auto break, displacement at auto break, and stress at auto break, and blood antioxidant enzymes activities, decreased blood Ca, Zn and Cu levels compared to the OVX group. This experiment demonstrates that the administration of Cistanches Herba extract to ovariectomized rats reverses bone loss and prevents osteoporosis.

  15. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  16. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  17. Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 Increases Bone Density in Intact Females Only under an Inflammatory Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser L Collins

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that short-term oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 enhanced bone density in male but not female mice. We also established that L. reuteri 6475 enhanced bone health and prevented bone loss in estrogen-deficient female mice. In this study, we tested whether a mild inflammatory state and/or a long-term treatment with the probiotic was required to promote a positive bone effect in estrogen-sufficient female mice.A mild inflammatory state was induced in female mice by dorsal surgical incision (DSI. Following DSI animals were orally supplemented with L. reuteri or vehicle control for a period of 8 weeks. Gene expression was measured in the intestine and bone marrow by qPCR. Distal femoral bone density and architecture was analyzed by micro-CT.We report that 8 weeks after DSI there is a significant increase in the weight of spleen, thymus and visceral (retroperitoneal fat pads. Expression of intestinal cytokines and tight junction proteins are also altered 8 weeks post-DSI. Interestingly, L. reuteri treatment was found to display both intestinal region- and inflammation-dependent effects. Unexpectedly we identified that 1 L. reuteri treatment increased bone density in females but only in those that underwent DSI and 2 DSI benefited cortical bone parameters. In the bone marrow, dorsal surgery induced CD4+ T cell numbers, a response that was unaffected by L. reuteri treatment, whereas expression of RANKL, OPG and IL-10 were significantly affected by L. reuteri treatment.Our data reveals a previously unappreciated effect of a mild surgical procedure causing a long-lasting effect on inflammatory gene expression in the gut and the bone. Additionally, we demonstrate that in intact female mice, the beneficial effect of L. reuteri on bone requires an elevated inflammatory status.

  18. Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 Increases Bone Density in Intact Females Only under an Inflammatory Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Fraser L; Irwin, Regina; Bierhalter, Hayley; Schepper, Jonathan; Britton, Robert A; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that short-term oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 enhanced bone density in male but not female mice. We also established that L. reuteri 6475 enhanced bone health and prevented bone loss in estrogen-deficient female mice. In this study, we tested whether a mild inflammatory state and/or a long-term treatment with the probiotic was required to promote a positive bone effect in estrogen-sufficient female mice. A mild inflammatory state was induced in female mice by dorsal surgical incision (DSI). Following DSI animals were orally supplemented with L. reuteri or vehicle control for a period of 8 weeks. Gene expression was measured in the intestine and bone marrow by qPCR. Distal femoral bone density and architecture was analyzed by micro-CT. We report that 8 weeks after DSI there is a significant increase in the weight of spleen, thymus and visceral (retroperitoneal) fat pads. Expression of intestinal cytokines and tight junction proteins are also altered 8 weeks post-DSI. Interestingly, L. reuteri treatment was found to display both intestinal region- and inflammation-dependent effects. Unexpectedly we identified that 1) L. reuteri treatment increased bone density in females but only in those that underwent DSI and 2) DSI benefited cortical bone parameters. In the bone marrow, dorsal surgery induced CD4+ T cell numbers, a response that was unaffected by L. reuteri treatment, whereas expression of RANKL, OPG and IL-10 were significantly affected by L. reuteri treatment. Our data reveals a previously unappreciated effect of a mild surgical procedure causing a long-lasting effect on inflammatory gene expression in the gut and the bone. Additionally, we demonstrate that in intact female mice, the beneficial effect of L. reuteri on bone requires an elevated inflammatory status.

  19. Loss of bone strength in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is characterized by a high bone turnover and is mainly osteoclast-driven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Martina; Thiele, Sylvia; Fert, Ingrid; Araujo, Luiza M; Layh-Schmitt, Gerlinde; Colbert, Robert A; Hofbauer, Christine; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Bürki, Alexander; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Pietschmann, Peter; Taurog, Joel D; Breban, Maxime; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2015-06-01

    Although osteopenia is frequent in spondyloarthritis (SpA), the underlying cellular mechanisms and association with other symptoms are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize bone loss during disease progression, determine cellular alterations, and assess the contribution of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to bone loss in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Bones of 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old non-transgenic, disease-free HLA-B7 and disease-associated HLA-B27 transgenic rats were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, μCT, and nanoindentation. Cellular characteristics were determined by histomorphometry and ex vivo cultures. The impact of IBD was determined using [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats, which develop arthritis and spondylitis, but not IBD. HLA-B27 transgenic rats continuously lost bone mass with increasing age and had impaired bone material properties, leading to a 3-fold decrease in bone strength at 12 months of age. Bone turnover was increased in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, as evidenced by a 3-fold increase in bone formation and a 6-fold increase in bone resorption parameters. Enhanced osteoclastic markers were associated with a larger number of precursors in the bone marrow and a stronger osteoclastogenic response to RANKL or TNFα. Further, IBD-free [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats also displayed decreased total and trabecular bone density. HLA-B27 transgenic rats lose an increasing amount of bone density and strength with progressing age, which is primarily mediated via increased bone remodeling in favor of bone resorption. Moreover, IBD and bone loss seem to be independent features of SpA in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  1. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  2. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus

    2015-01-01

    and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We...... mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen...... synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals....

  3. A multi-method assessment of bone maintenance and loss in an Imperial Roman population: Implications for future studies of age-related bone loss in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchesne, Patrick; Agarwal, Sabrina C

    2017-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of contemporary osteoporosis and bone loss is dramatically higher prevalence of loss and fragility in females post-menopause. In contrast, bioarchaeological studies of bone loss have found a greater diversity of age- and sex-related patterns of bone loss in past populations. We argue that the differing findings may relate to the fact that most studies use only a single methodology to quantify bone loss and do not account for the heterogeneity and complexity of bone maintenance across the skeleton and over the life course. We test the hypothesis that bone mass and maintenance in trabecular bone sites versus cortical bone sites will show differing patterns of age-related bone loss, with cortical bone sites showing sex difference in bone loss that are similar to contemporary Western populations, and trabecular bone loss at earlier ages. We investigated this hypothesis in the Imperial Roman population of Velia using three methods: radiogrammetry of the second metacarpal (N = 71), bone histology of ribs (N = 70), and computerized tomography of trabecular bone architecture (N = 47). All three methods were used to explore sex and age differences in patterns of bone loss. The suite of methods utilized reveal differences in the timing of bone loss with age, but all methods found no statistically significant differences in age-related bone loss. We argue that a multi-method approach reduces the influence of confounding factors by building a reconstruction of bone turnover over the life cycle that a limited single-method project cannot provide. The implications of using multiple methods beyond studies of bone loss are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Local vibration enhanced the efficacy of passive exercise on mitigating bone loss in hindlimb unloading rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunfei; Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lianwen; Bi, Jingfang; Wang, Ying; Fan, Yubo

    2017-08-01

    Spaceflight induced bone loss is seriously affecting astronauts. Mechanical stimulation from exercise has been shown to restrain bone resorption as well as improve bone formation. Current exercise countermeasures in space cannot prevent it completely. Active exercise may convert to passive exercise in some ways because of the loss of gravity stimulus and inertia of exercise equipment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive exercise or/and local vibration on counteracting the deterioration of the musculoskeletal system, including bone, muscle and tendons in tail-suspended rats. We hypothesized that local vibration could enhance the efficacy of passive exercise on countering bone loss. 40 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS+35 Hz vibration (TSV), TS + passive exercise (TSP), TS + passive exercise coupled with 35 Hz vibration (TSPV) and control (CON). Passive exercise or/and local vibration was performed for 21 days. On day 0 and 21, bone mineral density (BMD) was observed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and trabecular microstructure was evaluated by microcomputer tomography (μCT) analysis in vivo. Mechanical properties of tibia and tendon were determined by a mechanical testing system. Soleus and bone ash weight was tested by an electronic balance. Results showed that the passive exercise could not prevent the decrease of trabecular BMD, microstructure and bone ash weight induced by TS, whereas vibration and passive exercise coupled with local vibration (PV) could. Biomechanical properties of the tibia and tendon in TSPV group significantly increased compared with TS group. In summary, PV in this study was the best method in preventing weightlessness-induced bone loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, local vibration partly enhanced the effect of passive exercise. Furthermore, this study will be useful in improving countermeasure for astronauts, but also for the

  5. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  6. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Influence of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue on Bone Loss and of Osteocalcin on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira L. Mendonça

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow adipose tissue has been associated with low bone mineral density. However, no data exist regarding marrow adipose tissue in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder associated with bone loss in conditions of high bone turnover. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between marrow adipose tissue, bone mass and parathyroid hormone. The influence of osteocalcin on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also evaluated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university hospital, involving 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT and 21 controls (CG. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and marrow adipose tissue was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biochemical evaluation included the determination of parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: A negative association was found between the bone mass at the 1/3 radius and parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.69; p<0.01. Marrow adipose tissue was not significantly increased in patients (CG = 32.8±11.2% vs PHPT = 38.6±12%. The serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in patients (CG = 8.6±3.6 ng/mL vs PHPT = 36.5±38.4 ng/mL; p<0.005, but no associations were observed between osteocalcin and insulin or between insulin and both marrow adipose tissue and bone mass. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the increment of adipogenesis in the bone marrow microenvironment under conditions of high bone turnover due to primary hyperparathyroidism is limited. Despite the increased serum levels of osteocalcin due to primary hyperparathyroidism, these patients tend to have impaired insulin sensitivity.

  7. Does platform switching really prevent crestal bone loss around implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hagiwara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To maintain long-term implant stability, it is important to minimize bone loss around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown a mean marginal bone loss around dental implants of 1.5–2 mm in the first year after prosthetic restoration. Currently, concepts to prevent bone loss around dental implants have been reported as the platform switching (PLS. This technique use of prosthetic abutments with reduced width in relation to the implant platform diameter seems to have the greatest potential to limit the crestal resorption. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanism of action or the extent of bone loss prevention, and as such, it is difficult to say that the effect of PLS has been thoroughly examined. Excluding case reports, articles on PLS can be broadly categorized into: (1 radiographic evaluation of crestal bone level in humans, (2 histological and histomorphometrical analysis in animals, or (3 finite element analysis. This review revealed a shortage of published data for above three categories related PLS. Researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of action of PLS; however, it is necessary to conduct further studies, including histological studies using animals, to clarify the mechanism fully.

  8. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. Influence of disease activity, duration of the disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Florescu, A; Stoltenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Axial and appendicular bone mass were studied in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aims were to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate the importance of disease activity, duration of disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment for bone loss in patients...... activity at the time of investigation. By contrast, BMDARM was decreased in patients with active disease. BMD in any of the three measured locations was not directly correlated to duration of the disease. However, the bone mass in the appendicular skeleton was already decreased within the first two years...... to clinical improvement, which may counteract the expected negative effect of these drugs on bone in rheumatoid arthritis....

  9. A postmenopausal osteoporotic woman losing bone mineral density despite bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai PSM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogues, with a strong affinity for bones. They inhibit bone resorption and are currently the first choice of treatment for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates should be taken in a specific manner and for at least one year to be effective in the maintenance and improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, as well as for protection against fractures. We report a case of a postmenospausal osteoporotic woman who lost BMD despite being on bisphosphonate therapy for eight years, highlighting issues that a primary care doctor needs to address before deciding on the next best option.

  10. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; García-Manzanares, Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    coeliac disease (CD) affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D) determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  11. Mineral density and bone remodelling markers in patients with calcium lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; de Haro-Munoz, Tomas; Lopez-Leon, Victor M; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Ochoa-Hortal, Miguel Angel; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Lahoz-Garcia, Clara; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Hypercalciuria is related with bone mineral density loss. This study demonstrates the relationship between recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and bone mineral density loss and their correlation with bone markers. • To show that a relationship exists between the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium renal lithiasis and that bone remodelling markers correlate with changes in BMD. • It is possible that many cases hypercalciuria are related to the increase of bone turnover and the predominance of bone resorption phenomena. • The present study comprised a transversal investigation in three groups: group O, without lithiasis; group A, with a single episode of lithiasis; and group B, with relapsed calcium renal lithiasis. • An analysis was made of body mass index; abdominal X-ray and/or urography and renal ultrasonography; osteocalcin and β-crosslaps bone markers; calcium and citrate concentrations in the urine; and femur and spinal column bone densitometry. • The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. • Patients with relapsed calcium renal lithiasis present a greater BMD loss than those in the O or A groups. • Densitometry: T-score femur -0.2 group O, -0.5 group A, -1.2 group B (P= 0.001); T-score column -0.6 group O, -0.6 group A, -1.3 group B (P= 0.05). • A statistically significant negative correlation exists between values of β-crosslaps and T-score femur (R=-0.251; P= 0.009) and T-score column (R=-0.324; P= 0.001); thus, a higher concentration of β-crosslaps was accompanied by a lower value of the T-score and a greater loss of BMD. • A positive relationship is observed between β-crosslaps and osteocalcin (R= 0.611; P lithiasis. • Determination of bone remodelling markers (i.e. osteocalcin and β-crosslaps) facilitates the diagnosis of osteopaenia/osteoporosis in these patients. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  12. Impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gawad Soma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by osteoporosis with higher incidence of fracture rates. The present work aimed to study bone status in hyperthyroidism and to elucidate the impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD. Methods Fifty-two male patients with hyperthyroidism, 31 with Graves' disease (GD and 21 with toxic multinodular goiter (TNG, with an age ranging from 23 to 65 years were included, together with 25 healthy euthyroid men with matched age as a control group. In addition to full clinical examination, patients and controls were subjected to measurement of BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometery scanning of the lower half of the left radius. Also, some biochemical markers of bone turnover were done for all patients and controls. Results Biochemical markers of bone turnover: included serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, carboxy terminal telopeptide of type l collagen also, urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links (DXP, urinary DXP/urinary creatinine ratio and urinary calcium/urinary creatinine ratio were significantly higher in patients with GD and TNG compared to controls (P 0.05. BMD was significantly lower in GD and TNG compared to controls, but the Z-score of BMD at the lower half of the left radius in patients with GD (-1.7 ± 0.5 SD was not significantly different from those with TNG (-1.6 ± 0.6 SD (>0.05. There was significant positive correlation between free T3 and free T4 with biochemical markers of bone turnover, but negative correlation between TSH and those biochemical markers of bone turnover. The duration of the thyrotoxic state positively correlated with the assessed bone turnover markers, but it is negatively correlated with the Z-score of BMD in the studied hyperthyroid patients (r = -0.68, P Conclusion Men with hyperthyroidism have significant bone loss with higher biochemical markers of bone

  13. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  14. Association Between Dietary Fiber Intake and Bone Loss in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Zhang, Yuqing; Lu, Na; Felson, David T; Kiel, Douglas P; Sahni, Shivani

    2018-02-01

    Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between sexes. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L 2 to L 4 ) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up BMD was measured in 2001-2005 and 2005-2008 among 792 men (mean age 58.1 years; BMI 28.6 kg/m 2 ) and 1065 women (mean age 57.3 years; BMI 27.2 kg/m 2 ). We used sex-specific generalized estimating equations in multivariable regressions to estimate the difference (β) of annualized BMD change in percent (%ΔBMD) at each skeletal site per 5 g/d increase in dietary fiber. We further estimated the adjusted mean for bone loss (annualized %ΔBMD) among participants in each higher quartile (Q2, Q3, or Q4) compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1) of fiber intake. Higher dietary total fiber (β = 0.06, p = 0.003) and fruit fiber (β = 0.10, p = 0.008) was protective against bone loss at the femoral neck in men but not in women. When examined in quartiles, men in Q2-Q4 of total fiber had significantly less bone loss at the femoral neck versus those in Q1 (all p fiber from vegetables appeared to be protective against spine bone loss in women but not men. There were no associations with cereal fiber or nut and legume fiber and bone loss in men or women. Our findings suggest that higher dietary fiber may modestly reduce bone loss in men at the hip. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  16. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT...

  17. Genetic and Dyanmic Analysis of Murine Peak Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    years of age (1-3). As bone density decreases with age, the risk of osteoporotic fractures increases, especially when the density falls below the...fracture threshold. This relationship suggests that the risk of osteoporotic fracture can be defined in terms of two characteristics - the peak bone...two inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H), with highly significant differences in peak BMD in vertebrae (12%), tibia (20%), and

  18. Staged subtalar fusion for severe calcaneus fractures with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chad G; Coffey, Michael J; Shorten, Peter; Lyions, James D; Laughlin, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    With high energy fractures to the calcaneus there is the potential for significant bone loss. The loss of bone can make it difficult to fully regain calcaneal alignment. In addition these fractures are often associated with significant soft tissue injury. These two factors make it difficult to address this injury in a single stage, and can have significant complications. To address these issues our initial goal in treatment has been restoration of calcaneal alignment and stabilization of the surrounding soft tissue, followed by delayed/staged subtalar arthrodesis. Patients with calcaneus fractures treated by a single surgeon from 2002 to 2012 were reviewed. Injuries which were found to have medial extrusion of the posterior facet and bone loss, and subsequently underwent a staged protocol involving early provisional fixation and late subtalar fusion were included. We treated 6 calcaneus fractures with bone loss. All patients were treated with staged subtalar fusion after initial irrigation and debridement and provisional fixation. No soft-tissue complications were noted after the fusion procedure in any of the six cases. Fusion occurred in all six patients at an average of 20.6 weeks (range, 13-23 weeks). All patients were able to ambulate and wear a regular shoe by one year following the initial injury. It is important in the high energy calcaneus fracture to assess for both soft tissue integrity and bone loss. A thorough debridement of both the soft tissues and any devitalized bone should be performed as well as provisional fixation which attempts to restore near normal calcaneal anatomy. Definitive fusion should not be performed until the soft tissues have fully recovered.

  19. Effect of Isokinetic Strength Training and Deconditioning on Bone Stiffness, Bone Density and Bone Turnover in Military-Aged Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, William

    2001-01-01

    ...) subgroups, based on whole body bone density measurements. Subjects then are randomly assigned within NBD and LBD subgroups for concentric (n = 30 LBD, a = 30 NBD) and eccentric (n = 30 LBD, n = 30 NBD) exercise training...

  20. Comparison of bone density measurement techniques: DXA and Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, M J; Hegsted, M; Jones, K L; Delany, J P; Kime, J C; Melancon, L E; Tulley, R T; Hong, K D

    1997-11-01

    The standard method for determination of density (g/cm3) of bones from small animals has been the application of Archimedes' principle. A recent development has been software for the determination of "density" (g/cm2) of small animal bones with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared Archimedes' principle and DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) in the measurement of the densities of whole and hollowed femurs of 5- to 6-month-old retired female breeder rats. In an attempt to ensure detectable treatment differences, rats were used from a low-vitamin D Holtzman and a supplemental-vitamin D Sprague-Dawley colony. Whole femur densities were higher for supplemental-vitamin D colony rats than for low vitamin D rats using both techniques (Archimedes' principle, p Archimedes' principle than for DXA. Other variables such as femur ash weight and calcium content were also highly correlated to densities with both techniques. Hollowed femur density values were higher than whole femur values with Archimedes' principle but lower with DXA. Colony effects for hollowed femur densities were diminished with Archimedes' principle (p < 0.03) and eliminated with DXA (p < 0.53). Investigation of whole bones is more biologically relevant, and both techniques were effective in detecting differences between whole femurs from low-vitamin D and supplemental-vitamin D colony rats.

  1. Limited Trabecular Bone Density Heterogeneity in the Human Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba Chirchir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence for variation in trabecular bone density and volume within an individual skeleton, albeit in a few anatomical sites, which is partly dependent on mechanical loading. However, little is known regarding the basic variation in trabecular bone density throughout the skeleton in healthy human adults. This is because research on bone density has been confined to a few skeletal elements, which can be readily measured using available imaging technology particularly in clinical settings. This study comprehensively investigates the distribution of trabecular bone density within the human skeleton in nine skeletal sites (femur, proximal and distal tibia, third metatarsal, humerus, ulna, radius, third metacarpal, and axis in a sample of N=20 individuals (11 males and 9 females. pQCT results showed that the proximal ulna (mean = 231.3 mg/cm3 and axis vertebra (mean = 234.3 mg/cm3 displayed significantly greater (p0.01. The homogeneity of the majority of elements suggests that these sites are potentially responsive to site-specific genetic factors. Secondly, the lack of correlation between elements (p>0.05 suggests that density measurements of one anatomical region are not necessarily accurate measures of other anatomical regions.

