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Sample records for bone density loss

  1. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  2. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  3. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  4. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  5. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  6. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  7. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  9. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    measurements were identified for different age groups. Age-appropriate testing mode can improve detection of osteoporotic fracture risk in early menopause by determining muscular strength reduction related to BMD loss. This may enable early initiation of preventative therapies. Keywords: osteoporosis, fracture, bone mineral density, postmenopausal, menopause, muscle strength, isokinetic, isometric

  10. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, FeiYan; Chen, Jie; Shi, JingSheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg...

  11. Analysis of Bone Density in Patients with Urolithiasis; Role of Hypercalciuria in Bone Loss: Do These Patients Need a Low-Calcium Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Yarmohammadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kidney stone is a common urologic complaint. In this study, bone density in stone formers was compared with that of a control group; bone density of stone formers was also analyzed based on age, sex and stone configuration. Methods: In a group of 85 patients with upper urinary calcium stones and 85 healthy people, variables such as age, height, weight, BMI, T-score and Z-score results of bone densitometry of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 and femoral neck were recorded. The serum levels of uric acid, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphor, alkaline phosphates and parathyroid hormone were also analyzed and recorded. Furthermore, all patients, 24-hour urine was studied for levels of cr, oxalate, citrate, uric acid calcium, urea and the total volume. Results: Lumbar and femoral bone mineral density (BMD was significantly lower in patients suffering from renal stone. This difference was also significant when the study and control groups were classified into hypercalciuric and normocalciuric ones. Based on the densimetric results of lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck, BMD reduction among menopause women was significantly greater. Conclusion: Noting the lack of relationship between hypercalciuria and bone loss, and noting that a low-calcium diet not only has no proved role in renal stone prevention, but also it leads to calcium imbalance and finally bone loss, low-calcium diets are not suggested for renal stone formers

  12. Prolactin Expression in the Cochlea of Aged BALB/c Mice Is Gender Biased and Correlates to Loss of Bone Mineral Density and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Robert J.; Tickner, Jennifer; Redmond, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin is a versatile hormone with over 300 known functions and predominantly expressed in the pituitary. However, its expression has additionally been found in a number of extrapituitary organs. Recently, we described the expression of prolactin in the inner ear of mice, where it was correlated to age. Previous research has shown prolactin to be linked to abnormal bone metabolism and hearing loss due to changes in morphology of the bony otic capsule. Here we further investigated the relationship between prolactin, hearing loss and cochlea bone metabolism. BALB/c mice were tested for hearing using ABR at 6 and 12 months of age. Bone mineral density of the cochlea was evaluated using microCT scanning. Prolactin expression was calculated using quantitative real time PCR. Expression of the key regulators of bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand were also determined. We found that prolactin expression was exclusive to the female mice. This also correlated to a greater threshold shift in hearing for the females between 6 and 12 months of age. Analyses of the cochlea also show that the bone mineral density was lower in females compared to males. However, no gender differences in expression of osteoprotegerin or receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand could be found. Further analysis of cochlea histological sections revealed larger ostocyte lacunae in the females. These results provide a possible mechanism for an age related hearing loss sub-type that is associated with gender and provides clues as to how this gender bias in hearing loss develops. In addition, it has the potential to lead to treatment for this specific type of hearing loss. PMID:23667691

  13. Prolactin expression in the cochlea of aged BALB/c mice is gender biased and correlates to loss of bone mineral density and hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Marano

    Full Text Available Prolactin is a versatile hormone with over 300 known functions and predominantly expressed in the pituitary. However, its expression has additionally been found in a number of extrapituitary organs. Recently, we described the expression of prolactin in the inner ear of mice, where it was correlated to age. Previous research has shown prolactin to be linked to abnormal bone metabolism and hearing loss due to changes in morphology of the bony otic capsule. Here we further investigated the relationship between prolactin, hearing loss and cochlea bone metabolism. BALB/c mice were tested for hearing using ABR at 6 and 12 months of age. Bone mineral density of the cochlea was evaluated using microCT scanning. Prolactin expression was calculated using quantitative real time PCR. Expression of the key regulators of bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand were also determined. We found that prolactin expression was exclusive to the female mice. This also correlated to a greater threshold shift in hearing for the females between 6 and 12 months of age. Analyses of the cochlea also show that the bone mineral density was lower in females compared to males. However, no gender differences in expression of osteoprotegerin or receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand could be found. Further analysis of cochlea histological sections revealed larger ostocyte lacunae in the females. These results provide a possible mechanism for an age related hearing loss sub-type that is associated with gender and provides clues as to how this gender bias in hearing loss develops. In addition, it has the potential to lead to treatment for this specific type of hearing loss.

  14. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    years). Genotyping was performed through the restriction cleavage of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genomic DNA with the two restriction enzymes, PvuII and XbaI. Restriction fragment-length polymorphisms were represented as P or p (PvuII) and X or x (XbaI), with the lower case letters signifying......The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment...... the presence of the restriction site. The frequencies of the ER genotypes were similar to previously published genotype frequencies in Caucasian and Asian populations. No significant effect of the ER genotypes or alleles on BMD was found at any site, nor was there a relation between ER genotypes and the rate...

  15. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  16. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  17. Inhibitory effects of the leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) on bone mineral density loss in ovariectomized mice and osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Furuta, Syoko; Nagata, Toshiro; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-29

    The loquat, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae), is a small tree native to Japan and China that is widely cultivated for its succulent fruit. Its leaves are used as an ingredient of a tasty tea called "Biwa cha" in Japanese. The anti-osteoporosis effects of the leaves of loquat in vitro and in vivo have been investigated. After 15 days of feeding normal diet or diet supplemented with 5% loquat leaves, the body weight, viscera weights, and bone mineral density (BMD) of both groups of eight ovariectomized (OVX) mice were compared. The result showed that the loss of BMD in loquat-fed mice was significantly prevented in three parts of the body, especially in the trabecular bone of the head (P < 0.05), abdomen (P < 0.01), and lumbar (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. No hypertrophy in the uterus by the loquat leaves diet was observed. The effect of the extract (447.25 g) prepared from the dried leaves of loquat (2.36 kg) was further studied on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and cell viability. The extract suppressed the differentiation of osteoclasts under 50, 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL. Through bioactivity-guided fractionation, ursolic acid (1) was isolated and inhibited osteoclast differentiation under 4 and 10 μg/mL. It was concluded that loquat leaves possess the potential to suppress ovariectomy-induced bone mineral density deterioration.

  18. Computer Aided Modeling to Determine the Effectiveness of Resistive Exercises as Countermeasures for Bone Mineral Density Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the loss of gravitational loading, astronauts have a tendency to lose bone mineral density in their lumbar spine and lower extremities on orbit. NASA requires astronauts to perform exercises during space flight to help reduce the amount of demineralization. To test these exercises on earth, 17 week bed rest studies are conducted that consist of specific diet and exercise regimes. Developing a finite element model of these exercises will help to quantify the stress distribution imposed by of each of these exercises. To help develop this model, MRI images are acquired from individuals participating in the bed rest studies. The MRIs can be used to create a subject specific model of each individual for testing. The MRIs are processed in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Transfer System program to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of the femur for evaluation. Modifications were made to the MRIDTS that simplified the model creation process. These modifications made it possible to construct two separate models of different portions of a bone simultaneously and then later connect them manually. This helped alleviate the warping problem associated with the drastic changes in geometry found in some body parts, such as the joints. The code was also modified to incorporate material properties of various bone components into the model. Interior meshing was also incorporated into the program to allow for both the cortical shell and the entire bone to be modeled. A prototype model of the right femur of an adult female is being constructed and tested to determine the feasibility of finite element analysis as a tool for evaluating exercise effectiveness. The model is being run through the ANSYS finite element program on the Alabama Super Computer Network. After the model is validated, models of bedrest subjects can be generated to investigate exercise countermeasures.

  19. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  20. Low Baseline CD4+ Count Is Associated With Greater Bone Mineral Density Loss After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Philip M.; Kitch, Douglas; McComsey, Grace A; Dube, Michael P.; Haubrich, Richard; Huang, Jeannie; Riddler, Sharon; Tebas, Pablo; Zolopa, Andrew R.; Collier, Ann C; Brown, Todd T.

    2013-01-01

    Low pretreatment CD4+ cell count is an independent risk factor for bone loss after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, providing further evidence for the benefits of early ART. Initiation of ART at higher CD4+ counts may reduce the burden of osteoporosis and fragility fracture.

  1. Analysis of Bone Density in Patients with Urolithiasis; Role of Hypercalciuria in Bone Loss: Do These Patients Need a Low-Calcium Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali-Asghar Yarmohammadi; Mahmood Molaei; Samira Yaghoobi; Fateme Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stone is a common urologic complaint. In this study, bone density in stone formers was compared with that of a control group; bone density of stone formers was also analyzed based on age, sex and stone configuration. Methods: In a group of 85 patients with upper urinary calcium stones and 85 healthy people, variables such as age, height, weight, BMI, T-score and Z-score results of bone densitometry of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) and femoral neck were recorded. The serum leve...

  2. Reduced vertebral bone density in hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, F.; Breslau, N. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry were used to determine bone density at the lumbar spine and radial shaft in 62 patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, 27 patients with fasting hypercalciuria, and 31 nonhypercalciuric stone formers. Lumbar bone density was significantly lower in patients with absorptive (-10%) as well as in those with fasting hypercalciuria (-12%), with 74 and 92% of patients displaying values below the normal mean, whereas only 48% of the nonhypercalciuric stone formers had bone density values below the normal mean. In contrast, radial bone density was similar in all three groups of renal stone formers investigated. The comparison of urinary chemistry in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and low normal bone density compared to those with high normal bone density showed a significantly increased 24 h urinary calcium excretion on random diet and a trend toward a higher 24 h urinary uric acid excretion and a higher body mass index in patients with low normal bone density. Moreover, among the patients with absorptive hypercalciuria we found a statistically significant correlation between the spinal bone density and the 24 h sodium and sulfate excretion and the urinary pH. These results gave evidence for an additional role of environmental factors (sodium and animal proteins) in the pathogenesis of bone loss in absorptive hypercalciuria. In conclusion, our data suggest an osteopenia of trabecular-rich bone tissues in patients with fasting and absorptive hypercalciurias.

  3. Impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on changes in bone mineral density with weight loss and regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Later, Wiebke; Schautz, Britta; Lagerpusch, Merit; Goele, Kristin; Heller, Martin; Glüer, Claus-C; Müller, Manfred J

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies report a significant gain in bone mineral density (BMD) after diet-induced weight loss. This might be explained by a measurement artefact. We therefore investigated the impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on bone measurements by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a longitudinal study of diet-induced weight loss and regain in 55 women and 17 men (19-46 years, BMI 28.2-46.8 kg/m(2)). Total and regional BMD were measured before and after 12.7 ± 2.2 week diet-induced weight loss and 6 months after significant weight regain (≥30%). Hydration of fat free mass (FFM) was assessed by a 3-compartment model. Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, extra-osseous adipose tissue, and bone marrow were measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean weight loss was -9.2 ± 4.4 kg (P BMAT) were not related to changes in BMD.

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  5. Bone-density changes after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Gary S; Lew, Henry L

    2006-05-01

    It has been many years since bone loss and fracture risk were first recognized as serious complications of stroke. Hip fracture is associated with a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality for stroke survivors, and therefore, assessing and maintaining skeletal health after stroke should be an important clinical goal. Recent long-term, prospective studies have illustrated a highly nonuniform pattern of bone changes after stroke. In general, there is significant bone loss on the paretic side, which is greatest in those patients with the most severe functional deficits. In some patients, bone loss in the paretic arm during the first year after stroke is the equivalent of >20 yrs of bone loss in healthy individuals of comparable age. Bone density in the nonparetic upper limb can actually increase after stroke, consistent with an increase in habitual use of the nonparetic hand. Bone density in the paretic lower limb can decrease by >10% in 12 mos poststroke are needed to determine how long excess bone loss continues after stroke. Studies with more subjects and with more varied disability levels are needed to better understand the relationships between functional deficits and bone loss. New metrics are needed to quantify the intensity and duration of physical activity in the upper and lower limbs that are consistent with previous research on the role of mechanical stimuli in bone adaptation. Finally, an assessment of skeletal health and the factors that affect bone quantity and quality should be a standard component in the clinical management of all survivors of stroke. PMID:16628156

  6. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (PIGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (PIGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  7. Effects of Tai Chi and Walking Exercises on Weight Loss, Metabolic Syndrome Parameters, and Bone Mineral Density: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tai Chi and walking are both moderate-intensity physical activity (PA that can be easily practiced in daily life. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of these two PAs on weight loss, metabolic syndrome parameters, and bone mineral density (BMD in Chinese adults. We randomized 374 middle-aged subjects (45.8 ± 5.3 years into 12-week training (45 minutes per day, 5 days per week of Tai Chi (n=124 or self-paced walking (n=121 or control group (n=129. On average, Tai Chi and walking groups lost 0.50 and 0.76 kg of body weight and 0.47 and 0.59 kg of fat mass after intervention, respectively. The between-group difference of waist circumference (WC and fasting blood glucose (FBG was −3.7 cm and −0.18 mmol/L for Tai Chi versus control and −4.1 cm and −0.22 mmol/L for walking versus control. No significant differences were observed regarding lean mass, blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMD compared to control. Change in lean mass, not fat mass or total weight loss, was significantly correlated to the change in BMD. Our results suggest that both of these two PAs can produce moderate weight loss and significantly improve the WC and FBG in Hong Kong Chinese adults, with no additional effects on BMD.

  8. Polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with low lumbar spine bone mineral density and accelerated bone loss in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartland, Alison; Skarratt, Kristen K; Hocking, Lynne J;

    2012-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor gene (P2RX7) is highly polymorphic with five previously described loss-of-function (LOF) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; c.151+1G>T, c.946G>A, c.1096C>G, c.1513A>C and c.1729T>A) and one gain-of-function SNP (c.489C>T). The purpose of this study was to determine whether th...

  9. Bone Density Testing (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Bone density testing (Beyond the Basics) Author Michael Kleerekoper, MD ... last updated: Sep 22, 2015. WHAT DOES BONE DENSITY TESTING DO AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? — People ...

  10. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  11. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  12. Metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Danielle Y; Austin, Matthew S

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of bone loss encountered during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often multifactorial and can include stress shielding, osteolysis, osteonecrosis, infection, mechanical loss due to a grossly loose implant, and iatrogenic loss at the time of implant resection. Selection of the reconstructive technique(s) to manage bone deficiency is determined by the location and magnitude of bone loss, ligament integrity, surgeon experience, and patient factors including the potential for additional revision, functional demand, and comorbidities. Smaller, contained defects are reliably managed with bone graft, cement augmented with screw fixation, or modular augments. Large metaphyseal defects require more extensive reconstruction such as impaction bone grafting with or without mesh augmentation, prosthetic augmentation, use of bulk structural allografts, or use of metaphyseal cones or sleeves. While each technique has advantages and disadvantages, the most optimal method for reconstruction of large metaphyseal bone defects during revision TKA is not clearly established. PMID:26362647

  13. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  14. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 ....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P

  15. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Gessmann; Manfred Köller; Holger Godry; Thomas Armin Schildhauer; Dominik Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect ...

  16. Relationship between protein intake, weight loss, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women%绝经期妇女蛋白摄入、体重减轻和骨矿物质密度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察绝经期妇女蛋白摄入、体重减轻和骨矿物质密度的关系。方法30例女性,每天摄取3139.5 J(1 cal=4.186 J),分为正常蛋白质摄取(A组:n=15)和高蛋白摄取(B组:n=15),共12周。观察体重和骨质矿物质密度变化。结果A组体重减轻11.2%, B组体重减轻10.1%, A组骨质矿物质密度无显著变化[(-0.003±0.003) g/cm2,-0.3%], B组显著降低[(-0.0167±0.004) g/cm2,-1.4%, P<0.05]。结论较高的蛋白质摄取促进绝经期后妇女体重减轻和骨矿物质密度减低。%Objective To study the relationship between protein intake, weight loss, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. the protein intake in postmenopausal women, the relationship between weight loss and bone mineral density. Methods 30 females, daily intake of 3139.5 joules (1 calories=4.186 joules), divided into normal protein intake (group A:n=15) and high protein intake (group B:n=15) for a total of 12 weeks. The changes of body weight and bone mineral density was observed . Result Group A weight loss was 11.2%and group B was 10.1%, group A there was no significant change in bone mineral density[(-0.003±0.003) g/cm2,-0.3%]and significantly lower in Group B[(-0.0167±0.004) g/cm2,-1. 4%, P<0.05]. Conclusions The higher protein intake promote weight loss and bone mineral density of women after menopause reduced.

  17. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  18. Fractal texture analysis of the healing process after bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Marta; Szarmach, Janusz; Oczeretko, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Radiological assessment of treatment effectiveness of guided bone regeneration (GBR) method in postresectal and postcystal bone loss cases, observed for one year. Group of 25 patients (17 females and 8 males) who underwent root resection with cystectomy were evaluated. The following combination therapy of intraosseous deficits was used, consisting of bone augmentation with xenogenic material together with covering regenerative membranes and tight wound closure. The bone regeneration process was estimated, comparing the images taken on the day of the surgery and 12 months later, by means of Kodak RVG 6100 digital radiography set. The interpretation of the radiovisiographic image depends on the evaluation ability of the eye looking at it, which leaves a large margin of uncertainty. So, several texture analysis techniques were developed and used sequentially on the radiographic image. For each method, the results were the mean from the 25 images. These methods compute the fractal dimension (D), each one having its own theoretic basis. We used five techniques for calculating fractal dimension: power spectral density method, triangular prism surface area method, blanket method, intensity difference scaling method and variogram analysis. Our study showed a decrease of fractal dimension during the healing process after bone loss. We also found evidence that various methods of calculating fractal dimension give different results. During the healing process after bone loss, the surfaces of radiographic images became smooth. The result obtained show that our findings may be of great importance for diagnostic purpose.

  19. Dried plum's unique capacity to reverse bone loss and alter bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rendina

    Full Text Available Interest in dried plum has increased over the past decade due to its promise in restoring bone and preventing bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. This study compared the effects of dried plum on bone to other dried fruits and further explored the potential mechanisms of action through which dried plum may exert its osteoprotective effects. Adult osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 25% (w/w dried plum, apple, apricot, grape or mango for 8 weeks. Whole body and spine bone mineral density improved in mice consuming the dried plum, apricot and grape diets compared to the OVX control mice, but dried plum was the only fruit to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in the vertebra and prevent bone loss in the tibia. Restoration of biomechanical properties occurred in conjunction with the changes in trabecular bone in the spine. Compared to other dried fruits in this study, dried plum was unique in its ability to down-regulate osteoclast differentiation coincident with up-regulating osteoblast and glutathione (GPx activity. These alterations in bone metabolism and antioxidant status compared to other dried fruits provide insight into dried plum's unique effects on bone.

  20. Depression induces bone loss through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Yirmiya, Raz; Goshen, Inbal; Bajayo, Alon; Kreisel, Tirzah; Feldman, Sharon; Tam, Joseph; Trembovler, Victoria; Csernus, Valér; Shohami, Esther; Bab, Itai

    2006-01-01

    Major depression is associated with low bone mass and increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. However, causality between depression and bone loss has not been established. Here, we show that mice subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), an established model of depression in rodents, display behavioral depression accompanied by impaired bone mass and structure, as portrayed by decreases in trabecular bone volume density, trabecular number, and trabecular connectivity density assessed in ...

  1. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... to the least relative influence of weight and stress loading because of migration of calcium to weight and stress-bearing areas. Since the effect of this migration could mask local osteoporotic bone loss, shoulder BMD measurement is likely to minimize false indicators of healthy bone in women with high BMI...

  2. Early Metacarpal Bone Mineral Density Loss Using Digital X-Ray Radiogrammetry and 3-Tesla Wrist MRI in Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Longitudinal One-Year Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Early change in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is characterised by periarticular osteopenia. We investigated the relationship of early metacarpal digital X-ray radiogrammetry bone mineral density (DXR-BMD change rate (RC-BMD, mg/cm2/month to longitudinal changes in hand and feet radiographic and wrist MRI scores over 1 year. Materials and Methods. 10 RA patients completed the study and had wrist 3T-MRI and hand and feet X-rays at various time points over 1 year. MRI was scored by RAMRIS, X-ray was done by van der Heijde modified Sharp scoring, and RC-BMD was analysed using dxr-online. Results. There was good correlation amongst the two scorers for MRI measures and ICC for erosions: 0.984, BME: 0.943, and synovitis: 0.657. Strong relationships were observed between RC-BMD at 12-week and 1-year change in wrist marrow oedema (BME (r=0.78, P=0.035 but not with erosion, synovitis, or radiographic scores. Conclusion. Early RC-BMD correlates with 1-year wrist BME change, which is a known predictor of future erosion and joint damage. However, in our pilot study, early RC-BMD did not show relationships to MRI erosion or radiographic changes over 1 year. This may reflect a slower kinetic in the appearance of MRI/radiographic erosions, generating the hypothesis that RC-BMD may be a more sensitive and early structural prognostic marker in RA follow-up.

  3. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  4. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Jan; Köller, Manfred; Godry, Holger; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders) were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15) months. With a mean healing index (HI) of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23). No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  5. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  6. Are you lactose intolerant and from an ethnic minority? A study on the effect of lactose intolerance on loss of bone mineral density, Case Study Lewisham Greenwich Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Tammer, Q.; M. Youseffi; A Rashid; Javid, Farideh A.

    2015-01-01

    Lactose intolerance (LI) is a natural process where production of lactase, an intestinal disaccharide, decreases during the aging process due to lack of consumption. There are several sub-types of lactose tolerance: lactose tolerant (LT), intolerant (LI) and mal-absorber (LM). Osteoporosis (OP) is a degenerative endocrinal bone disorder affecting over 200 million people worldwide whereas LI affects up to 70% of the world’s population and approximately 15% of the UK population. OP develops pre...