  2. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  3. Soy Isoflavones and Osteoporotic Bone Loss: A Review with an Emphasis on Modulation of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Lee, Sun-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder that affects both women and men, although estrogen deficiency induced by menopause accelerates bone loss in older women. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of men and women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Since the current drug therapies available have multiple side effects, including increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or complications, a search for potential nonpharmacologic alternative therapies for osteoporosis is of prime interest. Soy isoflavones (SI) have demonstrated potential bone-specific effects in a number of studies. This article provides a systematic review of studies on osteoporotic bone loss in relation to SI intake from diet or supplements to comprehensively explain how SI affect the modulation of bone remodeling. Evidence from epidemiologic studies supports that dietary SI attenuate menopause-induced osteoporotic bone loss by decreasing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Other studies have also illustrated that bone site-specific trophic and synergistic effects combined with exercise intervention might contribute to improve the bioavailability of SI or strengthen the bone-specific effects. To date, however, the effects of dietary SI on osteoporotic bone loss remain inconclusive, and study results vary from study to study. The current review will discuss the potential factors that result in the conflicting outcomes of these studies, including dosages, intervention materials, study duration, race, and genetic differences. Further well-designed studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanism and evaluate the effects of SI on osteoporosis in humans. PMID:26670451

  4. Bone transport and compression-distraction in the treatment of bone loss of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavini, Franco; Dall'Oca, Carlo; Bartolozzi, Pietro

    2010-11-01

    A clinical series of 17 adult patients operated due to significant by bone loss of the long bones of the lower extremity (3 femurs and 11 tibias), is presented. Their management consisted of 6 bone transports (6 tibias) and 11 compression distraction procedures (3 femurs and 8 tibiae) using monolateral external fixators. Bone loss ranged from 3.9 cm to 14.7 cm. Mean healing time was 301 days with a mean healing index of 45.6 days for cm of lengthening achieved. The clinical and radiological results were excellent in 9, good in 6 and fair in 2 patients according to the utilised criteria of assessment. Consolidation was achieved in all but one patient who developed an aseptic stiff non-union. Two patients developed residual limb-length discrepancy less than 1.5 cm, three tibias ended up with less than 5° of valgus deviation. In two cases the half-pins were re-inserted due to early loosening. In two cases reoperation was needed for late bending of the callus after fixator removal. Three cases of bone transport and 1 case of compression distraction needed bone grafting at the docking site. Bone transport and compression-distraction are effective methods for treating bone loss in the lower extremity. It is suggested that the compression-distraction technique is preferable, since this is associated with a lower incidence of complications than bone transport procedures. The deciding factor, however, is the actual extent of the bone loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  6. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G determines osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harre, Ulrike; Lang, Stefanie C; Pfeifle, René; Rombouts, Yoann; Frühbeißer, Sabine; Amara, Khaled; Bang, Holger; Lux, Anja; Koeleman, Carolien A; Baum, Wolfgang; Dietel, Katharina; Gröhn, Franziska; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Krönke, Gerhard; Kocijan, Roland; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Toes, René E M; Herrmann, Martin; Scherer, Hans Ulrich; Schett, Georg

    2015-03-31

    Immunglobulin G (IgG) sialylation represents a key checkpoint that determines the engagement of pro- or anti-inflammatory Fcγ receptors (FcγR) and the direction of the immune response. Whether IgG sialylation influences osteoclast differentiation and subsequently bone architecture has not been determined yet, but may represent an important link between immune activation and bone loss. Here we demonstrate that desialylated, but not sialylated, immune complexes enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we find that the Fc sialylation state of random IgG and specific IgG autoantibodies determines bone architecture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In accordance with these findings, mice treated with the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), which results in increased IgG sialylation, are less susceptible to inflammatory bone loss. Taken together, our findings provide a novel mechanism by which immune responses influence the human skeleton and an innovative treatment approach to inhibit immune-mediated bone loss.

  7. Amlexanox Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhong; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

    2015-09-04

    The activity of protein kinases IKK-ε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. As an inhibitor of IKK-ε and TBK1, amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulator and used for treatment of ulcer, allergic rhinitis and asthma in clinic. We hypothesized that amlexanox may be used for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases which frequently associated with a low grade of systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlexanox on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomy-mediated bone loss in vivo. In primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), amlexanox inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. At the molecular level, amlexanox suppressed RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), c-Fos and NFATc1. Amlexanox decreased the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. Moreover, amlexanox enhanced osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. In ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, amlexanox prevented OVX-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that amlexanox suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents OVX-induced bone loss. Therefore, amlexanox may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  9. Modulation and predictors of periprosthetic bone mineral density following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Behrens, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Bruhn, Sven; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD). Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2) to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1) the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2) the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count), and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008) 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ(2) = 0.002; df = 1; P = 0.96; χ(2)/df = 0.002; RMSEA high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  10. An assessment of osteoporosis and low bone density in postmenopausal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of bone mineral density and other risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal age group of Pakistani population and to compare them with premenopausal group. The risk factors of osteoporosis were studied both in premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. These risk factors can be exogenous or endogenous. Endogenous risk factors are aging, altered menstrual status, low bone mass, positive family history and oestrogen deficiency. Exogenous factors include lack of adequate nutrition (milk, calcium, vitamin D etc.) and lack of physical exercise. These risk factors were evaluated by taking history, recording height and weight, doing blood parameters and checking bone mineral density. Oestrogen level was carried out by the Eliza technique. Bone mass density was carried out by the bone heel densitometer. The data was analyzed statistically and the values of two groups were compared. The risk factors in postmenopausal group were low BMD, low oestrogen levels, poor intake of milk and calcium and lack of physical exercise. All women should get checked their BMD in this age group. Regular exercise and adequate calcium intake can still help in postmenopausal age group. (author)

  11. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Key words: Alveolar bone loss, chronic periodontitis, dental, furcation defect, radiography. Date of Acceptance: 19-Jan- ... cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the alveolar crest (AC) or the bottom of the bony ..... prognosis of periodontal healing of infrabony defects: Two different definitions of defect depth.

  12. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Endocrinology, radiology and histomorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    In 11 edentulous patients with a severe atrophy of the mandible and submitted for ridge augmentation, endocrinological, radiological and histomorphometrical studies were carried out. The results showed that metabolic bone loss, histologically in nearly all patients characterized as a disturbance in

  13. Interleukin-1 is essential for systemic inflammatory bone loss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzer, K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Gasser, J.; Distler, J.H.; Ruiz, G.; Baum, W.; Redlich, K.; Bobacz, K.; Smolen, J.S.; Berg, W. van den; Schett, G.; Zwerina, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for systemic bone loss leading to osteoporotic fracture and substantial morbidity and mortality. Inflammatory cytokines, particularly tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL1), are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of

  14. Patterns of bone loss around teeth restored with endodontic posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsamakis, S.; Timmerman, M.; van der Velden, U.; de Cleen, M.; van der Weijden, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study described the pattern of bone loss around teeth with endodontic posts in periodontitis patients, and compared it with contra-lateral teeth without posts. Material and Methods: From full-mouth radiographic surveys of 146 periodontitis patients (35 years), 194

  15. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between interdental and interradicular bone loss and clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred-twenty intraoral periapical radiographs of first molars were obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis ...

  16. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius [bone mineral content (BMC)] and total neutron activation analysis [total body calcium (TBCa)], respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements

  17. The effects of treadmill exercise training on hip bone density and tibial bone geometry in stroke survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Marco Y C; Lau, Ricky W K

    2010-05-01

    Individuals with stroke often sustain bone loss on the hemiparetic side and are prone to fragility fractures. Exercise training may be a viable way to promote bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in this population. This was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of a 6-month treadmill exercise program on hip BMD and tibial bone geometry in chronic stroke survivors. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke, with a mean age of 64.5 years and mean post-stroke duration of 8.3 years participated in the study. The treatment group underwent a treadmill gait exercise program (two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 months), whereas the control group participated in their usual self-selected activities in the community. The primary outcomes were hip BMD and bone geometry of the midshaft tibia on the paretic side, whereas the secondary outcomes were gait velocity, endurance, leg muscle strength, balance self-efficacy, and physical activity level. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the change in all outcome variables between the 2 groups after treatment. Significant between-group differences in change scores of tibial cortical thickness (P = .016), endurance ( P = .029), leg muscle strength on the paretic side (P exercise program induced a modest improvement in tibial bone geometry in individuals with chronic stroke. Further studies are required to explore the optimal training protocol for promoting favorable changes in bone parameters following stroke.

  18. Bisphosphonate as a Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Elisabeth; LeBlanc, A.; Sibonga, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Smith, S. M.; Shackelford, L.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Evans, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether anti-resorptive pharmaceuticals such as bisphosphonates, in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density and bone strength and the increased renal stone risk documented on previous long-duration space flights [1-3]. Losses averaged 1 to 2 percent per month in such regions as the lumbar spine and hip. Although losses showed significant heterogeneity among individuals and between bones within a given subject, space flight-induced bone loss was a consistent finding. More than 90 percent of astronauts and cosmonauts on long-duration flights (average 171 days) aboard Mir and the ISS, had a minimum 5 percent loss in at least one skeletal site, 40 percent of them had a 10 percent or greater loss in at least one skeletal site, and 22 percent of the Mir cosmonauts experienced a 15 to 20 percent loss in at least one site. These losses occurred even though the crewmembers performed time-consuming in-flight exercise regimens. Moreover, a recent study of 16 ISS astronauts using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) demonstrated trabecular bone losses from the hip averaging 2.3 percent per month [4]. These losses were accompanied by significant losses in hip bone strength that may not be recovered quickly [5]. This rapid loss of bone mass results from a combination of increased and uncoupled remodeling, as demonstrated by increased resorption with little or no change in bone formation markers [6-7]. This elevated remodeling rate likely affects the cortical and trabecular architecture and may lead to irreversible changes. In addition to bone loss, the resulting hypercalciuria increases renal stone risk. Therefore, it is logical to attempt to attenuate this increased remodeling with anti-resorption drugs such as bisphosphonates. Success with alendronate was demonstrated in a bed rest study [8]. This work has been extended to space

  19. Bone growth stimulators. New tools for treating bone loss and mending fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James F; Morley, Paul; Willick, Gordon E

    2002-01-01

    In the new millennium, humans will be traveling to Mars and eventually beyond with skeletons that respond to microgravity by self-destructing. Meanwhile in Earth's aging populations growing numbers of men and many more women are suffering from crippling bone loss. During the first decade after menopause all women suffer an accelerating loss of bone, which in some of them is severe enough to result in "spontaneous" crushing of vertebrae and fracturing of hips by ordinary body movements. This is osteoporosis, which all too often requires prolonged and expensive care, the physical and mental stress of which may even kill the patient. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is caused by the loss of estrogen. The slower development of osteoporosis in aging men is also due at least in part to a loss of the estrogen made in ever smaller amounts in bone cells from the declining level of circulating testosterone and is needed for bone maintenance as it is in women. The loss of estrogen increases the generation, longevity, and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The destructive osteoclast surge can be blocked by estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as well as antiosteoclast agents such as bisphosphonates and calcitonin. But these agents stimulate only a limited amount of bone growth as the unaffected osteoblasts fill in the holes that were dug by the now suppressed osteoclasts. They do not stimulate osteoblasts to make bone--they are antiresorptives not bone anabolic agents. (However, certain estrogen analogs and bisphosphates may stimulate bone growth to some extent by lengthening osteoblast working lives.) To grow new bone and restore bone strength lost in space and on Earth we must know what controls bone growth and destruction. Here we discuss the newest bone controllers and how they might operate. These include leptin from adipocytes and osteoblasts and the statins that are widely used to reduce blood cholesterol and cardiovascular damage. But

  20. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and triglycerides after treatment were statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Raloxifene appears to be an effective, well tolerated option for treating osteoporosis in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women, suitable for long term use with favorable effect on serum lipid profiles. Keywords: Bone mineral density, lipid metabolism, ...

  1. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  2. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Abstract Background and purpose: Children with hemophilia are at risk for reduced bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength and functional ability as a result of reduced leisure-time activity and less involvement in intense activities. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ...

  3. Does walking exercise improve bone mineral density of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before and after the training program both groups had anthropometric measurements and blood analysis. Bone mass density also was evaluated by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) .Each walking session was 30 min walking between 50-75% of maximal age adjusted heart rate, 3 days per week for 2 months.

  4. Bone mineral density among elderly patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is one of the major extra-pulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which limits the physical activity. The present study was undertaken to study the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in the elderly COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  5. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is currently a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and medical expense worldwide. Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty ...

  6. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  7. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  8. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density (QUS-BMD value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture. Methods: A total of 150 patients who were diagnosed with osteoporotic fracture in Nuclear Industry 417 Hospital between January 2010 and March 2017 were selected as the fracture group of the research, and 70 subjects with normal bone mineral density confirmed by physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group of the research. QUSBMD apparatus was used to measure bone mineral density of calcaneus, and the serum was collected to determine the biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone turnover. Results: QUS-BMD value as well as serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of fracture group was significantly lower than those of control group while serum TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those of subjects with normal bone mass while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of subjects with normal bone mass; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than those of patients with osteoporosis while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of patients with osteoporosis. Conclusion: Calcaneal QUS-BMD is valuable for evaluating the bone metabolism activity and bone turnover process in patients with osteoporotic fracture.

  9. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  10. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Patients Receiving Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Yıldırım

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine possible effects of anticonvulsant drugs on bone mineral density. Twenty two patients with epilepsy who have been receiving anticonvulsant drugs and also 22 healthy controls were included in the study. The average age was 28.9 ± 8.9 years in the patients group and 30.5 ± 6.9 years in the control group. The average drug receiving time was 6.45 ± 4.2 years. At baseline ESR, hemogram, urine deoxypiridinoline (DPD, routine biochemical and hormonal values were determined in both groups. Lumbar spine and left femur bone mineral density (BMD values were determined with hologic 2000 DEXA. In the statistical analysis, urine DPD levels in the patient group were significantly higher than control group (p0.05. Lumbar spine and left femur BMD values were significantly decreased in patients group (respectively p<0.01, p<0.001. We determined that in the patients using anticonvulsant drugs there was an increase in bone resorption and this effect was more evident in cortical bone than trabecular bone.

  12. Bone mineral density and inflammatory and bone biomarkers after darunavir-ritonavir combined with either raltegravir or tenofovir-emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1: a substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardino, Jose I.; Mocroft, Amanda; Mallon, Patrick W.; Wallet, Cedrick; Gerstoft, Jan; Russell, Charlotte; Reiss, Peter; Katlama, Christine; de Wit, Stephane; Richert, Laura; Babiker, Abdel; Buño, Antonio; Castagna, Antonella; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Chene, Genevieve; Raffi, Francois; Arribas, Jose R.; Dedes, Nikos; Allavena, Clotilde; Autran, Brigitte; Antinori, Andrea; Bucciardini, Raffaella; Vella, Stefano; Horban, Andrzej; Arribas, Jose; Babiker, Abdel G.; Boffito, Marta; Pillay, Deenan; Pozniak, Anton; Franquet, Xavier; Schwarze, Siegfried; Grarup, Jesper; Fischer, Aurelie; Diallo, Alpha; Molina, Jean-Michel; Saillard, Juliette; Moecklinghoff, Christiane; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; van Leeuwen, Remko; Gatell, Jose; Sandstrom, Eric; Flepp, Markus; Ewings, Fiona; George, Elizabeth C.; Hudson, Fleur; Pearce, Gillian; Quercia, Romina; Rogatto, Felipe; Leavitt, Randi; Nguyen, Bach-Yen; Goebel, Frank; Marcotullio, Simone; Kaur, Navrup; Sasieni, Peter; Spencer-Drake, Christina; Peto, Tim; Miller, Veronica; Raffi, François; Chêne, Geneviève; Arnault, Fabien; Boucherie, Céline; Fischer, Aurélie; Jean, Delphine; Paniego, Virginie; Paraina, Felasoa; Rouch, Elodie; Schwimmer, Christine; Soussi, Malika; Taieb, Audrey; Termote, Monique; Touzeau, Guillaume; Wallet, Cédrick; Cursley, Adam; Dodds, Wendy; Hoppe, Anne; Kummeling, Ischa; Pacciarini, Filippo; Paton, Nick; Taylor, Kay; Ward, Denise; Aagaard, Bitten; Eid, Marius; Gey, Daniela; Jensen, Birgitte Gram; Jakobsen, Marie-Louise; Jansson, Per O.; Jensen, Karoline; Joensen, Zillah Maria; Larsen, Ellen Moseholm; Pahl, Christiane; Pearson, Mary; Nielsen, Birgit Riis; Reilev, Søren Stentoft; Christ, Ilse; Lathouwers, Desiree; Mendy, Bienvenu Yves; Metro, Annie; Couffin-Cadiergues, Sandrine; Knellwolf, Anne-Laure; Palmisiano, Lucia; Aznar, Esther; Barea, Cristina; Cotarelo, Manuel; Esteban, Herminia; Girbau, Iciar; Moyano, Beatriz; Ramirez, Miriam; Saiz, Carmen; Sanchez, Isabel; Yllescas, Maria; Binelli, Andrea; Colasanti, Valentina; Massella, Maurizio; Anagnostou, Olga; Gioukari, Vicky; Touloumi, Giota; Schmied, Brigitte; Rieger, Armin; Vetter, Norbert; Florence, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Mathiesen, Lars; Cabie, Andre; Cheret, Antoine; Dupon, Michel; Ghosn, Jade; Goujard, Cécile; Lévy, Yves; Morlat, Philippe; Neau, Didier; Obadia, Martine; Perre, Philippe; Piroth, Lionel; Reynes, Jacques; Tattevin, Pierre; Ragnaud, Jean Marie; Weiss, Laurence; Yazdan, Yazdanpanah; Yeni, Patrick; Zucman, David; Behrens, Georg; Esser, Stefan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Hoffmann, Christian; Jessen, Heiko; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Schmidt, Reinhold; Stephan, Christoph; Unger, Stefan; Hatzakis, Angelos; Daikos, George L.; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Skoutelis, Athamasios; Banhegyi, Denes; Mallon, Paddy; Mulcahy, Fiona; Andreoni, Massimo; Bonora, Stefano; Castelli, Francesco; Monforte, Antonella D.'Arminio; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Mazzotta, Francesco; Carlo, Torti; Vullo, Vincenzo; Prins, Jan; Richter, Clemens; Verhagen, Dominique; van Eeden, Arne; Doroana, Manuela; Antunes, Francisco; Maltez, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Gonzalez Garcia, Juan; López Aldeguer, José; Clotet, Bonaventura; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Jose M.; Knobel, Hernando; Marquez, Manuel; Pilar Miralles, Martin; Portilla, Joaquin; Soriano, Vicente; Tellez, Maria-Jesus; Thalme, Anders; Blaxhult, Anders; Gisslen, Magnus; Winston, Alan; Fox, Julie; Gompels, Mark; Herieka, Elbushra; Johnson, Margaret; Leen, Clifford; Teague, Alastair; Williams, Ian; Boyd, Mark Alastair; Møller, Nina Friis; Frøsig, Ellen; Larsen, Moseholm; Le Moing, Vincent; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Kowalska, Justyna; Berenguer, Juan; Moreno, Santiago; Müller, Nicolas J.; Török, Estée; Post, Frank; Angus, Brian; Calvez, Vincent; Boucher, Charles; Collins, Simon; Dunn, David; Lambert, Sidonie; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Perno, Carlo Federico; White, Ellen; Ammassari, Adriana; Stoehr, Wolgang; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Odermarsky, Michal; Smith, Colette; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; de La Serna, Jose Ignacio Bernardino; Furrer, Hans-Jackob; Fragola, Vincenzo; Lauriola, Marco; Murri, Rita; Nieuwkerk, Pythia; Spire, Bruno; Volny-Anne, Alain; West, Brian; Amieva, Hélène; Codina, Josep Maria Llibre; Braggion, Marco; Focà, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Osteopenia, osteoporosis, and low bone mineral density are frequent in patients with HIV. We assessed the 96 week loss of bone mineral density associated with a nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI)-sparing regimen. Antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV were enrolled in 78

  13. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

  14. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  15. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of zoledronic acid and amifostine on radiation induced bone loss in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sueum; Kang, Sohi; Moon, Cahng Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeungeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham control and three irradiated groups (3 Gy, gamma ray). The irradiated mice were treated for 12 weeks with vehicle, amifostine (intraperitoneal injection), or ZA (subcutaneous injection). Grip strength, uterus weight, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) levels were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of ZA (100 μg·kg{sup -1}·week{sup -1}) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, and cortical bone volume, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. The administration of ZA for 12 weeks lowered serum ALP and TRAP levels in irradiated mice, suggesting that ZA can reduce the bone turnover rate in mice. No differences were apparent between the amifostine-treated group and the irradiation control group. The results indicate that ZA can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice.

  17. Cannabidiol administration reduces sublesional cancellous bone loss in rats with severe spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dehao; Lin, Zilin; Meng, Qingyi; Wang, Kun; Wu, Jiajia; Yan, Hongda

    2017-08-15

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo severe loss of bone mineral below the level of lesion, and data on available treatment options after SCI is scarce. The aim of this work was to investigate the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabis, on sublesional bone loss in a rat model of SCI. The adult male rats were exposed to surgical transection of the cord and treated with CBD for consecutive 14 days. It was found that CBD treatment elevated the serum levels of osteocalcin, reduced the serum levels of collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, and enhanced bone mineral density of tibiae and femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with CBD enhanced bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number, and reduced trabecular separation in proximal tibiae, and increased ultimate compressive load, stiffness, and energy to max force of femoral diaphysis. Treatment of SCI rats with CBD upregulated mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteoprotegerin and downregulated mRNA expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in femurs. Furthermore, treatment of SCI rats with CBD enhanced mRNA expression of wnt3a, Lrp5 and ctnnb1 in femurs. In conclusion, CBD administration attenuated SCI-induced sublesional cancellous bone loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  19. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  20. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathological bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X; Cao, J; Liu, T; Li, Y-P; Scannapieco, F; He, X; Oursler, M J; Zhang, X; Vacher, J; Li, C; Olson, D; Yang, S

    2015-12-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca(2+) oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12(fl/fl) cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss.

  1. Osteocalcin gene polymorphism and bone density in Hungarian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnyák, Edit; Trájer, Emese; Protzner, Anna; Komka, Zsolt; Györe, István; Szmodis, Márta; Tóth, Miklós

    Osteoporosis, a public health problem, is mainly determined on the basis of bone mineral density (BMD). The rs1800247 polymorphism of the osteocalcin gene is associated with BMD. The results of one recent Polish study led us to the examination of a possible connection between polymorphism and bone ultrasound parameters in the Hungarian population, including elite athletes. A total of 302 subjects participated in the study. Genotype analysis was carried out via a DNA chip, and anthropometric measurements were taken according to the International Biological Program. Sixty-three (63) of the participants were also measured by ultrasound bone densitometer. The genotype frequencies of osteocalcin polymorphism in the total sample were: 59.9% for hh; 36.1% for Hh; and 3.97% for HH. We separated the 63 subjects by the presence or absence of H allele, and there were no significant differences between the two groups, either in the anthropometric, or in the ultrasound parameters. In grouping the sample by genotypes, no differences were detectable in any of the bone characteristics. Compared to the controls, athletes had significantly higher results in all of the bone ultrasound values. The polymorphism of the osteocalcin gene showed no effect on bone quantity in the examined Hungarian population.

  2. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in korean premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.

  3. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.