  7. Arthroscopic treatment of glenoid bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Ettore; Garavaglia, Guido; Ufenast, Henri; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint has long been an arduous problem to solve surgically, owing to its difficulty to the need to restore both osseous and dynamic constraints in the unstable shoulder. Biomechanical studies have indicated that glenoid bone loss shortens the safe arc through which the glenoid can resist axial forces; in these cases, a soft tissue repair alone may be insufficient to maintain stability. Clinical studies have confirmed that major bone loss is associated with an unfavourable outcome. The benefits of using arthroscopic procedures for surgical stabilization of the shoulder include smaller incisions and less soft tissue dissection, better access for repair and, potentially, the maximum respect for the undamaged anatomical structures. The biggest disadvantage of arthroscopic procedures until recently was the inability to successfully treat a significant bone defect. Over the last 10 years, several new arthroscopic techniques have been developed, providing new surgical options for successfully treating soft tissues and bony lesions in anterior-inferior glenohumeral instability. Level of evidence V. PMID:26658567

  8. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  9. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass;

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  10. Postmenopausal bone loss and the risk of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, C

    1994-01-01

    The two most important risk factors for long-term skeletal health are the peak bone mass and the subsequent rate of bone loss. The rate of bone loss after skeletal maturity is determined by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Furthermore, all factors that impair estrogen production will increase bone loss. The present risk of developing osteoporosis and fractures may be assessed by bone mass measurements in the total skeleton, or in local parts of the skeleton such as the spine, hip and forearm, by single-photon/X-ray absorptiometry (SPA or SXA), dual-photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DPA or DXA), or quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Furthermore, the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women may be assessed by means of a number of biochemical markers. The fútúre risk of developing osteoporosis may thus be determined by combining the values for bone mineral content and bone loss. PMID:8081059

  11. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation maintains bone mineral density in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Sylvia; Ziegler, Nicole; Tsourdi, Elena; De Bosscher, Karolien; Tuckermann, Jan P; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2012-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but their use is limited by their adverse effects on the skeleton. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile. We tested the effects of CpdA on bone in a mouse model of GC-induced bone loss. Bone loss was induced in FVB/N mice by implanting slow-release pellets containing either vehicle, prednisolone (PRED) (3.5 mg), or CpdA (3.5 mg). After 4 weeks, mice were killed to examine the effects on the skeleton using quantitative computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, serum markers of bone turnover, and gene expression analysis. To assess the underlying mechanisms, in vitro studies were performed with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and murine osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 cells). PRED reduced the total and trabecular bone density in the femur by 9% and 24% and in the spine by 11% and 20%, respectively, whereas CpdA did not influence these parameters. Histomorphometry confirmed these results and further showed that the mineral apposition rate was decreased by PRED whereas the number of osteoclasts was increased. Decreased bone formation was paralleled by a decline in serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), reduced skeletal expression of osteoblast markers, and increased serum levels of the osteoblast inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). In addition, serum CTX-1 and the skeletal receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were increased by PRED. None of these effects were observed with CpdA. Consistent with the in vivo data, CpdA did not increase the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells or the expression of DKK-1 in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. Finally, CpdA also failed to transactivate DKK-1 expression in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. This study underlines the bone-sparing potential of CpdA and suggests that by preventing increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio or DKK-1 in osteoblast lineage cells, GC

  12. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  13. The osteogenic effects of swimming, jumping, and vibration on the protection of bone quality from disuse bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcai, M J; Zamarioli, A; Okubo, R; de Paula, F J A; Volpon, J B

    2015-06-01

    We assessed and compared the effects of swimming, jumping, and vibration therapies on the prevention of bone loss because of unloading. Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups: S, permanent hind limb-suspended rats; CON, control rats; S + Swim, unloading interrupted by swimming exercise; S + C(Swim), suspension interrupted by regular weight-bearing with the same duration as in the S + Swim protocol; S + Jump, unloading interrupted by jumping exercise; S + C(Jump), suspension interrupted for regular weight-bearing as in the S + Jump group; S + Vibr, unloading interrupted by vibration; and S + C(Vibr), suspension with interruptions for regular weight-bearing with the same protocol as that used for the S + Vibr rats. At the end of the experiment, the bone mineral density, bone strength, histomorphometric parameters, and serum levels of the bone markers were analyzed. The hind limb-suspended rats exhibited bone quality loss. In contrast, the trained rats showed a significant increase in bone mass, bone strength, bone formation, and serum levels of bone markers compared with the respective controls. Although we did not find a significant difference among the three physical exercises, the osteogenic effect of vibration was slightly lower than that of swimming and jumping. Thus, all physical exercises were efficient in preventing bone loss because of unloading and preserving bone quality. PMID:24779886

  14. Protection by salidroside against bone loss via inhibition of oxidative stress and bone-resorbing mediators.

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    Jin-Kang Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a pivotal pathogenic factor for bone loss in mouse model. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea L, exhibits potent antioxidative effects. In the present study, we used an in vitro oxidative stress model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and a murine ovariectomized (OVX osteoporosis model to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on bone loss and the related mechanisms. We demonstrated that salidroside caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation of cell survival, alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining and activity, calcium deposition, and the transcriptional expression of Alp, Col1a1 and Osteocalcin (Ocn in the presence of H(2O(2. Moreover, salidroside decreased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, and osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL and IL-6 induced by H(2O(2. In vivo studies further demonstrated that salidroside supplementation for 3 months caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA and an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in blood of ovariectomized mouse (P<0.05, it also improved trabecular bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in the fourth lumbar vertebra and distal femur. Our study indicated that the protection provided by salidroside in alleviating bone loss was mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the release of bone-resorbing mediators and oxidative damage to bone-forming cells, suggesting that salidroside can be used as an effective remedy in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis.

  15. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

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    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  16. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Henry; Galea, Gabriel L; Meakin, Lee B; Delisser, Peter J; Lanyon, Lance E; Windahl, Sara H; Price, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα) depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse) mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an obligatory contributor to

  17. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Todd

    Full Text Available Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an

  18. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  19. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone loss and enhanced tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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    PPY Lui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-tunnel bone loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is commonly observed, both clinically and experimentally. We aimed to study the effect and mechanisms of different doses of alendronate in the reduction of peri-tunnel bone loss and promotion of graft-bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction. Eighty-four ACL-reconstructed rats were divided into 4 groups. Alendronate at different dosages, or saline, were injected subcutaneously weekly, for 2 or 6 weeks post-reconstruction, for vivaCT (computed tomography imaging, biomechanical tests, histology and immunohistochemistry. Alendronate significantly increased bone mass and density of tissue inside bone tunnels except at the epiphyseal region of tibial tunnel. The femoral tunnel diameter decreased significantly in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups compared to that in the saline group at week 6. Alendronate significantly increased the peri-tunnel bone mass and density along all tunnel regions at week 6. Better graft-bone tunnel integration and intra-tunnel graft integrity were observed in the alendronate groups. The ultimate load was significantly higher in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups at week 2, but not at week 6. There was a reduction in matrix metalloprotein (MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells at the peri-tunnel region and graft-bone interface in the alendronate-treated group compared to the saline group. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone resorption, increased mineralised tissue inside bone tunnel as well as histologically and biomechanically promoted graft-bone tunnel healing, probably by reducing the expression of MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells. Alendronate might be used for reducing peri-tunnel bone loss and promoting graft-bone tunnel healing at early stage post-ACL reconstruction.

  20. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  1. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  2. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  3. Bone density in survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Jean E; Bilezikian, John P

    2004-01-01

    Advances in combination chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and bone marrow transplantation have resulted in markedly improved survival rates for many children with cancer. Advancements in therapy, however, have led to new concerns, namely long-term consequences of effective treatments. Young adult and adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for a number of disorders related to therapy. Specifically, the young adult who has survived cancer, attendant treatments, and their complications is at risk for factors that can lead to suboptimal acquisition of peak bone mass. These factors include chronic illness, nutritional deficiencies, limited physical activity, and treatment with glucocorticoids, multiagent chemotherapy, and radiation. The long-term adverse effects of these therapies on endocrine systems, especially sex steroid and growth hormone deficiencies, are additional risk factors for some patients. After a brief review of the processes associated with acquisition of peak bone mass in the young adult, this article examines the impact of cancer and cancer therapy on bone mineral density in survivors of childhood cancer.

  4. Tibial dyschondroplasia and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz ICL Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, UNESP, Botucatu-SP, Brazil. The aim was to establish the normal values of bone mineral density (BMD expressed in millimeters of aluminum in the tibia of broiler chickens using optical densitometry of radiographs. Four hundred Cobb male chicks were reared from 1 to 40 days of age, when 40 of them were selected and the right femur-tibia articulation was radiographed. Radiographs were taken with the X-ray equipment calibrated for 45 kvp and 3.2 mAs and a focus-to-film distance of 90 cm. An aluminum phantom ASTM-6063 consisting of 20 ladder steps with graduate density was placed parallel to the area to be radiographed and used as a densitometry reference standard. Radiograph images were analyzed using the software ATHENA - SIA. The proximal growth plate of the right tibia epiphysis was used as the standard reading region. The inclination axis of the reading window was 0 and the window was 10 mm high and 40-45 mm wide, depending on the bone size. Optical densitometry values of the radiographs ranged from 1.46 to 1.77 mmAl, and the coefficient of variation was 9.93%. It was concluded that densitometry values beyond the range established in the present study might indicate the presence of bone alteration in the tibia of broilers.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Morinda officinalis Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-Yan Zhang; Hong Zhang; Yan-Bin Wu; Ting Han; Lu-Ping Qin; Nan Li

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO) on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findin...

  6. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  7. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  8. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  9. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

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    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  10. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A;

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response to...... in bone, where it may modulate both formation and resorption ultimately influencing the bone turnover process....

  11. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Morinda officinalis Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Yan Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findings demonstrated that RMO extract reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats, probably via the inhibition of bone resorption, but was not involved with bone formation. Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Morinda officinals could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity, and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, RMO has the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent.

  13. Inhibitory effects of morinda officinalis extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Wu, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO) on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findings demonstrated that RMO extract reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats, probably via the inhibition of bone resorption, but was not involved with bone formation. Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Morinda officinals could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity, and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, RMO has the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:19513005

  14. Protective effect of Pycnogenol® on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster and has potent antioxidant activities. The protective effect of PYC on bone loss was studied in multiparous ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pycnogenol® (30 or 15 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to 8-month-old OVX rats for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, bone strength was measured by a three-point bending test and bone mineral density was estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Ovariectomy significantly decreased femur bone strength and bone density. Supplementation with PYC suppressed the bone loss induced by OVX. The OVX treatment significantly increased serum osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Supplementation with PYC reduced the serum OC and CTx in OVX rats to a level similar to that of the sham-operated group. The results indicated that orally administered PYC can decrease the bone turnover rate in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on the biomechanical strength of bone and bone mineral density. PMID:21710590

  15. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Sperling; Harikrashna Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a...

  16. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Sperling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients.

  17. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Scott; Bhatt, Harikrashna

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  18. Trace elements influence on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To compare trace elements (TE levels according to bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women. 27 elderly women (65.7 ± 3.96 years were evaluated. They were classified in two groups: high BMD (group 1 and low BMD (group 2. BMD was measured in DXA and TE were evaluated from hair sample. Higher levels of Ca, K, Na, Mo, B, Cu e Mg were found in group 1 (high BMD while Se and Pb were higher concentrated in group 2 (low BMD. The results suggest that the imbalance in the homeostasis of ET may be a risk factor for reduced BMD and higher Pb and Se concentrations can mark bone mass loss.

  19. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    OpenAIRE

    von Mühlen, Denise G; Greendale, Gail A.; Cedric F Garland; Wan, Lori; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D (25(OH)D) increases the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption. Low levels of serum calcium stimulate the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains serum calcium levels at the expense of increased bone turnover, bone loss and increased risk of fractures. We studied the association between 25(OH)D and PTH levels, and their associations with bone mineral density (BMD), bone loss, and prevalence of hip fractures in 615 community-dwelling postmenopausal aged 50 - 97 y...

  20. Loss of bone mass after Colles' fractrur:a follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴力扬; 蒋雷生

    2004-01-01

    Background Colles' fracture usually associated with osteoporosis is regarded as the predictor of subsequent osteoporotic fracture. However, it is not clear how the local changes of bone mass take place during the course of treatment and whether the changes are related to clinical practice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the local changes of bone mass in patients with Colles' fracture and their possible clinical relevance in a follow-up study.Methods The radiograms of the second metacarpal in 64 patients with Colles' fracture were assessed for bone density immediately after fracture, 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after fracture, respectively. Functional results were evaluated at one year.Results Bone mass six weeks after Colles' fracture was significantly decreased without returning to normal at one year though increased bone mass had been identified 6 months after fracture (P< 0.05), (P< 0.01). At one year significant (P< 0.05) or highly significant (P< 0.01) correlations were observed between bone mass indices of metacarpal and functional results, indicating that poor function is associated with lower bone density. Significant differences (P< 0.05) between fracture patterns also suggested that patients with more severe fractures have a more pronounced bone loss.Conclusions Bone loss during the course of treatment will have a direct effect upon the prognosis, so different treatment should be proposed for different patterns of fractures. Active exercise should be made to improve the recovery of bone mass.

  1. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

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    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  2. [Transitory bone loss during substitution treatment for hypothyroidism. Results of a two year prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémollières, F; Pouillès, J M; Louvet, J P; Ribot, C

    1991-12-01

    The authors report the results of a prospective study designed to assess changes in vertebral and femoral bone density during the first two years of replacement therapy in 10 patients with hypothyroidism (4 men, 6 women). During the first year, bone density measured by dual photon absorptiometry fell significantly in the lumbar vertebrae (-5.4%), neck of the femur (-7%) and the trochanteric region (-7.3%). This bone loss was accompanied by an early increase in serum osteocalcin levels, urinary calcium/urinary creatinine ratio and in Sex Hormone Binding Globulin. During the second year, there was complete recovery of values of vertebral and trochanteric bone density, while density of the neck of the femur remained significantly lower than initial values. None of the patients showed any evidence of overdose during the period of monitoring of clinical and laboratory (free T4, total and free T3, ultra-sensitive TSH) parameters. This transitory bone loss could be indicative of a state of tissue hyperthyroidism and/or "hypersensitivity" of hypothyroid bone to the action of thyroid hormones. Its influence on the subsequent risk of fracture remains unclear. In the current state of knowledge, measurement of vertebral and femoral bone density appears to be indicated in patients given long term treatment which suppresses TSH, or requiring replacement therapy for severe hypothyroidism. Any demineralisation prior to treatment could justify the temporary prescription of an antiosteoclastic agent. PMID:1780668

  3. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D;

    1999-01-01

    alendronate to placebo than in those who continuously received placebo. In years 3 and 4, bone loss in participants who switched from alendronate to placebo was similar to that seen during years 1 and 2 in those who continuously received placebo. Compared with 5 mg of alendronate per day, estrogen-medroxyprogesterone...... acetate produced similar increases in bone mineral density and estradiol-norethisterone acetate produced increases that were substantially greater. CONCLUSIONS: Four years of treatment with alendronate or estrogen-progestin prevented postmenopausal bone loss. A residual effect was seen 2 years after...

  4. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  5. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

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    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  6. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  7. An investigation on the bone density of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the morbidity and pattern of osteoporosis in the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Methods: Bone density of lumbar vertebra, hip and whole body were measured in 48 patients with NIDDM and in 35 health people aged 30-35 years. All the patients were diagnosed by the standards introduced by the WHO committee in 1985. Outcome were measured by using t text, analysis of variance and coefficient of multiple correlation. Results: Bone density decreased in all the 48 patients with NIDDM, in which 25 (52.1%) patients were diagnosed as osteoporosis. In the patients with NIDDM and osteoporosis, there was a higher rate of the decrease of the bone density of hip (14.1% in male and 15.6% in female respectively) than that of lumbar vertebra. Conclusions: There is a higher morbidity of osteoporosis in the patients with NIDDM. The loss of the bone density might start at the hip. The bone mineral content of whole body lose markedly. And the longer the NIDDM and the menopause exist, the more obvious the decrease of the bone density is. The mechanism of the phenomena is considered as a result of not only the increased loss of calcium and absorption of the bone tissue induced by the secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also the decreased level of the serum insulin-like growth factor, which inhibits the bone formation

  8. The Effect of Bone Loss Pattern on the Structural Capacity of the Proximal Femur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-xia; Eric Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of age-related bone loss on the structural capacity of the proximal femur were investigated by Finite Element Analysis(FEA). Four bone loss patterns were considered. These were "uniform cortical bone loss", "neck cortical bone loss", "intertrochanteric cortical bone loss" and "uniform trabecular bone loss". The results show that the two "non-uniform cortical bone loss" patterns are more dangerous than the "uniform cortical bone loss" pattern, and that the cortical bone loss in intertrochanteric region is associated with a greater reduction in cortical failure load than the cortical bone loss in the femoral neck. The trabecular bone loss causes a limited decrease in both cortical failure and trabecular failure loads. This research should be helpful to the clinical assessment of femur fracture risk due to age-related bone loss.

  9. Reducing the Risk of Bone Fracture: A Review of the Research for Adults with Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Research for Adults With Low Bone Density Formats View PDF (PDF) 1.0 MB Download ... cfm . Understanding Your Condition What is low bone density? Low bone density is a condition where the ...

  10. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  11. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A;

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response to...

  12. AN APPROACH OF BONE LOSS ESTIMATION THROUGH DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Maiti,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass or density. In osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD is reduced and bone micro-architecture is deteriorating. Bones are becomes brittle and subjected to breakage even at a normal load. Conventionally, bone mineral density is measured by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA to establish osteoporosis but is costly. In this study, images from digital X-ray have been used to measure bone mineral density. The selected radiograph is segmented to separate bone image frombackground and converted to a gray level intensity matrix. Each pixel value of the matrix is related to bone density. A set of gray level intensity matrix corresponds to a particular region is taken and perform the Tstatistics on those data sample. To detect osteoporosis, a comparative study between calculated T-score and standard T-score, maintained by WHO (World Health Organization is performed from the selected area. Tstatistics is also the measurement of probability of osteoporotic fracture risk.

  13. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored. PMID:20840252

  14. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H;

    1999-01-01

    indicated that risk of low bone mass and increased bone loss caused by thinness could be compensated by alendronate treatment. In conclusion, thinness is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in postmenopausal women. Because the response to alendronate treatment is independent......Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... (r = -0.12 to -0.15, p risk factors, the group treated with 5 mg of alendronate was included (n = 403). There were no associations between fat mass parameters and response to alendronate treatment, which...

  15. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham‑operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.

  16. Decrease with aging of the microcirculatory function of the lumbar vertebral marrow preceding the loss of bone material density and the onset of intervertebral discal degeneration:A study about the potential cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ou-yang; Guang-ming Lu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Using a dynamic computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) imaging method to explore the age-related distribution of the microcirculation perfusion function in the vertebral marrow, the bone material density (BMD), and the intervertebral discal degeneration (IDD). Further, to discuss a possible causation relationship between them. Methods: One hundred and eighty-six people were randomly enrolled by stratified sampling and grouped by age:?15, 16e25, 26e35, 36e45, 46e55, 56e65, 66e75, and ?76 years old. The average CTP and BMD of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae marrow were measured and the IDD incidence of the third-fourth vertebrae was assessed. The temporalespatial distribution patterns of the age-related changes of the CTP, BMD, and IDD were described, and the correlations between them were calculated. Results: The microcirculatory perfusion function of the vertebral marrow develops to maturity by 25 years and is maintained until age 35, then declines with aging. The BMD grew to a peak from 26 to 45 years old, then decreased yearly. The IDD showed a sudden increase after 45 years of age. The CTP [BF (r ¼ 0.806, P ¼ 0.000), BV (r ¼ 0.685, P ¼ 0.005) and PMB (r ¼ 0.619, P ¼ 0.001)] showed strong positive correlations and CTP [TTP (r ¼ ?0.211, P ¼ 0.322) and MTT (r ¼ ?0.598, P ¼ 0.002)] showed negative correlations with BMD. The CTP [BF (r ¼ ?0.815, P ¼ 0.000), BV (r ¼ ?0.753, P ¼ 0.000) and PMB (r ¼ ?0.690, P ¼ 0.000)] had strong negative correlations, and CTP [TTP (r ¼ 0.323, P ¼ 0.126) and MTT (r ¼ 0.628, P ¼ 0.001)] had positive correlations with the incidence of IDD. Conclusion: The decrease with aging of the microcirculatory perfusion in the lumbar vertebral marrow preceded, and is a potential causative factor for the loss of BMD and the onset of IDD. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the

  17. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; YAMADA, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a woode...

  18. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  20. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  1. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  2. Platform switching: A panacea for bone loss??

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Manthan H.; Patil, Veena A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of modern implant therapy entails more than just the successful osseointegration of the implant. A successful result must also include an esthetic and functional restoration surrounded by stable peri-implant tissue levels that are in harmony with the existing dentition. In an attempt to improve long-term bone maintenance around implants, a new implant-to abutment connection referred to as “platform switching” has been proposed. It refers to the use of an abutment of smaller diameter ...

  3. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  4. Massive acetabular bone loss: Limits of trabecular metal cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva-Martínez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive acetabular bone loss (more than 50% of the acetabular area can result in insufficient native bone for stable fixation and long-term bone ingrowth of conventional porous cups. The development of trabecular metal cages with osteoconductive properties may allow a more biological and versatile approach that will help restore bone loss, thus reducing the frequency of implant failure in the short-to-medium term. We report a case of massive bone loss affecting the dome of the acetabulum and the ilium, which was treated with a trabecular metal cage and particulate allograft. Although the trabecular metal components had no intrinsic stability, they did enhance osseointegration and incorporation of a non-impacted particulate graft, thus preventing failure of the reconstruction. The minimum 50% contact area between the native bone and the cup required for osseointegration with the use of porous cups may not hold for new trabecular metal cups, thus reducing the need for antiprotrusio cages. The osteoconductive properties of trabecular metal enhanced allograft incorportation and iliac bone rebuilding without the need to fill the defect with multiple wedges nor protect the reconstruction with an antiprotrusio cage.

  5. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  6. RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin in arthritic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Bezerra

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Tissue proteinases released by synovia, chondrocytes and pannus can cause cartilage destruction and cytokine-activated osteoclasts have been implicated in bone erosions. Rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues produce a variety of cytokines and growth factors that induce monocyte differentiation to osteoclasts and their proliferation, activation and longer survival in tissues. More recently, a major role in bone erosion has been attributed to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL released by activated lymphocytes and osteoblasts. In fact, osteoclasts are markedly activated after RANKL binding to the cognate RANK expressed on the surface of these cells. RANKL expression can be upregulated by bone-resorbing factors such as glucocorticoids, vitamin D3, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Supporting this idea, inhibition of RANKL by osteoprotegerin, a natural soluble RANKL receptor, prevents bone loss in experimental models. Tumor growth factor-ß released from bone during active bone resorption has been suggested as one feedback mechanism for upregulating osteoprotegerin and estrogen can increase its production on osteoblasts. Modulation of these systems provides the opportunity to inhibit bone loss and deformity in chronic arthritis.

  7. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    OpenAIRE

    Jagpal Sugeet; Ambia-Sobhan Hasina; Shapses Sue A; Huang Abigail E; Kemp Francis W; Bogden John D; Brown Ian L; Birkett Anne M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2), which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals...

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidants in Bone Mineral Density of Iranian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Oveisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(s Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously renewed throughout life by the process of bone remodeling. Antioxidant system might be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC, vitamin C and vitamin E levels of plasma besides measuring enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR enzymes activity in Iranian osteoporotic women comparing to the control group.Materials and MethodsBone mineral density (BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The participants were divided into groups: a total participants (-3.9 ≤ T–score ≤ 3.6 including 192 women, b the control group (T-score ≥ -1 including 76 women, c the total patients (T-score < -1 including 76 women. Then, plasma TAC, vitamin C levels, SOD and GR activities, erythrocyte CAT were measured using spectrophotometrical methods separately, and for vitamin E by HPLC analysis.ResultsComparing the control group and osteoporotic women showed that: a plasma levels for vitamin C and erythrocyte CAT were markedly lower in the patients than in the controls, but plasma activity of TAC, SOD and GR were significantly higher, respectively. b the differences were higher between control and patients with severe disease (T-score <-1.7 comparing to patients in the group with milder disease (-1.7 ≤ T-score <-1. c Femoral neck BMD adjusted with age and BMI showed a positive and significant correlation with plasma levels of vitamin C in all subjects, but this relation was reverse or negative for TAC, SOD and GR.ConclusionIt seems that a physiologic increase in the amount of some antioxidants occurs in osteoporosis; even though this amount may not be sufficient for the human body requirements.

  9. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  10. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  11. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  12. A Novel Portable Apparatus for Noninvasively Measuring Bone Density Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The bone loss associated with extended space missions in astronaut represents a serious health threat, both over the flight period and upon returning to...

  13. Anabolic Vitamin D Analogs as Countermeasures to Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Duncan, Randall L.; Karin, Norman J.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that vitamin D3 influences the effect of PTH on bone cell calcium ion levels. This is a rapid effect, taking place within seconds/minutes. This may prove to be a critical contribution to our understanding of bone physiology in that these two hormones are among the most potent regulators of bone calcium content and of systemic calcium homeostasis. Together with the data gathered from the study of astronauts exposed to microgravity for extended periods, these observations suggest the interaction of vitamin D3 and PTH as a possible therapeutic target in the treatment of bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis and disuse atrophy. Chronic exposure of cultured osteoblasts to vitamin D, altered the number of voltage-sensitive Ca(+2) channels expressed. Estrogen treatment yielded a similar result, suggesting that there is overlap in the mechanism by which these hormones elicit long-term effects on bone cell calcium homeostasis.

  14. Effect of sex hormones on bone density during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of special phantoms permitted precise measurement of vertebral mineral content by CT in the very young. The normal standards for spinal trabecular bone of children aged 0-18 years are presented. Although there is no age-related difference in bone density before puberty, there is a significant increase in bone mineral content after puberty. The increase in sex hormones during puberty accounts for the increased density. Longitudinal studies analyzing vertebral density changes in castrated rabbits after testosterone and estradiol administration are discussed

  15. Predictors of bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Michael R; Klika, Alison K; Lee, Ho H; Joyce, David M; Mehta, Priyesh; Barsoum, Wael K

    2010-03-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) requires preoperative planning to enable the reconstruction of bony deficiencies. The objective of this project was to identify predictors of bone loss management at RTKA based on the preoperative failure mode and patient demographics known preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed 245 consecutive RTKA procedures in which the same revision knee system was utilized. Patient demographic and treatment data were recorded, and locations of bone loss were identified based on the reconstructive management. We identified significant predictors for use of femoral augments at all four positions. Several predictors significantly predisposed to use of a thick (>19 mm) polyethylene; however, no predictors of tibial augments were significant. Although the reconstruction of bone loss is primarily based on the intraoperative assessment, these findings may provide additional information to help the surgeon prepare for difficult revision procedures. PMID:20812582

  16. The effect of chronic mild hyponatremia on bone mineral loss evaluated by retrospective national Danish patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Christian; Eiken, Pia; Verbalis, Joseph;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of chronic mild hyponatremia ([Na+]=130-137mmol/L) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) loss through multiple, serial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. METHODS: Utilizing biochemical and DXA scan data from two Danish regions...