  4. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other. Results: In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis

  5. CT-based bone density assessment for iliosacral screw trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schicho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sacroiliac screw placement is one standard treatment option for stabilization of posterior pelvic ring injuries encountering high intra- and inter-individual variations of bone stock quality as well as a vast variety and prevalence of sacral dysmorphism. An individual, easy-to-use preoperative bone stock quality estimation would be of high value for the surgeon. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 36 standard computed tomography datasets with the uninjured pelvic ring. Using a two-plane cross-referencing technique, we assessed the Hounsfield unit (HU mean values as well as standard deviation and minimum/maximum values within selected region of interests (ROIs at five key areas: os ilium left and right, massa lateralis of os sacrum left and right, and central vertebral body on levels S1 and S2. Results: Results showed no difference in mean HU at any ROI when comparing male and female data. For all ROIs set on S1 and S2, there was an age-related decline of HU with a calculated slope significantly different from zero. There was no statistical difference of slopes when comparing S1- and S2-level with respect to any distinct ROI. Comparison of levels S1 and S2 revealed differences at the vertebral body and at the right os ilium. The right and left massa lateralis of os sacrum had lower bone density than the center of the vertebral body, the right, or left os ilium on S1; right and left massa lateralis density did not differ significantly. On level S2, results were comparable with no difference of massa lateralis density. Conclusion: With our easy-to-use preoperative assessment of bone density of five key areas of sacroiliac screw anchoring we were able to find the lowest bone density in both the left and right massa lateralis on levels S1 and S2 with high inter- and intra-individual variations. Significantly lower bone density was found in the center of the vertebral bodies S2 in comparison to S1, which both are crucial for iliosacral

  6. Inactivity-induced bone loss is not exacerbated by moderate energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Boese, A.; Baecker, N.; Zittermann, A.; Smith, S. M.

    Severe energy restriction leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, adolescent females, and in male athletes. Astronauts in space also lose bone mass, and most of them have reduced energy intake (about 25 % below requirements). The aim of our study was to examine if bone loss in space is partly induced by moderate energy restriction. Physiological changes of space flight were simulated by 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR). Nine healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2, mean ± SD) finished four study phases, two of normocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR, and two of hypocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR. Urine samples (24 h) were analyzed for calcium excretion (UCaV) and bone resorption markers (C-Telopeptide, CTX, and N-Telopeptide, NTX). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone formation markers (Procollagen-I-C-terminal-Peptide, PICP, Procollagen-I-N-terminal-Peptide, PINP, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, bAP) were analyzed. No significant changes in serum calcium or PTH were noted either during HDBR or during hypocaloric nutrition. PICP, but not PINP or bAP, decreased significantly during HDBR (normocaloric: pnutrition or both (pnutrition in ambulatory and HDBR phases. In conclusion, moderate energy restriction did not exaggerate bone resorption during HDBR.

  7. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...

  8. Hyponatremia, bone mineral density and falls in the elderly; Results from AHAP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Seyed Reza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hyponatremia (HN can be associated with osteoporosis, falls and bone fractures in the elderly. Recent researches demonstrated different results about the correlation of HN with bone mineral density and bone fractures.

  9. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  10. Management of metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Beltrame, Arianna; Colombo, Elia; Miani, Enrick; Bassini, Fabrizio

    2017-06-07

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is usually made more complex by the presence of bone defects, which may be caused by periprosthethic infection, polyethylene wear, implant loosening or fractures. The main aim of the present work is to review the available literature to understand the current options to manage with the bone loss during knee revisions. Available English literature for bone defects in revision TKAs has been evaluated looking at treatment options and their results in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes and failure rates. Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute (AORI) classification is the most frequently used because it helps in the choice of the most suitable treatment. Several options are available in the management of metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty. For small and contained defects (AORI type 1) cement with or without screws and auto- or allograft morcellized bone are available. In uncontained but mild defects (AORI type 2A) metal augments should be use while large and uncontained defects (AORI type 2B and 3) are best addressed with structural allograft or metal filling devices (cones and sleeves). Stemmed components, either cemented or cementless, are recommended to reduce the strain at the interface implant-host. The treatment of bone defects in revision TKAs has evolved during the last years providing different options with good results at a short/medium term follow up. With the increasing revision burden, further scientific evidence is requested to identify the best approach for each patient. Long-term clinical outcome as well as implant survival after revision TKA are still sub-optimal and depend upon many factors including cause for revision, surgical approach, type of implants used and various patient factors.

  11. Basis of bone metabolism around dental implants during osseointegration and peri-implant bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Angel; Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay; Miron, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the growing number of publications in the field of implant dentistry, there are limited studies to date investigating the biology and metabolism of bone healing around dental implants and their implications in peri-implant marginal bone loss. The aim of this review article is to provide a thorough understanding of the biological events taking place during osseointegration and the subsequent early and late phases of bone remodeling around dental implants. An update on the coupling mechanism occurring during bone resorption-bone remodeling is provided, focused on the relevance of the osteocytes, bone lining cells and immune cells during bone maintenance. An electronic and manual literature search was conducted by three independent reviewers in several databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases for articles up to September 2016 with no language restriction. Local bone metabolism is subject to signals from systemic calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. Three areas of interest were reviewed due to recent reported compromises in bone healing including the putative effects of (1) cholesterol, (2) hyperlipidemia, and (3) low vitamin D intake. Moreover, the prominent influence of osteocytes and immune cells is discussed as being key regulators during dental implant osseointegration and maintenance. These cells are of crucial importance in the presence of biofilm accumulation and their associated byproducts that leads to hard and soft tissue breakdown; the so called peri-implantitis. Factors that could negatively impact osteoclastogenesis or osteal macrophage activation should be monitored in future research including implant placement/torque protocols, bone characteristics, as well as meticulous maintenance programs to favor osseointegration and future long-term stability and success of dental implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res

  12. The loss of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reduces bone toughness and fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Wadeer, Sandra A; Whitehead, Jack M; Rowland, Barbara J; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-05-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Men and Women in Space: Bone Loss and Kidney Stone Risk after Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Hudson, Edgar, K.; Shackelford, Linda; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss on Earth is more prevalent in women than men, leading to the assumption that women may be at greater risk from bone loss during flight. Until recently, the number of women having flown long-duration missions was too small to allow any type of statistical analysis. We report here data from 42 astronauts on long-duration missions to the International Space Station, 33 men and 9 women. Bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone biochemistry (from blood and urine samples), and renal stone risk factors were evaluated before and after flight. Data were analyzed in two groups, based on available resistance exercise equipment. The response of bone mineral density to flight was the same for men and women, and the typical decrease in bone mineral density (whole body and/or regional) after flight was not observed for either sex for those using an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device. Bone biochemistry, specifically markers of formation and resorption, generally responded similarly in male and female astronauts. The response of urinary supersaturation risk to space flight was not significantly different between men and women, although risks were typically increased after flight in both groups and risks were generally greater in men than in women before and after flight. Overall, the bone and renal stone responses of men and women to space flight were not different.

  14. Peak Bone Mineral Density Of Bangladeshi Men And Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilruba Akhter Banu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and brittle. It affects 55 of Americans aged 50 or above of which about 80 are women. Millions of fractures occur annually. An effective way of preventing osteoporosis is to maximize the attainment of peak bone mineral density pBMD. Thus the knowledge of average pBMD that prevails in a nation is very important. Not much study appears to have been done on the subject in Bangladesh. 170 Bangladeshi patients and volunteers were studied at nuclear medicine centers of Comilla and Rajshahi. Bone mineral densities BMD at different sites of the skeleton were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer DXA. Graphs of Age versus BMD were plotted. Data was fitted with the help of polynomials. The best fit was obtained with polynomials of degree 4 in each case. By using bootstrapping method a large number of samples were generated and pBMD was obtained from each of the samples. Mean value of the pBMD was then calculated. pBMD values of the male patients were found to be slightly greater than those of the females. During puberty gender differences become more expressed. After the age of 50 females lose bones more rapidly and quantitatively than males. Bangladeshis seem to belong to the group of nations having low pBMDs.

  15. Bone density determination using I125 densitometry with idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, N.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the assumption that radiographs from patients with idiopathic scoliosis show osteoporotic changes in the curved area, investigation with I 125 -densitometry were made, and specifically with measurement points at the ulna and the calcaneus. A difference in the bone density between patients with scoliosis and normal controls could not be proven. The mineral-salt content of the scoliosis patients lay on the average 6.5 to 9.3% lower than the normal controls. No relation could be found between the degree of curvature of the scoliosis and the peripheral bone density, from which it can be concluded that no generalized mineral-salt deficiency exists. Radiographs show only local changes (photo densitometry, computed tomography). (TRV) [de

  16. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhi, Xin; Pan, Panpan; Cui, Jin; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhou, Qirong; Wang, Lin; Zhai, Xiao; Zhao, Qingiie; Hu, Honggang; Huang, Biaotong; Su, Jiacan

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone density and strength due to excessive loss of bone protein and mineral content. The imbalance between osteogenesis by osteoblasts and osteoclastogenesis by osteoclasts contributes to the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen withdrawal leads to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Overactivated osteoclasts by inflammation play a vital role in the imbalance. Matrine is an alkaloid found in plants from the Sophora genus with various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here we demonstrate that matrine significantly prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inhibited osteoclastogenesis in vivo with decreased serum levels of TRAcp5b, TNF-α, and IL-6. In vitro matrine significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF in bone marrow monocytes and RAW264.7 cells as demonstrated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and actin-ring formation as well as bone resorption through pit formation assays. For molecular mechanisms, matrine abrogated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, AKT, and MAPK pathways and suppressed osteoclastogenesis-related marker expression, including matrix metalloproteinase 9, NFATc1, TRAP, C-Src, and cathepsin K. Our study demonstrates that matrine inhibits osteoclastogenesis through modulation of multiple pathways and that matrine is a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis.—Chen, X., Zhi, X., Pan, P., Cui, J., Cao, L., Weng, W., Zhou, Q., Wang, L., Zhai, X. Zhao, Q., Hu, H., Huang, B., Su, J. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:28739641

  17. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L.; Ruff, Christopher B.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  18. Change in bone mineral density as a function of age in women and men and association with the use of antiresorptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Joseph, Lawrence; Hanley, David A; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Goltzman, David

    2008-06-17

    Measurement of bone mineral density is the most common method of diagnosing and assessing osteoporosis. We sought to estimate the average rate of change in bone mineral density as a function of age among Canadians aged 25-85, stratified by sex and use of antiresorptive agents. We examined a longitudinal cohort of 9423 participants. We measured the bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck at baseline in 1995-1997, and at 3-year (participants aged 40-60 years only) and 5-year follow-up visits. We used the measurements to compute individual rates of change. Bone loss in all 3 skeletal sites began among women at age 40-44. Bone loss was particularly rapid in the total hip and was greatest among women aged 50-54 who were transitioning from premenopause to postmenopause, with a change from baseline of -6.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] -7.5% to -4.9%) over 5 years. The rate of decline, particularly in the total hip, increased again among women older than 70 years. Bone loss in all 3 skeletal sites began at an earlier age (25-39) among men than among women. The rate of decline of bone density in the total hip was nearly constant among men 35 and older and then increased among men older than 65. Use of antiresorptive agents was associated with attenuated bone loss in both sexes among participants aged 50-79. The period of accelerated loss of bone mineral density in the hip bones occurring among women and men older than 65 may be an important contributor to the increased incidence of hip fracture among patients in that age group. The extent of bone loss that we observed in both sexes indicates that, in the absence of additional risk factors or therapy, repeat testing of bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis could be delayed to every 5 years.

  19. Dietary flavonoid kaempferol inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss by promoting osteoblast survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Sulekha; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Ahmad, Naseer; Karvande, Anirudha; Kumar, Avinash; Banala, Venkatesh Teja; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan; Trivedi, Ritu

    2018-02-13

    Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to reverse osteopenic condition in ovariectomized rats. Because kaempferol is endowed with osteogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine whether it has a beneficial effect on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss. Adult female rats were divided into four groups as control (vehicle; distilled water), methylprednisolone (MP; 5 mg•kg•d, subcutaneously), MP + kaempferol (5 mg•kg•d, oral), and MP + human parathyroid 1-34 (30 µg/kg, 5 times/wk, subcutaneously) and treated for 4 wk. To study the antagonizing effect of kaempferol on GC-induced inhibition of fracture healing, drill-hole injury was performed on control and GC-treated rats. An oral dose of kaempferol was given for 14 d to observe the effect on callus formation at the site of injury. After treatment, bones were collected for further analysis. GC was associated with a decreased bone mineral density and impaired bone microarchitecture parameters. Consumption of kaempferol induced bone-sparing effects in GC-induced osteopenic condition. Additionally, improved callus formation at site of drill injury in femur diaphysis was observed with kaempferol consumption in animals on GC. Consistent with the in vivo data, kaempferol elicited a higher expression of osteogenic markers in vitro and antagonized the apoptotic effect of dexamethasone on calvarial osteoblasts. These results suggested that kaempferol reduced GC-induced bone loss and enhanced bone regeneration at fractured site, thus emphasizing the positive role of flavonoids on bone health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  1. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  2. Evaluation of bone mineral density in children receiving antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, R; Okutan, V; Sarici, U; Altunbas, A; Gökçay, E

    1998-08-01

    The effects of the valproic acid and carbamazepine monotherapies on bone mineral density were evaluated. Bone mineral density was measured in 53 children with primary epilepsy taking either valproic acid (n = 25) or carbamazepine (n = 28) for longer than 1 year and in a healthy control group (n = 26) by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry method at L2-L4 levels of lumbar vertebrae. The mean serum levels of valproic acid and carbamazepine were 66 +/- 2.2 microg/mL and 7.0 +/- 9.3 microg/mL, respectively, and the mean duration of treatment for each drug was 2.4 +/- 0.2 years and 2.6 +/- 0.5 years, respectively. Calcium intakes in diet were similar in both the control and study groups. The serum levels of calcium and phosphorus in all groups were normal. Bone mineral density values of both valproic acid and carbamazepine groups were not statistically different from that of the control group (P > 0.05).

  3. Correlation of periodontal status and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a digital radiographic and quantitative ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, S B; Kumar, Veerendra; Kumar, Sheela; Shashikumar, Pratibha; Shashikumar, Y; Patel, Punit Vaibhav

    2011-01-01

    Data suggest that postmenopausal women with osteoporosis are at an increased risk for periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss; however, the extent of relationship between these two diseases is still not clear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation of periodontal status and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. The study population included 60 postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years (mean±SD: 55.5±3.4 years). Periodontal status was examined by plaque index, bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Digital panoramic radiograph was taken to measure the maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone density values. Skeletal (calcaneal) BMD was measured by quantitative ultrasound technique for T-score values. The recorded data for T-score, maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone densities, and periodontal status were subjected to statistical analysis for correlation and regression procedures. The results showed that mandibular alveolar (r=0.907, P0.05). Calcaneal BMD was related to alveolar bone loss and, to a lesser extent, to clinical attachment loss, implicating postmenopausal bone loss as a risk indicator for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women.

  4. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    increases in bone mineral density. Alendronate did not increase bone mineral density of the forearm, but it slowed the loss. The responses to estrogen-progestin were 1 to 2 percentage points greater than those to the 5-mg dose of alendronate. Alendronate was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar...... to that of placebo or estrogen-progestin. CONCLUSIONS: Alendronate prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age to nearly the same extent as estrogen-progestin.......BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...

  5. Whole-exome sequencing reveals a heterozygous LRP5 mutation in a 6-year-old boy with vertebral compression fractures and low trabecular bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Majewski, Jacek; Roughley, Peter; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rauch, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Juvenile osteoporosis (JO) is characterized by bone fragility during development, low bone mass and absence of extraskeletal features. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in LRP5 have been found in a few patients, but bone tissue and bone material abnormalities associated with such mutations have not been determined. Here we report on a 6-year-old boy who presented with a history of seven low-energy long-bone fractures starting at 19months of age and absence of extraskeletal involvement. Spine radiographs revealed multiple vertebral compression fractures. Despite tall stature (95th percentile), lumbar spine areal bone mineral density was low (z-score=-3.2). Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density, measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal radius, was low (z-score=-5.1), but cortical thickness at the radial diaphysis was normal. Iliac bone histomorphometry demonstrated low bone formation activity in trabecular but not in cortical bone. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging showed normal material bone density in trabecular bone, but elevated results in the cortex. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous insertion of a nucleotide in exon 12 of LRP5. This mutation had previously been reported in another JO patient and had been shown to lead to nonsense-mediated decay. Thus, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in LRP5 can be associated with a bone formation deficit that affects mostly the trabecular compartment and can result in bone fragility during the first years of life. © 2013.

  6. Association of pioglitazone treatment with decreased bone mineral density in obese premenopausal patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Andersen, Mikael; Hagen, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study at an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. PATIENTS......, sex hormones, and body composition. CONCLUSION: Pioglitazone treatment was followed by decreased lumbar and hip BMD and decreased measures of bone turnover in a premenopausal study population relatively protected from bone mineral loss Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  7. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  8. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind...... limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (a......BMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, P

  9. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  10. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  11. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Schneede, J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods In

  12. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strause, L; Saltman, P; Smith, K T; Bracker, M; Andon, M B

    1994-07-01

    The effects of calcium supplementation (as calcium citrate malate, 1000 mg elemental Ca/d) with and without the addition of zinc (15.0 mg/d), manganese (5.0 mg/d) and copper (2.5 mg/d) on spinal bone loss (L2-L4 vertebrae) was evaluated in healthy older postmenopausal women (n = 59, mean age 66 y) in a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes (mean +/- SEM) in bone density were -3.53 +/- 1.24% (placebo), -1.89 +/- 1.40% (trace minerals only), -1.25 +/- 1.46% (calcium only) and 1.48 +/- 1.40% (calcium plus trace minerals). Bone loss relative to base-line value was significant (P = 0.0061) in the placebo group but not in the groups receiving trace minerals alone, calcium alone, or calcium plus trace minerals. The only significant group difference occurred between the placebo group and the group receiving calcium plus trace minerals (P = 0.0099). These data suggest that bone loss in calcium-supplemented, older postmenopausal women can be further arrested by concomitant increases in trace mineral intake.

  13. Axial and appendicular bone density predict fractures in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. M.; Cummings, S. R.; Genant, H. K.; Nevitt, M. C.; Palermo, L.; Browner, W.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether measurement of hip and spine bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) predicts fractures in women and to compare the predictive value of DEXA with that of single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of appendicular sites, we prospectively studied 8134 nonblack women age 65 years and older who had both DEXA and SPA measurements of bone mass. A total of 208 nonspine fractures, including 37 wrist fractures, occurred during the follow-up period, which averaged 0.7 years. The risk of fracture was inversely related to bone density at all measurement sites. After adjusting for age, the relative risks per decrease of 1 standard deviation in bone density for the occurrence of any fracture was 1.40 for measurement at the proximal femur (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.63) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58) for measurement at the spine. Results were similar for all regions of the proximal femur as well as SPA measurements at the calcaneus, distal radius, and proximal radius. None of these measurements was a significantly better predictor of fractures than the others. Furthermore, measurement of the distal radius was not a better predictor of wrist fracture (relative risk 1.64: 95% CI 1.13-2.37) than other sites, such as the lumbar spine (RR 1.56; CI 1.07-2.26), the femoral neck (RR 1.65; CI 1.12-2.41), or the calcaneus (RR 1.83; CI 1.26-2.64). We conclude that the inverse relationship between bone mass and risk of fracture in older women is similar for absorptiometric measurements made at the hip, spine, and appendicular sites.

  14. Marginal bone loss in implants placed in grafted maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Fernández-Jiménez, Andrés; O'Valle, Francisco; Silvestre, Francisco J; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Monje, Alberto; Catena, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vertical and horizontal graft bone resorption (GR) in grafted maxillary sinuses and the marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants placed in the sinuses with different prosthetic connections and to determine the effect of other clinical factors on these tissue responses at 6 and 18 months postloading. A total of 254 implants were placed in 150 grafted maxillary sinuses of 101 patients (51.5% female) with mean age of 52.2 years (range, 32-82 years). GR and MBL measurements were made in implants placed with two different prosthetic connections (internal and external) at 6 and 18 months postloading. The complex samples general linear model was used to analyze the influence of patient age, gender, smoking habit, history of periodontal disease, implantation timing (simultaneous vs deferred), and prosthetic abutment length on radiographic GR and MBL values. At 18 months postloading, the MBL ranged from 0 mm to 5.89 mm; less than 1 mm was lost around 49.0% (mesial) and 44.3% (distal) of the implants, while no bone was lost around 32.9% (mesial) and 26.7% (distal). The GR was significantly affected by smoking, remnant alveolar bone height, graft length, graft height, gender, and age, and it significantly decreased over time. The MBL was influenced by the type of connection, implantation timing, and prosthetic abutment length. The MBL was greater with longer postloading interval and higher patient age and in smokers. Resorption of grafts that combine autogenous cortical bone with anorganic bovine bone is dependent on the anatomic features of the sinus and is not affected by the time elapsed after the first 6 months. The MBL in implants placed in these grafted areas is time dependent and mainly related to potentially modifiable clinical decisions and patient habits. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway Mediates Inhalant Organic Dust-Induced Bone Loss.

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    Elizabeth Staab

    Full Text Available Agriculture workers have increased rates of airway and skeletal disease. Inhalant exposure to agricultural organic dust extract (ODE induces bone deterioration in mice; yet, mechanisms underlying lung-bone crosstalk remain unclear. Because Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and TLR4 are important in mediating the airway consequences of ODE, this study investigated their role in regulating bone responses. First, swine facility ODE stimulated wild-type (WT bone marrow macrophages to form osteoclasts, and this finding was inhibited in TLR4 knock-out (KO, but not TLR2 KO cells. Next, using an established intranasal inhalation exposure model, WT, TLR2 KO and TLR4 KO mice were treated daily with ODE or saline for 3 weeks. ODE-induced airway neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine release were similarly reduced in TLR2 and TLR4 KO animals as compared to WT mice. Utilizing micro-computed tomography (CT, analysis of tibia showed loss of bone mineral density, volume and deterioration of bone micro-architecture and mechanical strength induced by ODE in WT mice were significantly reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO animals. Bone marrow osteoclast precursor cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry from exposed animals. In WT animals, exposure to inhalant ODE increased osteoclast precursor cell populations as compared to saline, an effect that was reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO mice. These results show that TLR2 and TLR4 pathways mediate ODE-induced airway inflammation, but bone deterioration consequences following inhalant ODE treatment is strongly dependent upon TLR4. Thus, the TLR4 signaling pathway appears critical in regulating the lung-bone inflammatory axis to microbial component-enriched organic dust exposures.

  17. Cadmium-induced bone loss: Increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sacco-Gibson, N.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bone resorption, as measured by release of bone {sup 45}Ca, was significantly increased in elderly female beagles within 96 h of exposure to 15 mg/L Cd in drinking water. The {sup 45}Ca response was greater in ovariecotomized (OV) animals than in sham-operated (SO) controls and was not mediated by changes in calciotropic hormone concentrations. Mean blood Cd concentrations were 3--8 {mu}g/L during the earliest bone resorption response and 13--15 {mu}g/L at the end of the study. During 7 mo of Cd exposure, bone mineral densities decreased most in the OV animals exposed to Cd: {minus}15.4 {plus minus} 4.3% for the tibia distal end and {minus}7.2 {plus minus} 1.2% for the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) (mean {plus minus} SE, n=4). Results indicate that Cd may act directly on bone and that postmenopausal women exposed to Cd in industry or via cigarette smoke may be at increased risk of Cd-induced bone loss. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on  Methotrexate Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice M C; Shandala, Tetyana; Soo, Pei Pei; Su, Yu-Wen; King, Tristan J; Chen, Ke-Ming; Howe, Peter R; Xian, Cory J

    2017-03-09

    Intensive cancer chemotherapy is known to cause bone defects, which currently lack treatments. This study investigated the effects of polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in preventing bone defects in rats caused by methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used antimetabolite in childhood oncology. Young rats received five daily MTX injections at 0.75 mg/kg/day. RES was orally gavaged daily for seven days prior to, and during, five-day MTX administration. MTX reduced growth plate thickness, primary spongiosa height, trabecular bone volume, increased marrow adipocyte density, and increased mRNA expression of the osteogenic, adipogenic, and osteoclastogenic factors in the tibial bone. RES at 10 mg/kg was found not to affect bone health in normal rats, but to aggravate the bone damage in MTX-treated rats. However, RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg preserved the growth plate, primary spongiosa, bone volume, and lowered the adipocyte density. It maintained expression of genes involved in osteogenesis and decreased expression of adipogenic and osteoclastogenic factors. RES suppressed osteoclast formation ex vivo of bone marrow cells from the treated rats. These data suggest that MTX can enhance osteoclast and adipocyte formation and cause bone loss, and that RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg may potentially prevent these bone defects.

  19. Effects of aluminum exposure on bone mineral density, mineral, and trace elements in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwei; Hu, Chongwei; Zhu, Yanzhu; Sun, Hao; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on bone mineral elements, trace elements, and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. One hundred Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups. Experimental rats were given drinking water containing aluminum chloride (AlCl(3), 430 mg Al(3+)/L), whereas control rats were given distilled water for up to 150 days. Ten rats were sacrificed in each group every 30 days. The levels of Al, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), boron (B), and strontium (Sr) in bone and the BMD of femur were measured. Al-treated rats showed lower deposition of Ca, P, and Mg compared with control rats. Levels of trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, B, and Sr) were significantly lower in the Al-treated group than in the control group from day 60, and the BMD of the femur metaphysis in the Al-treated group was significantly lower than in the control group on days 120 and 150. These findings indicate that long-term Al exposure reduces the levels of mineral and trace elements in bone. As a result, bone loss was induced (particularly in cancellous bone).

  20. Comparison of Bone Loss around Bone Platform Shift and Non-Bone Platform Shift Implants After 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirReza Rokn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present randomized clinical trial was to evaluate marginal bone loss around two types of implants modified at the neck area: Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy, both manufactured by Nobel Biocare.Materials and Methods: A total of 25 Nobel Active and 21 Nobel Replace Groovy implants were included in the present study. The implants were placed based on the relevant protocol and patient inclusion and exclusion criteria. The amount of bone loss around implants was compared at 6 and 12-month intervals using digital periapical radiographs.Results: The mean bone loss values in the Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy groups were 0.682 mm and 0.645 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant difference based on the results of independent t-test (P=0.802.Conclusion: Use of both implant types yielded favorable results, with high durability.The two implant types exhibited no superiority over each other in terms of bone loss.

  1. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children

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    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers—bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I, osteoprotegerin (OPG, nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL, sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1—were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP (p = 0.002 and CTX-I (p = 0.027, and slightly lower spine BMC (p = 0.067 and BMD (p = 0.060 than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  2. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  3. Metabolic and Clinical Consequences of Hyperthyroidism on Bone Density

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    Jagoda Gorka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1891, Von Recklinghausen first established the association between the development of osteoporosis in the presence of overt hyperthyroidism. Subsequent reports have demonstrated that BMD loss is common in frank hyperthyroidism, and, to a lesser extent, in subclinical presentations. With the introduction of antithyroid medication in the 1940s to control biochemical hyperthyroidism, the accompanying bone disease became less clinically apparent as hyperthyroidism was more successfully treated medically. Consequently, the impact of the above normal thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis may be presently underrecognized due to the widespread effective treatments. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism. The vast number of recent papers touching on this topic highlights the recognized impact of this common medical condition on bone health. Our focus in this review was to search for answers to the following questions. What is the mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on bone metabolism? What are the clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on BMD and fracture risk? What differences are there between men and women with thyroid disease and how does menopause change the clinical outcomes? Lastly, we report how different treatments for hyperthyroidism benefit thyroid hormone-induced osteoporosis.

  4. Zanthoxylum piperitum reversed alveolar bone loss of periodontitis via regulation of bone remodeling-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Hye Ji; Park, Jung-Chul; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-04

    Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100). Sterilized 3-0 nylon ligature was placed into the subgingival sulcus around the both sides of mandibular first molar. After topical application of 1 and 100mg/mL ZP for 2 weeks, mandibles was removed for histology. In addition, SaOS-2 osteoblast cells were treated 1, 10 and 100μg/mL ZP for 24h to analyze the expressions of alveolar bone-related markers. Several alveolar bone resorption pits, which indicate cementum demineralization were decreased by ZP treatment. Topical ZP treatment inhibited periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss. In addition, there were significant reduction of osteoclastic activities following topical ZP treatment in periodontium. The expression of RANKL was decreased in SaOS-2 osteoblast cells by treating ZP, while that of OPG was increased. ZP treatment increased the expressions of Runx2 and Osterix in SaOS-2 cells. In summary, ZP treatment inhibited alveolar bone loss as well as maintained the integrity of periodontal structures via regulation of bone remodeling. ZP may be a therapeutic target for treating periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulatory Effect of Catalpol on Th1/Th2 cells in Mice with Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Nannan; Zhang, Jianhai; Ma, Xingyan; Wang, Bin; Miao, Xiuming; Wang, Zhaoxia; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Li; Yao, Chengfang; Li, Xia; Jiang, Guosheng

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol (E2 ) deficiency can cause bone loss and the skew of Th1/Th2 cells. However, the correlation between the Th1/Th2 cells and the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of Th1/Th2 in bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and elucidated the therapeutical effect of catalpol in this condition. Young, sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (Ovx), and naturally aged mice, treated with catalpol at different doses or control vehicle, were used in this study as indicated in each experiment. ELISA assay, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and flow cytometry were used to analyze E2 , C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx-I), bone mineral density (BMD), and Th1/Th2 subsets, respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of specific transcription factors for Th1/Th2 cells (T-bet and GATA-3) were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Bone mineral density and E2 levels positively correlated with the proportion of Th2 subset while negatively correlated with that of Th1 subset and the ratio of Th1/Th2. Catalpol alleviated bone loss effectively by regulating Th1/Th2 polarization. Catalpol promoted the expression of Th2-specific transcription factors while inhibited that associated with Th1. Th1/Th2 skew is involved in bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Catalpol alleviates bone loss effectively by regulating Th1/Th2 paradigm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne V.; Gacutan-Liwag, Aretha Ann C.; Balderas, Jubilia Araceli J.; Guanzon, Ma. Vicenta Luz; Guzman, Angel de

    2002-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and to correlate factors such as age, height, weight, body mass index, total caloric, protein and calcium intake to bone mass density. Design: Cross sectional study Setting: Philippine General Hospital and St Luke's Medical Center, tertiary government and private owned hospitals, respectively. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-eight 228) healthy randomly chosen subjects from amongst hospital companion, aged 15-52 years old, distributed at 25 subjects per group of five per sex. Methods: Bone mass density measurements were done on lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPXL). Ten (10) cc of blood was extracted on one hundred fourteen (114) patients; 5 cc of which was used for biochemical studies while the rest of the sample was stored for fixture studies. One hundred fourteen (114) patients were then interviewed using the Filipino version of the WHO questionnaire for the Study of Osteoporosis, and their nutritional intake was assessed using a previous day food recall. Results: At present, there are a total of 228 patients recruited. The mean weight and height were 57-43±11.17 kg and 158.16±8.44 cm, respectively, and the mean BMI was 22.99±4.11. The mean daily calcium intake was 501.17±357.79 gms/day (n=64). The mean BMD at the L2-L4 spine for females was 1.14±0.15 gm/cm 2 and 1.12±0.21 gm/cm 2 for the males. The highest BMD was 1.23±0.20 gm/cm 2 in the 35-39 year old age group for the females and 1.26±0.31 gm/cm 2 in the 30-34 age group for the males. The mean femoral neck BMD was 0.91±0.12 gm/cm 2 for the females and 1.00±0.13 gm/cm 2 for the males. The highest femoral neck BMD was 0.931±0.12 gm/cm 2 in the 20-24 females and 1.03±0.18 gm/cm 2 in the 20-24 age group for the males. Calcium intake and weight was significantly correlated in the lumbar spine. Height and sex was correlated with both

  7. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, Pbone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass.

  8. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-scoreexercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  9. Effects of Weight Loss on Lean Mass, Strength, Bone, and Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Edward P; Jordan, Richard C; Frese, Ethel M; Albert, Stewart G; Villareal, Dennis T

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that exercise attenuates the reductions in lean mass, muscle strength, bone mineral density, and V˙O2max that accompany modest weight loss induced by calorie restriction (CR). Overweight, sedentary women and men (n = 52, 45-65 yr) were randomized to 6%-8% weight loss by using CR, endurance exercise training (EX), or both (CREX). The CR and the CREX groups underwent counseling to reduce energy intake by 20% and 10%, respectively. The EX and the CREX groups exercised 7.4 ± 0.5 and 4.4 ± 0.5 h·wk, respectively. Before and after 16.8 ± 1.1 wk of weight loss, lean mass and bone mineral density were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, strength was measured with dynamometry, and aerobic capacity (V˙O2max) was measured with indirect calorimetry during maximal-intensity treadmill exercise. Weight loss was ~7% in all groups. Decreases in whole-body (~2%, P = 0.003) and lower extremity (~4%, P weight loss, these reductions were attenuated in the CREX group (~1%, P = 0.44 and ~2%, P = 0.05, respectively) and absent in the EX group. Absolute aerobic capacity decreased ~6% in the CR group (P = 0.04), was unchanged in the CREX group (P = 0.28), and increased ~15% in the EX group (P weight loss (~7%) induced by 20% CR in overweight women and men decreases lean mass and reduces absolute V˙O2max. Exercise protects against these effects. Although the CR-induced changes might be considered physiologically appropriate for a reduced body weight, exercise preserves and/or improves these parameters during weight loss, which likely improves physical function. These findings support the notion of using exercise as an important component of weight loss programs.

  10. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  11. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  12. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD. Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1 to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2 to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1 the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2 the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count, and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2=0.002; df=1; P=0.96; χ2/df=0.002; RMSEA<0.01; TLI=1.5; CFI=1.0. A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β=0.38; b=0.15; SE=0.07; C.R.=2.0; P=0.046. It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  13. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, M.; Al-Jurayyan, N.

    1997-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  15. Electrical field stimulation improves bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

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    A.P.R. Lirani-Galvão

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its consequent fractures are a great social and medical problem mainly occurring in post-menopausal women. Effective forms of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis associated with lower costs and the least side effects are needed. Electrical fields are able to stimulate osteogenesis in fractures, but little is known about their action on osteoporotic tissue. The aim of the present study was to determine by bone densitometry the effects of electrical stimulation on ovariectomized female Wistar rats. Thirty rats (220 ± 10 g were divided into three groups: sham surgery (SHAM, bilateral ovariectomy (OVX and bilateral ovariectomy + electrical stimulation (OVX + ES. The OVX + ES group was submitted to a 20-min session of a low-intensity pulsed electrical field (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm² starting on the 7th day after surgery, five times a week (total = 55 sessions. Global, spine and limb bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA Hologic 4500A before surgery and at the end of protocol (84 days after surgery. Electrical stimulation improved (P < 0.05 global (0.1522 ± 0.002, spine (0.1502 ± 0.003, and limb (0.1294 ± 0.003 g/cm² bone mineral density compared to OVX group (0.1447 ± 0.001, 0.1393 ± 0.002, and 0.1212 ± 0.001, respectively. The OVX + ES group also showed significantly higher global bone mineral content (9.547 ± 0.114 g when compared to both SHAM (8.693 ± 0.165 g and OVX (8.522 ± 0.207 g groups (P < 0.05. We have demonstrated that electrical fields stimulate osteogenesis in ovariectomized female rats. Their efficacy in osteoporosis remains to be demonstrated.

  16. Hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism: effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents.

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    Sudjaritruk, Tavitiya; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Aurpibul, Linda; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kurniati, Nia; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2016-04-24

    The impact of hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism on bone mineral density (BMD) in the setting of pediatric HIV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism and their effects on bone turnover and BMD among HIV-infected adolescents in Southeast Asia. A multicenter, cross-sectional study evaluating bone health and vitamin D metabolism in HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand and Indonesia. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-18 years on antiretroviral therapy with virologic suppression were enrolled. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover markers (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide) were assessed; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 20 ng/ml and intact parathyroid hormone more than 65 pg/ml were defined as hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD Z-score -2 or less was defined as low BMD. Of 394 adolescents, 57% were women. The median age [interquartile range (IQR)] was 15.0 (13.3-16.9) years. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, hyperparathyroidism, and both conditions were 21% [95% confidence interval (CI): 17-25%], 17% (95% CI: 13-20%), and 5% (95% CI: 3-7%), respectively. Adolescents with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism had the highest median bone resorption (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen: 1610 vs. 1270 ng/l; P = 0.04) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide: 572 vs. 330 μg/l; P = 0.02) markers, and the greatest proportion of low BMD (42 vs. 15%; P = 0.01) compared with the rest of the cohort. Hypovitaminosis D complicated with secondary hyperparathyroidism was associated with increased bone turnover and bone loss. Early treatment of hypovitaminosis D before hyperparathyroidism occurs may be important to prevent bone mass deterioration.

  17. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

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    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  18. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density.

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    Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Kang-hua; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Hong; Luo, Wei; Xu, Wen-shuo; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-hua

    2011-06-11

    Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  19. Marginal bone loss around implants placed in maxillary native bone or grafted sinuses: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Galindo-Moreno, P; Fernández-Jiménez, A; Avila-Ortiz, G; Silvestre, F J; Hernández-Cortés, P; Wang, H L

    2014-03-01

    To assess differences in marginal bone loss around implants placed in maxillary pristine bone and implants placed following maxillary sinus augmentation over a period of 3 years after functional loading. Two cohorts of subjects (Group 1: Subjects who received sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement; Group 2: Subjects who underwent conventional implant placement in posterior maxillary pristine bone) were included in this retrospective study. Radiographic marginal bone loss was measured around one implant per patient on digitized panoramic radiographs that were obtained at the time of prosthesis delivery (baseline) and 12, 24, and 36 months later. The influence of age, gender, smoking habits, history of periodontal disease, and type of prosthetic connection (internal or external) on marginal bone loss was analyzed in function of the type of osseous support (previously grafted or pristine). A total of 105 subjects were included in this study. Cumulative radiographic marginal bone loss ranged from 0 mm to 3.9 mm after 36 months of functional loading. There were statistically significant differences in marginal bone loss between implants placed in grafted and pristine bone at the 12-month assessment, but not in the subsequent progression rate. External prosthetic connection, smoking, and history of periodontitis negatively influenced peri-implant bone maintenance, regardless of the type of osseous substrate. Implants placed in sites that received maxillary sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants placed in pristine bone, although marginal bone loss mainly occurred during the first 12 months after functional loading. Implants with external implant connection were strongly associated with increased marginal bone loss overtime. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Bone turnover markers in peripheral blood and marrow plasma reflect trabecular bone loss but not endocortical expansion in aging mice.

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    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Dwyer, Denise; Chu, Vivian; Asuncion, Frank; Stolina, Marina; Ominsky, Michael; Kostenuik, Paul; Halloran, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    We examined age-related changes in biochemical markers and regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activity in C57BL/6 mice to assess their utility in explaining age-related changes in bone. Several recently discovered regulators of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were also measured to assess concordance between their systemic levels versus their levels in marrow plasma, to which bone cells are directly exposed. MicroCT of 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated an early age-related loss of trabecular bone volume and surface, followed by endocortical bone loss and periosteal expansion. Trabecular bone loss temporally correlated with reductions in biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in both peripheral blood and bone marrow. Endocortical bone loss and periosteal bone gain were not reflected in these protein biomarkers, but were well correlated with increased expression of osteocalcin, rank, tracp5b, and cathepsinK in RNA extracted from cortical bone. While age-related changes in bone turnover markers remained concordant in blood versus marrow, aging led to divergent changes in blood versus marrow for the bone cell regulators RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK1, and serotonin. Bone expression of runx2 and osterix increased progressively with aging and was associated with an increase in the number of osteoprogenitors and osteoclast precursors. In summary, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in blood and bone marrow plasma were predictive of an age-related loss of trabecular surfaces in adult C57BL/6 mice, but did not predict gains in cortical surfaces resulting from cortical expansion. Unlike these turnover markers, a panel of bone cell regulatory proteins exhibited divergent age-related changes in marrow versus peripheral blood, suggesting that their circulating levels may not reflect local levels to which osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly exposed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. New Osseodensification Implant Site Preparation Method to Increase Bone Density in Low-Density Bone: In Vivo Evaluation in Sheep

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    Trisi, Paolo; Falco, Antonello; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new surgical technique for implant site preparation that could allow to enhance bone density, ridge width, and implant secondary stability. Materials and Methods: The edges of the iliac crests of 2 sheep were exposed and ten 3.8 × 10-mm Dynamix implants (Cortex) were inserted in the left sides using the conventional drilling method (control group). Ten 5 × 10-mm Dynamix implants (Cortex) were inserted in the right sides (test group) using the osseodensification procedure (Versah). After 2 months of healing, the sheep were killed, and biomechanical and histological examinations were performed. Results: No implant failures were observed after 2 months of healing. A significant increase of ridge width and bone volume percentage (%BV) (approximately 30% higher) was detected in the test group. Significantly better removal torque values and micromotion under lateral forces (value of actual micromotion) were recorded for the test group in respect with the control group. Conclusion: Osseodensification technique used in the present in vivo study was demonstrated to be able to increase the %BV around dental implants inserted in low-density bone in respect to conventional implant drilling techniques, which may play a role in enhancing implant stability and reduce micromotion. PMID:26584202

  2. Differences in bone mineral density, markers of bone turnover and extracellular matrix and daily life muscular activity among patients with recent motor-incomplete versus motor-complete spinal cord injury.

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    Kostovski, E; Hjeltnes, N; Eriksen, E F; Kolset, S O; Iversen, P O

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss, but the associated mechanisms are poorly described in incomplete SCI individuals. The purpose of the study is to compare alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) and serum biomarkers of bone turnover in recent motor-incomplete to -complete SCI men, as well as to describe their physical activity and spasticity. We studied 31 men with acute SCI. Whole-body DXA scans, serum biomarkers and self-reported activity and spasticity were examined 1 and/or 3 and 12 months after the injury. We observed a decrease in proximal femur BMD (p bone loss 12 months after injury and exhibited increased bone resorption throughout the first year after the injury. Compared with complete SCI men, incomplete SCI men show attenuated bone resorption. Our pooled data show increased turnover of extracellular matrix after injury and that increased exercise before and after injury correlated with reduced bone loss.

  3. Bone Loss in the Acute Stage Following Burn Injury - Original Investigation

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    Berrin Leblebici

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a bone loss occurs during acute period following burn injury or not, and to investigate the effects of various parameters on it. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 19 patients, ages between 20 and 50, who had a burn injury with more than %20 of Total Body Surface Area (TBSA. We recorded the patients’ burn cause, localization, percantage, ambulation and functional status. At the end of the first month, we measured bone mıneral densıty of total L1-L4 vertebrae, left distal forearm, left total femur, in all patients. A Z score less than –1 was accepted to be the indicator of bone loss. Results: The mean age of the patients (14 male and 5 female was 33.09±11.61. We found a Z score less then -1 in 68.4% of left distal forearm, 21.1% of left total femur and 36.8% of total L1-L4 vertabrae measurements. There were no significant correlations between TBSA, Functional Ambulatıon Scale and Functional Independence Measure, and Z scores. Conclusion: There is a reduction in Bone Mineral Density in patıents wıth moderate/severe burn ınjuries in the acute period which is not correlated wıth neither TBSA nor functional status. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:33-6

  4. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

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    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  5. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

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    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  6. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

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    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  7. Changes in body composition and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with psoriatic arthritis.