  17. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  18. Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine thechanges of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasisvulgaris.Methods: 33 patients, diagnosed with psoriasis vulgarisin Erciyes University, Medical School, Department of Dermatology,and 23 healthy subjects as control group wereincluded in this study. Lumbar and femur bone mineraldensity of all patients and control group were measured.Biochemical tests related to bone metabolism were performed.Results: We did not find statistically significant differencebetween patient and control groups’ bone mineral density.However, the lumbar spine t score of men, were found tobe significantly lower in the patient group than the controlgroup (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant differencein bone mineral density of women between thepatient and control groups. The effects on bone mineraldensity of disease period and using the topical corticosteroidswere not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study indicates that bone mineral densityof patients with psoriasis vulgaris was not differentfrom healthy subject.Key words: Psoriasis vulgaris, bone mineral density, osteoporosis

  19. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  20. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45Ca content and 45Ca/dry and 45Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  1. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  2. Restoring Bone Density in Women with Ovarian Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an estradiol patch, progestin pills, and an inactive placebo patch. The researchers used bone density scans of the hip and lower spine to measure the effects of the regimens. For comparison, the scientists also ...

  3. Soy Isoflavones and Osteoporotic Bone Loss: A Review with an Emphasis on Modulation of Bone Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Lee, Sun-Kyeong; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder that affects both women and men, although estrogen deficiency induced by menopause accelerates bone loss in older women. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of men and women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Since the current drug therapies available have multiple side effects, including increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or complications, a search for potential nonpharmacologic alternative therapies for osteoporosis is of prime interest. Soy isoflavones (SI) have demonstrated potential bone-specific effects in a number of studies. This article provides a systematic review of studies on osteoporotic bone loss in relation to SI intake from diet or supplements to comprehensively explain how SI affect the modulation of bone remodeling. Evidence from epidemiologic studies supports that dietary SI attenuate menopause-induced osteoporotic bone loss by decreasing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Other studies have also illustrated that bone site-specific trophic and synergistic effects combined with exercise intervention might contribute to improve the bioavailability of SI or strengthen the bone-specific effects. To date, however, the effects of dietary SI on osteoporotic bone loss remain inconclusive, and study results vary from study to study. The current review will discuss the potential factors that result in the conflicting outcomes of these studies, including dosages, intervention materials, study duration, race, and genetic differences. Further well-designed studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanism and evaluate the effects of SI on osteoporosis in humans. PMID:26670451

  4. Changes in bone turnover and bone loss in HIV-infected patients changing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Haskelberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Those receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF-FTC had greater bone loss compared with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC-3TC in a randomized simplification trial (STEAL study. Previous studies associated increased bone turnover and bone loss with initiation of antiretroviral treatment, however it is unclear whether change in bone mineral density (BMD was a result of specific drugs, from immune reconstitution or from suppression of HIV replication. This analysis determined predictors of BMD change in the hip and spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in virologically suppressed participants through week 96. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bone turnover markers (BTMS tested were: formation [bone alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP]; resorption (C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen [CTx]; and bone cytokine-signalling (osteoprotegerin, RANK ligand. Independent predictors of BMD change were determined using forward, stepwise, linear regression. BTM changes and fracture risk (FRAX® at week 96 were compared by t-test. Baseline characteristics (n = 301 were: 98% male, mean age 45 years, current protease-inhibitor (PI 23%, tenofovir/abacavir-naïve 52%. Independent baseline predictors of greater hip and spine bone loss were TDF-FTC randomisation (p ≤ 0.013, lower fat mass (p-trend ≤ 0.009, lower P1NP (p = 0.015, and higher hip T score/spine BMD (p-trend ≤ 0.006. Baseline PI use was associated with greater spine bone loss (p = 0.004. TDF-FTC increased P1NP and CTx through Wk96 (p<0.01. Early changes in BTM did not predict bone loss at week 96. No significant between-group difference was found in fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tenofovir/emtricitabine treatment, lower bone formation and lower fat mass predicted subsequent bone loss. There was no association between TDF-FTC and fracture risk.

  5. Fracture risk and bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, Vladimir K; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2008-06-01

    Bone health is a major lifelong concern in caring for women and girls with Turner syndrome (TS). There is an approximately 25% increase in fracture risk most of which is related to medium or high impact trauma. The long bones, especially of the forearm are predominantly affected. This fact may be due to a selective cortical bone deficiency in TS which is unrelated to hypogonadism. In addition, lack of adequate estrogen replacement can lead to trabecular bone deficiency and increase in vertebral compression fractures after age 45. Evaluation of bone density by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is important, however, it should be used judiciously in TS in view of its inherent tendency to underestimate the bone density of people with short stature. Bone size-independent methods, such as QCT or volumetric transformation of DEXA data should be used in individuals shorter than 150 cm. Achieving optimal bone density is of critical importance for fracture prevention in TS, and should be pursued by timely introduction of hormone replacement therapy, adequate dose of estrogens during the young adult life, optimal calcium and vitamin D intake and regular physical exercise. In addition, other measures to prevent fall and trauma should be considered, including optimizing hearing and vision, avoiding contact sports and exercise to improve coordination. PMID:18415020

  6. Effect of bone loss in anterior shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, David M; Dines, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder instability with bone loss can be a difficult problem to treat. It usually involves a component of either glenoid deficiency or a Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent data shows that soft tissue procedures alone are typically not adequate to provide stability to the shoulder. As such, numerous surgical procedures have been described to directly address these bony deficits. For glenoid defects, coracoid transfer and iliac crest bone block procedures are popular and effective. For humeral head defects, both remplissage and osteochondral allografts have decreased the rates of recurrent instability. Our review provides an overview of current literature addressing these treatment options and others for addressing bone loss complicating anterior glenohumeral instability. PMID:26085984

  7. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  8. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  9. Lipids and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Pérez-Castrillón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between cholesterol and triglycerides and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease (hypertension and acute coronary syndrome.Methods: The study included 217 patients (83 men and 134 women, aged between 36 and 76 (mean age 59 ± 10, with hypertension and acute coronary syndrome. Information obtained included anthropometric measurements, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides; bone mineral density (BMD was recorded at the lumbar spine.Results: BMD was significantly lower in patients in the higher tertiles of cholesterol (p = 0.041. The effect was maintained after adjustment for age and Body Mass Index (BMI. However, there was no association between the range of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and bone mass.Conclusions: A relationship was found between total cholesterol and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease.

  10. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  11. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  12. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  13. Loss of Insulin Receptor in Osteoprogenitor Cells Impairs Structural Strength of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Thrailkill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D is associated with decreased bone mineral density, a deficit in bone structure, and subsequently an increased risk of fragility fracture. These clinical observations, paralleled by animal models of T1D, suggest that the insulinopenia of T1D has a deleterious effect on bone. To further examine the action of insulin signaling on bone development, we generated mice with an osteoprogenitor-selective (osterix-Cre ablation of the insulin receptor (IR, designated OIRKO. OIRKO mice exhibited an 80% decrease in IR in osteoblasts. Prenatal elimination of IR did not affect fetal survival or gross morphology. However, loss of IR in mouse osteoblasts resulted in a postnatal growth-constricted phenotype. By 10–12 weeks of age, femurs of OIRKO mice were more slender, with a thinner diaphyseal cortex and, consequently, a decrease in whole bone strength when subjected to bending. In male mice alone, decreased metaphyseal trabecular bone, with thinner and more rodlike trabeculae, was also observed. OIRKO mice did not, however, exhibit abnormal glucose tolerance. The skeletal phenotype of the OIRKO mouse appeared more severe than that of previously reported bone-specific IR knockdown models, and confirms that insulin receptor expression in osteoblasts is critically important for proper bone development and maintenance of structural integrity.

  14. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  15. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  16. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. PMID:27403206

  17. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

  18. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-tian; MA Qing-jie; HE Cheng-yan; WANG Cai-xia; GAO Shi; HOU Xia; MA Tong-hui

    2007-01-01

    An overt phenotype of aquaporin-1 knockout(AQP1 ko) mice is growth retardation, suggesting possible defects in bone development and metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed the bone mineral density(BMD), bone calcium and phosphorus contents, and bone metabolism in an AQP1 ko mouse model. The BMD of femurs in AQP1 ko mice was significantly lower than that of litter-matched wildtype mice as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Consistently, the contents of bone total calcium and phosphorus were also significantly lower in AQP1 ko mice. The reduced BMD caused by AQP1 deficiency mainly affect male mice. Bone metabolic activity, as indicated by 99mTc-MDP absorption measurements, was remarkably reduced in AQP1 ko mice. These results provide the first evidence that AQP1 play an important role in bone structure and metabolism.

  19. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P effect attributable to a decrease in cortical thickness and, thus, cortical bone mass (no significant effect on cancellous vBMD, week 10) attributed to an increase in endosteal bone resorption (nominally increased endosteal circumference). Trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) decreased significantly in both CMA groups at 6 and 10 wk, associated with a decrease in trabecular number. CMA significantly decreased muscle cross-sectional area in the proximal hindlimb at 6 and 10 wk. In conclusion, chronic metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number. PMID:24352505

  20. Cilostazol attenuates ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ke

    Full Text Available Cilostazol has been reported to alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by increased intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP levels, which is also associated with osteoclast (OC differentiation. We hypothesized that bone loss might be attenuated via an action on OC by cilostazol.To test this idea, we investigated the effect of cilostazol on ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in mice and on OC differentiation in vitro, using μCT and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, respectively. Cilostazol prevented from OVX-induced bone loss and decreased oxidative stress in vivo. It also decreased the number and activity of OC in vitro. The effect of cilostazol on reactive oxygen species (ROS occurred via protein kinase A (PKA and cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1, two major effectors of cAMP. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase using siRNA of p47phox attenuated the inhibitory effect of cilostazol on OC formation, suggesting that decreased OC formation by cilostazol was partly due to impaired ROS generation. Cilostazol enhanced phosphorylation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFAT2 at PKA phosphorylation sites, preventing its nuclear translocation to result in reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced NFAT2 expression and decreased binding of nuclear factor-κB-DNA, finally leading to reduced levels of two transcription factors required for OC differentiation.Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of cilostazol for attenuating bone loss and oxidative stress caused by loss of ovarian function.

  1. Trabecular Plate Loss and Deteriorating Elastic Modulus of Femoral Trabecular Bone in Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wang; Bin Zhou; Ian Parkinson; C. David L. Thomas; John G. Clement; Nick Fazzalari; X. Edward Guo

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic hip fracture is associated with significant trabecular bone loss, which is typically characterized as low bone density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and altered microstructure by micro-computed tomography (µCT). Emerging morphological analysis techniques, e.g. individual trabecula segmentation (ITS), can provide additional insights into changes in plate-like and rod-like trabeculae, two major micro-structural types serving different roles in determining bone strength. Using ITS, we evaluated trabecular microstructure of intertrochanteric bone cores obtained from 23 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery for intertrochanteric fracture and 22 cadaveric controls. Micro-finite element (µFE) analyses were performed to further understand how the abnormalities seen by ITS might translate into effects on bone strength. ITS analyses revealed that, near fracture site, plate-like trabeculae were seriously depleted in fracture patients, but trabecular rod volume was maintained. Besides, decreased plate area and rod length were observed in fracture patients. Fracture patients also showed decreased elastic moduli and shear moduli of trabecular bone. These results provided evidence that in intertrochanteric hip fracture, preferential loss of plate-like trabeculae led to more rod-like microstructure and deteriorated mechanical competence adjacent to the fracture site, which increased our understanding of the biomechanical pathogenesis of hip fracture in osteoporosis.

  2. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  3. Physical activity, bone density, and fragility fractures in women

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Undis

    2009-01-01

    Scandinavia has among the highest incidence of fragility fractures in the world. The reasons for this are unknown, but might involve differences in genetic and/or environmental factors, such as sunlight exposure and levels of physical activity. Weight-bearing exercise is thought to have a beneficial effect on bone health in the young, but few studies have evaluated whether exercise in older subjects affects bone density and protects against fragility fractures. The initial objective of this t...

  4. Correlates of prepubertal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, R.; Borovnicar, D; Stroud, D.; Strauss, B.; Bines, J

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To examine early factors in bone mineral accretion in cystic fibrosis (CF).
METHODS—In 22 prepubertal children with CF and mild lung disease, the relation between total body bone mineral density (BMD) and measures of body composition, biochemistry, lung function, and physical activity was studied.
RESULTS—There was a non-significant mild reduction in mean total body BMD. No relation was found between BMD and anthropometric indices, fat free soft tissue, degree of lung ...

  5. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo. PMID:27082526

  6. [The effect of prolonged acenocoumarol therapy on bone density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J; Tihanyi, L; Nagy, E; Végh, Z; Deli, A; Tahy, A; Korányi, L

    1995-09-24

    The effect of chronic cumarin treatment on bone mineral content was investigated. Bone mineral density was determined by double photon densitometry (Lunar DPXL). The density data (mean +/- SE) of 45 cardiac patients (age: 57.0 = +/- 6.3 y, body mass index: 26.7 +/- 3.8 kp/m2, cardiac stadium score, according to New York Heart Association: 2-3), had been treated by acenocumarol at least for 2 years (duration of treatment: 75.0 +/- 52 months), were compared to the values of 45 age, body mass index, cardiac status matched patients not treated by anticoagulant. The density values of L2-L4 lumbar regions were lower in the treated group (1.041 +/- 0.17 vs. controlls: 1.13 +/- 0.15 g/cm2, p cumarin treatment were observed. This observation suggests the importance of the regular bone densitometry control of cumarin treated patient. PMID:7566945

  7. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance....

  8. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...

  9. The loss of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reduces bone toughness and fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Wadeer, Sandra A; Whitehead, Jack M; Rowland, Barbara J; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-05-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness.

  10. Time course of bone loss in patients with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos Martínez, José Manuel; Valero Díaz de Lamadrid, Carmen; Gómez del Barrio, José Andrés; Amado Señarís, José Antonio; Hernández Hernández, José Luis; Menéndez Arango, José; González Macías, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the time course of bone mineral density (BMD) in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) during two years of follow-up. Methods: We prospectively studied 51 female with AN aged 18-38 years, and forty age-matched healthy women (19-34 years). BMD was measured in lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) by DXA. Results: At baseline, weight, body mass index, and lumbar and hip BMD were significantly (p

  11. Odanacatib in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: a review of current clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbini, Cristiano A. F.; McClung, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Human bones are in a continuous process of remodeling that ensures renovation and maintenance of the skeletal mass. Bone remodeling has two phases that are normally coupled and balanced: bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts and bone formation mediated by osteoblasts. An increase in bone resorption over bone formation results in a progressive loss of bone mass and impairment of bone microarchitecture leading to osteoporosis and its associated fractures. Recent advances in the understanding ...

  12. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streym, Súsanna við; Møller, Ulla Kristine; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2012-01-01

    in fat mass differed according to breastfeeding status with a slower decline in women who continued breastfeeding. Calcium and vitamin D intake was not associated with BMD changes. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone loss. At 19 months postpartum, BMD has returned to pre-pregnancy......In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone...... loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate...

  13. Altered Bone Metabolism and Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. Objective To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Results Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g, 25 had bone pain, and 21 had a history of bne fractures. Serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol and urine calcium were decreased and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were increased in urine. Serum calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. There was no statistical correlation between three classes of fecal elastase-1 (200 µg/g and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1, 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to -2.5, and 1 had osteoporosis (T score -2.5. There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065. Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (p<0.05. Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT had significantly higher DXA values (p<0.05. Conclusions Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone

  14. Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

  15. Preventive Effects of Collagen Peptide from Deer Sinew on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer sinew (DS has been used traditionally for various illnesses, and the major active constituent is collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of collagen peptide from DS on bone loss in the ovariectomized rats. Wister female rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham-operated (SHAM, ovariectomized control (OVX, OVX given 1.0 mg/kg/week nylestriol (OVX + N, OVX given 0.4 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OVX + H, OVX given 0.2 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + M, and OVX given 0.1 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + L, respectively. After 13 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and the effects of collagen peptide on body weight, uterine weight, bone mineral density (BMD, serum biochemical indicators, bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanics were observed. The data showed that BMD and concentration of serum hydroxyproline were significantly increased and the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased. Besides, histomorphometric parameters and mechanical indicators were improved. However, collagen peptide of DS has no effect on estradiol level, body weight, and uterine weight. Therefore, these results suggest that the collagen peptide supplementation may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  16. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  17. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  18. Bone Mineral Density Reduction Following Irradiation of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Total body bone mineral density (TBBMD was measured by X-ray absorptiometry in 46 brain tumor patients aged from 3.8 to 28.7 years (mean 14.9 y at a mean of 6.4 y (range 1.4-14.8 y after end of treatment for brain tumor.

  19. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  20. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  1. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway Mediates Inhalant Organic Dust-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Elizabeth; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Clarey, Dillon; Wyatt, Todd A; Romberger, Debra J; Wells, Adam D; Dusad, Anand; Wang, Dong; Klassen, Lynell W; Mikuls, Ted R; Duryee, Michael J; Poole, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture workers have increased rates of airway and skeletal disease. Inhalant exposure to agricultural organic dust extract (ODE) induces bone deterioration in mice; yet, mechanisms underlying lung-bone crosstalk remain unclear. Because Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are important in mediating the airway consequences of ODE, this study investigated their role in regulating bone responses. First, swine facility ODE stimulated wild-type (WT) bone marrow macrophages to form osteoclasts, and this finding was inhibited in TLR4 knock-out (KO), but not TLR2 KO cells. Next, using an established intranasal inhalation exposure model, WT, TLR2 KO and TLR4 KO mice were treated daily with ODE or saline for 3 weeks. ODE-induced airway neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine release were similarly reduced in TLR2 and TLR4 KO animals as compared to WT mice. Utilizing micro-computed tomography (CT), analysis of tibia showed loss of bone mineral density, volume and deterioration of bone micro-architecture and mechanical strength induced by ODE in WT mice were significantly reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO animals. Bone marrow osteoclast precursor cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry from exposed animals. In WT animals, exposure to inhalant ODE increased osteoclast precursor cell populations as compared to saline, an effect that was reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO mice. These results show that TLR2 and TLR4 pathways mediate ODE-induced airway inflammation, but bone deterioration consequences following inhalant ODE treatment is strongly dependent upon TLR4. Thus, the TLR4 signaling pathway appears critical in regulating the lung-bone inflammatory axis to microbial component-enriched organic dust exposures. PMID:27479208

  2. Spaceflight-induced bone loss alters failure mode and reduces bending strength in murine spinal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Johansen, Britta; Liebenberg, Ellen C; Li, Alfred; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation rates are quadrupled in astronauts following spaceflight. While bending motions are main contributors to herniation, the effects of microgravity on the bending properties of spinal discs are unknown. Consequently, the goal of this study was to quantify the bending properties of tail discs from mice with or without microgravity exposure. Caudal motion segments from six mice returned from a 30-day Bion M1 mission and eight vivarium controls were loaded to failure in four-point bending. After testing, specimens were processed using histology to determine the location of failure, and adjacent motion segments were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify bone properties. We observed that spaceflight significantly shortened the nonlinear toe region of the force-displacement curve by 32% and reduced the bending strength by 17%. Flight mouse spinal segments tended to fail within the growth plate and epiphyseal bone, while controls tended to fail at the disc-vertebra junction. Spaceflight significantly reduced vertebral bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and trabecular thickness, which may explain the tendency of flight specimens to fail within the epiphyseal bone. Together, these results indicate that vertebral bone loss during spaceflight may degrade spine bending properties and contribute to increased disc herniation risk in astronauts.

  3. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (Pweight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight weeks old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containin...

  5. Quantitative assessment of periimplant bone density (HU) on CBCT image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk [Department of Dental Science Graduate School and Oral Biology Research, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The primary aims of this retrospective study were to compare subjective bone quality and bone quality based on the Hounsfield scale in different segments of the edentulous jaw, and to establish quantitative and objective assessment of the bone quality. Twenty eight randomly selected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans were analyzed. For evaluation one hundred and twelve edentulous areas were selected. Implant recipient sites were evaluated visually for Lekholm and Zarb classification. The same sites were subsequently evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with Vimplant 2.0{sup TM}, and the results were correlated with visual classification. Data was subject for statistical analysis in order to determine correlation between recorded HU and the regions of the mouth with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The highest unit/mean density value (311 HU) was found in the anterior mandible, followed by 259 HU for the posterior mandible, 216 HU for the anterior maxilla, and 127 HU for the posterior maxilla. These results demonstrate a strong correlation for HU depending on the region of the mouth (p<0.001). The relationship between HU and type 4 bone was found to be significant (r=0.74). Knowledge of the Hounsfield value as a quantitative measurement of bone density can be helpful as a diagnostic tool by using CBMercuRay{sup TM} with Vimplant{sup TM} software.

  6. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  7. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  8. Plasma cell gingivitis with severe alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh; Sinha, Jolly

    2015-01-16

    Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare benign condition of the gingiva characterised by sharply demarcated erythaematous and oedematous gingiva often extending up to the muco gingival junction. It is considered a hypersensitive reaction. It presents clinically as a diffuse, erythaematous and papillary lesion of the gingiva, which frequently bleeds, with minimal trauma. This paper presents a case of a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with plasma cell gingivitis, based on the presence of plasma cells in histological sections, and severe alveolar bone loss at the affected site, which was managed by surgical intervention.

  9. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Min Yoo; Myung-Han Lee; Ji Hyung Park; Dong-Hyun Seo; Sangyeob Lee; Byungjo Jung; Han Sung Kim; Kiho Bae

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT) and Per2 knockout (KO) mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduc...

  10. Mechanisms inducing low bone density in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro-computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. PMID:21509823

  11. Curcumin improves bone microarchitecture and enhances mineral density in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Wei; Wang, Tong-Hao; Yan, Pei-Pei; Chu, Li-Wei; Yu, Jiang; Gao, Zhi-Da; Li, Yuan-Zhou; Guo, Bao-Lei

    2011-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis are often observed to co-occur in clinical practice. The present study aimed to evaluate the bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to search for evidence that curcumin can be used to reduce bone mineral losses and treat osteoporosis after senile dementia in these transgenic mice. Three-month-old female mice were divided into the following groups (n=9 per group): wild-type mice (WT group); APP/PS1 transgenic mice (APP group); and APP/PS1 transgenic mice with curcumin treatment (APP+Cur group). Between 9 and 12 months of age, the APP+Cur group were administered curcumin orally (600ppm). CT scans of the proximal tibia were taken at 6, 9 and 12 months. At 6 months, there were little differences in the structural parameters. At 9 months, the APP groups displayed loss of bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and connectivity density (Conn.D) and increases in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and geometric degree of anisotropy (DA) (Pled to constant increases in the trabecular bone mass of the metaphysis and clearly improved the BMD. By the same time, we measured the TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum among the different groups at 6, 9 and 12 months by enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA). These results suggest that APP/PS1 transgenic mice are susceptible to osteoporosis, and that curcumin can prevent further deterioration of the bone structure and produce beneficial changes in bone turnover. The change of inflammation cytokine, including TNF-α and IL-6, may play an important role in the mechanisms of action of curcumin, but the detail mechanism remains unknown. PMID:20637579

  12. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  13. Measurement of bone mineral density using DEXA and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To observe bone loss and bone metabolism status in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2∼L4) and femoral neck using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and analysis of biochemical markers of bone turnover, such as ostecalcin (OSC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked telo-peptide of type I collagen (ICTP), PTH and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D). These markers were measured in 31 5-year survivors after OLT, 34 patients with chronic liver failure (CLF) before OLT and 38 normal subjects. Results: Age-matched Z-score of BMD (Z-score) at L2∼L4 was significantly higher in 5-year survivors than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Incidence of osteoporosis (Z-score<-2.0) in 5-year survivors was significantly lower than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Although serum concentrations of bone formation and bone resorption markers in 5-year survivors were high than those of normal subjects, as compared to patients with CLF before OLT, serum OSC was increased, serum ICTP and BAP were reduced, serum PICP was unchanged. Serum PTH and 25-OH-D level was normal. Conclusions: In 5-year survivors following liver transplantation there was a reduction in bone loss and incidence of osteoporosis and an improvement of bone metabolism

  14. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  15. Phytoestrogens for menopausal bone loss and climacteric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagari, Violet S; Levis, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Women have always looked for non-hormonal options to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms and prevent menopausal bone loss. The use of complementary and alternative medicine for these purposes has particularly increased after the publication of the Women's Health Initiative's results suggesting that there might be more risks than benefits with hormone replacement. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived estrogens that, although less potent than estradiol, bind to the estrogen receptor and can function as estrogen agonists or antagonists. Soy isoflavones extracted from soy are the phytoestrogens most commonly used by menopausal women. Because typical Western diets are low in phytoestrogens and taking into account the general difficulty in changing dietary habits, most clinical trials in Western women have used isoflavone-fortified foods or isoflavone tablets. Although some women might experience a reduction in the frequency or severity of hot flashes, most studies point towards the lack of effectiveness of isoflavones derived from soy or red clover, even in large doses, in the prevention of hot flashes and menopausal bone loss. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'. PMID:23246986

  16. Bone Loss in the Acute Stage Following Burn Injury - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Leblebici

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a bone loss occurs during acute period following burn injury or not, and to investigate the effects of various parameters on it. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 19 patients, ages between 20 and 50, who had a burn injury with more than %20 of Total Body Surface Area (TBSA. We recorded the patients’ burn cause, localization, percantage, ambulation and functional status. At the end of the first month, we measured bone mıneral densıty of total L1-L4 vertebrae, left distal forearm, left total femur, in all patients. A Z score less than –1 was accepted to be the indicator of bone loss. Results: The mean age of the patients (14 male and 5 female was 33.09±11.61. We found a Z score less then -1 in 68.4% of left distal forearm, 21.1% of left total femur and 36.8% of total L1-L4 vertabrae measurements. There were no significant correlations between TBSA, Functional Ambulatıon Scale and Functional Independence Measure, and Z scores. Conclusion: There is a reduction in Bone Mineral Density in patıents wıth moderate/severe burn ınjuries in the acute period which is not correlated wıth neither TBSA nor functional status. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:33-6

  17. Association of pioglitazone treatment with decreased bone mineral density in obese premenopausal patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Andersen, Mikael; Hagen, C.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study at an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. PATIENTS......, sex hormones, and body composition. CONCLUSION: Pioglitazone treatment was followed by decreased lumbar and hip BMD and decreased measures of bone turnover in a premenopausal study population relatively protected from bone mineral loss Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  18. Bone density determination using I125 densitometry with idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the assumption that radiographs from patients with idiopathic scoliosis show osteoporotic changes in the curved area, investigation with I125-densitometry were made, and specifically with measurement points at the ulna and the calcaneus. A difference in the bone density between patients with scoliosis and normal controls could not be proven. The mineral-salt content of the scoliosis patients lay on the average 6.5 to 9.3% lower than the normal controls. No relation could be found between the degree of curvature of the scoliosis and the peripheral bone density, from which it can be concluded that no generalized mineral-salt deficiency exists. Radiographs show only local changes (photo densitometry, computed tomography). (TRV)

  19. Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K; Klibanski, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone densi...

  20. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  1. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.

  2. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  3. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  4. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  5. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  6. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil causes trabecular bone loss, bone marrow cell depletion and marrow adiposity in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chiaming; Georgiou, Kristen R; McKinnon, Ross A; Keefe, Dorothy M K; Howe, Peter R C; Xian, Cory J

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of anthracyclines to adjuvant chemotherapy has increased survival rates among breast cancer patients. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil (CEF) combination therapy is now one of the preferred regimens for treating node-positive breast cancer due to better survival with less toxicity involved. Despite the increasing use of CEF, its potential in causing adverse skeletal effects remains unclear. Using a mature female rat model mimicking the clinical setting, this study examined the effects of CEF treatment on bone and bone marrow in long bones. Following six cycles of CEF treatment (weekly intravenous injections of cyclophosphamide at 10 mg/kg, epirubicin at 2.5 mg/kg and 5-flurouracil at 10 mg/kg), a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume was observed at the metaphysis, which was associated with a reduced serum level of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP), increased trends of osteoclast density and osteoclast area at the metaphysis, as well as an increased size of osteoclasts being formed from the bone marrow cells ex vivo. Moreover, a severe reduction of bone marrow cellularity was observed following CEF treatment, which was accompanied by an increase in marrow adipose tissue volume. This increase in marrow adiposity was associated with an expansion in adipocyte size but not in marrow adipocyte density. Overall, this study indicates that six cycles of CEF chemotherapy may induce some bone loss and severe bone marrow damage. Mechanisms for CEF-induced bone/bone marrow pathologies and potential preventive strategies warrant further investigation. PMID:26056019

  7. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  8. Short communication: Proteins in heat-processed skim milk powder have no positive effects on bone loss of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Kong, Y; Wang, C; Gao, H; Han, X; Yi, H; Zhang, L

    2011-06-01

    Milk has positive effects on bone growth. However, the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) on bone properties has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of SMP on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and another 10 rats received a sham operation. The OVX rats were randomly separated into 4 groups: OVX control, OVX SMP1 (SMP at 0.04 g/d), OVX SMP2 (SMP at 0.20 g/d), and OVX SMP3 (SMP at 0.40 g/d). Skim milk powder was supplied in the rat diet for 12 wk, and the rats were gavaged once per day. The effects of SMP on calcium content and bone mineral density of femur were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Compared with the control, SMP at all dose levels tested had no particular effect on weight:length, calcium content, or bone mineral density of femurs. It was demonstrated that SMP (0.04 to 0.40 g/d) had no positive effect on bone loss in OVX rats, probably because the heat treatment used during SMP processing caused a loss of biological activity in the protein.

  9. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Licata, Angelo A.; Rice, Andrea J.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss in the lower extremities and lumbar spine is an established consequence of long-duration human space flight. Astronauts typically lose as much bone mass in the proximal femur in 1 month as postmenopausal women on Earth lose in 1 year. Pharmacological interventions have not been routinely used in space, and countermeasure programs have depended solely upon exercise. However, it is clear that the osteogenic stimulus from exercise has been inadequate to maintain bone mass, due to insufficient load or duration. Attention has therefore been focused on several pharmacological interventions that have been successful in preventing or attenuating osteoporosis on Earth. Anti-resorptives are the class of drugs most commonly used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, notably alendronate sodium, risedronate sodium, zoledronic acid, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. There has also been considerable recent interest in anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]). Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have also been used. Recent studies of kindreds with abnormally high bone mineral density have provided insight into the genetic regulation of bone mass. This has led to potential therapeutic interventions based on the LRP5, Wnt and BMP2 pathways. Another target is the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway, which influences bone turnover by regulating osteoclast formation and maturation. Trials using such therapies in space are being planned. Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space.

  10. Inactivity-induced bone loss is not exacerbated by moderate energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Boese, A.; Baecker, N.; Zittermann, A.; Smith, S. M.

    Severe energy restriction leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, adolescent females, and in male athletes. Astronauts in space also lose bone mass, and most of them have reduced energy intake (about 25 % below requirements). The aim of our study was to examine if bone loss in space is partly induced by moderate energy restriction. Physiological changes of space flight were simulated by 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR). Nine healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2, mean ± SD) finished four study phases, two of normocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR, and two of hypocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR. Urine samples (24 h) were analyzed for calcium excretion (UCaV) and bone resorption markers (C-Telopeptide, CTX, and N-Telopeptide, NTX). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone formation markers (Procollagen-I-C-terminal-Peptide, PICP, Procollagen-I-N-terminal-Peptide, PINP, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, bAP) were analyzed. No significant changes in serum calcium or PTH were noted either during HDBR or during hypocaloric nutrition. PICP, but not PINP or bAP, decreased significantly during HDBR (normocaloric: p<0.02; hypocaloric: p<0.005). UCaV increased significantly over time (p<0.01) but no difference between HDBR or hypocaloric nutrition or both (p<0.26) occurred. Both CTX and NTX excretion significantly increased with HDBR (CTX: p<0.05; NTX: p<0.05), but were unaffected by hypocaloric nutrition in ambulatory and HDBR phases. In conclusion, moderate energy restriction did not exaggerate bone resorption during HDBR.

  11. DLK1 is a novel regulator of bone mass that mediates estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Mahmood, Amer;

    2011-01-01

    Delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1 (DLK1/FA-1) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the Notch/Delta family that acts as a membrane-associated or a soluble protein to regulate regeneration of a number of adult tissues. Here we examined the role of DLK1/FA-1 in bone biology using osteoblast-specific Dlk...... the bone marrow by activated T cells. Interestingly, Dlk1(-/-) mice were significantly protected from ovx-induced bone loss compared with wild-type mice. Thus we identified Dlk1 as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to inhibit bone formation and to stimulate bone resorption. Increasing DLK1...... production by T cells under estrogen deficiency suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for preventing postmenopausal bone loss....

  12. Forearm bone mineral density in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Troels; Nielsen, Christian Stoltz; Christensen, Signe Engkjær; Nissen, Peter H; Heickendorff, Lene; Mosekilde, Leif

    2011-10-01

    Studies have shown that cancellous bone is relatively preserved in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), whereas bone loss is seen in cortical bone. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) patients seem to preserve bone mineral in spite of hypercalcemia and often elevated plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH). The objective of this study was to compare total and regional forearm bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with PHPT and FHH and to examine if differences can be used to separate the two disorders. We included 63 FHH, and 121 PHPT patients in a cross-sectional study. We performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of the forearm, hip and lumbar spine and measured a number of biochemical variables. PTH patients had significantly lower Z-scores in all parts of the forearm compared to FHH. This was also the case after adjustment for body mass index. When stratifying for age, gender and PTH, T-scores were still significantly lower in PHPT patients than in FHH patients at the total, the mid and the ultradistal forearm, but not at the proximal 1/3 forearm. In a multiple regression analysis BMD Z-score was lower in PHPT compared to FHH at the total forearm, the mid forearm and the ultradistal forearm but not the proximal forearm when adjusting for biochemical variables including PTH, 1,25(OH)(2)D and Ca(2+). These observations support that inactivating mutations in the CASR gene in bone cells in FHH may protect against forearm bone loss. Differences between the two groups in total or regional forearm BMD were inferior to the calcium/creatinine clearance ratio as a diagnostic tool to separate FHH from PHPT. PMID:21785908

  13. Intrusion of incisors in adult patients with marginal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Agerbaek, N; Markenstam, G

    1989-09-01

    Elongated and spaced incisors are common problems in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease. Thirty patients characterized by marginal bone loss and deep overbite were treated by intrusion of incisors. Three different methods for intrusion were applied: (1) J hooks and extraoral high-pull headgear, (2) utility arches, (3) intrusion bent into a loop in a 0.17 x 0.25-inch wire, and (4) base arch as described by Burstone. The intrusion was evaluated from the displacement of the apex, incision, and the center of resistance of the most prominent or elongated central incisor. Change in the marginal bone level and the amount of root resorption were evaluated on standardized intraoral radiographs. The pockets were assessed by standardized probing and the clinical crown length was measured on study casts. The results showed that the true intrusion of the center of resistance varied from 0 to 3.5 mm and was most pronounced when intrusion was performed with a base arch. The clinical crown length was generally reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 mm. The marginal bone level approached the cementoenamel junction in all but six cases. All cases demonstrated root resorption varying from 1 to 3 mm. The total amount of alveolar support--that is, the calculated area of the alveolar wall--was unaltered or increased in 19 of the 30 cases. The dependency of the results on the oral hygiene, the force distribution, and the perioral function was evaluated in relation to the individual cases. It was obvious that intrusion was best performed when (1) forces were low (5 to 15 gm per tooth) with the line of action of the force passing through or close to the center of resistance, (2) the gingiva status was healthy, and (3) no interference with perioral function was present.

  14. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm2(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD. Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1 to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2 to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1 the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2 the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count, and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2=0.002; df=1; P=0.96; χ2/df=0.002; RMSEA<0.01; TLI=1.5; CFI=1.0. A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β=0.38; b=0.15; SE=0.07; C.R.=2.0; P=0.046. It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  16. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  17. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n......), and carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1). In F, BMD in PF increased up to 1.8% (P football, OC was 45% and 46% higher (P ... football for elderly men had an osteogenic effect, which was further developed after 12 months, whereas resistance...

  18. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  19. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat. PMID:21663694

  20. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study Objectives: To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and to correlate factors such as age, height, weight, body mass index, total caloric, protein and calcium intake to bone mass density. Design: Cross sectional study Setting: Philippine General Hospital and St Luke's Medical Center, tertiary government and private owned hospitals, respectively. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-eight 228) healthy randomly chosen subjects from amongst hospital companion, aged 15-52 years old, distributed at 25 subjects per group of five per sex. Methods: Bone mass density measurements were done on lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPXL). Ten (10) cc of blood was extracted on one hundred fourteen (114) patients; 5 cc of which was used for biochemical studies while the rest of the sample was stored for fixture studies. One hundred fourteen (114) patients were then interviewed using the Filipino version of the WHO questionnaire for the Study of Osteoporosis, and their nutritional intake was assessed using a previous day food recall. Results: At present, there are a total of 228 patients recruited. The mean weight and height were 57-43±11.17 kg and 158.16±8.44 cm, respectively, and the mean BMI was 22.99±4.11. The mean daily calcium intake was 501.17±357.79 gms/day (n=64). The mean BMD at the L2-L4 spine for females was 1.14±0.15 gm/cm2 and 1.12±0.21 gm/cm2 for the males. The highest BMD was 1.23±0.20 gm/cm2 in the 35-39 year old age group for the females and 1.26±0.31 gm/cm2 in the 30-34 age group for the males. The mean femoral neck BMD was 0.91±0.12 gm/cm2 for the females and 1.00±0.13 gm/cm2 for the males. The highest femoral neck BMD was 0.931±0.12 gm/cm2 in the 20-24 females and 1.03±0.18 gm/cm2 in the 20-24 age group for the males. Calcium intake and weight was significantly correlated in the lumbar spine. Height and sex was correlated with both the

  1. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  2. Increased activity of osteocyte autophagy in ovariectomized rats and its correlation with oxidative stress status and bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuehua, E-mail: yuesjtu@126.com; Zheng, Xinfeng, E-mail: zxf272@126.com; Li, Bo, E-mail: libo@126.com; Jiang, Shengdan, E-mail: jiangsd@126.com; Jiang, Leisheng, E-mail: leisheng_jiang@126.com

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Examine autophagy level in the proximal tibia of ovariectomized rats. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with oxidative stress status. - Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to investigate ovariectomy on autophagy level in the bone and to examine whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss and oxidative stress status. Methods: 36 female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (Sham), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated either with vehicle or 17-β-estradiol. At the end of the six-week treatment, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture in proximal tibias were assessed by micro-CT. Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) level were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity in proximal tibia was also determined. The osteocyte autophagy in proximal tibias was detected respectively by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescent histochemistry (IH), realtime-PCR and Western blot. In addition, the spearman correlation between bone mass, oxidative stress status, serum E2 and autophagy were analyzed. Results: Ovariectomy increased Atg5, LC3, and Beclin1 mRNA and proteins expressions while decreased p62 expression. Ovariectomy also declined the activities of T-AOC, CAT, and SOD. Treatment with E2 prevented the reduction in bone mass as well as restored the autophagy level. Furthermore, LC3-II expression was inversely correlated with T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities. A significant inverse correlation between LC3-II expression and BV/TV, Tb.N, BMD in proximal tibias was found. Conclusions: Ovariectomy induced oxidative stress, autophagy and bone loss. Autophagy of osteocyte was inversely correlated with oxidative stress status and bone loss.

  3. Increased activity of osteocyte autophagy in ovariectomized rats and its correlation with oxidative stress status and bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examine autophagy level in the proximal tibia of ovariectomized rats. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with oxidative stress status. - Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to investigate ovariectomy on autophagy level in the bone and to examine whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss and oxidative stress status. Methods: 36 female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (Sham), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated either with vehicle or 17-β-estradiol. At the end of the six-week treatment, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture in proximal tibias were assessed by micro-CT. Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) level were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity in proximal tibia was also determined. The osteocyte autophagy in proximal tibias was detected respectively by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescent histochemistry (IH), realtime-PCR and Western blot. In addition, the spearman correlation between bone mass, oxidative stress status, serum E2 and autophagy were analyzed. Results: Ovariectomy increased Atg5, LC3, and Beclin1 mRNA and proteins expressions while decreased p62 expression. Ovariectomy also declined the activities of T-AOC, CAT, and SOD. Treatment with E2 prevented the reduction in bone mass as well as restored the autophagy level. Furthermore, LC3-II expression was inversely correlated with T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities. A significant inverse correlation between LC3-II expression and BV/TV, Tb.N, BMD in proximal tibias was found. Conclusions: Ovariectomy induced oxidative stress, autophagy and bone loss. Autophagy of osteocyte was inversely correlated with oxidative stress status and bone loss

  4. Lactose intolerance: an unnecessary risk for low bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The potential for lactose intolerance causes 25-50 million Americans and an unknown number of people around the world to avoid milk. Milk avoidance is a significant risk factor for low bone density. Individuals who avoid milk, due to intolerance or learned aversion, consume significantly less calcium and have poorer bone health and probable higher risk of osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance is easily managed by: (1) regular consumption of milk that adapts the colon bacteria and facilitates digestion of lactose; (2) consumption of yogurts and cheeses and other dairy foods low in lactose; consumption of dairy foods with meals to slow transit and maximize digestion, and use of lactose-digestive aids. As dairying spreads around the world to new markets and dairy foods become the dominant source of calcium in these markets, the potential for lactose intolerance will grow. Management of lactose intolerance globally will require both education and product development.

  5. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  6. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  7. Dried Plum Protects From Radiation-Induced Bone Loss by Attenuating Pro-Osteoclastic and Oxidative Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Future space explorations beyond the earths magnetosphere will increase human exposure to space radiation and associated risks to skeletal health. We hypothesize that oxidative stress resulting from radiation exposure plays a major role in progressive bone loss and dysfunction in associated tissue. In animal studies, increased free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. Our long-term goals are to define the mechanisms and risk of bone loss in the spaceflight environment and to facilitate the development of effective countermeasures. We had previously reported that exposure to low or high-LET radiation correlates with an acute increase in the expression of pro-osteoclastic and oxidative stress genes in bone during the early response to radiation followed by pathological changes in skeletal structure. We then conducted systematic screening for potential countermeasures against bone loss where we tested the ability of various antioxidants to mitigate the radiation-induced increase in expression of these markers. For the screen, 16-week old C57Bl6J mice were treated with a dietary antioxidant cocktail, injectable DHLA or a dried plum-enriched diet (DP). Mice were then exposed to 2Gy 137Cs radiation and one day later, marrow cells were collected and the relevant genes analyzed for expression levels. Among the candidate countermeasures tested, DP was most effective in reducing the expression of genes associated with bone loss. Furthermore, analysis of skeletal structure by microcomputed tomography (microCT) revealed that DP also prevents the radiation-induced deterioration in skeletal microarchitecture as indicated by parameters such as percent bone volume (BVTV), trabecular spacing and trabecular number. We also found that DP has similar protective effects on skeletal structure in a follow-up study using 1 Gy of

  8. Suppression of Experimental Arthritis and Associated Bone Loss by a Tissue-Selective Estrogen Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica; Bernardi, Angelina I; Nurkkala-Karlsson, Merja; Stubelius, Alexandra; Grahnemo, Louise; Ohlsson, Claes; Carlsten, Hans; Islander, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    In addition to the systemic inflammation present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), decreased estradiol levels in postmenopausal RA patients further accelerate bone loss in these patients. The tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC), an estrogen combined with a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is a new hormone replacement therapy option. The first approved TSEC, containing conjugated estrogens and bazedoxifene (BZA), reduces menopausal symptoms and prevents osteoporosis with an improved safety profile compared with conventional hormone replacement therapy. Previous studies have shown that estrogens strongly inhibit experimental arthritis whereas BZA is mildly suppressive. In this study the antiarthritic potential of combined BZA and estradiol is explored for the first time. Female ovariectomized DBA/1 mice were subjected to collagen-induced arthritis, an experimental postmenopausal RA model, and treated with BZA, 17β-estradiol (E2), combined BZA and E2 (BZA/E2), or vehicle. BZA/E2 suppressed arthritis severity and frequency, synovitis, and joint destruction, equally efficient as E2 alone. Unwanted estrogenic proliferative effects on the endometrium were blocked by the addition of BZA, determined by collecting uterine weights. Bone mineral density was measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and all treatments protected collagen-induced arthritis mice from both trabecular and cortical bone loss. Moreover, BZA/E2, but not E2 alone, inhibited preosteoclast formation and reduced serum anticollagen type II antibodies. In conclusion, a TSEC, herein combined BZA/E2, suppresses experimental arthritis and prevents associated bone loss as efficiently as E2 alone but with minimal uterine effects, highlighting the need for clinical trials that evaluate the addition of a TSEC to conventional postmenopausal RA treatment. PMID:26745543

  9. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  10. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  11. Animal Models of Bone Loss in Inflammatory Arthritis: from Cytokines in the Bench to Novel Treatments for Bone Loss in the Bedside-a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C Henrique; Farrell, Eric; Vis, Marijn; Colin, Edgar M; Lubberts, Erik

    2016-08-01

    Throughout life, bone is continuously remodelled. Bone is formed by osteoblasts, from mesenchymal origin, while osteoclasts induce bone resorption. This process is tightly regulated. During inflammation, several growth factors and cytokines are increased inducing osteoclast differentiation and activation, and chronic inflammation is a condition that initiates systemic bone loss. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory auto-immune disease that is characterised by active synovitis and is associated with early peri-articular bone loss. Peri-articular bone loss precedes focal bone erosions, which may progress to bone destruction and disability. The incidence of generalised osteoporosis is associated with the severity of arthritis in RA and increased osteoporotic vertebral and hip fracture risk. In this review, we will give an overview of different animal models of inflammatory arthritis related to RA with focus on bone erosion and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, a humanised endochondral ossification model will be discussed, which can be used in a translational approach to answer osteoimmunological questions. PMID:26634933

  12. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  13. A radiographic evaluation of progressive loading on crestal and bone density changes around single osseointegrated implants in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommati Shabestari Gh.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effectiveness of progressive loading procedures on preserving crestal bone height and improving peri-implant bone density around maxillary implants restored with single crowns by an accurate longitudinal radiographic assessment technique. "n "n "nMaterials and Methods: Eleven Micro-Thread Osseo Speed dental implants were placed in 11 subjects and permitted to heal for 6 weeks before surgical uncovering. Following an 8-week healing period, implants underwent a progressive loading protocol by increasing the height of the occlusal table in increments from adding acrylic resin to an acrylic crown. The progressively loaded crowns were placed in 2 mm infraocclusion for the first 2 months, light occlusion for the second 2 months, and full occlusion for the third 2 months. At forth 2 months, a metal ceramic crown replaced the acrylic crown. Digital radiographs of each implant were made at the time of restoration, then after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months of function. Digital image analysis was done to measure changes in crestal bone height and peri-implant bone density. "n "n "nResults: The mean values of crestal bone loss at 12 months were 0.11 ± 0.19 mm, and when tested with Friedman across the time periods, the differences were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. The mean values of bone density in the crestal, middle, and apical area were tested with Repeated Measure ANOVA across the time periods, the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. "n "n "nConclusion: Progressive loading doesn’t cause crestal bone loss. The peri-implant density measurements of the progressively loaded implants show continuous increase in crestal, middle and apical peri-implant bone density by time. "n 

  14. Bone mineral density and polymorphisms in metallothionein 1A and 2A in a Chinese population exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi 030001 (China); Tian, Liting [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: chx_win@hotmail.com [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jin, Taiyi, E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Cadmium (Cd) effect on bone varies between individuals. We investigated whether genetic variation in metallothionein (MT)1A and MT2A associated with Cd induced bone loss in this study. A total of 465 persons (311 women and 154 men), living in control, moderately and heavily polluted areas, participated. The participants completed a questionnaire and the bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. Samples of urine and blood were collected for determination of Cd in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd). Genotypes for polymorphisms in MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) were determined by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. BCd had a weak association with variant alleles for MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) in female living in the highly polluted group (p = 0.08 and 0.05, respectively). A weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT2A polymorphisms variation (p = 0.06) in female living in the highly polluted group. Only a weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT1A polymorphisms variation in female. Genetic variation in the MT1A and MT2A genes may not associate with bone loss caused by cadmium exposure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the association between metallothionein polymorphisms bone mineral density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed a weak association with cadmium in blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed no association with bone mineral density.