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    Krajewska-Włodarczyk, Magdalena; Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Agnieszka; Placek, Waldemar

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged inflammation status due to psoriatic arthritis (PsA) may contribute to the loss of muscle mass, extending from muscle weakness, and increased risk of falls and fractures. The risk of fractures and their complications increases with concomitant osteoporosis. The study included 95 women aged 50-75 years. The presence of sarcopenia was evaluated in a group of 51 women with PsA, and 44 controls (without inflammatory joint disease). Measurements of muscle mass and lean body mass were made using the method of bioimpedance assessing ALM (Appendicular Lean Mass) index and SMI (Skeletal Muscle Index). The diagnosis of sarcopenia was made in women with low muscle mass and concomitant reduction of the efficiency of the assessed functional test Timed Up and Go (TUG). Bone density measurement was done by densitometry in the femoral neck and lumbar spine. (Ethics statement OIL 625/16/Bioet). Sarcopenia, using ALM index and SMI, was diagnosed in 13.7% and 43.1% of PsA women, and in healthy women in 9% and 20.4%, respectively. In the group of PsA, sarcopenia was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of disorders of bone mineralisation (72.7% vs. 41.3% in patients without a decrease in muscle mass). There was no correlation between the loss of muscle mass, bone density, and activity of PsA. The prevalence of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women suffering from PsA is associated with the occurrence of osteoporosis.

  8. A radiographic evaluation of progressive loading on crestal and bone density changes around single osseointegrated implants in the posterior maxilla

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    Ommati Shabestari Gh.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effectiveness of progressive loading procedures on preserving crestal bone height and improving peri-implant bone density around maxillary implants restored with single crowns by an accurate longitudinal radiographic assessment technique. "n "n "nMaterials and Methods: Eleven Micro-Thread Osseo Speed dental implants were placed in 11 subjects and permitted to heal for 6 weeks before surgical uncovering. Following an 8-week healing period, implants underwent a progressive loading protocol by increasing the height of the occlusal table in increments from adding acrylic resin to an acrylic crown. The progressively loaded crowns were placed in 2 mm infraocclusion for the first 2 months, light occlusion for the second 2 months, and full occlusion for the third 2 months. At forth 2 months, a metal ceramic crown replaced the acrylic crown. Digital radiographs of each implant were made at the time of restoration, then after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months of function. Digital image analysis was done to measure changes in crestal bone height and peri-implant bone density. "n "n "nResults: The mean values of crestal bone loss at 12 months were 0.11 ± 0.19 mm, and when tested with Friedman across the time periods, the differences were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. The mean values of bone density in the crestal, middle, and apical area were tested with Repeated Measure ANOVA across the time periods, the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. "n "n "nConclusion: Progressive loading doesn’t cause crestal bone loss. The peri-implant density measurements of the progressively loaded implants show continuous increase in crestal, middle and apical peri-implant bone density by time. "n 

  9. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

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    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  10. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Mika Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Studies from high income countries (HIC have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally.Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013 were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data.Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC. Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01.Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss.

  11. RECOVERY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FERTILITY IN A FORMER AMENORRHEIC ATHLETE

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    Karen Hind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate dietary intake and prolonged amenorrhea in women athletes can lead to bone loss, particularly at the spine, which may be irreversible. This report presents the case of a woman endurance runner, followed prospectively over 6 years after presenting with the female athlete triad. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, lumbar spine (LS, total hip and total body (TB BMD Z-scores were -2.2, -0.5 and -0.3 respectively. At 6 years, following a recovery plan of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, weight gain, improved dietary intake and reduced training load, the athlete regained menstrual function and BMD. LS, TB and hip BMD Z-scores improved to -0.6, -0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Restoration of fertility was indicated by pregnancy, following only 4 months of regular menstruation. This case report suggests that bone density and fertility may not be completely jeopardised in formerly amenorrheic and osteopenic athletes, providing recovery through diet, weight gain, and return of menstruation is achieved within the third decade. Longitudinal studies tracking bone changes in women with amenorrhea and low BMD are required and would have important implications for the treatment of the female athlete triad

  12. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Effects on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Geometry Architecture in Rats

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    Zhe Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group.

  13. Dietary pseudopurpurin effects on bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats.

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    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group.

  14. Annual bone loss and success rates of dental implants based on radiographic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Y.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Bone loss around dental implants is generally measured by monitoring changes in marginal bone level using radiographs. After the first year of implantation, an implant should have <0.2 mm annual loss of marginal bone level to satisfy the criteria of success. However, the process of

  15. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  16. Inactivation of Vhl in Osteochondral Progenitor Cells Causes High Bone Mass Phenotype and Protects Against Age-Related Bone Loss in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tujun; Xie, Yangli; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Yi, Lingxian; He, Qifen; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of von Hippel–Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with activation of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) signaling in bone cells and plays an important role in bone development, homeostasis, and regeneration. It is known that activation of HIF1α signaling in mature osteoblasts is central to the coupling between angiogenesis and bone formation. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the coupling between skeletal angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone remodeling are only partially elucidated. To evaluate the role of Vhl in bone homeostasis and the coupling between vascular physiology and bone, we generated mice lacking Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells (referred to as Vhl cKO mice) at postnatal and adult stages in a tamoxifen-inducible manner and changes in skeletal morphology were assessed by micro–computed tomography (µCT), histology, and bone histomorphometry. We found that mice with inactivation of Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells at the postnatal stage largely phenocopied that of mice lacking Vhl in mature osteoblasts, developing striking and progressive accumulation of cancellous bone with increased microvascular density and bone formation. These were accompanied with a significant increase in osteoblast proliferation, upregulation of differentiation marker Runx2 and osteocalcin, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. In addition, we found that Vhl deletion in osteochondral progenitor cells in adult bone protects mice from aging-induced bone loss. Our data suggest that the VHL-mediated signaling in osteochondral progenitor cells plays a critical role in bone remodeling at postnatal/adult stages through coupling osteogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23999831

  17. Bone degradation machinery of osteoclasts: An HIV-1 target that contributes to bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud-Messina, Brigitte; Bracq, Lucie; Dupont, Maeva; Souriant, Shanti; Usmani, Shariq M; Proag, Amsha; Pingris, Karine; Soldan, Vanessa; Thibault, Christophe; Capilla, Florence; Al Saati, Talal; Gennero, Isabelle; Jurdic, Pierre; Jolicoeur, Paul; Davignon, Jean-Luc; Mempel, Thorsten R; Benichou, Serge; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Vérollet, Christel

    2018-03-13

    Bone deficits are frequent in HIV-1-infected patients. We report here that osteoclasts, the cells specialized in bone resorption, are infected by HIV-1 in vivo in humanized mice and ex vivo in human joint biopsies. In vitro, infection of human osteoclasts occurs at different stages of osteoclastogenesis via cell-free viruses and, more efficiently, by transfer from infected T cells. HIV-1 infection markedly enhances adhesion and osteolytic activity of human osteoclasts by modifying the structure and function of the sealing zone, the osteoclast-specific bone degradation machinery. Indeed, the sealing zone is broader due to F-actin enrichment of its basal units (i.e., the podosomes). The viral protein Nef is involved in all HIV-1-induced effects partly through the activation of Src, a regulator of podosomes and of their assembly as a sealing zone. Supporting these results, Nef-transgenic mice exhibit an increased osteoclast density and bone defects, and osteoclasts derived from these animals display high osteolytic activity. Altogether, our study evidences osteoclasts as host cells for HIV-1 and their pathological contribution to bone disorders induced by this virus, in part via Nef.

  18. Quantitative assessment of periimplant bone density (HU) on CBCT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    The primary aims of this retrospective study were to compare subjective bone quality and bone quality based on the Hounsfield scale in different segments of the edentulous jaw, and to establish quantitative and objective assessment of the bone quality. Twenty eight randomly selected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans were analyzed. For evaluation one hundred and twelve edentulous areas were selected. Implant recipient sites were evaluated visually for Lekholm and Zarb classification. The same sites were subsequently evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with Vimplant 2.0 TM , and the results were correlated with visual classification. Data was subject for statistical analysis in order to determine correlation between recorded HU and the regions of the mouth with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The highest unit/mean density value (311 HU) was found in the anterior mandible, followed by 259 HU for the posterior mandible, 216 HU for the anterior maxilla, and 127 HU for the posterior maxilla. These results demonstrate a strong correlation for HU depending on the region of the mouth (p TM with Vimplant TM software.

  19. Bone mineral density and secondary hyperparathyroidism in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hersberger, Martin; Fischler, Manuel; Huber, Lars C; Senn, Oliver; Treder, Ursula; Speich, Rudolf; Schmid, Christoph

    2009-04-14

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in chronic lung diseases and associated with reduced quality of life. Little is known about BMD in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Steroid-naïve patients with PH (n=34; 19 idiopathic, 15 chronic thromboembolic) had BMD measured by DXA at the time of diagnostic right heart catheterization. Exercise capacity, quality of life and various parameters related to PH severity and bone metabolism were also assessed. 24 patients with left heart failure (LHF) were similarly assessed as controls. The prevalence of osteopenia was high both in PH (80%) and in controls with LHF (75%). Low BMD was associated with lean body mass, age, lower BMI, impaired exercise capacity and in PH with higher pulmonary vascular resistance. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and considerably higher in PH than in LHF (above normal, in 55 vs 29%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was not related to impaired renal function but possibly to low vitamin D status. Osteopenia is common in PH and in chronically ill patients with LHF. Osteopenia is associated with known risk factors but in PH also with disease severity. Preventive measures in an increasingly chronic ill PH population should be considered. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in PH and might contribute to bone and possibly pulmonary vascular disease. Whether adequate vitamin D substitution could prevent low BMD in PH remains to be determined.

  20. Bone mineral density and mandibular residual ridge resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springe, Baiba; Slaidina, Anda; Soboleva, Una; Lejnieks, Aivars

    2014-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the width and height parameters of the mandibular residual ridge. BMD was determined in the lumbar spine and femoral necks by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 45 edentulous, postmenopausal women (mean age, 72.08 ± 8.53 years) who had used conventional complete dentures for at least 3 years. Measurements of the mandibular residual ridge were performed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Height and width measurements were performed in the midline and adjacent to the mental foramina. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytic statistics. The relationship between BMD and mandibular height and width measurements was assessed using analysis of variance as well as linear and multivariate regression analyses. Eight patients were excluded from the study because they did not complete both of the required imaging analyses (DXA and/or CBCT). There was no statistically significant relationship between BMD and mandibular bone height measurements in the midline and both regions of the mental foramina, and no statistically significant relationship existed between BMD and mandibular bone width measurements in the midline and both of the mental foramina regions. Postmenopausal women with reduced general BMD do not appear to have a reduction in the size of the mandibular residual ridge.

  1. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  2. Increased risk for bone loss in women with systemic sclerosis: a comparative study with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gamze; Kilic, Erkan; Akgul, Ozgur; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2016-04-01

    To assess bone mass in women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in comparison to age and sex-matched patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD). Patients were consecutively recruited and assessed for BMD at the lumbar spine and hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) using a densitometer. In SSc, the extent of skin involvement, modified Rodnan skin thickness score (mRSS) and Medsger disease severity index were assessed. Forty-three patients with SSc and 38 age-matched patients with RA were included. There was no difference in BMD measurements between patients with diffuse or limited SSc. Patients with SSc had similar risk factors associated with osteoporosis (OP) or low bone mass except for low body mass index (BMI) and low vitamin D levels compared to patients with RA. Lumbar spinal BMD and T score were similar between groups. Total hip and femoral neck BMD and T score at femoral neck and total hip were significantly lower in patient with SSc versus RA. There was significant association between mRSS, Medsger severity score (peripheral vascular involvement and skin) and femoral BMD. There is an increased risk for bone loss in patients with SSc and the risk of OP is associated with disease severity, prolonged menopause and disease duration. The complex pathophysiology of bone metabolism as well as complex pathogenesis of the SSc pose some difficulty reaching clear-cut conclusions on the causal relationship between SSc and bone loss. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Bone mineral density and bone turnover in male masters athletes aged 40-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Alicja; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Jacek; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Jörn; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Straburzyńska-Migaj, Ewa; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Lucja

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and markers of bone turnover in male competitive masters athletes representing different training profile in the past and at present, aged 40-64 (14 endurance runners, and 12 speed-power athletes), and non-sport controls (n = 13). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total body and regional aBMD, BMC and soft tissue composition were acquired. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured. Adjusted total and regional aBMD and BMC (covariates: body mass, body height and age) were significantly greater in all measured regions in speed-power athletes than in endurance athletes and control subjects, but adjusted aBMD and BMC values were not significantly different between endurance athletes and controls. No differences in bone formation (OC), bone resorption (CTX), and serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, TT, FT and IGF-1 were noted. This suggests that weight-bearing exercise in young age and the training continuation in later life may be an important contributor to the aBMD and BMC in the middle age and in the elderly. It seems also that training-related bone differences in men are not caused by present alterations in bone turn-over or somatotropic effects. However, conclusions must be drawn with caution due to a large variability of biochemical markers.

  4. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bone Density and Cortical Thickness in Normal, Osteopenic, and Osteoporotic Sacra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Richards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear if a decrease in cancellous bone density or cortical bone thickness is related to sacral insufficiency fractures. We hypothesized that reduction in overall bone density leads to local reductions in bone density and cortical thickness in cadaveric sacra that match clinically observed fracture patterns in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures. We used quantitative computed tomography to measure cancellous density and cortical thickness in multiple areas of normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic sacra. Cancellous bone density was significantly lower in osteoporotic specimens in the central and anterior regions of the sacral ala compared with other regions of these specimens. Cortical thickness decreased uniformly in all regions of osteopenic and osteoporotic specimens. These results support our hypothesis that areas of the sacrum where sacral insufficiency fractures often occur have significantly larger decreases in cancellous bone density; however, they do not support the hypothesis that these areas have local reduction of cortical bone thickness.

  6. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Okbay G?ne?, Asl?; Alika?ifo?lu, M?jgan; ?en Demird??en, Ezgi; Ergin?z, Ethem; Demir, T?rkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured...

  7. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  8. Bone mineral density in adults with Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K.; Sakadamis, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 ± 4.45 and 23.65 ± 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 ± 3.46 and 23.86 ± 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Perimenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Shariati-Sarabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The menopausal transition called perimenopause, happens after the reproductive years, and isspecified with irregular menstrual cycles, perimenopause symptoms and hormonal changes. Women going throughperi menopausal period are vulnerable to bone loss.Osteoporosis is one of the most common debilitating metabolic bone diseases ,especially in the women almostaround 50 years .This study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis amongstasymptomatic individuals during the menopause transition period.Methods: A total of 714 asymptomatic peri-menopausal female volunteers were recruited through a billboard invitationfor participation in the study. The subjects were selected based on already defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.The project, which was conducted between 2010 and 2014 was affiliated to the Educational and Therapeutic Center,Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD measured by DEXA (dual-energy X-rayabsorptiometry was carried out on two distinct sites, the proximal femur and the lumbar vertebrae from L1 to L4.Pertained data were analyzed.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 49.7±2.years. The overall prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosisin these peri-menopausal individuals were 37.6 % and 10% respectively. Thirty five point two percent of 714 womenpresented with osteopenia and eight percent of them have osteoporosis in the femoral neck, respectively. Nonetheless,BMD values at the lumbar spine indicated 41.6% and 12% of individual participants being affected by osteopenia andosteoporosis.Conclusion: In general osteopenia or osteoporosis, occurred in 48% of this study population, implying that specialattention is required for the bone health status of Iranian women who undergo menopause.

  10. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Tânia; Wyon, Matthew; Maia, José; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords "dance", "ballet", "BMD", "bone density", "osteoporosis" and "female athlete triad syndrome". A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers' information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies. Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (pdancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; pdancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  12. Relationship Between Bone Turnover and Bone Density in Perimenopausal and Early Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Paker

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the bone turnover and bone density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: Forty-two healthy women, 16 perimenopausal and 26 early postmenopausal were included in the study. Bone density at the spine and proximal femur was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Routine serum biochemical tests were performed. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP level was measured. Bone turnover markers including serum osteocalcin (OC and and type I collagen crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide (CTX levels were measured. Results: Mean age was 48±4 years, body mass index (BMI was 27.87±4.26 kg/m2. Mean age at menopause was 45±9 years, time after menopause was 3.23±1.9 years in early postmenopausal group. Serum OC and CTX levels were 19.23±7.52 mg/dl and 0.58±0.35 mg/dl, respectively. CTX level was high in 21.6% (9 women of the study subjects, whereas OC level was high in 36.3% (15 women of the group. Osteoporosis and osteopenia rates in the study subjects were 11.9% and 40.4%, respectively. BMD values at the spine and proximal femur did not show correlation with bone turnover markers. Serum ALP level showed statistically significant negative correlation with femoral neck BMD (p=0.003. BMI showed statistically significant correlation with BMD values at femoral neck and total femur (p=0.033, p=0.001. There were no statistically significant difference in terms of serum OC and CTX levels and BMD values at spine and hip between the perimenopausal and early postmenopausal groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: As our results there was no correlation between bone turnover markers and bone density at spine and hip in perimenauposal and early postmenauposal women. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:7-10

  13. Acetabular bone density and metal ions after metal-on-metal versus metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty; short-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P.; van der Veen, Hugo C.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zee, Mark J. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.

    Information on periprosthetic acetabular bone density is lacking for metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. These bearings use cobalt-chromium instead of titanium acetabular components, which could lead to stress shielding and hence periprosthetic bone loss. Cobalt and chromium ions have

  14. Induction of bone loss in DBA/1J mice immunized with citrullinated autologous mouse type II collagen in the absence of adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusad, Anand; Duryee, Michael J; Shaw, Anita T; Klassen, Lynell W; Anderson, Daniel R; Wang, Dong; Ren, Ke; Gravallese, Ellen M; O'Dell, James R; Mikuls, Ted R; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by cartilage and bone loss resulting in pain, deformity, and loss of joint function. Anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) has been implicated in RA pathogenesis and predicts radiographical joint damage and clinical severity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess bone loss by micro-CT, histological joint damage, and ACPA levels using a mouse model of RA. Arthritis was induced by immunizing DBA/1 mice with autologous citrullinated type II mouse collagen (CIT-CII) weekly for 4 weeks. Mice immunized with autologous CII served as controls. At week 5, mice were killed, ACPA levels determined, and micro-CT performed to quantitatively analyze bone damage. Micro-CT analysis revealed significant loss of bone density, volume, and surface (p bone peripheral to the inflamed joints of CIT-CII animals compared to CII controls. Histological staining demonstrated cartilage, proteoglycan, joint collagen, and bone collagen loss in the CIT-CII group compared to CII. Serum ACPA levels were increased (p = 0.03) in the CIT-CII group compared to CII, and these levels were inversely correlated with bone quantity and quality. In this study, we demonstrate that immunization with autologous CIT-CII initiates significant systemic bone and articular cartilage loss in the absence of adjuvant. Significant inverse correlations of circulating ACPA and bone quality/quantity were present. ACPA levels predict the adverse bone morphological changes in this model of early RA.

  15. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  16. Association between periodontal disease and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Nishat; Rao, Jyoti

    2011-05-01

    Both periodontitis and osteoporosis represent major health problems especially in elderly women. The relationship between the two diseases and oral bone loss is important having significant public health impact in the prevention of morbidity and mortality related to these disorders. The present study was aimed to investigate the possible association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease among postmenopausal women residing in Goa, India. A complete periodontal examination (all teeth except third molar) including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment loss (CAL) measurement was performed on 80 dentate Goan postmenopausal women (age≥50 yrs) with generalized chronic periodontitis. Mean alveolar bone loss (ABL) was measured from full mouth intraoral periapical radiographs, by recording the distance from cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the most coronal portion of alveolar crest at mesial and distal aspect of all teeth except canines and third molars. Systemic bone loss was determined from hand-wrist radiograph of the patient through Digital X-Ray Radiogrammetry. Statistical analysis was done to assess the relationships between periodontal variables and bone mineral density (BMD) after adjusting for age, years since menopause, body mass index (BMI), smoking, number of remaining teeth, PI and GI. Age of the patient, years since menopause and BMI showed significant correlation with BMD. CAL and ABL showed mildly negative and statistically non-significant correlation with the BMD. Of all the variables studied, only smoking and BMI were strong predictors of BMD. Skeletal BMD is related to interproximal ABL and CAL, though not to a statistically significant level; implicating postmenopausal osteopenia as a risk indicator for periodontal disease.

  17. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Licata, Angelo A.; Rice, Andrea J.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss in the lower extremities and lumbar spine is an established consequence of long-duration human space flight. Astronauts typically lose as much bone mass in the proximal femur in 1 month as postmenopausal women on Earth lose in 1 year. Pharmacological interventions have not been routinely used in space, and countermeasure programs have depended solely upon exercise. However, it is clear that the osteogenic stimulus from exercise has been inadequate to maintain bone mass, due to insufficient load or duration. Attention has therefore been focused on several pharmacological interventions that have been successful in preventing or attenuating osteoporosis on Earth. Anti-resorptives are the class of drugs most commonly used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, notably alendronate sodium, risedronate sodium, zoledronic acid, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. There has also been considerable recent interest in anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]). Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have also been used. Recent studies of kindreds with abnormally high bone mineral density have provided insight into the genetic regulation of bone mass. This has led to potential therapeutic interventions based on the LRP5, Wnt and BMP2 pathways. Another target is the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway, which influences bone turnover by regulating osteoclast formation and maturation. Trials using such therapies in space are being planned. Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space.

  18. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  19. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bone mineral density and trabecular bone tissue quality in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are the two metabolic dise­ases with increased prevalence over last decades and a strong impact on the global morbidity and mortality have gained a status of major health threats worldwide. There is evidence that the higher body mass index (BMI values are associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD resulting in a site-specific protective effect for fragility fractures. On the other hand, higher BMI values increases incidence of falls and is associated with worse fractures consolidation. However, trabecular bone score (TBS indirectly explores bone quali­ty, independently of BMD. The aim of the study was to determine the connection between the BMD and TBS parameters in Ukrainian men suffering from obesity. Methods. We examined 396 men aged 40–89 years, by the BMI all the subjects were divided into 2 groups: Group A — with obesity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n = 129 and Group B — without obesity and BMI < 30 kg/m2 (n = 267. The BMD of total body, lumbar spine at the site L1–L4, femur and forearm were measured by DXA (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The TBS of L1–L4 was assessed by means of TBS iNsight (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France. Results. In general, obese men had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, total body and ultradistal forearm (p < 0.001 in comparison with men without obesity. The TBS of L1–L4 was significantly lower in obese men compared to non-obese men (p < 0.001. The significant positive correlation between the fat mass and the BMD at different sites was observed. The correlation between the fat mass and TBS of L1–L4 was also significant, but negative. Conclusions. Obesity negatively affects the quality of trabecular bone, while bone mineral density was significantly higher.

  2. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female swimmers during the time of peak bone mass attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Długołęcka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral content and bone mineral density in girls practising swimming in the period of peak bone mass attainment in comparison to girls at the same age who are not actively involved in sports. This study involved girls from sports school specialising in swimming (n=41 aged 11-15 years, practising swimming (non-weight bearing activities, and girls at the same age not actively involved in sports (n=45. The current condition of bones was assessed based on the method of densitometry DEXA (lumbar spine L2-L4. Data on sports careers, including the length of training and training load, and hormonal status were collected using a diagnostic survey with an especially developed questionnaire. The quantitative composition of diet was determined based on 3 individual interviews on dietary intake in the last 24 hours preceding the test. Analysis of the results showed that the average values of the measured bone parameters were not different between the groups. However, we observed a trend of higher values in the control group. In the assessment of diet, we observed in both groups a deficiency in average calcium intake. Based on the results it can be concluded that the tested female swimmers were not at increased risk of developing osteopenia, when compared to girls not actively involved in sports.

  3. Effect of multiparity on bone mineral density, evaluated with bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Hasan; Terzi, Rabia; Kale, Ebru; Kale, Ahmet

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of parity on osteoporosis by evaluating bone mineral density, markers of bone turn-over and other factors that are effective in osteoporosis in multiparous (five deliveries or more) and nulliparous women in the post-menopausal period. A total of 91 multiparous (five deliveries or more) and 31 nulliparous postmenopausal women were included in this study. All patients were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, gynecologic history, personal habits, levels of physical activity, and life-long intake of calcium. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar (L1-4) and femoral neck regions with Dexa. The mean age of multiparous women was 58.79±7.85 years, and the mean age of nulliparous women was 55.84±7.51. The femoral BMD was 0.94±0.16 and lumbar BMD 1.01±0.16 in multiparous women, femoral BMD was 0.99±0.16 and lumbar BMD 1.07±0.14 in nulliparous women. There were no statistical differences between the femoral and lumbar T scores and BMD values of the two groups. Lumbar T scores and lumbar BMD showed a decrease with increasing total duration of breast-feeding in multiparous women. The independent risk factors for osteoporosis in the regression analysis of multiparous women were found to be the duration of menopause and body weight of 65kg and less. There is no difference between the bone mineral densities of multiparous and nulliparous women. Females with lower body-weight and longer duration of menopause should be followed-up more carefully for development of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of multiparity on bone mineral density, evaluated with bone turnover markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Hasan; Terzi, Rabia; Kale, Ebru; Kale, Ahmet

    2015-09-07

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of parity on osteoporosis by evaluating bone mineral density, markers of bone turn-over and other factors that are effective in osteoporosis in multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and nulliparous women in the post-menopausal period. A total of 91 multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and 31 nulliparous postmenopausal women were included in this study. All patients were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, gynecologic history, personal habits, levels of physical activity, and life-long intake of calcium. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar (L1-4) and femoral neck regions with Dexa. The mean age of multiparous women was 58.79±7.85 years, and the mean age of nulliparous women was 55,84±7,51. The femoral BMD was 0,94±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,01±0,16 in multiparous women, femoral BMD was 0,99±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,07±0,14 in nulliparous women. There were no statistical differences between the femoral and lumbar T scores and BMD values of the two groups. Lumbar T scores and lumbar BMD showed a decrease with increasing total duration of breast-feeding in multiparous women. The independent risk factors for osteoporosis in the regression analysis of multiparous women were found to be the duration of menopause and body weight of 65kg and less. There is no difference between the bone mineral densities of multiparous and nulliparous women. Females with lower body-weight and longer duration of menopause should be followed-up more carefully for development of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Candidate salivary biomarkers associated with alveolar bone loss: cross-sectional and in vitro studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Patricia Yen Bee; Donley, Maureen; Hausmann, Ernest; Hutson, Alan D.; Rossomando, Edward F.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss and the concentration of host-derived bone resorptive factors (interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, prostaglandin-E2), and markers of bone turnover [pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), osteocalcin, osteonectin] in stimulated human whole saliva collected from 110 untreated dental patients. Alveolar bone loss scores for ...

  6. Reduced mechanical load decreases the density, stiffness, and strength of cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, E.B.W.; Ding, M.; Dalstra, M.; Eijden, T.M. van

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of decreased mechanical loading on the density and mechanical properties of the cancellous bone of the human mandibular condyle. DESIGN: Destructive compressive mechanical tests were performed on cancellous bone specimens.Background. Reduced masticatory

  7. Efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates in management of low bone density in inflammatory bowel disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liwei; Wang, Haiqing; Dong, Wenwei; Liu, Zhenxin; Mao, Haijiao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether bisphosphonates are safe, as well as effective against bone mineral loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A computerized search of electronic databases from 1966 to 2016 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this review to evaluate the role of bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis in IBD patients. A revised 7-point Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of each study. Overall, 13 RCTs and 923 patients met the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis. The result showed that bisphosphonates decreased bone mass density (BMD) loss at the lumbar spine (P = 0.0002), reduced the risk of new fractures (P = 0.01), and retained the similar adverse events (P = 0.86). Bisphosphonates may provide protection and safety against bone mineral loss in IBD patients.

  8. [Effect of high impact movements on body composition, strength and bone mineral density on women over 60 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villada, Jhon F; León-Ariza, Henry H; Argüello-Gutiérrez, Yenny P; Porras-Ramírez, Keyla A

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by loss of bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue microarchitecture that leads to fragility related to the risk of fractures. The aim of the study is to analyse the effects of a training program based on explosive movements and impact, assessed in a swimming pool, on body composition, explosive strength and bone mineral density in women over 60 years old. A total of 35 healthy physically active women (60±4.19 years) were divided into a training pool group using multi jumps (JG) and a control group (CG). JG trained for 24 weeks, 3 times a week, an hour and a half per session. Body composition testing, explosive strength, and bone mineral density were assessed before and after the program. There were differences in the explosive force (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .001) and the estimated power (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .002) between JG vs CG, with significant increases in JG. There were no significant differences in the percentage of fat and lean mass, bone mineral density lumbar and femoral between groups, although slightly significant increases in bone mineral density lumbar and femoral could be seen in JG after program implementation (JG pre-test vs JG post- test=P<.05). The training program with impact and explosive movements assessed in a pool induces gains in muscle strength and power with slight adaptations in body mass index in women over 60 years. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with post-menopausal bone loss and vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rye Jørgensen, Niklas; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Skarratt, Kristen K

    2012-01-01

    to bone mass and fracture incidence in post-menopausal women. A total of 1694 women (aged 45-58) participating in the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study were genotyped for 12 functional P2X7 receptor variants. Bone mineral density was determined at baseline and after 10 years. In addition, vertebral...... had increased bone loss. In contrast, the Gln460Arg polymorphism was associated with protection against bone loss. The Ala348Thr polymorphism was associated with a lower vertebral fracture incidence 10 years after menopause. Finally, we developed a risk model, which integrated P2RX7 genotypes. Using...

  10. Influence of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Estrogen deficiency leads to bone mass loss and increased risk for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to examine influence of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history.Methods: The total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history participated in this prospective study. The subjects were divided in two groups, examination and control group, based on bone mineral density values. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis while in the control group were women with osteopenia or normal bone mineral density. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Smoking habits were assessed for each subject.Results: The average number of cigarettes smoked per day in women with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history was 14.86 in the examination group and 4.67 in the control group. The difference in the average number of cigarettes smoked per day between the two groups was statistically significant (p <0.01. The coefficient of linear correlation between T score and the number of cigarettes smoked per day among women with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history in the examination group was statistically significant (p<0.01. The coefficient of linear correlation between T score and the number of cigarettes smoked per day among women with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history in the control group was statistically significant ( p<0.05.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that cigarette smoking has negative impact on bone mineral density and that healthy lifestyle (no smoking has the potential to reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history.

  11. Conductive hearing loss and bone conduction devices: restored binaural hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Cremers, Cor W R J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; van Opstal, John; Snik, Ad F M

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of binaural hearing is the proper detection of interaural sound level differences and interaural timing differences. Assessments of binaural hearing were made in patients with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL, n = 11) or congenital UCHL (n = 10) after unilateral application of a bone conduction device (BCD), and in patients with bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss after bilateral BCD application. Benefit (bilateral versus unilateral listening) was assessed by measuring directional hearing, compensation of the acoustic head shadow, binaural summation and binaural squelch. Measurements were performed after an acclimatization time of at least 10 weeks. Unilateral BCD application was beneficial, but there was less benefit in the patients with congenital UCHL as compared to patients with acquired UCHL. In adults with bilateral hearing loss, bilateral BCD application was clearly beneficial as compared to unilateral BCD application. Binaural summation was present, but binaural squelch could not be proven. To explain the poor results in the patients with congenital UCHL, two factors seemed to be important. First, a critical period in the development of binaural hearing might affect the binaural hearing abilities. Second, crossover stimulation, referring to additional stimulation of the cochlea contralateral to the BCD side, might deteriorate binaural hearing in patients with UCHL. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Vascularized fibular graft in infected tibial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cheriyan Kovoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials and Methods : 15 male patients with mean age 33.7 years (range 18 - 56 years of post traumatic tibial bone loss were analysed. The mean bony defect was 14.5 cm (range 6.5 - 20 cm. The mean length of the graft was 16.7 cm (range 11.5 - 21 cm. The osteoseptocutaneous flap (bone flap with attached overlying skin flap from the contralateral side was used in all patients except one. The graft was fixed to the recipient bone at both ends by one or two AO cortical screws, supplemented by a monolateral external fixator. A standard postoperative protocol was followed in all patients. The hypertrophy percentage of the vascularized fibular graft was calculated by a modification of the formula described by El-Gammal. The followup period averaged 46.5 months (range 24 - 164 months. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r was worked out, to find the relationship between graft length and hypertrophy. The t-test was performed to find out if there was any significant difference in the graft length of those who had a stress fracture and those who did not and to find out whether there was any significant difference in hypertrophy with and without ipsilateral fibula union. The Chi square test was performed to identify whether there was any association between the stress fracture and the fibula union. Given the small sample size we have not used any statistical analysis to determine the relation between the percentage of the graft hypertrophy and stress fracture. Results : Graft

  13. Peak bone mass density among residents of metro Manila: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.; Guanzon, L.V.; Guzman, A.M. de; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1998-01-01

    occurring between the ages 15-20 years old and incidentally in 2 subjects with ages between 40-44. There seems to be little bone loss among males beyond the age 35, unlike in the females. Conclusions: Bone mass density among a sample of Metro Manila residents was determined using DEXA and the measurements on the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These were age-matched and matched with that of young adult based on Caucasian norm provided by the Lunar Co. Peak bone mass density in the L 2 L 4 level among the females is reached between the ages 30-35 years old, after which there is progressive bone loss with values in the 45-50 years old approximating the values in the 15-19 years old age range. A similar pattern is seen in the measurements taken at the femoral neck. Among males, the peak BMD is reached during the 30-35 years old, but there seems to be no rapid decline or rapid bone loss occurring thereafter, unlike in the female subjects. (author)

  14. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance.......: In a double-blinded design, patients with fracture of the hip (lower-extremity fracture, or LEF) or upper extremity (UEF) were randomly assigned to receive 3000 mg calcium carbonate + 1400 IU cholecalciferol or placebo (200 IU cholecalciferol). BMD of the hip (HBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were evaluated...

  15. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    : In a double-blinded design, patients with fracture of the hip (lower-extremity fracture, or LEF) or upper extremity (UEF) were randomly assigned to receive 3000 mg calcium carbonate + 1400 IU cholecalciferol or placebo (200 IU cholecalciferol). BMD of the hip (HBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were evaluated......BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance....

  16. Increased activity of osteocyte autophagy in ovariectomized rats and its correlation with oxidative stress status and bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuehua, E-mail: yuesjtu@126.com; Zheng, Xinfeng, E-mail: zxf272@126.com; Li, Bo, E-mail: libo@126.com; Jiang, Shengdan, E-mail: jiangsd@126.com; Jiang, Leisheng, E-mail: leisheng_jiang@126.com

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Examine autophagy level in the proximal tibia of ovariectomized rats. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with oxidative stress status. - Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to investigate ovariectomy on autophagy level in the bone and to examine whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss and oxidative stress status. Methods: 36 female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (Sham), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated either with vehicle or 17-β-estradiol. At the end of the six-week treatment, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture in proximal tibias were assessed by micro-CT. Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) level were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity in proximal tibia was also determined. The osteocyte autophagy in proximal tibias was detected respectively by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescent histochemistry (IH), realtime-PCR and Western blot. In addition, the spearman correlation between bone mass, oxidative stress status, serum E2 and autophagy were analyzed. Results: Ovariectomy increased Atg5, LC3, and Beclin1 mRNA and proteins expressions while decreased p62 expression. Ovariectomy also declined the activities of T-AOC, CAT, and SOD. Treatment with E2 prevented the reduction in bone mass as well as restored the autophagy level. Furthermore, LC3-II expression was inversely correlated with T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities. A significant inverse correlation between LC3-II expression and BV/TV, Tb.N, BMD in proximal tibias was found. Conclusions: Ovariectomy induced oxidative stress, autophagy and bone loss. Autophagy of osteocyte was inversely correlated with oxidative stress status and bone loss.

  17. Scuba diving does not affect bone mineral density or bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowska, Katarzyna; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Przybylski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Scuba diving is a very specialized, physically demanding activity. The bones of divers are subjected to stress from water pressure, from the forces generated when their muscles resist water pressure, and from weightlessness. Notably, few studies have addressed the effects of diving on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and the results have been controversial. The goal of the study was to assess BMD and BMC in a group of professional scuba divers. The study group (diving group [D]) included 16 male professional scuba divers who also worked as firemen. The control group included 14 firemen who did not scuba dive (non-diving group [ND]). The groups were matched by age, weight, and height. The BMD and BMC of the whole skeleton, L1-L4, total hip, and femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences in BMD or in BMC in the two groups, and the BMD and BMC values were within one standard deviation in terms of Z- and T-scores. There was no correlation between total diving time (hours) and BMD in the D group. Scuba diving does not negatively influence bone turnover. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of taurine feeding on bone mineral density and bone markers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Seo, Ji-Na

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary taurine supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (body weight 200 ± 10 g) were divided into two groups, control and taurine group (2% taurine-supplemented diet). All rats were fed on experimental diet and deionized water and libitum for 6 weeks. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, PTH, and urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links value were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption. BMD and BMC were measured using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co., Wisconsin) in spine and femur. The effect of diet on ALP, osteocalcine, and PTH was not significant. There were no significant differences in ALP, osteocalcine, and PTH concentration. Urinary calcium excretion was lower in taurine group than in control group. Femur BMC/weight of taurine group was significantly higher than control group. The results of this study showed the possible role of taurine in bone metabolism in male rats.

  19. Muscle strength and bone density in patients with different rheumatic conditions: cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetić, Selma; Grazio, Simeon; Gomzi, Milica; Krapac, Ladislav; Nemčić, Tomislav; Uremović, Melita; Bobić, Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To explore the relationship between muscle strength and bone density in patients with different rheumatic diseases and to examine whether inflammatory arthritis was more harmful for muscle strength and bone loss than degenerative joint diseases. Methods The study included 361 men and women with a mean ± standard deviation age of 60.5 ± 11.4 years and different rheumatic conditions: regional syndromes, osteoarthritis of the hands, shoulders, knees, and hips, and inflammatory arthritis. Maximum voluntary back strength was measured by isometric dynamometry. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and distal radius was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometry and lifestyle characteristics were also assessed. Results Back strength was lowest in patients with hand and shoulder osteoarthritis (20.0 ± 17.9 kg), followed by patients with inflammatory arthritis (24.8 ± 19.2 kg). Patients with inflammatory arthritis had the lowest BMD at the mid-radius (0.650 ± 0.115 g/cm2) and femoral neck (0.873 ± 0.137 g/cm2), while patients with hand and shoulder osteoarthritis had the lowest BMD at the mid-radius (0.660 ± 0.101). In both sexes, muscle strength was significantly lower in patients who had lower BMD (T score<-1.0). Multiple regression analysis identified significant predictors of back strength to be spine BMD (P = 0.024) and body mass index (P = 0.004) in men and femoral neck BMD in women (P = 0.004). Conclusion Muscle strength decline may be connected to bone loss in patients with rheumatic conditions, especially those with inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:21495199

  20. The relationship between panoramic radiomorphometric indices of the mandible and calcaneus bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagelaviciene, Egle; Kubilius, Ricardas; Krasauskiene, Aurelija

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured using the dual x-ray and laser osteodensitometry technique and bone mineral density in the mandible calculated using the panoramic radiomorphometric indices obtained by applying linear measurements in panoramic radiograms of postmenopausal women. The participants of this study were postmenopausal women (n=129) aged 50 and more. The subjects underwent panoramic radiography of the mandibles, followed by the calculation of the panoramic radiomorphometric indices indicating bone mineral density of the mandible. The dual x-ray and laser osteodensitometer DXL Calscan were used for the measurements of bone mineral density in the calcaneus. Statistical analysis was preformed to find the relationship between bone mineral density measurements in the two anatomically different bones. Following the diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis recommended by the World Health Organization (1994), the subjects were distributed according to the calcaneus bone mineral density T-score into the normal bone mineral density (group 1), osteopenia (group 2), and osteoporosis (group 3) groups. Mean bone mineral density in the calcaneus in the general studied population was 0.38+/-0.07; the mean value of bone mineral density of the calcaneus in the group 1 (n=34) was 0.47+/-0.04 (g/cm(2)), in the group 2 (n=65) was 0.37+/-0.03 (g/cm(2)), and in the group 2 (n=30) was 0.29+/-0.03 (g/cm(2)). Differences in bone mineral density between the groups were determined using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) F=285.31; df=2; Ppanoramic mandibular index and bone mineral density in the calcaneus (r=0.397, Ppanoramic radiography reflect general changes in the mineralization of these bones, characteristic of the postmenopausal period.

  1. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  2. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  3. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  4. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  5. Greater association of peak neuromuscular performance with cortical bone geometry, bone mass and bone strength than bone density: A study in 417 older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Blenk, Tilo; Bock, Oliver; Börst, Hendrikje; Kocakaya, Emine; Luhn, Franziska; Rantalainen, Timo; Rawer, Rainer; Tomasius, Frederike; Willnecker, Johannes; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated which aspects of neuromuscular performance are associated with bone mass, density, strength and geometry. 417 women aged 60-94years were examined. Countermovement jump, sit-to-stand test, grip strength, forearm and calf muscle cross-sectional area, areal bone mineral content and density (aBMC and aBMD) at the hip and lumbar spine via dual X-ray absorptiometry, and measures of volumetric vBMC and vBMD, bone geometry and section modulus at 4% and 66% of radius length and 4%, 38% and 66% of tibia length via peripheral quantitative computed tomography were performed. The first principal component of the neuromuscular variables was calculated to generate a summary neuromuscular variable. Percentage of total variance in bone parameters explained by the neuromuscular parameters was calculated. Step-wise regression was also performed. At all pQCT bone sites (radius, ulna, tibia, fibula), a greater percentage of total variance in measures of bone mass, cortical geometry and/or bone strength was explained by peak neuromuscular performance than for vBMD. Sit-to-stand performance did not relate strongly to bone parameters. No obvious differential in the explanatory power of neuromuscular performance was seen for DXA aBMC versus aBMD. In step-wise regression, bone mass, cortical morphology, and/or strength remained significant in relation to the first principal component of the neuromuscular variables. In no case was vBMD positively related to neuromuscular performance in the final step-wise regression models. Peak neuromuscular performance has a stronger relationship with leg and forearm bone mass and cortical geometry as well as proximal forearm section modulus than with vBMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial differences in bone loss and relation to menopause among HIV-infected and uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Flom, Peter L; Rosen, Clifford J; Schoenbaum, Ellie E

    2015-08-01

    To characterize changes in bone mineral density (BMD) according to race among HIV-infected and uninfected women, and to evaluate the relationship between race and menopause-related bone loss. Dual X-ray absorptiometry measured BMD on study entry and a minimum of 18 months later in 246 HIV-infected and 219 HIV-uninfected women in the Menopause Study. Linear regression analyses determined percent annual BMD change at the total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), and lumbar spine (LS) after adjusting for potential confounders. Race-stratified and HIV-infected subgroup analyses were performed. At baseline, mean age was 45 years, 19% of women were postmenopausal. HIV-infected women were more likely to be black (58% vs. 38%), and had lower BMI and less cigarette exposure when compared to HIV-uninfected women. Women who were perimenopausal at baseline and postmenopausal at follow-up had the greatest TH bone loss (-1.68%/yr, p change at the FN and TH. In race-stratified analyses, HIV infection was associated with TH BMD loss in non-black women. Black women experienced greater menopause-associated decline in TH BMD compared with non-black women. The association of HIV and BMD differs strikingly by race, as do the effects of the menopausal transition on bone. Determining the extent to which the effect of HIV on fracture risk varies by race will be crucial to identify HIV-infected women at greatest risk for osteoporotic fracture, particularly as they enter menopause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Bone mineral density in juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña Simón, E; Bueno Lozano, G; Armadá Maresca, M I; Ruibal Francisco, J L; Fernández Pérez, C; Lozano Tonkin, C; Casado de Frías, E

    2000-06-01

    To determine bone mineral density (BMD) at axial and appendicular sites in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and evaluate its relationship with metabolic control and disease duration. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-1000) in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at the distal third forearm in 246 healthy non-diabetic children and adolescents (111 boys, 135 girls, aged 2.8-20.8 years) and in 45 diabetic patients (18 boys, 27 girls, aged 5.2-19.4 years). The results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation. The differences were tested by analysis of variance or Students t-test, as appropriate. The relationship between BMD and the remaining variables was studied by simple Pearsons coefficient and partial correlation coefficient. Significance was defined as p pubertal spurt. The greatest differences were found in males and in the trabecular bone. No relationship was found between metabolic control (mean glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin requirement) and duration of diabetes and the BMD in any region studied (p > 0.05). Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus appear to constitute a population at risk of osteoporosis in adult-hood. Diagnosis of osteopenia diagnosis should be established according to densitometric criteria. In this study, metabolic control parameters and duration of diabetes did not enable predetermination of diabetic patients at risk of osteoporosis in adulthood.