  15. RECOVERY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FERTILITY IN A FORMER AMENORRHEIC ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate dietary intake and prolonged amenorrhea in women athletes can lead to bone loss, particularly at the spine, which may be irreversible. This report presents the case of a woman endurance runner, followed prospectively over 6 years after presenting with the female athlete triad. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, lumbar spine (LS, total hip and total body (TB BMD Z-scores were -2.2, -0.5 and -0.3 respectively. At 6 years, following a recovery plan of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, weight gain, improved dietary intake and reduced training load, the athlete regained menstrual function and BMD. LS, TB and hip BMD Z-scores improved to -0.6, -0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Restoration of fertility was indicated by pregnancy, following only 4 months of regular menstruation. This case report suggests that bone density and fertility may not be completely jeopardised in formerly amenorrheic and osteopenic athletes, providing recovery through diet, weight gain, and return of menstruation is achieved within the third decade. Longitudinal studies tracking bone changes in women with amenorrhea and low BMD are required and would have important implications for the treatment of the female athlete triad

  16. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  17. Bone mineral density in young female Chinese dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, S; Hsu, H; Fong, Y; Chiu, C.; Kao, A.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate of the effect of dancing on bone mineral density (BMD) we compared 29 Chinese girls who had been receiving regular ballet training for at least 6 years with a control group of 20 nonathletic sex- and age-matched Chinese girls. BMD was measured at the second to fourth lumbar spine and at the right femoral neck using a commercial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA). There were no significant differences in either measured BMD or spinal BMD after adjusting for body weight (body m...

  18. Peri-acetabular bone mineral density in total hip replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, L.(University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Chicago, USA); Dinh, L.; Beaulé, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and compare peri-acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) between a monoblock acetabular component using a metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing and a modular titanium shell with a polyethylene (PE) insert. The secondary outcome was to measure patient-reported clinical function. Methods A total of 50 patients (25 per group) were randomised to MoM or metal-on-polyethlene (MoP). There were 27 women (11 MoM) and 23 men (14 MoM) with a mean age of 61.6 years (47.7 to 73.2). Measurement...

  19. A reversal phase arrest uncoupling the bone formation and resorption contributes to the bone loss in glucocorticoid treated ovariectomised aged sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Christina M; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren; Bollen, Peter; Andersen, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Large animals as sheep are often used as models for human osteoporosis. Our aim was therefore to determine how glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep affects the cancellous bone, determining the cellular events within the bone remodelling process that contributes to their bone loss. Twenty female sheep were assigned for two groups; an untreated control group and an ovariectomised group treated with glucocorticoids (0.6 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. At 7 months the glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomised sheep showed a significant change in the bone microstructure revealed by a decreased trabecular bone volume and thickness compared to the control sheep. The treatment led to a temporary elevation of the bone resorption marker CTX (c-terminal collagen telopeptide), while the bone formation marker osteocalcin remained suppressed all 7 months. Histomorphometrically, the treated sheep had a complete absence of osteoid surfaces, and a 5-fold increase in the extent of eroded/reversal surfaces after 7 months. Most of these reversal surfaces were actually arrested reversal surfaces, defined as reversal surfaces without the presence of neighbouring osteoid surfaces or osteoclasts, which is classically observed next to active reversal surfaces. As in humans, these arrested reversal surfaces had compared to active reversal surfaces a reduced canopy coverage, a significantly decreased cell density, and a decreased immunoreactivity for the osteoblastic markers osterix, runx2 and smooth muscle actin in the mononuclear reversal cells colonising the surfaces. In conclusion, glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep induced a significant bone loss, caused by an arrest of the reversal phase, resulting in an uncoupling of the bone formation and resorption during the reversal phase, as recently demonstrated in postmenopausal women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. This supports the relevance of the sheep model to the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid

  20. Aromatic Polyurea Possessing High Electrical Energy Density and Low Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a dielectric polymer, poly (ether methyl ether urea) (PEMEU), which possesses a dielectric constant of 4 and is thermally stable up to 150°C. The experimental results show that the ether units are effective in softening the rigid polymer and making it thermally processable, while the high dipole moment of urea units and glass structure of the polymer leads to a low dielectric loss and low conduction loss. As a result, PEMEU high quality thin films can be fabricated which exhibit exceptionally high breakdown field of >1.5 GV/m, and a low conduction loss at fields up to the breakdown. Consequently, the PEMEU films exhibit a high charge-discharge efficiency of 90% and a high discharged energy density of 36 J/cm3.

  1. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16...

  2. Quantitative assessment of periimplant bone density (HU) on CBCT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aims of this retrospective study were to compare subjective bone quality and bone quality based on the Hounsfield scale in different segments of the edentulous jaw, and to establish quantitative and objective assessment of the bone quality. Twenty eight randomly selected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans were analyzed. For evaluation one hundred and twelve edentulous areas were selected. Implant recipient sites were evaluated visually for Lekholm and Zarb classification. The same sites were subsequently evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with Vimplant 2.0TM, and the results were correlated with visual classification. Data was subject for statistical analysis in order to determine correlation between recorded HU and the regions of the mouth with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The highest unit/mean density value (311 HU) was found in the anterior mandible, followed by 259 HU for the posterior mandible, 216 HU for the anterior maxilla, and 127 HU for the posterior maxilla. These results demonstrate a strong correlation for HU depending on the region of the mouth (pTM with VimplantTM software.

  3. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus with supplemental calcium on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se-Chan; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that Astragalus membranaceus, an Asian traditional herb, has an estrogenic effect in vitro. To examine the possible role of A. membranaceus extract with supplemental calcium (Ca) on bone status in calcium-deficient (LCa) ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a total of 48 female rats were divided into six groups: (1) normal control, (2) sham operation with LCa (sham-LCa), (3) OVX with LCa (OVX-LCa), (4) A. membranaceus supplementation with OVX-LCa (OVX-MLCa), (5) Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-Ca), and (6) A. membranaceus and Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-MCa). A. membranaceus ethanol extract (500 mg/kg BW) and/or Ca (800 mg/kg BW) were administered orally for 8 weeks along with a Ca-deficient diet. Results revealed that Ca supplementation with or without A. membranaceus extract significantly improved bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and ash weight of the femur and tibia in OVX rats. High Ca with A. membranaceus combination supplementation significantly increased the ash weight of the femur and tibia and decreased urinary Ca excretion compared with supplementation of Ca alone. Uterine weight was not changed by A. membranaceus administration in OVX rats. These results suggest that A. membranaceus extract combined with supplemental Ca may be more protective against the Ca loss of bone than A. membranaceus or supplementation of Ca alone in calcium-insufficient postmenopausal women.

  4. Acetabular bone density and metal ions after metal-on-metal versus metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty; short-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P.; van der Veen, Hugo C.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zee, Mark J. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Information on periprosthetic acetabular bone density is lacking for metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. These bearings use cobalt-chromium instead of titanium acetabular components, which could lead to stress shielding and hence periprosthetic bone loss. Cobalt and chromium ions have detriment

  5. Bone mineral density and the relationship between lipid profile and bone mineral density in the rats administered juniperus communis linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship of Juniperus Communis Lynn. with the bone mineral density in the rats fed with a high cholesterol (1%) diet. Thirty five Wistar albino rats weighed approximately 250-300 were used in this study. The rats are divided in five groups of seven each. Groups I and II were administered 0.5 ml of 0.5% Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC), while Groups II, IV and V administered 0.5 ml of juniperus communis linn dissolved in 25, 50, 100 mg/kg. Group I and Group II were fed with normal pellets while the other four groups were fed with pellets containing 1% cholesterol. Levels of lipid profile and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were defined in all the groups. Furthermore, bone mineral density (B M D) of the animals were obtained with DEXA scanner. BMD values of the rats did not show a different among the groups. Significant negative correlations were determined between BMD measurements and LDL-C levels in all groups connected with dose of Juniperus Communis oil. However, this relationship was not linear. (author)

  6. Naringin ameliorates bone loss induced by sciatic neurectomy and increases Semaphorin 3A expression in denervated bone

    OpenAIRE

    Xinlong Ma; Jianwei Lv; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Guosheng Xing; Ying Wang; Lei Sun; Jianbao Wang; Fengbo Li; Yanjun Li; Zhihu Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Naringin maintains bone mass in various osteoporosis models, while its effect on bone in disuse osteoporosis has not been reported. The present study explores whether naringin can prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) and whether the Semaphorin 3A-induced Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the osteoprotection of naringin. Naringin dose-dependently prevented the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular structure and biomechanical...

  7. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  8. An "S-shaped" relationship between smoking duration and alveolar bone loss : generating a hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Holst, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have shown that smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Little is known about the relationship between smoking duration and alveolar bone loss. The purpose of this research was to describe the prevalence of alveolar bone loss according to smo

  9. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  10. Spinal Deformity, Dorsal Kyphosis and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kuran

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been show that spine deformity index is a better indicator of the functional capacity of the osteoporotic patient than the number of vertebral fractures. In order to investigate the relation between spinal deformity, dorsal kyphosis and the bone mineral density, we undertook the following study. In 40 postmenopausal women (age 59,1±7 spine deformity index (SDI was calculated by lateral roentgenograms of the dorsal and lumbar spine. 25 subjects at premenopausal age were also x-rayed to find the normal limits. Dorsal kyphosis (DK was measured by Cobb’s angle. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured by DEXA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Student’s t-test were used as statistical analysis. The results show that there was a significant correlation between DK and SDI. BMD's at femoral neck and lumbar spine were not correlated with DK and SDI (p>0,05. In patients with 40 degrees. The difference was not significant. We conclude that as the spinal deformity increases, DK is expected to increase and BMD is expected to decrease.

  11. Negative Effects of Total Gastrectomy on Bone Tissue Metabolism and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) of Lumbar Spine in 1-Year Study in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, Witold; Tatara, Marcin R; Bury, Pawel; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    Gastrectomy induces severe osteoporosis in humans but its quantitative scale within trabecular and cortical compartments was not estimated. The aim of the study was to determine changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) and biochemical bone metabolism markers in serum of patients 1 year after total gastrectomy. The control group consisted of patients (N = 8) subjected to abdominal surgery due to cardiospasmus. Total gastrectomy was performed in the experimental group (N = 6). Volumetric bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone of lumbar spine was measured before (baseline) and 1 year after the gastric surgery using the quantitative computed tomography method. Serum concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, tyroxine, interleukin-6, C-terminal telopeptides of type II collagen and bone formation, and resorption markers were determined at baseline and 1 year later, using ELISA, EIA, and IEMA methods. Total gastrectomy induced significant decrease of vBMD values, up to 16.8% and 10.0%, within the trabecular and cortical bone compartments of lumbar spine (P < 0.05). These negative changes of vBMD were associated with significantly increased serum concentration of bone resorption markers such as deoxypyridinoline, pyridinoline, and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, by 13.5%, 32.2%, and 121.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Neither vBMD nor biochemical bone turnover markers and hormone concentrations were influenced in the control patients. Dramatic bone loss during the first year in gastrectomized patients has proven dynamic osteoporosis progress indicating an importance of treatment interventions in these patients with emphasis on inhibition of intensive bone resorption processes. PMID:26886633

  12. Bone mineral density, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in the rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, A M; Tomlinson, G A; Turnquist, J E; Grynpas, M D

    2000-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates metabolic bone disease and the relationship between age and bone mineral density (BMD) in males and females of a large, well-documented skeletal population of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), from the Caribbean Primate Research Center Museum collection from Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. The sample consists of 254 individuals aged 1.0-20+ years. The data consist of measurements of bone mineral content and bone mineral density, obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), of the last lumbar vertebra from each monkey. The pattern of BMD differs between male and female rhesus macaques. Females exhibit an initial increase in BMD with age, with peak bone density occurring around age 9.5 years, and remaining constant until 17.2 years, after which there is a steady decline in BMD. Males acquire bone mass at a faster rate, and attain a higher peak BMD at an earlier age than do females, at around 7 years of age, and BMD remains relatively constant between ages 7-18.5 years. After age 7 there is no apparent effect of age on BMD in the males of this sample; males older than 18.5 years were excluded due to the presence of vertebral osteophytosis, which interferes with DEXA. The combined frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in this population is 12.4%. BMD values of monkeys with vertebral wedge fractures are generally higher than those of virtually all of the nonfractured osteopenic/osteoporotic individuals, thus supporting the view that BMD as measured by DEXA is a useful but imperfect predictor of fracture risk, and that low BMD may not always precede fractures in vertebral bones. Other factors such as bone quality (i.e., trabecular connectivity) should also be considered. The skeletal integrity of a vertebra may be compromised by the loss of key trabeculae, resulting in structural failure, but the spine may still show a BMD value within normal limits, or within the range of osteopenia. PMID:11042540

  13. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Robert A.; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes benefic...

  14. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. PMID:24677054

  15. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  16. Bone loss during simulated weightlessness - Is it glucocorticoid mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Cone, C. M.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Elevating the hindquarters of a rat by the tail unweights the hind limbs but maintains normal weight-bearing by the forelimbs. This maneuver leads to a decrease in bone mass and calcium content in the unweighted bones (e.g., tibia and L1 vertebra), but not in the normally weighted bones (e.g., humerus and mandible). Potentially, the stress of the maneuver, mediated by increased glucocorticoid production and secretion, could explain the decreased bone formation, rather than the skeletal unweighting per se. To test this possibility, the effects of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to the unweighting of the hind limbs of normal rats were evaluated.

  17. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician.

  18. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician. PMID:27471408

  19. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  20. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, U K; Við Streym, S; Mosekilde, L;

    2012-01-01

    loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate......In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone...... changes in BMD and BC during and following a pregnancy. METHODS: We measured BMD and BC in 153 women planning pregnancy (n = 92 conceived), once in each trimester during pregnancy and 15, 129, and 280 days postpartum. Moreover, BMD was measured 19 months postpartum (n = 31). Seventy-five age...

  1. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance....... In the liraglutide group, the bone formation marker P1NP increased by 16% (7±3 μg/L) vs a 2% (-1±4 μg/L) decrease in the control group (pmaintenance phase. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a long-acting GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16......% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low calorie-diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent....

  2. Peak bone mass density among residents of metro Manila: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    occurring between the ages 15-20 years old and incidentally in 2 subjects with ages between 40-44. There seems to be little bone loss among males beyond the age 35, unlike in the females. Conclusions: Bone mass density among a sample of Metro Manila residents was determined using DEXA and the measurements on the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These were age-matched and matched with that of young adult based on Caucasian norm provided by the Lunar Co. Peak bone mass density in the L2L4 level among the females is reached between the ages 30-35 years old, after which there is progressive bone loss with values in the 45-50 years old approximating the values in the 15-19 years old age range. A similar pattern is seen in the measurements taken at the femoral neck. Among males, the peak BMD is reached during the 30-35 years old, but there seems to be no rapid decline or rapid bone loss occurring thereafter, unlike in the female subjects. (author)

  3. A Review of Dental Implant Treatment Planning and Implant Design Based on Bone Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkzaban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Context A key determinant for clinical success is the diagnosis of the bone density in a potential implant site. The percentage of bone-implant contact is related to bone density, and the axial stress contours around an implant are affected by the density of bone. Evidence Acquisition A number of reports have emphasized the importance of the quality of bone on the survival of dental implants. The volume and density of the recipient bone have also been shown to be determining criteria to establish proper treatment plans with adequate number of implants and sufficient surface area. Previous clinical reports that did not alter the protocol of treatment related to bone density had variable survival rates. To the contrary, altering the treatment plan to compensate for soft bone types has provided similar survival rates in all bone densities. Results When bone density decreases and bone become softer, the implant surface in contact with the bone decreases, therefore treatment plan should be modified by changing the drilling protocol, using gradual loading and reducing the force on the prosthesis or increasing the loading area with increasing implant number, implant position, implant size, implant design (deeper and more threads with more pitch, squared shape and implant body surface condition. Conclusions Once the prosthetic option, key implant position, and patient force factors have been determined, the bone density in the implant sites should be evaluated to modify the treatment plan. Inappropriate implant number or design in poor quality bone results in higher failure rates. Changing the treatment plan and implant design is suggested, based on bone density to achieve higher survival rates.

  4. Association between Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Postmenopausal Women: The Yokogoshi Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Harumi; Kitamura, Kaori; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yumi; Oshiki, Rieko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Diet and food intake play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. However, apart from calcium and vitamin D, how nutrients affect bone status is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese postmenopausal women. This 5-year cohort study included 600 community-dwelling women aged 55-74 years at baseline in 2005. Information on demographics, nutrition, and lifestyle was obtained through interviews, and nutritional and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2010, 498 women underwent follow-up BMD examinations. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine associations of predictor variables with BMD, adjusting for confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, coffee or black tea consumption was positively associated with lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and total hip (P = 0.003) BMD, and alcohol intake was positively associated with femoral neck (P = 0.005) and total hip (P = 0.001) BMD. In longitudinal analyses, vitamin K (P = 0.028) and natto (fermented soybeans) (P = 0.023) were positively associated with lumbar spine BMD, and meat or meat product consumption was inversely associated with total hip (P = 0.047) BMD. In conclusion, dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D intake are predictors of bone mass and bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women. In particular, natto intake is recommended for preventing postmenopausal bone loss on the basis of current evidence.

  5. Previous exposure to simulated microgravity does not exacerbate bone loss during subsequent exposure in the proximal tibia of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Anthony, Rachel A; Kwaczala, Andrea T; Judex, Stefan; Bloomfield, Susan A; Hogan, Harry A

    2013-10-01

    Extended periods of inactivity cause severe bone loss and concomitant deterioration of the musculoskeletal system. Considerable research has been aimed at better understanding the mechanisms and consequences of bone loss due to unloading and the associated effects on strength and fracture risk. One factor that has not been studied extensively but is of great interest, particularly for human spaceflight, is how multiple or repeated exposures to unloading and reloading affect the skeleton. Space agencies worldwide anticipate increased usage of repeat-flier crewmembers, and major thrust of research has focused on better understanding of microgravity effects on loss of bone density at weightbearing skeletal sites; however there is limited data available on repeat microgravity exposure. The adult hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model was used to determine how an initial unloading cycle will affect a subsequent exposure to disuse and recovery thereafter. Animals underwent 28 days of HU starting at 6 months of age followed by 56 days of recovery, and then another 28 days of HU with 56 days of recovery. In vivo longitudinal pQCT was used to quantify bone morphological changes, and ex vivo μCT was used to quantify trabecular microarchitecture and cortical shell geometry at the proximal tibia metaphysis (PTM). The mechanical properties of trabecular bone were examined by the reduced platen compression mechanical test. The hypothesis that the initial HU exposure will mitigate decrements in bone mass and density for the second HU exposure was supported as pre- to post-HU declines in total BMC, total vBMD, and cortical area by in vivo pQCT at the proximal tibia metaphysis were milder for the second HU (and not significant) compared to an age-matched single HU (3% vs. 6%, 2% vs. 6%, and 2% vs. 6%, respectively). In contrast, the hypothesis was not supported at the microarchitectural level as losses in BV/TV and Tb.Th. were similar during 2nd HU exposure and age-matched single HU

  6. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  7. Rates of Bone Loss Among Women Initiating Antidepressant Medication Use in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Kristine; Cauley, Jane A.; Lian, YinJuan; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Greendale, Gail A.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Concern has been raised that medications that block serotonin reuptake may affect bone metabolism, resulting in bone loss. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare annual bone mineral density (BMD) changes among new users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), new users of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and nonusers of antidepressant medications. Design and Setting: We conducted a prospective cohort study at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: The study included 1972 community-dwelling women, aged 42 years and older, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Exposure: The use of antidepressant medications was assessed by interview and verified from medication containers at annual visits. Subjects were categorized as nonusers (no SSRI or TCA use at any examination), SSRI users (initiated SSRI use after the baseline SWAN visit), or TCA users (initiated TCA use after the baseline visit), using a computerized dictionary to categorize type of medication. Main Outcome Measures: BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at annual visits. Results: BMD was compared among 311 new users of SSRIs, 71 new users of TCAs, and 1590 nonusers. After adjustment for potential confounders, including age, race, body mass index, menopausal status, and hormone therapy use, mean lumbar spine BMD decreased on average 0.68% per year in nonusers, 0.63% per year in SSRI users (P = .37 for comparison to nonusers), and 0.40% per year in TCA users (P = .16 for comparison to nonusers). At the total hip and femoral neck, there was also no evidence that SSRI or TCA users had an increased rate of bone loss compared with nonusers. Results were similar in subgroups of women stratified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (<16 vs ≥16). Conclusions: In this cohort of middle-aged women, use of SSRIs and TCAs was not associated with an increased

  8. Intramuscular neridronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide; Bertoldo, Francesco; Sartori, Leonardo; Di Munno, Ombretta; Filipponi, Paolo; Marcocci, Claudio; Frediani, Bruno; Palummeri, Ernesto; Fiore, Carmelo Erio; Costi, Daniele; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-11-01

    Compliance to osteoporosis treatment with oral bisphosphonates is very poor. Intermittent intravenous bisphosphonate is a useful alternative, but this route is not readily available. Neridronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that can be given intramuscularly (IM), was tested in a phase 2 clinical trial in 188 postmenopausal osteoporotic women randomized to IM treatment with 25 mg neridronate every 2 weeks, neridronate 12.5 or 25 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo. All patients received calcium and vitamin D supplements. The patients were treated over 12 months with 2-year posttreatment follow-up. After 12-month treatment, all three doses were associated with significant bone mineral density (BMD) increases at both the total hip and spine. A significant dose-response relationship over the three doses was observed for the BMD changes at the total hip but not at the spine. Bone alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly by 40-55% in neridronate-treated patients, with an insignificant dose-response relationship. Serum type I collagen C-telopeptide decreased by 58-79%, with a significant dose-response relationship (P < 0.05). Two years after treatment discontinuation, BMD declined by 1-2% in each dose group, with values still significantly higher than baseline at both the spine and the total hip. Bone turnover markers progressively increased after treatment discontinuation, and on the second year of follow-up the values were significantly higher than pretreatment baseline. The results of this study indicate that IM neridronate might be of value for patients intolerant to oral bisphosphonates and unwilling or unable to undergo intravenous infusion of bisphosphonates.

  9. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene and early marginal bone loss around endosseous dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpuku, Hitomi; Nosaka, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Tatsuya; Tachi, Yoichi; Shinohara, Mitsuko; Ohura, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    Dental implant surgery commonly proceeds in two stages. It is generally accepted that bone loss around implants does not occur at stage-II surgery because implants do not receive mechanical loading. However, early marginal bone loss around implants occasionally does occur during the healing period. Genetic polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene have been reported to be important for bone homeostasis and susceptibility to bone disease. We therefore investigated whether the idiopathic early marginal bone loss around implants is related to polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene. We performed a case-control study. Patients demonstrating marginal bone loss around implants at stage-II surgery were designated as the 'marginal bone loss (+)' group and those without bone loss as the 'marginal bone loss (-)' group. Polymorphisms of the IL-1alpha and IL-1beta genes (IL-1A-889, IL-1B-511 and IL-1B+3954) were detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism using NcoI, AvaI and TaqI after polymerase chain reactions. A total of 251 implants were placed in 39 patients. Marginal bone loss was observed in 36 implants. The patients with IL-1B-511 2/2 genotype exhibited a significantly higher occurrence of marginal bone loss than those with IL-1B-511 1/1 or 1/2 genotypes (OR=5.63; 95% CI=1.20-26.42; P=0.033). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed a markedly increased odds ratio (OR=10.86; 95% CI=1.64-71.90) in IL-1B-511 2/2 genotype carriers, while ORs of the other risk factors for bone loss, such as age, smoking status, post-menopausal women and bone quality, remained between 0.44 and 6.20. There was no significant difference in the distributions of the IL-1B+3954 and IL-1 A-889 genotypes between cases and controls. These data suggest that the IL-1B-511 2/2 genotype has a significant association with the incidence of early marginal bone loss around endosseous implants. PMID:12869004

  11. An investigation of bone mineral density changes with increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study bone mineral density changes rule with increasing age for improving reliability of diagnosis of osteoporosis. Method: BMD of forearm, femoral neck and lumbar spine of 313 healthy subjects was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry using (DXA), Sophos L-XRA. There were 162 males and 151 females (age range 20∼84 years). They were divided into ten year cohorts for analysis. Results: The ages of peak mass of BMD of forearm and lumbar spine were in 30∼39 age-group for both male and female. The peak values of femoral neck, ward's triangle were in 20∼29 age-group of both sexes, BMD declined with increasing age, except the 60∼69 age-group of lumbar spine and femoral neck in male. Conclusion: The lumbar spine measurement with lateral DXA can avoid some adverse influence of post-anterior DXA

  12. Relationship of nutrient intakes and bone mineral density of elderly women in Daegu, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Park, Eun-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Ju

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between nutrient intake and bone mineral density (BMD) of elderly women in Daegu, Korea. In this study, the bone mineral densities of 101 elderly women in Daegu were measured, and their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and maternal factors were determined through a survey. The subjects were divided into the normal group, the osteopenia group, and osteoporosis group to find out if there is a correlation between bone mineral density and ...