  8. Bone mineral density change during adjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Ahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeOsteoporosis is currently receiving particular attention as a sequela in survivors of childhood osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD changes during methotrexate-based chemotherapy in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.MethodsNine patients with osteosarcoma were included in this retrospective study and compared with eight healthy controls. BMD of the lumbar spine and unaffected femur neck of patients was serially measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and just after chemotherapy and compared with controls.ResultsFour patients (44% showed decreased lumbar spine BMD and seven patients (78% showed decreased femur neck BMD, while all controls showed increased lumbar and femur BMD (P=0.024 and P=0.023. The femur neck BMD z-scores decreased from -0.49±1.14 to -1.63±1.50 (P=0.032. At the end of therapy, five patients (56% showed femur neck BMD z-scores below -2.0.ConclusionThe bone metabolism is disturbed during therapy in children with osteosarcoma, resulting in a reduced BMD with respect to healthy controls. Since a reduced BMD predisposes to osteoporosis, specific attention and therapeutic interventions should be considered.

  9. Spinal bone density and calcium intake in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Smith, K T; Bracker, M; Sartoris, D; Saltman, P; Strause, L

    1991-11-01

    Dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) were determined in 131 healthy free-living postmenopausal women (aged 64.7 +/- 7.6 y, means +/- SD). The calcium consumption for the total population was 606 +/- 302 mg/d. Subjects consuming less than the population mean of dietary calcium had significantly lower BMDs than did subjects with intakes above the mean (P less than 0.009); these two groups did not differ in basic demographic characteristics. Additional analyses using a stepwise univariate regression model demonstrated that BMD was significantly associated with body weight (P less than 0.001) and dietary calcium intake (P less than 0.02). These data support the hypothesis that dietary calcium intake is a determinant of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  10. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  11. Retaining Residual Ovarian Tissue following Ovarian Failure Has Limited Influence on Bone Loss in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelieann R. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work showed that retaining residual ovarian tissue protects young mice from accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure. The present study was designed to determine whether this protection is also present in aged animals. Aged (9–12 months C57BL/6Hsd female mice were divided into: CON (vehicle, VCD (160 mg/kg; 15d, or OVX (ovariectomized. Lumbar BMD was monitored by DXA and μCT used to assess vertebral microarchitecture. BMD was not different between VCD and CON at any time point but was lower (P<.05 than baseline, starting 1 month after ovarian failure in VCD and OVX mice. Following μCT analysis there were no differences between CON and VCD, but OVX mice had lower bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and a trend for decreased connectivity density. These findings provide evidence that retention of residual ovarian tissue may protect aged follicle-depleted mice from accelerated bone loss to a lesser extent than that observed in young mice.

  12. Dried Root of Rehmannia glutinosa Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa is a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of joint diseases. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized dried root of R. glutinosa in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 µg/kg, once daily, i.p and dried root of R. glutinosa extracts (DRGE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o for eight weeks. We measured the body, organs, and uterus weights, and femur and lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density (BMD, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, estradiol levels. The treatments with DRGE 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited BMD decrease in the femur and lumbar (17.5% and 16.4%, p < 0.05, respectively by OVX without affecting the body, organs, and uterus weights. Also, serum ALP level in the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group was significantly decreased, but the estradiol level did not change in serum of the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group. These results show that DRGE is able to prevent OVX-induced bone loss without influencing hormones such as estrogen.

  13. Bone mineral and stiffness loss at the distal femur and proximal tibia in acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W B; Schnitzer, T J; Troy, K L

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography and finite element modeling were used to assess bone mineral and stiffness loss at the knee following acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Marked bone mineral loss was observed from a combination of trabecular and endocortical resorption. Reductions in stiffness were 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. SCI is associated with a rapid loss of bone mineral and an increased rate of fragility fracture. The large majority of these fractures occur around regions of the knee. Our purpose was to quantify changes to bone mineral, geometry, strength indices, and stiffness at the distal femur and proximal tibia in acute SCI. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and patient-specific finite element analysis were performed on 13 subjects with acute SCI at serial time points separated by a mean of 3.5 months (range 2.6-4.8 months). Changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) were quantified for integral, trabecular, and cortical bone at epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and diaphyseal regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia. Changes in bone volumes, cross-sectional areas, strength indices and stiffness were also determined. Bone mineral loss was similar in magnitude at the distal femur and proximal tibia. Reductions were most pronounced at epiphyseal regions, ranging from 3.0 % to 3.6 % per month for integral BMC (p < 0.001) and from 2.8 % to 3.4 % per month (p < 0.001) for integral vBMC. Trabecular BMC decreased by 3.1-4.4 %/month (p < 0.001) and trabecular vBMD by 2.7-4.7 %/month (p < 0.001). A 3.8-5.4 %/month reduction was observed for cortical BMC (p < 0.001); the reduction in cortical vBMD was noticeably lower (0.6-0.8 %/month; p ≤ 0.01). The cortical bone loss occurred primarily through endosteal resorption, and reductions in strength indices and stiffness were some 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic

  14. Dried Plum Protects From Radiation-Induced Bone Loss by Attenuating Pro-Osteoclastic and Oxidative Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Future space explorations beyond the earths magnetosphere will increase human exposure to space radiation and associated risks to skeletal health. We hypothesize that oxidative stress resulting from radiation exposure plays a major role in progressive bone loss and dysfunction in associated tissue. In animal studies, increased free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. Our long-term goals are to define the mechanisms and risk of bone loss in the spaceflight environment and to facilitate the development of effective countermeasures. We had previously reported that exposure to low or high-LET radiation correlates with an acute increase in the expression of pro-osteoclastic and oxidative stress genes in bone during the early response to radiation followed by pathological changes in skeletal structure. We then conducted systematic screening for potential countermeasures against bone loss where we tested the ability of various antioxidants to mitigate the radiation-induced increase in expression of these markers. For the screen, 16-week old C57Bl6J mice were treated with a dietary antioxidant cocktail, injectable DHLA or a dried plum-enriched diet (DP). Mice were then exposed to 2Gy 137Cs radiation and one day later, marrow cells were collected and the relevant genes analyzed for expression levels. Among the candidate countermeasures tested, DP was most effective in reducing the expression of genes associated with bone loss. Furthermore, analysis of skeletal structure by microcomputed tomography (microCT) revealed that DP also prevents the radiation-induced deterioration in skeletal microarchitecture as indicated by parameters such as percent bone volume (BVTV), trabecular spacing and trabecular number. We also found that DP has similar protective effects on skeletal structure in a follow-up study using 1 Gy of

  15. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  16. Low bone density in systemic sclerosis. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omair, Mohammed A; Pagnoux, Christian; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Johnson, Sindhu R

    2013-11-01

    The effect of systemic sclerosis (SSc) on bone density is not well understood. Through systematic review of the literature, the objectives of this study were to synthesize data about the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD), risk factors for low BMD, and occurrence of fracture and fracture-related mortality in SSc. A search was conducted of MEDLINE (1948-2012), Evidence Based Medicine Reviews (1991-2012), EMBASE (1980-2012), and CINAHL (1981-2012). Abstracts were screened to identify studies that evaluated low BMD in patients with SSc. Two investigators independently used a standardized form to abstract prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis (OP); risk factors for low BMD, BMD measurements, frequency of fracture, and fracture-related mortality. Screening of 1032 citations identified 19 articles. Fifteen studies compared patients with SSc to controls. Most patients were white, female (prevalence 74%-100%), and postmenopausal (prevalence 45.9%-100%). The prevalence of low BMD and OP was 27%-53.3% and 3%-51.1%, respectively. Ten studies reported a lower BMD in patients with SSc compared to matched controls, whereas 2 studies reported no difference. Candidate risk factors for low BMD in SSc include family history of OP, age, menopause, diffuse subtype, presence of internal organ involvement, low vitamin D levels, and calcinosis. However, the studies supporting these factors were conflicting. Fracture rate ranged between 0% and 38%. No study reported OP-related fracture mortality. The data suggest that patients with SSc are at risk of low BMD and fracture, especially when other risk factors for OP are present. The interaction of SSc manifestations, traditional OP risk factors, and clinically relevant outcomes is complex and warrants further research.

  17. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  18. Correlation trends for bone mineral density in Mexican women: evidence of familiar predisposition Tendencias de correlación para la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas: pruebas de predisposición familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Juan Tamayo; Rodrigo Díaz; Ana I. Burguete; Jorge Salmerón

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic factors determine bone mineral density (BMD) and peak bone density between 20 and 30 years of age, as well as bone mineral loss after menopause. BMD is a predictor of fractures due to osteoporosis and the impact of genetic factors on osteoporosis. The variation in BMD for each individual is determined by an underlying genetic structure, common genetic effects, particularly with respect to compact bones as compared to those that are primarily trabecular. This article present...

  19. Proximal Femur Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Mortality: 13 Years of Follow-Up of the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Elbejjani, Martine; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Lang, Thomas; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Meirelles, Osorio; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Launer, Lenore; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B

    2017-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been linked to mortality, but little is known about the independent contribution of each endosteal bone compartment and also the rate of bone loss to risk of mortality. We examined the relationships between (1) baseline trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the proximal femur, and (2) the rate of trabecular and cortical bone loss and all-cause mortality in older adults from the AGES-Reykjavik study. The analysis of trabecular and cortical vBMD and mortality was based on the baseline cohort of 4654 participants (aged ≥66 years) with a median follow-up of 9.4 years; the association between rate of bone loss and mortality was based on 2653 participants with bone loss data (median follow-up of 5.6 years). Analyses employed multivariable Cox-proportional models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with time-varying fracture status; trabecular and cortical variables were included together in all models. Adjusted for important confounders, Cox models showed that participants in the lowest quartile of trabecular vBMD had an increased risk of mortality compared to participants in other quartiles (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.25); baseline cortical vBMD was not related to mortality (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.20). After adjustment for time-dependent fracture status, results were attenuated and not statistically significant. A faster loss (quartile 1 versus quartiles 2-4) in both trabecular and cortical bone was associated with higher mortality risk (HR = 1.37 and 1.33, respectively); these associations were independent of major potential confounders including time-dependent incident fractures (HR = 1.32 and 1.34, respectively). Overall, data suggest that faster bone losses over time in both the trabecular and cortical bone compartments are associated with mortality risk and that measurements of change in bone health may be more informative than single-point measurements in explaining mortality

  20. The role of the P2X7 receptor on bone loss in a mouse model of inflammation-mediated osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, T. M.; Syberg, S.; Petersen, S.

    2017-01-01

    density (BMD), microarchitecture, and bone strength in a standardized mouse model of inflammation-mediated osteoporosis (IMO). In total 146 mice completed our protocol, 70 wild type (WT) mice and 76 P2X7 −/− (knockout, KO). BMD at the femur and spine decreased significantly from baseline to day 20......In inflammatory autoimmune diseases, bone loss is frequent. In most cases, secondary osteoporosis is caused by treatment with systemic glucocorticoid. However, the pathogenesis behind the bone loss is presumed multifactorial. We aimed to elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor on bone mineral...... area increased significantly in WT vehicle and KO IMO after 20 days (5.2% and 8.8%, respectively). In conclusion, the P2X7 receptor KO mice did not respond to inflammation with loss of BMD whereas the WT mice had a significant loss of BMD, bone strength and trabecular microarchitecture, demonstrating...

  1. Association of Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels with Bone Loss in Chronic Kidney Disease: Insights from the KNOW-CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Han, Seung Hyeok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Lee, Joongyub; Chae, Dong Wan; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin, a potent osteoclast activation inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and positively affects bone mineral density. This study examined the association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, a condition associated with increased risk of mineral and bone disorders. The bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum osteoprotegerin levels were measured at baseline for 1,423 patients enrolled in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Patients aged ≥50 years and with a T-score ≤ -2.5 were diagnosed as having osteoporosis. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated independent association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (B: -0.489, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.883 to -0.095, P = 0.015), and total hip (B: -0.349, 95% CI: -0.672 to -0.027, P = 0.027). However, bone mineral density of the femur neck was not associated with serum osteoprotegerin levels in women. After adjustments, no independent association was found between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone mineral density in men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, serum osteoprotegerin levels were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis in women (odds ratio [OR]: 4.72, 95% CI: 1.35 to 16.52, P = 0.015), but not in men (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.31, P = 0.095). To summarize, in female patients with chronic kidney disease, increased serum osteoprotegerin levels were independently associated with decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and total hip, and with increased risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, the measurement of serum osteoprotegerin concentration might be useful as a surrogate marker for determining bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially for women, although not so much for men.

  2. Marginal bone loss as success criterion in implant dentistry: beyond 2 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; León-Cano, Ana; Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Monje, Alberto; O'Valle, Francisco; Catena, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze marginal bone loss (MBL) rates around implants to establish the difference between physiological bone loss and bone loss due to peri-implantitis. Five hundred and eight implants were placed in the posterior maxilla in 208 patients. Data were gathered on age, gender, bone substratum (grafted or pristine), prosthetic connection, smoking and alcohol habits, and previous periodontitis. MBL was radiographically analyzed in three time frames (5 months post-surgery and at 6 and 18 months post-loading). Nonparametric receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis and mixed linear model analysis were used to determine whether implants could be classified as high or low bone loser type (BLT) and to establish the influence of this factor on MBL rates. Marginal bone loss rates were significantly affected by BLT, connection type, bone substratum, and smoking. Bone loss rates at 18 months were associated with initial bone loss rates: 96% of implants with an MBL of >2 mm at 18 months had lost 0.44 mm or more at 6 months post-loading. Implants with increased MBL rates at early stages (healing and immediate post-loading periods) are likely to reach MBL values that compromise their final outcome. Initial (healing, immediate post-loading) MBL rates around an implant of more than 0.44 mm/year are an indication of peri-implant bone loss progression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Precision of pQCT-measured total, trabecular and cortical bone area, content, density and estimated bone strength in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, W R D; Björkman, K M; Kawalilak, C E; Kehrig, A M; Wiebe, S; Kontulainen, S

    2017-06-01

    To define pQCT precision errors, least-significant-changes, and identify associated factors for bone outcomes at the radius and tibia in children. We obtained duplicate radius and tibia pQCT scans from 35 children (8-14yrs). We report root-mean-squared coefficient of variation (CV% RMS ) and 95% limits-of-agreement to characterize repeatability across scan quality and least-significant-changes for bone outcomes at distal (total and trabecular area, content and density; and compressive bone strength) and shaft sites (total area and content; cortical area content, density and thickness; and torsional bone strength). We used Spearman's rho to identify associations between CV% and time between measurements, child's age or anthropometrics. After excluding unanalyzable scans (6-10% of scans per bone site), CV% RMS ranged from 4% (total density) to 19% (trabecular content) at the distal radius, 4% (cortical content) to 8% (cortical thickness) at the radius shaft, 2% (total density) to 14% (trabecular content) at the distal tibia and from 2% (cortical content) to 6% (bone strength) at the tibia shaft. Precision errors were within 95% limits-of-agreement across scan quality. Age was associated (rho -0.4 to -0.5, p⟨0.05) with CV% at the tibia. Bone density outcomes and cortical bone properties appeared most precise (CV% RMS ⟨5%) in children.

  4. Correlation of periodontal status and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: A digital radiographic and quantitative ultrasound study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Vishwanath

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Calcaneal BMD was related to alveolar bone loss and, to a lesser extent, to clinical attachment loss, implicating postmenopausal bone loss as a risk indicator for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women.

  5. The relationship between educational level and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nas Kemal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the influence of educational level on bone mineral density (BMD and investigating the relationship between educational level and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 569 postmenopausal women, from 45 to 86 years of age (mean age of 60.43 ± 7.19 years were included in this study. A standardized interview was used at the follow-up visit to obtain information on demographic, life-style, reproductive and menstrual histories such as age at menarche, age at menopause, number of pregnancies, number of abortions, duration of menopause, duration of fertility, and duration of lactation. Patients were separated into four groups according to the level of education, namely no education (Group 1 with 209 patients, elementary (Group 2 with 222 patients, high school (Group 3 with 79 patients, and university (Group 4 with 59 patients. Results The mean ages of groups were 59.75 ± 7.29, 61.42 ± 7.50, 60.23 ± 7.49, and 58.72 ± 7.46, respectively. Spine BMD was significant lower in Group 1 than that of other groups (p Conclusions The results of the study suggest that there is a significant correlation between educational level and BMD. Losses in BMD for women of lower educational level tend to be relatively high, and losses in spine and femur BMD showed a decrease with increasing educational level.

  6. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment......CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss induced...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...

  7. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  8. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  9. Mineral Density and Quantity of Bone, Parameters of Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ivanyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diagnostic of osteoporosis the golden standard is bone mineral density, though X-ray densitomenry parameters not always determine risk for osteoporotic fractures. That is why new methods are being looked for to find the parameters not only mineral density, but rather quantity of bone. One of theses methods is trabecular bone score. As general weight of body includes fat and lean mass some researchers tried to determine their role in development of structural and functional impairments in bone, however there is no clear answer to this question: while some scientists considered fat mass as a basic factor of protection from fractures, other ones decided that lean mass is more connected with mineral density of bone tissue. The aim of study was to investigate parameters of quantity and density of bone of spine, neck of femur and body composition depending on the postmenopausal period; to study connection between fat mass and mineral density and quantity of bone. Materials and methods. The observed females were divided into the groups: premenopausal women and women with postmenopause of various duration (early, middle, late. There were conducted a general clinical observation of a patient and investigation of mentioned above parameters using X-ray densitomentry General Electric. Results. Quantity of bone (TBS and bone mineral density significantly decrease depending on postmenopausal period. Fat and lean masses do not significantly change. In the middle and late postmenopausal periods bone mineral density of the spine and hip neck increase while fat mass increases.

  10. Combined Effects of Phytoestrogen Genistein and Silicon on Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shanshan; Zheng, Hongxing

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of concomitant supplementation of genistein and silicon on bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers in ovariectomized rat. Three-month-old Sprague Dawley female rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then the OVX rats were randomly divided into four groups: OVX-GEN, OVX-Si, OVX-GEN-Si, and OVX. Genistein and silicon supplementation was started immediately after OVX and continued for 10 weeks. In the OVX-GEN group, 5 mg genistein per gram body weight was injected subcutaneously. The OVX-Si group was given soluble silicon daily in demineralized water (Si 20 mg/kg body weight/day). The OVX-GEN-Si group was given subcutaneous injections of 5 mg genistein per gram body weight, at the same time, given soluble silicon daily (Si 20 mg/kg body weight/day). The results showed that the genistein supplementation in the OVX rats significantly prevented the loss of uterus weight; however, the silicon supplementation showed no effect on the uterus weight loss. The lumbar spine and femur bone mineral density was significantly decreased after OVX surgery; however, this decrease was inhibited by the genistein and/or silicon, and the BMD of the lumbar spine and femur was the highest in the OVX-GEN-Si-treated group. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the supplementation of genistein and/or silicon restored bone volume and trabecular thickness of femoral trabecular bone in the OVX group. Besides, the treatment with genistein and silicon for 10 weeks increased the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus in the OVX rats; serum calcium and serum phosphorus in the OVX-GEN-Si group were higher than those in the OVX-GEN and OVX-Si group (P silicon decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin, which were increased by ovariectomy; serum ALP and osteocalcin in the OVX-GEN-Si group were lower than those in the OVX-GEN and OVX-Si groups (P silicon have synergistic effects on

  11. Impact of degenerative radiographic abnormalities and vertebral fractures on spinal bone density of women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Costa Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Measurements of bone density taken by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are the most accurate procedure for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This procedure has the disadvantage of measuring the density of all mineral components, including osteophytes, vascular and extra vertebral calcifications. These alterations can influence bone density results and densitometry interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To correlate radiography and densitometry findings from women with osteoporosis, analyzing the influence of degenerative processes and vertebral fractures on the evaluation of bone density. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Osteoporosis outpatients' clinic at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six postmenopausal women presenting osteoporosis diagnosed by bone density. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by the technique of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using a LUNAR-DPX densitometer. Fractures, osteophytes and aortic calcifications were evaluated by simple x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar spine. RESULTS: The x-rays confirmed vertebral fractures in 41.6%, osteophytes in 33.3% and calcifications of the aorta in 30.2%. The prevalence of fractures and aortic calcifications increased with age. The mean bone mineral density was 0.783g/cm² and the mean T-score was --3.47 DP. Neither fractures nor aortic calcifications had significant influence on bone mineral density (P = 0.36 and P = 0.09, respectively, despite the fractured vertebrae having greater bone mineral density (P < 0.02. Patients with lumbar spine osteophytes showed greater bone mineral density (P = 0.04. Osteophytosis was associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density after adjustment for fractures and aortic calcifications by multiple regression (P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Osteophytes and lumbar spine fractures can overestimate bone density interpretation. The interpretation of densitometry

  12. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Low doses of estradiol in combination with gestodene to prevent early postmenopausal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, N H; Byrjalsen, I; Hassager, C; Haarbo, J; Christiansen, C

    2000-09-01

    Our purpose was to study combinations of estradiol and gestodene for prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women. We randomly assigned 278 healthy, early postmenopausal women to receive either 2 mg 17beta-estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 2/25s), 2 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 50 microg gestodene (group 2/50s), 1 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 1/25s), 1 mg estradiol continuously combined with 25 mg gestodene (group 1/25c), or placebo. After 3 years the changes in bone mineral density of the spine were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, 7. 41% +/- 0.72%; group 2/50s, 8.53% +/- 0.90%; group 1.25s, 6.67% +/- 0.88%; group 1/25c, 4.44% +/- 0.59%; and placebo group, -2.03% +/- 0. 64%. The changes in bone mineral density were mirrored in the biochemical bone markers. The average responses for the urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen corrected for creatinine excretion were as follows (mean of baseline +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -68.8% +/- 0.03%; group 2/50s, -72.8% +/- 0.02%; group 1/25s, -60.7% +/- 0.03%; group 1/25c, -52.28% +/- 0.04%; and placebo group, 6.5% +/- 0.09%. Beneficial lipid effects were found in all active groups. The decreases in low-density lipoprotein were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -13.7% +/- 3.0%; group 2/50s, -14.6% +/- 3.2%; group 1/25s, -9.28% +/- 2.2%; group 1/25c, -9.92% +/- 2.4%; and placebo group, 1.53% +/- 1.9%. These results demonstrate that estradiol therapy with 1 mg estradiol is fully protective against early postmenopausal bone loss.

  14. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  15. Loss of bone strength in response to exercise-induced weight loss in obese postmenopausal women: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, K L; Gozansky, W S; Sherk, V D; Swibas, T A; Wolfe, P; Scherzinger, A; Stamm, E; Kohrt, W M

    2014-06-01

    Exercise-induced weight loss (WL) can lead to decreased areal bone mineral density (aBMD). It is unknown whether this translates into decreased volumetric BMD (vBMD) or bone strength. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether exercise-induced WL results in decreased vBMD and bone strength in postmenopausal women. Fourteen subjects participated in a 4-month endurance exercise WL intervention. A weight stable (WS) control group (n=10) was followed for 4 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured by DXA. Femoral neck vBMD and estimates of bone strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and section modulus (SM)) were measured by quantitative CT. Women were 54.6±2.4 years, BMI 32.1±5.9 kg/m(2) and 54.4±2.9 years, BMI 27.9±3.6 kg/m(2) in the WL and WS groups, respectively. The WL group lost 3.0±2.6 kg which was predominately fat mass. There was a significant decrease in SMmax. Changes in CSMImax and total hip aBMD were not significant. Total hip vBMD did not decrease significantly in response to WL. There were no significant changes in the WS group. WL may lead to decreased bone strength before changes in BMD are detected. Further studies are needed to determine whether bone-targeted exercise can preserve bone strength during WL.

  16. Assessment of risk factors bone mineral density decrease in adolescents with dentoalveolar anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of osteopenia and its relationship with combined orthodontic and somatic disorders in adolescents to build a working model of the formation of osteopenia, identifying the most significant risk factors.Materials and methods. 525 grade 5–10 schoolchildren from Lugansk’ secondary schools and orphans school aged 12–17 years were examined. We assessed the state of dental hard tissues and periodontal tissues, the state of oral health, the prevalence of different types of dentoalveolar anomalies (DAA and chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (CDGIT. Bone mineral density was assessed by ultrasound osteodensitometry (SONOST-2000. The level of mineralization of the skeleton was assessed by speed of sound (SOS, m/s, it depends on the degree of elasticity and density of the bone tissue. We analyzed the performance – Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA – broadband absorption, dB/MHz, it’s characterized by loss of the intensity of the ultrasound in the absorption medium, as well as the number, size and spatial orientation of the trabecular bone. The statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out with application program package Statistic 6.0.Results. During study the combined pathology as the dentoalveolar anomalies and chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract were identified in 68,4% of adolescents. Light form of osteopenia met in every third patient with combined pathology. Certain combinations of factors that have a negative effect to bone mineral density were discovered, and we have created the model of osteopenia in adolescents. Underweight is one of the leading factors in the osteopenia development, the highest incidence of osteopenia were in children who had weight deficit (69,5%, and children with a harmonic age loss of the weight and growth parameters (70,7%.Conclusion. Adolescents with DAA and chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal

  17. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    were killed 4 weeks after surgery. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), biochemical markers, and histomorphometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the male mice, there were only few effects of bgn deficiency on bone metabolism...... to biglycan deficiency. INTRODUCTION: Biglycan (bgn) is a small extracellular matrix proteoglycan enriched in skeletal tissues, and biglycan-deficient male mice have decreased trabecular bone mass and bone strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bone phenotype of the biglycan...

  18. Impact of annual bone loss and different bone quality on dental implant success - A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetskiy, Igor; Demenko, Vladyslav; Linetska, Larysa; Yefremov, Oleg

    2017-12-01

    For dental implant success, experimentally established thresholds should limit bone stresses and strains. From these metrics, the ultimate functional load, which determines the implant load-carrying capacity, can be calculated. Obviously, its decrease due to bone loss shortens implant service life. A comparison of how bone loss affects the ultimate functional loads of various implants can provide the clinician with meaningful feedback concerning the suitability and longevity of implants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lifetime of different dental implants placed in I-IV bone types on the basis of a comparison of their ultimate functional loads with consideration of the bone loss factor. Von Mises stress and first principal strain distributions in bone-implant interface were studied and ultimate functional loads were calculated. Models of I-IV bone types were designed. 3.3 × 8.0 mm (A), 4.1 × 12.0 mm (B) and 4.8 × 14.0 mm (C) implants were analyzed at 10 levels of bone loss. Ultimate functional loads, which generated the ultimate von Mises stress and first principal strain in bone, were computed. For the implants A, B, and C placed in type I bone, ultimate functional load values were above 120.92 N experimental functional load, which corresponded to 10+, 10+, and 10 + years of service with 0.2 mm annual bone loss. For type II bone, the lifetime was 4, 10+, and 10 + years. For type III bone, the lifetime was 4, 5, and 5 years. For type IV bone, first principal strains were initially deleterious for all implants. In oral implantology, bone loss is an essential factor for implant longevity prognosis. While evaluating implant load-carrying capacity, clinicians should take into account the factor of implant longevity decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (p<0.0001). Lean mass was not associated with hip BMD loss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass p<0.01). Maintaining body weight is important for bone health in elderly men. Body fat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Density, Microarchitecture, and Estimated Bone Strength Assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2014-01-01

    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture...

  1. Bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition of children with chronic renal failure, with and without growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; de Jong, M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Lilien, M. R.; van Wijk, J. A.; Kist-van Holthe, J. E.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; Pols, H. A.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Osteopenia has been reported in adult patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Only a few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, body composition in children with CRF and to study the effect of GH

  2. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to post-burn bone loss? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/QLDkCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L Klein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in the acute loss of bone as well as the development of progressive vitamin D deficiency. Bone loss occurs acutely due to resorption, which is then followed by apoptosis of osteoblasts preventing repair of the bone loss. The acute resorption is due to a combination of the inflammatory response and the stress response to the burn injury. The resultant production of inflammatory cytokines and endogenous glucocorticoids initially stimulate the osteoblasts to produce RANK ligand, which stimulates marrow stem cell differentiation into osteoclasts. As the stress response persists for approximately one year post-burn the glucocorticoids produced by the body will cause osteoblast apoptosis and adynamic bone, impairing the ability of bone to recover its resorptive losses. The vitamin D deficiency is due to the failure to supplement the diet of burn patients with vitamin D on discharge from hospital and to failure of the skin to make normal quantities of vitamin D on sunlight exposure. Because the bone resorption can be prevented by the acute administration of bisphosphonates it is unlikely that vitamin D deficiency is responsible for the early-onset bone loss following burns. However, because a deficit in trabecular bone remains for at least two years post-burn, it is possible that vitamin D deficiency prevents the recovery of trabecular bone density over the long term.

  3. Bone density around the fixture after function of implant molar prosthesis using CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Hwang, In Taik; Jung, Byung Hyun; Kim, Jae Duk; Kang, Dong Wan [School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of increased bone density according to whether bone grafts were applied using demographic data with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and to compare the bone densities between before and after implant prosthesis using the Hounsfield index. Thirty-six randomly selected computed tomography (CT) scans were used for the analysis. The same sites were evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with V-Implant 2.0TM, and the results were compared with maxillary posterior bone graft. Statistical data analysis was carried out to determine the correlation between the recorded Hounsfield unit (HU) of the bone graft and implant prosthesis using a Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Matched-pairs test. The bone grafted maxillary posterior teeth showed an increase in the mean values from-157 HU to 387 HU, whereas non-grafted maxillary posterior teeth showed an increase from 62 HU to 342 HU. After implantation, the grafted and non-grafted groups showed significantly higher bone density than before implantation. However, the grafted group showed significantly more changes than the non-grafted group. Bone density measurements using CBCT might provide an objective assessment of the bone quality as well as the correlation between bone density (Hounsfield scale) and bone grafts in the maxillary molar area.

  4. The correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory periodontitis regarding bone loss in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Megumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    We have invented a mouse model of periodontitis associated with alveolar bone loss induced by lipopolysaccharide. Ovariectomized (OVX) animals are widely used as a model for osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency. To define the relationship between periodontitis and osteoporosis, we examined the influence of estrogen deficiency on the mouse alveolar bone mass. In OVX mice, bone loss was detected not only in the femur, but also in the alveolar bone, indicating that estrogen deficiency could induce resorption in alveolar bone. In experiments using a combination of osteoporosis and periodontitis models, OVX significantly enhanced the alveolar bone loss in the model of periodontitis. Therefore, postmenopausal osteoporosis may enhance the risk of periodontitis associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption.

  5. Bone density and body composition in chronic renal failure: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, I. M.; Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; Hop, W. C.; de Jong, M. C.; Lilien, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Wijk, A. E.; Pols, H. A.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease and growth retardation are common complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition and growth in children with CRF, and the effect of growth hormone treatment (GHRx) on these variables. Thirty-three

  6. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Cow's Milk Allergy and Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, Genevieve; Perrone, Vanessa; Alos, Nathalie; Dubois, Josée; Delvin, Edgard; Paradis, Louis; Des Roches, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Recent data suggest that cow's milk allergy (CMA) has become more persistent, prolonging treatment via strict elimination of cow's milk products into a period of skeletal growth. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D status, and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D between prepubertal children with persistent CMA and those with non-cow's milk food allergies (NCMA) as control subjects and to assess the use of and compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation among children with persistent CMA. Fifty-two children with persistent CMA and 29 with NCMA were recruited. BMD was measured by using dual energy radiograph absorptiometry, and vitamin D status was assessed by using plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium and vitamin D intakes, as well as compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation, were recorded. Lumbar spine BMD z scores were significantly lower in children with CMA. Low bone mass was detected in 6% of the CMA group compared with none in the NCMA group. Children with CMA displayed significantly lower calcium intakes than control subjects. Vitamin D status was not reduced in children with CMA compared with control subjects. Fewer than one-half of children with CMA reported the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements. However, adherence was high among supplement users, with a mean compliance rate of 5.5 days per week. These prepubertal children with persistent CMA had lower lumbar spine BMD z scores than children with NCMA, which likely resulted from lower calcium intake. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Risk factors for decreased bone density in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krahe

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem. Little is known about the risk factors in premenopause. Sixty 40-50-year old patients with regular menses were studied cross-sectionally. None of the patients were on drugs known to interfere with bone mass. Patients answered a dietary inquiry and had their bone mineral density (BMD measured. The Z scores were used for the comparisons. A blood sample was taken for the determination of FSH, SHBG, estradiol, testosterone, calcium and alkaline phosphatase. Calcium and creatinine were measured in 24-h urine. A Z score less than -1 was observed for the lumbar spine of 14 patients (23.3%, and for the femur of 24 patients (40%. Patients with a Z score less than -1 for the lumbar spine were older than patients with a Z score ³-1 (45.7 vs 43.8 years and presented higher values of alkaline phosphatase (71.1 ± 18.2 vs 57.1 ± 14.3 IU/l. Multiple regression analysis showed that a lower lumbar spine BMD was associated with higher values of alkaline phosphatase, lower calcium ingestion, a smaller body mass index (BMI, less frequent exercising, and older age. The patients with a Z score less than -1 for the femur were shorter than patients with a Z score ³-1 (158.2 vs 161.3 cm. Multiple regression analysis showed that a lower femoral BMD was associated with lower BMI, higher alkaline phosphatase and caffeine intake, and less frequent exercising. A lower than expected BMD was observed in a significant proportion of premenopausal women and was associated with lower calcium intake, relatively lower physical activity and lower BMI. We conclude that the classical risk factors for osteoporosis may be present before ovarian failure, and their effect may be partly independent of estrogen levels.

  9. Vegetarianism, bone loss, fracture and vitamin D: a longitudinal study in Asian vegans and non-vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, L T; Vu, B Q; Lai, T Q; Nguyen, N D; Nguyen, T V

    2012-01-01

    The effect of vegan diet on bone loss has not been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between veganism and bone loss in postmenopausal women. The study was designed as a prospective longitudinal investigation with 210 women, including 105 vegans and 105 omnivores. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 2008 and 2010 by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR4500). The incidence of vertebral fracture was ascertained by X-ray report. Serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were measured by Roche Elecsys assays. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were measured by electrochemiluminescence. Among the 210 women who initially participated in the study in 2008, 181 women had completed the study and 29 women were lost to follow-up. The rate of loss in FN BMD was -1.91±3.45%/year in omnivores and -0.86±3.81%/year (P=0.08) in vegans. Lower body weight, higher intakes of animal protein and lipid, and corticosteroid use were associated with greater rate of bone loss. The 2-year incidence of fracture was 5.7% (n=5/88) in vegans, which was not significantly different from omnivores (5.4%, n=6/93). There were no significant differences in βCTX and PINP between vegans and omnivores. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in vegans was higher than in omnivores (73% versus 46%; P=0.0003). Vegan diet did not have adverse effect on bone loss and fracture. Corticosteroid use and high intakes of animal protein and animal lipid were negatively associated with bone loss.

  10. P2X7 receptor regulates osteoclast function and bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Agrawal, Ankita; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Gartland, Alison

    2018-02-22

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a condition that affects millions worldwide and places a huge socio-economic burden on society. Previous research has shown an association of loss of function SNPs in the gene for the purinergic receptor P2X7R with low bone mineral density, increased rates of bone loss and vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. In this study we use a mouse model of oestrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and the BALB/cJ P2X7R -/- to show that absence of the P2X7R resulted in increased bone loss. Osteoclast precursors were isolated from both BALB/cJ P2X7R -/- and BALB/cJ P2X7R +/+ mice and then cultured in vitro to form mature resorbing osteoclasts. The BALB/cJ P2X7R -/- derived precursors generated slightly more osteoclasts but with a significant reduction in the amount of resorption per osteoclast. Furthermore, when using modified culture conditions osteoclast activity was additionally increased in the absence of the P2X7R suggest that P2X7R may regulate the lifespan and activity of osteoclasts. Finally using mechanical loading as an anabolic stimulus for bone formation, we demonstrated that the increased oestrogen-deficient bone loss could be rescued, even in the absence of P2X7R. This study paves the way for clinical intervention for women with post-menopausal osteoporosis and P2XR7 loss of function polymorphisms.

  11. Hibernation does not reduce cortical bone density, area or second moments of inertia in woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Frampton, Jason D; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    Long periods of inactivity in most mammals result in bone loss that may not be completely recoverable during an individual's lifetime regardless of future activity. Prolonged inactivity is normal during hibernation, but it remains uncertain whether hibernating mammals suffer decreased bone properties after hibernation that affects survival. We test the hypothesis that relative cortical area (C(A) ), apparent density, bone area fraction (B.Ar/T.Ar), and moments of inertia do not differ between museum samples of woodchucks (Marmota monax) collected before and after hibernation. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to examine bone geometry in the femur, tibia, humerus and mandible. We see little evidence for changes in bone measures with hibernation supporting our hypothesis. In fact, when including subadults to increase sample sizes and controlling age statistically, we observed a trend toward increased bone properties following hibernation. Diaphyses were significantly denser in the humerus, femur, and tibia after hibernation, and relative mandibular cortical area was significantly larger. Similarly, relative mechanical indices were significantly larger in the mandible after hibernation. Although tests of individual measures in many cases were not significantly different prehibernation versus posthibernation, the overall pattern of average increase posthibernation was significant for relative C(A) and densities as well as relative diaphyseal mechanical indices when examining outcomes collectively. The exception to this pattern was a reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone following hibernation. Individually, only humeral B.Ar/T.Ar was significantly reduced, but the average reduction in trabecular measures post-hibernation was significant when examined collectively. Because the sample included subadults, we suggest that much of the increased bone relates to their continued growth during hibernation. Our results indicate that woodchucks are more

  12. Bone Mass Density in Normal Iranian Population - Shariati Hospital (1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pajoohi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bone mass density (BMD may vary in different countries due to different genetic and environmental factors. This study was performed to determine the BMD of the normal population in Iran. Methods and Materials: Subjects were selected randomly from different works and social classes in Tehran (from the lowest to the highest. For each decade and sexes, 20 normal subjects were selected (140 men and 140 women. BMD was measured with a Hologic 1000 plus machine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method for the lumber spine (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4 and the femoral neck (neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, ward, total. Data were treated by polynomial approximation (3 rd degree. The obtained curves were compared with the standard Hologic curves for Caucasians. Results: In female the peak bone mass (PBM was 1.019 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.832 for the femoral neck. In male the peak bone mass (PBM was 0.987 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.907 for the femoral neck. The BMD of both lumbar spine and femoral neck were lower than the Hologic standards. For the lumbar spine the mean difference was 6.5 percent (2 to 21 percent, CI=1 for women and 13.8 percent (2 to 36 percent, CI=1.45 for men. In femoral neck the mean difference was 5.4 percent (2 to 16 percent, CI=0.96 for women and 4.6 percent (1 to 14 percent, CI=0.96 for men. Conclusion: The BMD of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck was lower in Iranian compared to the Hologic standards for Caucasians. This was seen in all age groups and in both sexes. It was less pronounced for the PBM in spine was lower in men than woman. The lower BMD of the spine in men was also seen in a cohort of patients with different diseases (inflammatory and non-inflammatory.

  13. Physical activity, body composition and bone density in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Fogelholm, M; Ottenheijm, R; Westerterp, K R

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) in female ballet dancers. Training history, Ca intake, body composition, total body BMD (TBMD) and site-specific BMD, and bone mineral content were described in twenty-four female ballet dancers (mean age 22.6 (SD 4.5) years). Training history was determined by questionnaires, Ca intake by 7 d dietary record, BMD and bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water by 2H dilution, extracellular water by bromide dilution, body fat by underwater weighing (UWW; two-component model), DXA, and the four-component (4C) model. Dancers had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI 18.9 (SD 1.0) kg/m2) than controls (21.3 (SD 1.9) kg/m2), with significantly lower percentage body fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) v. 24.4 (SD 5.1)) but comparable fat-free mass. Mean TBMD (1.147 (SD 0.069) g/cm2) was significantly higher (6%) compared with that of a reference population. These high values could be attributed to the high BMD of legs and pelvis, the weight-bearing sites of the dancer's body. No relationship was found between age, start of ballet classes, period (years) of dancing, Ca intake, and BMD (total and site-specific). However, TBMD was positively related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to daily period (h) of training. Depending on the method used the percentage body fat ranged from 16.4 (by DXA) to 18.3 by the 4C model. These differences were significantly related to the TBMD. Percentage body fat by the different methods was not significantly different, except for DXA and 4C model. The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD, such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by

  14. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  15. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  16. Pattern of bone loss in dry Mandibles of individuals who died before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of bone loss in dry Mandibles of individuals who died before 1957. ... The total mean bone loss for all teeth was 2.51 (SD 1.15) with a range of 0.85-5.80. ... Thus susceptibility to periodontal disease is evident in a small proportion of individuals even in populations not exposed to modern diet and formal dental ...

  17. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment Increases Bone Formation and Prevents Bone Loss in Weight-Reduced Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie R; Hartmann, Bolette; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten; Torekov, Signe S

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss-induced bone mass reduction. Randomized control study. Outpatient research hospital clinic. Thirty-seven healthy obese women with body mass index of 34 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) and age 46 ± 2 years. After a low-calorie-diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/d) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be replaced with a low-calorie-diet product to maintain the weight loss. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone markers [C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52-week weight maintenance. Primary endpoints were changes in BMC and bone markers after 52-week weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance in the control group (P GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low-calorie diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent.

  18. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R 2  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5a- reductase 2 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Elaine Maria Frade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.

  20. Participation in high-impact sports predicts bone mineral density in senior olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; Francis, Kimberly; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Games (the Senior Olympics). Cross-sectional methods. The athletes completed a detailed health history questionnaire and underwent calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to measure BMD. Athletes were classified as participating in high impact sports (basketball, road race [running], track and field, triathalon, and volleyball) or non-high-impact sports. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the influence of high-impact sports on BMD. On average, participants were 65.9 years old (range, 50 to 93). There were 298 women (53.2%) and 289 men (51.6%) who participated in high-impact sports. Average body mass index was 25.6 ± 3.9. The quantitative ultrasound-generated T scores, a quantitative measure of BMD, averaged 0.4 ± 1.3 and -0.1 ± 1.4 for the high-impact and non-high-impact groups, respectively. After age, sex, obesity, and use of osteoporosis medication were controlled, participation in high-impact sports was a significant predictor of BMD (R(2) change 3.2%, P participation in high-impact sports positively influenced bone health, even in the oldest athletes. These data imply that high-impact exercise is a vital tool to maintain healthy BMD with active aging.

  1. Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1989-10-01

    To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

  2. A 170Tm gamma scattering technique for the determination of absolute bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, H; Karjalainen, P

    1975-07-01

    A new technique for the determination of absolute bone density is described. The procedure is based on the measurement of both transmitted and scattered photons emitted from a 650 mCi radioisotope source of 170Tm in a narrow beam geometry. The method takes into consideration the change in the effective Z/A as a function of bone density which is due to the changing of the elementary composition of bone when bone material is resorbed. The experimental results show that the density of homogeneous materials can be measured