  13. Soy isoflavones avert chronic inflammation-induced bone loss and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lightfoot Stan A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from epidemiological, clinical and animal studies suggests a link may exist between low bone density and cardiovascular disease, with inflammatory mediators implicated in the pathophysiology of both conditions. This project examined whether supplementation with soy isoflavones (IF, shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, could prevent tissue expression of TNF-α and the development of skeletal pathology in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Methods Eight-week old, intact, female C57BL/6J mice were used. In Phase 1, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-dose response study (0, 0.133, 1.33 and 13.3 μg/d was conducted to determine the LPS dose to use in Phase 2. The results indicated the 1.33 μg LPS/d dose produced the greatest decrease in lymphocytes and increase in neutrophils. Subsequently, in Phase 2, mice were randomly assigned to one of six groups (n = 12–13 per group: 0 or 1.33 μg LPS/d (placebo or LPS in combination with 0, 126 or 504 mg aglycone equivalents of soy IF/kg diet (Control, Low or High dose IF. Mice were fed IF beginning 2 wks prior to the 30-d LPS study period. Results At the end of the study, no differences were detected in final body weights or uterine weights. In terms of trabecular bone microarchitecture, μCT analyses of the distal femur metaphysis indicated that LPS significantly decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV and number (TbN, and increased separation (TbSp. Trabecular bone strength (i.e. total force and stiffness were also compromised in response to LPS. The High IF dose provided protection against these detrimental effects on microarchitecture, but not biomechanical properties. No alterations in trabecular thickness (TbTh, or cortical bone parameters were observed in response to the LPS or IF. Immunohistomchemical staining showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α was up-regulated by LPS in the endothelium of small myocardial arteries and arterioles as well as the tibial

  14. Bone marrow transplantation improves autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss in SH3BP2 knock-in cherubism mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Teruhito; Kittaka, Mizuho; Ishida, Shu; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Ueki, Yasuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Cherubism (OMIM#118400) is a genetic disorder in children characterized by excessive jawbone destruction with proliferation of fibro-osseous lesions containing a large number of osteoclasts. Mutations in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) are responsible for cherubism. Analysis of the knock-in (KI) mouse model of cherubism showed that homozygous cherubism mice (Sh3bp2(KI/KI)) spontaneously develop systemic autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss and that cherubism is a TNF-α-dependent hematopoietic disorder. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is effective for the treatment of inflammation and bone loss in Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice. Bone marrow (BM) cells from wild-type (Sh3bp2(+/+)) mice were transplanted to 6-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice with developing inflammation and to 10-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice with established inflammation. Six-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(+/+) BM cells exhibited improved body weight loss, facial swelling, and survival rate. Inflammatory lesions in the liver and lung as well as bone loss in calvaria and mandibula were ameliorated at 10weeks after BMT compared to Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(KI/KI) BM cells. Elevation of serum TNF-α levels was not detected after BMT. BMT was effective for up to 20weeks in 6-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(+/+) BM cells. BMT also ameliorated the inflammation and bone loss in 10-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice. Thus our study demonstrates that BMT improves the inflammation and bone loss in cherubism mice. BMT may be effective for the treatment of cherubism patients.

  15. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  16. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion of chemoth......PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion...... of chemotherapy, i.e., 4 months. METHODS: Dual-imaging X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline and after completing anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy to measure BMD in the spine, hip, and forearm in early-stage breast cancer patients. High-dose prednisolone was used at three weekly...... were excluded: seven because of initiation of bisphosphonate treatment due to osteoporosis at baseline, and one had non-interpretable DXA. The final cohort included 97 patients with a mean age of 53 years (range 34-72). Mean cumulative prednisolone dose was 1308 mg (95 % CI 1255; 1362). BMD increased 1...

  17. Long-term Bone Mineral Density Changes in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Philip M; Kitch, Douglas; McComsey, Grace A; Collier, Ann C; Koletar, Susan L; Erlandson, Kristine M; Yin, Michael T; Bartali, Benedetta; Ha, Belinda; Melbourne, Kathy; Brown, Todd T

    2016-08-15

    We compared adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) changes between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during the first approximately 7.5 years after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected individuals (n = 97) had significantly greater adjusted BMD decline than controls (n = 614) during the first 96 weeks of ART. Subsequently, the rate of BMD decline slowed in HIV-infected individuals but remained greater than the rate of decline in HIV-uninfected individuals at the lumbar spine but not at the hip. In HIV-infected individuals after 96 weeks, no HIV- or treatment-related characteristic was associated with BMD loss, but lower lean body mass was associated with greater BMD loss at both lumbar spine and hip. PMID:27330053

  18. Mechanism and Therapeutic Strategies of Ailamode in the Treatment of RA-induced Bone Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feng

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) caused by exceed bone absorption than osteogenesis and the subsequent osteoporosis (bone loss) around joints and in entire body, is the most commonly seen bone disease in clinic, which is induced by inlfammatory factors and corticosteroid therapies, while RA-induced bone loss is believed to be associated with the decreased osteogenesis because of the increased bone absorption and low osterix expression by reason of over-expressions of TNF-α, IL-1, Il-6 and RANKL, etc.. Ailamode (ALMD, T-614) is a new anti-RA agent (DMARDs) and a regulator for immunity and bone metabolism. Research showed that T-614 could eliminate bone absorption and up-regulate osterix expression to improve osteogenesis by inhibiting some inlfammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1 and Il-6), so as to reduce bone and joint damages. And several clinical evidences have proved that T-614 is safe in treating RA and has synergistic effect with methotrexate (MTX), which could strengthen the efifcacy and decrease bone erosion. Therefore, it is considered to be the most valuable agent in the treatment of RA and RA-induced bone loss at present.

  19. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  20. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Elci, Okan; McCormack, Shana E; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-04-01

    Using adult identified bone mineral density (BMD) loci, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) to determine if they were associated with changes in BMD during childhood. Longitudinal data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study were analyzed (N = 798, 54% female, all European ancestry). Participants had up to 6 annual dual energy X-ray scans, from which areal BMD (aBMD) Z-scores for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck were estimated, as well as total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) Z-scores. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and the percentage of BMD-lowering alleles carried was calculated (overall adult GRS). Subtype GRS that include SNPs associated with fracture risk, pediatric BMD, WNT signaling, RANK-RANKL-OPG, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were also calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between each GRS and bone Z-scores, and if any association differed by sex and/or chronological age. The overall adult, fracture, and WNT signaling GRS were associated with lower Z-scores (eg, spine aBMD Z-score: βadult  = -0.04, p = 3.4 × 10(-7) ; βfracture = -0.02, p = 8.9 × 10(-6) ; βWNT  = -0.01, p = 3.9 × 10(-4) ). The overall adult GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores in females (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The fracture GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores with increasing age (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The WNT GRS associations remained consistent for both sexes and all ages (p-interaction > 0.05 for all sites). The RANK-RANKL-OPG GRS was more strongly associated in females with increasing age (p-interaction < 0.05 for all sites). The mesenchymal stem cell GRS was associated with lower total hip and femoral neck Z-scores, in both boys and girls, across all ages. No associations were observed between the pediatric GRS and bone Z-scores. In conclusion, adult identified BMD loci associated with BMD and

  1. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise alleviates inflammation and improves endothelial progenitor cell count and bone density in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min-Tser; Liu, Wen-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Chuan-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and mineral bone disease are critical factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical exercise alleviates inflammation and increases bone density. Here, we investigated the effects of intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise on HD patients. Forty end-stage renal disease patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The patients in the exercise group performed a cycling program consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of cycling at the desired workload, and a 5-minute cool down during 3 HD sessions per week for 3 months. Biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, nutritional status, the serum endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count, bone mineral density, and functional capacity were analyzed. After 3 months of exercise, the patients in the exercise group showed significant improvements in serum albumin levels, the body mass index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the number of cells positive for CD133, CD34, and kinase insert domain-conjugating receptor. Compared with the exercise group, the patients in the control group showed a loss of bone density at the femoral neck and no increases in EPCs. The patients in the exercise group also had a significantly greater 6-minute walk distance after completing the exercise program. Furthermore, the number of EPCs significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance both before and after the 3-month program. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise programs can effectively alleviate inflammation and improve nutrition, bone mineral density, and exercise tolerance in HD patients. PMID:27399127

  2. Prediction of bone loss in elderly female subjects by MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, James F.; Yeung, David K.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories (China); Leung, Jason Chi Shun; Leung, Ping C. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Jockey Club Centre for Osteoporosis Care and Control, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin (China); Kwok, Timothy C.Y. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin (China)

    2011-06-15

    To determine whether MR perfusion indices or marrow fat content at baseline can predict areal bone mineral density (BMDa) loss. Repeat dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip was performed in female subjects at 2 years (n = 52) and 4 years (n = 45) following baseline MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopy of the hip. Percentage reduction in femoral neck BMDa at 4 years post-baseline was greater in subjects with below median acetabulum enhancement slope (E{sup slope}) (-5.6 {+-} 1.2 Vs -1.1 {+-} 1.2 (mean {+-} standard error) p = 0.014) or muscle maximum enhancement (E{sup max}) (-5.7 {+-} 1.2 Vs -0.23 {+-} 1.2, p = 0.009) after adjusting for baseline co-variables. Baseline MR parameters correlated with reduction in BMDa at 4 years (acetabulum E{sup slope} r = 0.517, p = 0.0003; muscle E{sup max} r = 0.306, p = 0.043) as well as traditionally applied clinical risk factors. Acetabulum E{sup slope}, femoral neck E{sup max} and marrow fat content at baseline had sensitivities of 89%, 81% and 72% respectively at distinguishing between fast (>1%/annum) (n = 18) and slow (<1%/annum) (n = 27) BMD losers. Elderly female subjects with reduced perfusion indices at baseline had increased femoral neck bone loss at 4 years. Selected perfusion indices and marrow fat content have a moderate to high sensitivity in discriminating between fast and slow bone losers. (orig.)

  3. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Williams, Paul J.; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 mont...

  4. Odanacatib in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: a review of current clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Cristiano A F; McClung, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Human bones are in a continuous process of remodeling that ensures renovation and maintenance of the skeletal mass. Bone remodeling has two phases that are normally coupled and balanced: bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts and bone formation mediated by osteoblasts. An increase in bone resorption over bone formation results in a progressive loss of bone mass and impairment of bone microarchitecture leading to osteoporosis and its associated fractures. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the remodeling process have allowed the development of new targets for osteoporosis treatment. Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease, is found in osteoclasts along the bone resorption surfaces and very efficiently degrades type I collagen, the major component of the organic bone matrix. Inhibition of cathepsin K reduces bone resorption but does not impair bone formation particularly at cortical sites. Odanacatib, a potent and highly selective cathepsin K inhibitor, showed prevention of bone loss without reduction of bone formation in preclinical and clinical trials (phase I and II). Odanacatib is currently in a phase III fracture outcome international trial for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23904864

  5. The Effect of Alendronate Treatment on Bone Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akı

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this blind, randomized controlled study was to evaluate effect of 12 months alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD and bone formation, resorption markers in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Women with BMD values at least 2 standard deviations (SD below BMD of adult premenopousal women were included in the study. Patients were randomized into two groups. The control group (n=ll2 received 500 mg daily elemental calcium, while the treatment group (n=l58 received 10 mg alendronate plus 500 mg daily elemental calcium for 12 months. Patient demographics were comparable in both groups before treatment. After 12 months, BMD of patients in alendronate group was increased significantly as compared to BMD before treatment and BMD in control group (p<0.001 . Increase in BMD was apparent in all measured sites but highest values were attained in the Ll-L4 region with 4.8 %. Bone formation and resorption parameters showed significant decrease in the 6 th and 12 th months of treatment as compared to control group and values before treatment (-23.1% to - 50.6 %. As a conclusion, twelve months treatment of alendronate (10 mg/day in postmenopausal osteoporotic women causes a significant increase of BMD in all measurement sites, as compared to BMD values before treatment and BMD of control group. Likewise bone formation and resorption markers showed significant decrease in the 6 th and 12 th months of treatment as compared to values in the control group and values before treatment.

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  7. Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Jan J; Burr, David B; Pavo, Imre; Sipos, Adrien; Michalska, Dana; Li, Jiliang; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Petto, Helmut; Westmore, Michael; Michalsky, David; Sato, Masahiko; Dobnig, Harald

    2007-09-01

    Marked suppression of bone turnover by bisphosphonates is associated with increased bone microdamage accumulation in animal models. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that long-term treatment with alendronate (ALN) results in accumulation of microdamage in bone in women after menopause. Sixty-six postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age of 68.0 years and mean BMD T-score of -1.7 at total hip and -2.8 at lumbar spine; 62% with prevalent fractures) were evaluated in this cross-sectional analysis. Thirty-eight had been treated previously with ALN (10 mg/day or 70 mg/week for a mean duration of 63.6 months) while twenty-eight were treatment naive (TN). Without adjustments, crack surface density (Cr.S.Dn) and crack density (Cr.Dn) were not different between ALN and TN patients. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, prevalent fractures, femoral neck BMD, activation frequency and center), Cr.Dn was elevated in ALN patients (P=0.028 and P=0.069 for Cr.S.Dn). In ALN patients only, lower femoral neck BMD (Cr.S.Dn, r=-0.58, P=0.003; Cr.Dn, r=-0.54, P=0.005) and increased age (Cr.S.Dn, r=0.43, P=0.03; Cr.Dn, r=0.43, P=0.03) were associated with microdamage accumulation. Among potential confounders, femoral neck BMD was the only independent predictor for these correlations (P=0.04 for Cr.Dn and P=0.03 for Cr.S.Dn). We conclude that increased microdamage accumulation may occur in low BMD patients treated with alendronate.

  8. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body com...

  9. The Effect of Acupuncture on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳钢; 王玲玲; 王东岩; 卓铁军; 申志祥

    2002-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory that the kidney is in charge of the bone, the authors carried out a study on the effect of acupuncture on bone mineral density in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated by the method of reinforcing the kidney to strengthen the bone, with satisfactory therapeutic results reported as follows.

  10. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  11. Bone density around the fixture after function of implant molar prosthesis using CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of increased bone density according to whether bone grafts were applied using demographic data with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and to compare the bone densities between before and after implant prosthesis using the Hounsfield index. Thirty-six randomly selected computed tomography (CT) scans were used for the analysis. The same sites were evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with V-Implant 2.0TM, and the results were compared with maxillary posterior bone graft. Statistical data analysis was carried out to determine the correlation between the recorded Hounsfield unit (HU) of the bone graft and implant prosthesis using a Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Matched-pairs test. The bone grafted maxillary posterior teeth showed an increase in the mean values from-157 HU to 387 HU, whereas non-grafted maxillary posterior teeth showed an increase from 62 HU to 342 HU. After implantation, the grafted and non-grafted groups showed significantly higher bone density than before implantation. However, the grafted group showed significantly more changes than the non-grafted group. Bone density measurements using CBCT might provide an objective assessment of the bone quality as well as the correlation between bone density (Hounsfield scale) and bone grafts in the maxillary molar area.

  12. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frotzler, Angela; Coupaud, Sylvie; Perret, Claudio; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Hunt, Kenneth J; Donaldson, Nick de N; Eser, Prisca

    2008-07-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss in the paralysed limbs and to a resulting increased fracture risk thereof. Since long bone fractures can lead to comorbidities and a reduction in quality of life, it is important to improve bone strength in people with chronic SCI. In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we investigated whether functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced high-volume cycle training can partially reverse the loss of bone substance in the legs after chronic complete SCI. Eleven participants with motor-sensory complete SCI (mean age 41.9+/-7.5 years; 11.0+/-7.1 years post injury) were recruited. After an initial phase of 14+/-7 weeks of FES muscle conditioning, participants performed on average 3.7+/-0.6 FES-cycling sessions per week, of 58+/-5 min each, over 12 months at each individual's highest power output. Bone and muscle parameters were investigated in the legs by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the muscle conditioning (t1), and after six (t2) and 12 months (t3) of high-volume FES-cycle training. After 12 months of FES-cycling, trabecular and total bone mineral density (BMD) as well as total cross-sectional area in the distal femoral epiphysis increased significantly by 14.4+/-21.1%, 7.0+/-10.8% and 1.2+/-1.5%, respectively. Bone parameters in the femoral shaft showed small but significant decreases, with a reduction of 0.4+/-0.4% in cortical BMD, 1.8+/-3.0% in bone mineral content, and 1.5+/-2.1% in cortical thickness. These decreases mainly occurred between t1 and t2. No significant changes were found in any of the measured bone parameters in the tibia. Muscle CSA at the thigh increased significantly by 35.5+/-18.3%, while fat CSA at the shank decreased by 16.7+/-12.3%. Our results indicate that high-volume FES-cycle training leads to site-specific skeletal changes in the paralysed limbs, with an increase in bone parameters at the actively loaded distal femur but not the passively loaded

  13. Metastasis and bone loss: Advancing treatment and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Robert E.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Guise, Theresa A.; Boyce, Brendon F.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Clézardin, Philippe; Peter I Croucher; Gralow, Julie R.; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R.; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced...

  14. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p affect bone turnover inducing an increase of cytokines acting by a paracrine/autocrine mechanism cannot be ruled out.

  15. Bone Mass Density in Normal Iranian Population - Shariati Hospital (1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pajoohi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bone mass density (BMD may vary in different countries due to different genetic and environmental factors. This study was performed to determine the BMD of the normal population in Iran. Methods and Materials: Subjects were selected randomly from different works and social classes in Tehran (from the lowest to the highest. For each decade and sexes, 20 normal subjects were selected (140 men and 140 women. BMD was measured with a Hologic 1000 plus machine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method for the lumber spine (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4 and the femoral neck (neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, ward, total. Data were treated by polynomial approximation (3 rd degree. The obtained curves were compared with the standard Hologic curves for Caucasians. Results: In female the peak bone mass (PBM was 1.019 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.832 for the femoral neck. In male the peak bone mass (PBM was 0.987 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.907 for the femoral neck. The BMD of both lumbar spine and femoral neck were lower than the Hologic standards. For the lumbar spine the mean difference was 6.5 percent (2 to 21 percent, CI=1 for women and 13.8 percent (2 to 36 percent, CI=1.45 for men. In femoral neck the mean difference was 5.4 percent (2 to 16 percent, CI=0.96 for women and 4.6 percent (1 to 14 percent, CI=0.96 for men. Conclusion: The BMD of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck was lower in Iranian compared to the Hologic standards for Caucasians. This was seen in all age groups and in both sexes. It was less pronounced for the PBM in spine was lower in men than woman. The lower BMD of the spine in men was also seen in a cohort of patients with different diseases (inflammatory and non-inflammatory.

  16. Effect of unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on bone mineral content and density of rat's mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladizesky, M G; Cutrera, R A; Boggio, V; Mautalen, C; Cardinali, D P

    2000-01-14

    To assess the effect of a local sympathectomy on bone metabolism, the effect of a unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (Gx) on growth and bone mineral content and density of the ipsi- and contralateral mandibles was examined in female rats. A significant increase in the hemi-mandibular bone ipsilateral to Gx was found as compared to the contralateral, sham-operated side 30 days, but not 15 days, after surgery. Bone mineral content of the hemi-mandibular bones was significantly lower in the side ipsilateral to Gx in the group of rats killed on the 30th day after surgery. Since no difference in areas between innervated and denervated hemi-mandibles was found, bone mineral density was also significantly lower in the hemi-mandible ipsilateral to Gx. The results further support that a regional sympathectomy causes qualitative alterations in bone modeling and remodeling, leading to bone resorption.

  17. Weight loss on stimulant medication: how does it affect body composition and bone metabolism? – A prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulton Alison

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often lose weight. It is important to understand the implications of this during growth. This prospective study was designed to quantify the changes in body composition and markers of bone metabolism on starting treatment. Methods 34 children (29 boys aged 4.7 to 9.1 years newly diagnosed with ADHD were treated with dexamphetamine or methylphenidate, titrating the dose to optimise the therapeutic response. Medication was continued for as long as clinically indicated. Body composition and bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured at baseline, 6 months and 3 years; changes were analysed in Z-scores based on data from 241 healthy, local children. Markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline, 3 months and 3 years. Results Fat loss of 1.4±0.96kg (total fat 5.7±3.6 to 4.3±3.1kg, p Conclusions Stimulant medication was associated with early fat loss and reduced bone turnover. Lean tissue including bone increased more slowly over 3 years of continuous treatment than would be expected for growth in height. There was long-term improvement in the proportion of central fat for height. This study shows that relatively minor reductions in weight on stimulant medication can be associated with long-term changes in body composition. Further study is required to determine the effects of these changes on adult health.

  18. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease. PMID:26569295

  19. Protective effect of salidroside against bone loss via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway-induced angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Jin, Xin; Guo, Xiao Qin; Wang, Yue; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ling Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays a critical role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis during bone development and regeneration. Salidroside (SAL) has shown anti-hypoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible roles of SAL in the prevention of hypoxia-induced osteoporosis have remained unknown. Two osteoblast cell lines, MG-63 and ROB, were employed to evaluate the effects of SAL on cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Rats subjected to ovariectomy-induced bone loss were treated with SAL in vivo. Our results showed that pre-treatment with SAL markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced reductions in cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization. SAL down-regulated HIF-1α expression and inhibited its translocation; however, SAL increased its transcriptional activity and, consequently, up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In vivo studies further demonstrated that SAL caused decreases in the mineral, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and BGP concentrations in the blood of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Moreover, SAL improved the trabecular bone microarchitecture and increased bone mineral density in the distal femur. Additionally, SAL administration partially ameliorated this hypoxia via the HIF-1α-VEGF signalling pathway. Our results indicate that SAL prevents bone loss by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis and that these effects are associated with the activation of HIF-1α signalling. PMID:27558909

  20. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHEIKHI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodontal surgery, in the posterior site of two jaws (in 6 and 7 teeth, the bone loss was measured from CEJ to the base of alveolar bone, and compared with the radiographic findings of proximal bone loss. Results. The average of distance between CEJ and alveolar bone in 48 surfaces were 4.27 in clinic, 4.80 in panoramic, 2.62 in periapical (bisecting technique, 2.98 in vertical bitewing and 4.05 in panoramic without magnification. Discussion. In this research we cancluded that both techniques (periapical and vertical bitewing are not accurate in detection of proximal bone loss and there was significant difference between quantity of proximal bone in clinical measurment than radiographic measurment and this study showed that the panoramic (specially panoramic without magnification is more careful than other radiographic techniques in detection of proximal bone loss.

  1. The intravertebral distribution of bone density: correspondence to intervertebral disc health and implications for vertebral strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, T. M.; Morgan, S. R.; Barest, G. D.; Morgan, E. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study's goal was to determine associations among the intravertebral heterogeneity in bone density, bone strength, and intervertebral disc (IVD) health. Results indicated that predictions of vertebral strength can benefit from considering the magnitude of the density heterogeneity and the congruence between the spatial distribution of density and IVD health. Introduction This study aims to determine associations among the intravertebral heterogeneity in bone density, bone strength, and IVD health Methods Regional measurements of bone density were performed throughout 30 L1 vertebral bodies using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The magnitude of the intravertebral heterogeneity in density was defined as the interquartile range and quartile coefficient of variation in regional densities. The spatial distribution of density was quantified using ratios of regional densities representing different anatomical zones (e.g., anterior to posterior regional densities). Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of vertebrae with similar spatial distributions of density. Vertebral strength was measured in compression. IVD health was assessed using two scoring systems. Results QCT- and μCT-based measures of the magnitude of the intravertebral heterogeneity in density were strongly correlated with each other (p<0.005). Accounting for the interquartile range in regional densities improved predictions of vertebral strength as compared to predictions based only on mean density (R2=0.59 vs. 0.43; F-test p-value=0.018). Specifically, after adjustment for mean density, vertebral bodies with greater heterogeneity in density exhibited higher strength. No single spatial distribution of density was associated with high vertebral strength. Analyses of IVD scores suggested that the health of the adjacent IVDs may modulate the effect of a particular spatial distribution of density on vertebral strength. Conclusions Noninvasive

  2. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts.

  3. Network Analysis Implicates Alpha-Synuclein (Snca) in the Regulation of Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Gina; Mesner, Larry D.; Foley, Patricia L.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Farber, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The postmenopausal period in women is associated with decreased circulating estrogen levels, which accelerate bone loss and increase the risk of fracture. Here, we gained novel insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a model of human menopause, using co-expression network analysis. Specifically, we generated a co-expression network consisting of 53 gene modules using expression profiles from intact and OVX mice from a panel of inbred strains. The expression of four modules was altered by OVX, including module 23 whose expression was decreased by OVX across all strains. Module 23 was enriched for genes involved in the response to oxidative stress, a process known to be involved in OVX-induced bone loss. Additionally, module 23 homologs were co-expressed in human bone marrow. Alpha synuclein (Snca) was one of the most highly connected “hub” genes in module 23. We characterized mice deficient in Snca and observed a 40% reduction in OVX-induced bone loss. Furthermore, protection was associated with the altered expression of specific network modules, including module 23. In summary, the results of this study suggest that Snca regulates bone network homeostasis and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. PMID:27378017

  4. Assessment of bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities: magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; TANG Guang-yu; TANG Rong-biao; PENG Yi-feng; LI Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. There are inconsistent findings on the relationship among marrow fat content, bone mineral density and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). This study aimed to prospectively explore the efficacy of MR spectroscopy (MRS)and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detecting vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities.Methods Both MRS and DWI of the lumber spine were performed in 102 postmenopausal women (mean age,(67.3±6.5) years; range, 55-83 years), who underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry. Marrow fat content and ADC were compared and correlated among three groups: 24 with normal bone density, 31 with osteopenia and 47 with osteoporosis.Results Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group ((65.60±7.68)%, P <0.001)and the osteopenic group ((57.68±6.45)%, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((51.67±3.27)%). ADC values were significantly decreased in the osteoporotic group ((0.39±0.03)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001)and in the osteopenic group ((0.42±0.02)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((0.47±0.03)×10-3 mm2/s). The marrow fat content negatively correlated with both bone density (r=-0.731, P <0.001)and marrow ADC (r=-0.572, P <0.001). The bone density positively correlated with the ADC values (r=0.802, P<0.001).Conclusions Postmenopausal women experience a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreases. Marrow fat content and ADC correlate to the bone density. MRS and DWI may indirectly assess the early bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  5. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J;

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD of ...

  6. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hinton

    Full Text Available Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density.

  7. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss and its management with bisphosphonates in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available M Bauer,1 J Bryce,2 P Hadji11University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2National Cancer Institute, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis due to loss of the bone-protective effects of estrogen. Disease-related processes may also contribute to the risk of bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. One of the most common and severe safety issues associated with cancer therapy for patients with breast cancer is bone loss and the associated increase in risk of fractures. This paper reviews the recent literature pertaining to aromatase inhibitor (AI-associated bone loss, and discusses suggested management and preventative approaches that may help patients remain on therapy to derive maximum clinical benefit. A case study is presented to illustrate the discussion. We observed that AIs are in widespread use for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and are now recommended as adjuvant therapy, either as primary therapy or sequential to tamoxifen, for postmenopausal women. AIs target the estrogen biosynthetic pathway and deprive tumor cells of the growth-promoting effects of estrogen, and AI therapies provide benefits to patients in terms of improved disease-free survival. However, there is a concern regarding the increased risk of bone loss with prolonged AI therapy, which can be managed in many cases with the use of bisphosphonates and other interventions (eg, calcium, vitamin D supplementation, exercise.Keywords: aromatase inhibitors, bisphosphonates, bone loss, breast cancer, estrogen

  8. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, Lygeri; Weiler, Richard; Lloyd-Smith, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony N.; Heath, Luke; James, Nic; Reid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine bone mineral density (BMD) and the associations among BMD, menstrual history, disordered eating (DE), training history, intentional weight loss (IWL) and rib pain for the first time in female lightweight rowers. Setting: 9 lightweight rowing clubs, UK. Participants: 29 Caucasian female lightweight rowers volunteered. 21 (12 active, 9 retired) completed the study. Inclusion criteria: female lightweight rowers aged over 18 years. Exclusion crit...

  9. Effects of Antipsychotics on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Schizophrenia: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis are common in patients with schizophrenia and detrimental to illness prognosis and life quality. Although the pathogenesis is not fully clear, series of studies have revealed factors related to low BMD such as life style, psychotic symptoms, medication use and the activity of bone absorption markers. It has been known that antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia plays a critical role on decreased BMD. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. According to the effect on prolactin, antipsychotics can be classified into two groups: prolactin-sparing (PS) and prolactin-raising (PR). Our previous study has demonstrated that clozapine which is among the PS antipsychotics is beneficial for BMD when compared with PR antipsychotics in women with chronic schizophrenia. We have also found that risks factors associated with low BMD are different between men and women, suggesting that gender-specific risk factors should be considered for intervention of bone loss in patients with schizophrenia. This article reviews the effects of antipsychotics use on BMD with particular discussion for the differences on gender and age, which implicate the alterations of sex and other related hormones. In addition, currently reported protective and risk factors, as well as the effects of medication use on BMD including the combination of antipsychotics and other psychotropic agents and other potential medications are also reviewed. PMID:27489377

  10. Effects of Antipsychotics on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Schizophrenia: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-08-31

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis are common in patients with schizophrenia and detrimental to illness prognosis and life quality. Although the pathogenesis is not fully clear, series of studies have revealed factors related to low BMD such as life style, psychotic symptoms, medication use and the activity of bone absorption markers. It has been known that antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia plays a critical role on decreased BMD. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. According to the effect on prolactin, antipsychotics can be classified into two groups: prolactin-sparing (PS) and prolactin-raising (PR). Our previous study has demonstrated that clozapine which is among the PS antipsychotics is beneficial for BMD when compared with PR antipsychotics in women with chronic schizophrenia. We have also found that risks factors associated with low BMD are different between men and women, suggesting that gender-specific risk factors should be considered for intervention of bone loss in patients with schizophrenia. This article reviews the effects of antipsychotics use on BMD with particular discussion for the differences on gender and age, which implicate the alterations of sex and other related hormones. In addition, currently reported protective and risk factors, as well as the effects of medication use on BMD including the combination of antipsychotics and other psychotropic agents and other potential medications are also reviewed. PMID:27489377

  11. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  12. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels and bone mineral density (BMD in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64 with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml, confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively. Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH D at serum 25(OH D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  14. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5 g of CC containing 500 mg of elemental calcium and 200 IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500 mg of calcium and 200 IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  15. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  16. Familial aggregation of forearm bone mineral density in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern and its prevalence can be predicted based on forearm bone mineral density (BMD). This study is to investigate the familial aggregation of forearm BMD in a population-based, cross-sectional study in Anhui, China. Information on sociodemographic and environmental variables was obtained from 1,636 subjects from 409 nuclear families (including mother, father, and their first two children) by a standardized questionnaire. The forearm BMD was measured by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA). Using generalized additive models with a sequential adjustment for covariates, it was clearly indicated that the forearm BMD of the mother, the father, and the first sibling each had a significant and independent relation to the forearm BMD of the second sibling. Furthermore, using multiple logistic regression, the second sibling had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.3 (95%CI: 2.0-14.5) of having an extremely low (bottom 10th percentile) proximal forearm BMD and an OR of 4.3 (95%CI: 1.6-12.0) of having an extremely low distal forearm BMD when the parental mean forearm BMD was low and the first sibling's forearm BMD was low. Our findings showing strong familial aggregation of both proximal and distal forearm BMD values suggest that genetic factors play a significant role in determining both traits

  17. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

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    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  18. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E;

    1998-01-01

    intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...

  19. High Vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin C is essential for collagen formation and normal bone development. Therefore, we evaluated associations of total, supplemental and dietary vitamin C intake with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip (femoral neck and trochanter), spine and radial shaft and 4 y change in BMD, in elderly men a...

  20. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movaseghi, Farzaneh; Sadeghi, Heydar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.

  1. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Movaseghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.

  2. TIBIAL BONE DENSITY IN ATHLETES WITH MEDIAL TIBIAL STRESS SYNDROME: A CONTROLLED STUDY

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    Cengizhan Özgürbüz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS is a common overuse injury of the lower extremity predominantly observed in weight bearing activities. Knowledge about the pathological lesions and their pathophysiology is still limited. Only a single study was found to have investigated tibial bone density in the pain region, revealing lower density in athletes with long standing (range, 5-120 month MTSS. In a follow-up study, bone density was determined to return to normal levels after recovery. The purpose of the present study was to investigate tibial bone density in athletes with shorter MTSS history (range, 3-10 weeks. A total of 11 athletes (7 males, 4 females diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome were included in the study. The control group consisted of 11 regularly exercising individuals (7 males, 4 females. Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total calcium intake was calculated by evaluating detailed nutrition history. No statistically significant differences were found in the tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities between the groups. No statistically significant difference was found among groups, considering for calcium intake. Tibial bone densities were not lower in athletes with MTSS of 5.0 weeks mean duration (range, 3-10 weeks compared to the healthy control group. Longitudinal studies with regular tibial bone density measurements in heavily trained athletes are necessary to investigate tibial density alterations in MTSS developing athletes during the course of the symptoms

  3. Dihydroartemisinin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss via the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, C; Ding, N; Xing, J; Zhao, C; Kang, F; Hou, T; Quan, H; Chen, Y; Dai, Q; Luo, F; Xu, J; Dong, S

    2016-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a widely used antimalarial drug isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. Recent studies suggested that DHA has antitumor effects utilizing its reactive oxygen species (ROS) yielding mechanism. Here, we reported that DHA is inhibitory on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclast (OC) differentiation, fusion and bone-resorption activity in vitro. Intracellular ROS detection revealed that DHA could remarkably increase ROS accumulation during LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, cell apoptosis was also increased by DHA treatment. We found that DHA-activated caspase-3 increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio during LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. Meanwhile, the translocation of apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol were observed, indicating that ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction is crucial in DHA-induced apoptosis during LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. In vivo study showed that DHA treatment decreased OC number, prevents bone loss, rescues bone microarchitecture and restores bone strength in LPS-induced bone-loss mouse model. Together, our findings indicate that DHA is protective against LPS-induced bone loss through apoptosis induction of osteoclasts via ROS accumulation and the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Therefore, DHA may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for treating inflammatory bone loss. PMID:27031959

  4. Prevention of bone loss by injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 after sciatic neurectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai-biao; CHEN Jun-chang

    2013-01-01

    Injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can prevent bone loss in sciatic nerve transaction rats.We try to investigate the action mechanism of IGF-1 on bone formation.Methods:A total of 40 adult male Spragne-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (experimental group and control group) with 20 animals in each.Sciatic neurectomy was performed to model disuse osteoporosis in all rats.IGF-1was administered in experimental group with the dose of 100 μg/kg per day for 3 days.Meanwhile,the rats in control group were treated with saline.Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy respectively.Expression of Osterix and Runx2 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.Results:There was a significant increase in the bone mineral density of experimental group compared with control group.There was a significant decrease in the level of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B-ligand but an increase in the level of osteoprotegerin 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy in the experimental group compared with control one.The expression of Osterix and Runx2 was up-regulated in the bone marrow of experimental group compared with control group.Conclusion:IGF-1 can increase bone formation by stimulation of osteoblast number and activity,and reduce bone resorption by restriction of differentiation of osteoclast,suggesting that IGF-1 may improve the therapeutic efficacy for disuse osteoporosis.

  5. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A;

    1998-01-01

    to one of five regimens: oral placebo; oral alendronate, 1, 5, or 10 mg/d; or oral alendronate, 20 mg/d for 2 years followed by placebo during the third year (20/0 mg/d). MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover and bone quality were assessed...... with biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry. RESULTS: Alendronate at 5, 10, and 20/0 mg/d increased bone mineral density from baseline at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter by 1% to 4% and in the total body by 0.3% to 1.0%; placebo led to losses of 2% to 4% at these sites....... Alendronate, 1 mg/d, attenuated losses relative to those seen with placebo. Alendronate decreased markers of bone resorption to a new steady state by 3 months and decreased markers of bone formation by 6 to 12 months. Bone quality remained normal. At all dosages studied, alendronate had a safety and...

  6. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

  7. Hormone-sensitive lipase-knockout mice maintain high bone density during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Liu, Li-Fen; Patel, Shailja; Kraemer, Fredric B

    2011-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the actions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) affect the microenvironment of the bone marrow and that removal of HSL function by gene deletion maintains high bone mass in aging mice. We compared littermate control wild-type (WT) and HSL(-/-) mice during aging for changes in serum biochemical values, trabecular bone density using micro-computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, and characteristics of primary bone marrow cells and preosteoblasts. There is a regulated expression of HSL and genes involved in lipid metabolism in the bone marrow during aging. HSL(-/-) mice have increased serum levels of insulin and osteocalcin with decreased leptin levels. Compared with the marked adipocyte infiltration in WT bone marrow (65% by area) at 14 mo, HSL(-/-) mice have fewer (16%, PHSL(-/-) mice maintain a higher bone density (bone volume/total volume 6.1%) with age than WT mice (2.6%, PHSL(-/-) mice show increased growth rates and higher osteogenic potential, manifested by increased expression of Runx2 (3.5-fold, PHSL directs cells within the bone marrow toward osteoblast differentiation and favors the maintenance of bone density with aging.

  8. Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Elverdin, Juan C; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (palveolar bone loss, while Pb showed spontaneous bone loss also. In conclusion, these results show that lead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease.

  9. Sex steroid deficiency-associated bone loss is microbiota dependent and prevented by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jau-Yi; Chassaing, Benoit; Tyagi, Abdul Malik; Vaccaro, Chiara; Luo, Tao; Adams, Jonathan; Darby, Trevor M; Weitzmann, M Neale; Mulle, Jennifer G; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Jones, Rheinallt M; Pacifici, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    A eubiotic microbiota influences many physiological processes in the metazoan host, including development and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have shown that the intestinal microbiota modulates inflammatory responses caused by sex steroid deficiency, leading to trabecular bone loss. In murine models, sex steroid deficiency increased gut permeability, expanded Th17 cells, and upregulated the osteoclastogenic cytokines TNFα (TNF), RANKL, and IL-17 in the small intestine and the BM. In germ-free (GF) mice, sex steroid deficiency failed to increase osteoclastogenic cytokine production, stimulate bone resorption, and cause trabecular bone loss, demonstrating that the gut microbiota is central in sex steroid deficiency-induced trabecular bone loss. Furthermore, we demonstrated that twice-weekly treatment of sex steroid-deficient mice with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or the commercially available probiotic supplement VSL#3 reduces gut permeability, dampens intestinal and BM inflammation, and completely protects against bone loss. In contrast, supplementation with a nonprobiotic strain of E. coli or a mutant LGG was not protective. Together, these data highlight the role that the gut luminal microbiota and increased gut permeability play in triggering inflammatory pathways that are critical for inducing bone loss in sex steroid-deficient mice. Our data further suggest that probiotics that decrease gut permeability have potential as a therapeutic strategy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:27111232

  10. Effects of local vibration on bone loss in -tail-suspended rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L W; Luan, H Q; Huang, Y F; Wang, Y; Fan, Y B

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effects of vibration (35 Hz, 45 Hz and 55 Hz) as countermeasure locally applied to unloading hind limbs on bone, muscle and Achilles tendon. 40 female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS plus 35 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV35), TS plus 45 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV45), TS plus 55 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV55) and control (CON). After 21 days, bone mineral density (BMD) and the microstructure of the femur and tibia were evaluated by μCT in vivo. The biomechanical properties of the femur and Achilles tendon were determined by a materials testing system. Ash weight of bone, isotonic contraction and wet weight of soleus were also investigated. 35 Hz and 45 Hz localized vibration were able to significantly ameliorate the decrease in trabecular BMD (expressed as the percentage change from TS, TSV35: 48.11%, TSV45: 31.09%), microstructure and ash weight of the femur and tibia induced by TS. Meanwhile, 35 Hz vibration significantly improved the biomechanical properties of the femur (57.24% bending rigidity and 41.66% Young's modulus vs. TS) and Achilles tendon (45.46% maximum load and 66.67% Young's modulus vs. TS). Additionally, Young's modulus of the femur was highly correlated with microstructural parameters. Localized vibration was useful for counteracting microgravity-induced musculoskeletal loss. In general, the efficacy of 35 Hz was better than 45 Hz or 55 Hz in tail-suspended rats.

  11. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyo Seung; Kim, Yoon Mi; Park, Jong Chan; Choi, Min Joo; Lee, Kang Il [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  13. Bone tissue density modification in treatment of shin pseudoarthrosis by transosseous compressive osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishkov N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective is to detect bone mineral density along the shin according to «Esperanto» levels by Hounsfield's scale. Materials and methods. The analysis of density modification in 25 patients with pseudoarthrosis of tibia with predominant localization in a lower one-third of bone has been carried out. Results. By means of computed tomography it has been revealed that the bone tissue density of the tibia in the process of false joint union when using the compressive variant of combined transosseous osteosynthesis has changed according to the regularity reproducing phase character of the accumulation of mineral substances in the bone. Conclution. The growth of mineral density of the bone tissue during treatment spreads in the directions from proximal and distal metaepiphyses to the zone of pseudoarthrosis knitting

  14. Protective effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MengYong, Zhu; CaiJiao, Wang; HuSheng, Zhang; XianWu, Pei; JianMin, Fen

    2008-10-01

    In order to examine the effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis (MOP) on bone quality of osteoporosis rats. The osteoporosis in rats was induced by ovariectomy, and MOP (100 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated once daily. The animals were assessed 30 days after the operation for bone mineral density, serum cytokines level and mineral element concentration. MOP administration in rats resulted in an increase in bone mineral density and mineral element concentration, a decrease in serum cytokines level, which indicated that MOP administration may play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. PMID:18638500

  15. An expression relating breaking stress and density of trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajapakse, C.S.; Thomsen, J.S.; Ortiz, J.S.E.;

    2004-01-01

    previously published data on bone samples from iliac crest and vertebral body. It represents the experimental biomechanical data at least as well as the power-law, and provides means for extrapolating results from small biopsy samples to an entire bone. In addition, changes caused by trabecular thinning...

  16. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  17. The combined effects of X-ray radiation and hindlimb suspension on bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outer space is a complex environment with various phenomena that negatively affect bone metabolism, including microgravity and highly energized ionizing radiation. In the present study, we used four groups of male Wistar rats treated with or without four-week hindlimb suspension after 4 Gy of X-rays to test whether there is a combined effect for hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation. We tested trabecular parameters and some cytokines of the bone as leading indicators of bone metabolism. The results showed that hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation could cause a significant increase in bone loss. Hindlimb suspension caused a 56.6% bone loss (P = 0.036), while X-ray radiation caused a 30.7% (P = 0.041) bone loss when compared with the control group. The combined factors of hindlimb suspension and X-rays exerted a combined effect on bone mass, with a reduction of 64.8% (P = 0.003). (author)

  18. Strain energy density gradients in bone marrow predict osteoblast and osteoclast activity: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2015-03-18

    Huiskes et al. hypothesized that mechanical strains sensed by osteocytes residing in trabecular bone dictate the magnitude of load-induced bone formation. More recently, the mechanical environment in bone marrow has also been implicated in bone׳s response to mechanical stimulation. In this study, we hypothesize that trabecular load-induced bone formation can be predicted by mechanical signals derived from an integrative µFE model, incorporating a description of both the bone and marrow phase. Using the mouse tail loading model in combination with in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) we tracked load induced changes in the sixth caudal vertebrae of C57BL/6 mice to quantify the amount of newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes. To identify the mechanical signals responsible for adaptation, local morphometric changes were compared to micro-finite element (µFE) models of vertebrae prior to loading. The mechanical parameters calculated were strain energy density (SED) on trabeculae at bone forming and resorbing surfaces, SED in the marrow at the boundary between bone forming and resorbing surfaces, along with SED in the trabecular bone and marrow volumes. The gradients of each parameter were also calculated. Simple regression analysis showed mean SED gradients in the trabecular bone matrix to significantly correlate with newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes R(2)=0.57 and 0.41, respectively, pbone marrow plays a significant role in determining osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  19. Androgen receptors and experimental bone loss - an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Coimbra, Leila Santana; Rossa, Carlos; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone is a sex hormone that exhibits many functions beyond reproduction; one such function is the regulation of bone metabolism. The role played by androgen receptors during testosterone-mediated biological processes associated with bone metabolism is largely unknown. This study aims to use a periodontal disease model in vivo in order to assess the involvement of androgen receptors on microbial-induced inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental bone loss. The impact of hormone deprivation was tested through both orchiectomy and chemical blockage of androgen receptor using flutamide (FLU). Additionally, the direct effect of exogenous testosterone, and the role of the androgen receptor, on osteoclastogenesis were investigated. Thirty male adult rats (n=10/group) were subjected to: 1-orchiectomy (OCX); 2-OCX sham surgery; or 3-OCX sham surgery plus FLU, four weeks before the induction of experimental bone loss. Ten OCX sham-operated rats were not subjected to experimental bone loss and served as healthy controls. The rats were euthanized two weeks later, so as to assess bone resorption and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival tissue and serum. In order to study the in vitro impact of testosterone, osteoclasts were differentiated from RAW264.7 cells and testosterone was added at increasing concentrations. Both OCX and FLU increased bone resorption, but OCX alone was observed to increase osteoclast count. IL-1β production was increased only in the gingival tissue of OCX animals, whereas FLU-treated animals presented a decreased expression of IL-6. Testosterone reduced the osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly impacted the production of TNF-α; FLU partially reversed these actions. When taken together, our results indicate that testosterone modulates experimental bone loss, and that this action is mediated, at least in part, via the androgen receptor.

  20. Platform switching minimises crestal bone loss around dental implants: truth or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, G E; Javed, F

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to assess the role of platform switching (PS) in minimising crestal bone loss around dental implants through a systematic review of the currently available clinical evidence. To address the focused question 'Does PS minimise crestal bone loss compared with non-platform-switched (NPS) implants?', PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar databases were explored from 1986 up to and including December 2013 using the following key words in different combinations: 'bone loss', 'dental implant', 'diameter', 'mandible', 'maxilla' and 'platform switching'. Letters to the Editor, unpublished data, historical reviews, case reports and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Fifteen clinical studies were included. In seven studies, PS and NPS implants were placed in both the maxilla and mandible. In 13 studies, implants were placed at crestal bone levels whereas in one study, implants were placed supracrestally. Three studies reported the bucco-lingual (or transversal) width of the alveolar ridge which ranged between 7-8 mm. Seven studies reported that implants placed according to the PS concept did not minimise crestal bone loss as compared with NPS implants. 3D-Implant positioning, width of alveolar ridge and control of micromotion at the implant-abutment interface are the more critical factors that influence crestal bone levels than PS.

  1. Average annual crestal bone loss of ITI implants following the first year of loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hosseinzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long term success of dental implants directly depends on marginal bone resorption. The aim of this study was to determine the annual average bone loss on the mesial and distal aspects of implants following the first year of implantation. METHODS: This was a descriptive analytical study of patients treated with ITI (International Team of Implantology implants at the Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 1998-2002 (1377-81. A total of 15 patients with 41 implants were selected by convenience sampling method. The height of the alveolar bone was measured using panoramic radiography before and after loading with calipers to determine the average bone loss. Other information such as pocket depth, bleeding index, plaque index, gingival recession, was obtained by clinical examinations. The mean bone loss on the mesial & distal sides was analyzed by ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The average bone loss on the proximal sides of ITI implants obtained annually after the first year of loading was 0.084 ± 0.035 mm with slight difference on the mesial (0.092 ± 0.035 and distal (0.072 ± 0.033 sides. There was negligible difference between male and female patients. The average survival rate for thirty three months was 95.1%. CONCLUSION: The average bone loss on the mesial and distal sides of ITI implants compared with other studies was satisfactory. Survival and success rates were acceptable. KEYWORDS: Dental implants, bone resorption, survival rate, dental plaque index.

  2. Determination of peak bone mass density and composition in low-income urban residents of metro Manila using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipinos are predisposed to osteoporosis because of inadequate calcium in their diet early on in life, confounded by malnutrition, susceptibility to infectious diseases and their generally small body frame. And yet the problem of osteoporosis has not been properly addressed. The incidence of osteoporosis is not known since oftentimes it is established only once complications have set in. It is believed that osteoporosis poses a public health concern but its extent is not realized at present because of lack of local epidemiological data. This study aims to determine the bone mass density as a function of age among 210 screened and healthy volunteers coming from urban poor communities of Metro Manila over a 3-year period. A LUNAR DPX-L bone densitometry for dual X-ray photon absorptiometry will be used, with measurements taken on the spine and femur. It also aims to correlate factors such as nutritional intake, physical activity, lifestyle, sex and body mass index with that of bone mass density. Blood and urine samples will be obtained for biochemistry and hormonal radioimmunoassay examination. Statistical analysis will be done to com are differences within the group and to determine rate of bone loss as a function of age and sex. Plans for future research include the determination of trace element content in cortical bone and tooth samples from healthy living subjects. (author)

  3. Correlation of Serum Leptin Level with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Chinese Adolescent Dancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; YAN LAN; JING HU; YAN-HUA YANG; QIAN ZHANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate plasma leptin concentrations in adolescent female dancers and to determine whether leptin has some effects on their bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. Methods Sixty dancers aged 15-17 years and 77 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were detected by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two bone turnover markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRACP), were determined by ELISA. Results The dancers had a lower fat mass and a lower leptin level than the controls, while they had a relatively higher BMD of the total body and legs after adjustment for BMI and age. The levels of bone resorption and formation of markers were higher in the dancers than in the controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, body weight, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. In dancers, Leptin was positively correlated with the BMD of the total body and the left leg. However, after adjustment for BMI, no correlation of serum leptin concentrations with BMD values was found in either dancers or controls. Nor correlation was found between leptin and bone turnover markers after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion The leptin profile is different between the controls and the dancers with a lower BMI and a lower fat mass. Circulating plasma leptin level depends on BMI and is not a direct determinant of BMD in Chinese adolescent dancers.

  4. Computed tomographic analysis of tibiotarsal bone mineral density and content in turkeys as influenced by age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of tibiotarsal bones of growing turkeys as affected by birds' age, sex, and within-the-bone location, respectively, were determined by computed tomography. The research was performed on 165 heavy-type BIG 6 turkeys reared between weeks (wk) 3-16 of age. The computed tomography measurement, conducted at 18 and 50% of the bone length, comprised a bone fragment which was 0.07 mm thick for the compact and the spongious substance collectively. It should be noted that the diaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones in turkeys (580 mg/cubic cm) had significantly greater vBMD than the proximal metaphyses (300 mg/cubic cm). BMC was higher in metaphyses for both sexes. Significant differences between the BMC of the metaphyses and the diaphyses were observed in males and females at wk 3, 6 and 9, and at wk 3 and 12, respectively. vBMD in the diaphyses gradually attenuated with age for both sexes, from 688 mg/cubic cm (wk 3) to 532 mg/cubic cm (wk 16). vBMD of the metaphyses was constant in females, but in males it achieved maximum values of 350 mg/cubic cm at wk 6 and 12 and minimum of 260 mg/cubic cm at wk 9 and 16. Correlations between body weight and vBMD of the diaphyses were observed in males (r = -0.85, P less than 0.001) and females (r = -0.52, P less than 0.01). It can be concluded that vBMD loss in diaphyses diminished bone-breaking strength leading in investigated turkeys to deformities and bone fractures

  5. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  6. Interleukin-6 gene knockout antagonizes high-fat-induced trabecular bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyu; Tian, Li; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Yaxi; Chen, Xiang; Xie, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Xijie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the roles of interleukin-6 (IL6) in fat and bone communication. Male wild-type (WT) mice and IL6 knockout (IL6(-/-)) mice were fed with either regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Bone mass and bone microstructure were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Gene expression related to lipid and bone metabolisms was assayed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bone marrow cells from both genotypes were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or osteoclasts, and treated with palmitic acid (PA). HFD increased the body weight and fat pad weight, and impaired lipid metabolism in both WT and IL6(-/-) mice. The dysregulation of lipid metabolism was more serious in IL6(-/-) mice. Trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular bone number and trabecular bone thickness were significantly downregulated in WT mice after HFD than those in the RD (P alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and higher mRNA levels of Runx2 and Colla1 than those in WT osteoblasts both in the control and PA treatment group (P < 0.05). IL6(-/-) mice showed significantly lower mRNA levels of PPARγ and leptin and higher mRNA levels of adiponectin in comparison with WT mice on HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggested that IL6 gene deficiency antagonized HFD-induced bone loss. IL6 might bridge lipid and bone metabolisms and could be a new potential therapeutic target for lipid metabolism disturbance-related bone loss. PMID:27493246

  7. The effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness on micromotion and peri-implant bone strain distribution in an immediately loaded implant: a nonlinear finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness at the implant-placement site on micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) and the peri-implant bone strain distribution under immediate-loading conditions. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model of the posterior mandible with an implant was constructed. Various bone parameters were simulated, including low or high cancellous bone density, low or high crestal cortical bone density, and crestal cortical bone thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. Delayed- and immediate-loading conditions were simulated. A buccolingual oblique load of 200 N was applied to the top of the abutment. Results The maximum extent of micromotion was approximately 100 μm in the low-density cancellous bone models, whereas it was under 30 μm in the high-density cancellous bone models. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum micromotion in the low-density cancellous bone models. The minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone was affected by the density of the crestal cortical bone and cancellous bone to the same degree for both delayed and immediate loading. In the low-density cancellous bone models under immediate loading, the minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone decreased with an increase in crestal cortical bone thickness. Conclusions Cancellous bone density may be a critical factor for avoiding excessive micromotion in immediately loaded implants. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum extent of micromotion and peri-implant bone strain in simulations of low-density cancellous bone under immediate loading. PMID:27382504

  8. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  9. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n., C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G. [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, C.P. 76230, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I. [Posgrado en Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  10. Comparison of serum Dkk1 (Dickkopf-1) and bone mineral density in patients on bisphosphonate treatment vs no treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Memon, Adeel R

    2013-05-17

    Complex pathways affect bone metabolism at the cellular level, and a balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity is critical to bone remodeling. One of the major pathways affecting bone metabolism is Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling, and its disturbances lead to a wide range of bone abnormalities. An important antagonist of this pathway is Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1). Higher Dkk1 levels have been associated with increased bone loss due to inhibition of Wnt pathway. Currently, bisphosphonates are the most commonly used agents to treat primary osteoporotic patients. This study demonstrates the effect of bisphosphonates on Dkk1 levels and its correlation with bone mineral density (BMD). Eighty patients with low BMD were recruited and divided into 2 groups of 40 each (bisphosphonate treatment group and control group). The mean Dkk1 level in the treatment group was significantly reduced to 2358.18 vs 3749.80 pg\\/mL in the control group (p<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficient showed negative correlation between Dkk1 and BMD at lumbar spine (r=-0.55) and femoral neck in the control group; however, no such correlation was found in the treatment group (r=-0.05). Hence, bisphosphonate therapy leads to reduction in Dkk1 levels, but it does not correlate with BMD in such patients.

  11. FSH aggravates bone loss in ovariectomised rats with experimental periapical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Guan, Xiaoyue; Bian, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Periapical bone loss is one of the prominent pathological and clinical features of periapical periodontitis. Previous studies have demonstrated that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) could directly affect skeletal remodelling by stimulating the formation and the function of osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of FSH on periapical bone loss remained to be fully elucidated. In the current study, a rat model was established in order to verify the effect of FSH in experimental periapical lesions. It was identified that FSH aggravated the bone loss of periapical lesions. In addition, RANKL-, TRAP-, TNF-α- and IL-1β-positive cells were increased significantly in FSH-treated groups, which indicated that the function of FSH in bone loss may be mediated through the increasing activity of osteoclasts and the increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The results of the current study suggested that FSH, independent of oestrogen, may aggravate periapical bone loss by FSH receptors, which may serve an important role in the immune and inflammatory response of the host to root canal and periradicular infection during menopause. PMID:27510616

  12. Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability: the quantification of glenoid bone loss using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins e Souza, Patricia [Fleury Medicina e Saude and Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brandao, Bruno Lobo; Motta, Geraldo; Monteiro, Martim [Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brown, Eduardo [Grupo Fleury Medicina Diagnostica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the severity of glenoid bone loss in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation by comparing the results with arthroscopic measurements. Institutional review board approval and written consent from all patients were obtained. Thirty-six consecutive patients (29 men, seven women; mean age, 34.5 [range, 18-55] years) with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation (≥3 dislocations; mean, 37.9; range, 3-200) and suspected glenoid bone loss underwent shoulder MRI before arthroscopy (mean interval, 28.5 [range, 9-73] days). Assessments of glenoid bone loss by MRI (using the best-fit circle area method) and arthroscopy were compared. Inter- and intrareader reproducibility of MRI-derived measurements was evaluated using arthroscopy as a comparative standard. Glenoid bone loss was evident on MRI and during arthroscopy in all patients. Inter- and intrareader correlations of MRI-derived measurements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80-0.82; r = 0.81-0.86). The first and second observers' measurements showed strong (r = 0.76) and moderate (r = 0.69) interreader correlation, respectively, with arthroscopic measurements. Conventional MRI can be used to measure glenoid bone loss, particularly when employed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. (orig.)

  13. Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability: the quantification of glenoid bone loss using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the severity of glenoid bone loss in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation by comparing the results with arthroscopic measurements. Institutional review board approval and written consent from all patients were obtained. Thirty-six consecutive patients (29 men, seven women; mean age, 34.5 [range, 18-55] years) with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation (≥3 dislocations; mean, 37.9; range, 3-200) and suspected glenoid bone loss underwent shoulder MRI before arthroscopy (mean interval, 28.5 [range, 9-73] days). Assessments of glenoid bone loss by MRI (using the best-fit circle area method) and arthroscopy were compared. Inter- and intrareader reproducibility of MRI-derived measurements was evaluated using arthroscopy as a comparative standard. Glenoid bone loss was evident on MRI and during arthroscopy in all patients. Inter- and intrareader correlations of MRI-derived measurements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80-0.82; r = 0.81-0.86). The first and second observers' measurements showed strong (r = 0.76) and moderate (r = 0.69) interreader correlation, respectively, with arthroscopic measurements. Conventional MRI can be used to measure glenoid bone loss, particularly when employed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. (orig.)

  14. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R; Beck, Kathryn L; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C; O'Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm²), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16-45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm². Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  15. Tibial bone density in athletes with medial tibial stress syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgürbüz, Cengizhan; Yüksel, Oğuz; Ergün, Metin; Işlegen, Cetin; Taskiran, Emin; Denerel, Nevzad; Karamizrak, Oğuz

    2011-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injury of the lower extremity predominantly observed in weight bearing activities. Knowledge about the pathological lesions and their pathophysiology is still limited. Only a single study was found to have investigated tibial bone density in the pain region, revealing lower density in athletes with long standing (range, 5-120 month) MTSS. In a follow-up study, bone density was determined to return to normal levels after recovery. The purpose of the present study was to investigate tibial bone density in athletes with shorter MTSS history (range, 3-10 weeks). A total of 11 athletes (7 males, 4 females) diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome were included in the study. The control group consisted of 11 regularly exercising individuals (7 males, 4 females). Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total calcium intake was calculated by evaluating detailed nutrition history. No statistically significant differences were found in the tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities between the groups. No statistically significant difference was found among groups, considering for calcium intake. Tibial bone densities were not lower in athletes with MTSS of 5.0 weeks mean duration (range, 3-10 weeks) compared to the healthy control group. Longitudinal studies with regular tibial bone density measurements in heavily trained athletes are necessary to investigate tibial density alterations in MTSS developing athletes during the course of the symptoms. Key pointsTibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.No differences were found between the MTSS group (MTSS history 3-10 weeks) and the healthy athletes group.

  16. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  17. TEI-3313, a novel prostaglandin A1 derivative, prevents bone loss and enhances bone formation in immobilized male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Azuma, Y; Kanatani, H; Kiyoki, M; Koshihara, Y

    1995-10-01

    The effect of a novel prostaglandin A1 derivative, TEI-3313, with the chemical structure 5-[(Z,2E)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-heptenyridene]-4-hydroxy- 2-methylthio-4-(4-phenoxybutyl)-2-cyclopentenone, on bone mineral content was investigated. Seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats in which the right hindlimbs were immobilized by sciatic nerve dissection received 1, 10, 100 or 500 micrograms of TEI-3313/kg/day, i.p., for 6 weeks. Control animals were operated on but received vehicle only. Bone mineral content of the femur was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Histomorphometric observations were performed on the proximal metaphysial sections of the tibiae. The administration of up to 500 micrograms/kg of TEI-3313 to rats had no effect on body weight or on serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and 1 alpha,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 levels. Immobilization decreased the ash content, calcium content and total bone mineral content of the femur compared with nonimmobilization (unoperated femur). With TEI-3313 administration, changes in these parameters in the immobilized femur were prevented almost to the levels of the nonimmobilized femur, in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancement of bone mineral content was remarkable in the midshaft of the femur. TEI-3313 enhanced ash and calcium content and total bone mineral content in nonimmobilized femurs. Microradiograms showed that TEI-3313, unlike pamidronate and 17 beta-estradiol, had little inhibitory effect on trabecular bone resorption in the proximal portion of the tibia. TEI-3313 not only prevented the bone loss induced by immobilization but also increased bone mass in the nonimmobilized femurs without affecting the levels of 1 alpha,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562584

  18. Naringin ameliorates bone loss induced by sciatic neurectomy and increases Semaphorin 3A expression in denervated bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinlong; Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Xing, Guosheng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Lei; Wang, Jianbao; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu

    2016-01-01

    Naringin maintains bone mass in various osteoporosis models, while its effect on bone in disuse osteoporosis has not been reported. The present study explores whether naringin can prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) and whether the Semaphorin 3A-induced Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the osteoprotection of naringin. Naringin dose-dependently prevented the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular structure and biomechanical strength in femur due to USN. Naringin increased bone formation but inhibited resorption, as indicated by bone-turnover markers in blood and urine and the histological staining of Osteocalcin (OCN) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in femur. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and active β-catenin protein decreased after USN and could be restored by naringin to the levels of the sham-operated rats. In addition, naringin in vitro promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. Our studies suggest that the down-regulation of Sema3A and the subsequent inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling may be some of the mechanisms involved in USN-induced osteoporosis. Naringin could increase the expression of Sema3A and the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling to prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by denervation. Thus, naringin functions in bone maintenance and could be a promising therapeutic alternative in preventing disuse osteoporosis. PMID:27109829

  19. Aggravated bone density decline following symptomatic osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoed, Marissa A H; Pluijm, Saskia M F; te Winkel, Mariël L; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A; Fiocco, Martha; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Leeuw, Jan A; Bruin, Marrie C A; van der Sluis, Inge M; Bresters, Dorien; Lequin, Maarten H; Roos, Jan C; Veerman, Anjo J P; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2015-12-01

    Osteonecrosis and decline of bone density are serious side effects during and after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is unknown whether osteonecrosis and low bone density occur together in the same patients, or whether these two osteogenic side-effects can mutually influence each other's development. Bone density and the incidence of symptomatic osteonecrosis were prospectively assessed in a national cohort of 466 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4-18 years of age) who were treated according to the dexamethasone-based Dutch Child Oncology Group-ALL9 protocol. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMDLS) (n=466) and of the total body (BMDTB) (n=106) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone density was expressed as age- and gender-matched standard deviation scores. Thirty patients (6.4%) suffered from symptomatic osteonecrosis. At baseline, BMDLS and BMDTB did not differ between patients who did or did not develop osteonecrosis. At cessation of treatment, patients with osteonecrosis had lower mean BMDLS and BMDTB than patients without osteonecrosis (respectively, with osteonecrosis: -2.16 versus without osteonecrosis: -1.21, Pacute lymphoblastic leukemia does not seem to influence the occurrence of symptomatic osteonecrosis. Bone density declines from the time that osteonecrosis is diagnosed; this suggests that the already existing decrease in bone density during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy is further aggravated by factors such as restriction of weight-bearing activities and destruction of bone architecture due to osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis can, therefore, be considered a risk factor for low bone density in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  20. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity. PMID:26530337

  1. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  2. Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

  3. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  4. Single-Limb Irradiation Induces Local and Systemic Bone Loss in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Laura E; Buijs, Jeroen T; Kim, Hun-Soo; Coats, Laura E; Scheidler, Anne M; John, Sutha K; She, Yun; Murthy, Sreemala; Ma, Ning; Chin-Sinex, Helen J; Bellido, Teresita M; Bateman, Ted A; Mendonca, Marc S; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A

    2015-07-01

    Increased fracture risk is commonly reported in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, particularly at sites within the field of treatment. The direct and systemic effects of ionizing radiation on bone at a therapeutic dose are not well-characterized in clinically relevant animal models. Using 20-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice, effects of irradiation (right hindlimb; 2 Gy) on bone volume and microarchitecture were evaluated prospectively by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry and compared to contralateral-shielded bone (left hindlimb) and non-irradiated control bone. One week postirradiation, trabecular bone volume declined in irradiated tibias (-22%; p MLO-Y4 cell apoptosis was induced as early as 48 hours postirradiation (4 Gy). In osteoclastogenesis assays, radiation exposure (8 Gy) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell differentiation, and coculture of irradiated RAW264.7 cells with MLO-Y4 or murine bone marrow cells enhanced this effect. These studies highlight the multifaceted nature of radiation-induced bone loss by demonstrating direct and systemic effects on bone and its many cell types using clinically relevant doses; they have important implications for bone health in patients treated with radiation therapy. PMID:25588731

  5. A reversal phase arrest uncoupling the bone formation and resorption contributes to the bone loss in glucocorticoid treated ovariectomised aged sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina Møller; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    Large animals as sheep are often used as models for human osteoporosis. Our aim was therefore to determine how glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep affects the cancellous bone, determining the cellular events within the bone remodelling process that contributes to their bone loss. Twe...

  6. Elcatonin prevents bone loss caused by skeletal unloading by inhibiting preosteoclast fusion through the unloading-induced high expression of calcitonin receptors in bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Manabu; Menuki, Kunitaka; Murai, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Takada, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether elcatonin (EL) has a preventive action on bone dynamics in skeletal unloading. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with either ground control (GC) or tail suspension (TS) were administered EL 20U/kg or a vehicle (veh) three times per week and assigned to one of the following four groups: GCEL, GCveh, TSEL, and TSveh. Blood samples and bilateral femurs and tibias of the mice were obtained for analysis. After 7days of unloading, the trabecular bone mineral density in the distal femur obtained via peripheral quantitative computed tomography and the trabecular bone volume were significantly higher in the TSEL group than in the TSveh group. The bone resorption histomorphometric parameters, such as the osteoclast surface and osteoclast number, were significantly suppressed in the TSEL mice, whereas the number of preosteoclasts was significantly increased. The plasma level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) was significantly lower in the TSEL group than in all other groups. In the bone marrow cell culture, the number of TRACP-positive (TRACP(+)) multinucleated cells was significantly lower in the TSEL mice than in the TSveh mice, whereas the number of TRACP(+) mononucleated cells was higher in the TSEL mice. On day 4, the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V0 domain (ATP6V0D2) mRNA in the bone marrow cells in the TSEL mice was suppressed, and the expression of calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA on day 1 and Calcr antigen on day 4 were significantly higher in the TSveh mice than in the GCveh mice. EL prevented the unloading-induced bone loss associated with the high expression of Calcr in the bone marrow cells of mouse hindlimbs after tail suspension, and it suppressed osteoclast development from preosteoclasts to mature osteoclasts through bone-resorbing activity. This study of EL-treated unloaded mice provides the

  7. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjanomennahary, P.; Ghalila, S. Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A.; Rachidi, M.; Benhamou, Cl.; Chappard, C. [Caracteristation du Tissu Osseux par Imagerie, U658 Inserm, Orleans (France); Mathematiques Appliquees Paris 5, UMR 8145 CNRS, Paris, France and U2S ENIT, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); U2S ENIT, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Caracteristation du Tissu Osseux par Imagerie, U658 Inserm, Orleans (France); Bioingenierie et Biomateriaux Osteo-articulaires, UMR 7052 CNRS, Paris (France)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (D{sub app}) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV{sub Arch}) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 {mu}m of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV{sub Arch}. Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. Results: In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Conclusions: Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  8. Potential role of proinflammatory cytokines in nerve damage related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesse, Andrew M; Willey, Jeffrey S; Bateman, Ted A

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 375,000 people are currently suffering from spinal cord injuries and another 1.5 million are afflicted by peripheral nerve damage in the United States. Wolf's Law states that a bone grows or remodels in response to the stresses that are placed on it. Forces applied to bones that occur due to normal daily activity allow for healthy resorption and formation of bones. Periods of immobilization caused by nerve damage have a profound effect on the integrity of bone, causing an increased risk of bone fracture. The need for investigating ways of combating this secondary effect of nerve damage is imperative to the long-term health of spinal cord injury and peripheral nerve damage patients. Our lab uses two sciatic nerve damage models in mice to mimic the bone loss caused by recoverable, sciatic nerve crush (NC), and non-recoverable, sciatic neurectomy (NX), injuries. We are examining the hypothesis that recoverable damage actually causes an accelerated loss of bone mass compared to the permanently damaged nerve because of the transport of proinflammatory cytokines from the site of the nerve damage to the locally affected bone. This inflammatory response, and the hypothesized differences between the two models, will be examined via ELISA of the quadriceps to investigate the relative degree of proinflammatory cytokines local to the damage site. Understanding the cellular mechanisms that occur at nerve injury sites will allow for improved care and long-term treatment of patients. A preliminary analysis of the bone loss associate with these two nerve injury models indicate approximately a 50% greater decline in femoral mass of the NC femur compared to the NX limb, supporting the proinflammatory hypothesis. PMID:15133969

  9. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  10. Prevalence and predictors of low bone density and fragility fractures in women with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Mojal, Sergi; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Studies have found an increase in bone loss and fracture in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with general population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fragility fractures and to find potential predictors of bone loss in our cohort of SLE patients. We performed a cross-sectional study and collected 67 bone density measurements (BMD) of our SLE patients. We also collected sociodemographic data, 25-OH-vitamin D levels, serological markers, activity index, SLE cumulative damage index, and pharmacologic treatment. Sixty-seven consecutive BMD from SLE patients were assessed. Osteopenia was found in 28-46% of SLE patients. Osteoporosis ranged from 3 to 6%[corrected]. The only statistically significant correlation we found was between weight and height with total hip and femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05). The most frequent BMD-affected site was at the femoral neck, showing osteopenia in 40.3% [corrected] of SLE patients. Osteoporosis was found in up to 6% [corrected] of SLE patients. We found no predictors of bone loss in relation to the disease activity or its treatment. Fragility fractures were seen in 4.4% of SLE patients. All patients with fragility fractures showed osteopenia at BMD. There is a high prevalence of bone loss in SLE patients, since up to 40% [corrected] of SLE patients showed low BMD. Total hip and femoral neck osteopenia were the most frequent findings correlated with low BMI. We found a lower prevalence of fragility fractures compared with other series.

  11. Air pollution and genetic influences on bone mineral density and osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana CEVEI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density, disrupted bone microarchitecture and alterations in the amount and variety of proteins in bones. Bone turnover is a very complex process, depending on genetic and non genetic factors, such as diet, lifestyle or air pollution. The aim of the study was to explore genetic and environmental risk factors that contribute to osteoporosis by quantifying several factors related to bone mineral density. We assessed family history, vitamin D status, bone mineral density in subjects seeking advice on osteoporosis. Air pollution data were also obtained. Average concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter PM10 were calculated. Due to their synergistic effect on the organism the maximum permissible concentration calculated for all air pollutants was exceeded. In our study total body bone mineral density was inversely associated with indicators of air pollution. The prevalence of vitamin D depletion was 64.76%. Genetic contribution to the etiology of osteoporosis was revealed by the positive family history for 36% affected subjects. Air pollution and vitamin D deficiency have a negative impact on bone mineral homeostasis.

  12. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  13. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M;

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ...

  14. Management of Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Recurrent Glenohumeral Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted.

  15. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  16. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-06-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620

  17. Bone and high-density lipoprotein: The beginning of a beautiful friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Blair, Harry C

    2016-02-18

    There is a tight link between bone and lipid metabolic pathways. In this vein, several studies focused on the exploration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the pathobiology of bone diseases, with emphasis to the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis, the most common bone pathologies. Indeed, epidemiological and in vitro data have connected reduced HDL levels or dysfunctional HDL with cartilage destruction and OA development. Recent studies uncovered functional links between HDL and OA fueling the interesting hypothesis that OA could be a chronic element of the metabolic syndrome. Other studies have linked HDL to bone mineral density. Even though at epidemiological levels the results are conflicting, studies in animals as well as in vitro experiments have shown that HDL facilitates osteoblastogensis and bone synthesis and most probably affects osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast bone resorption. Notably, reduced HDL levels result in increased bone marrow adiposity affecting bone cells function. Unveiling the mechanisms that connect HDL and bone/cartilage homeostasis may contribute to the design of novel therapeutic agents for the improvement of bone and cartilage quality and thus for the treatment of related pathological conditions. PMID:26925377

  18. [Prostate cancer and Cancer Treatment-Induced Bone Loss(CTIBL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Osteopenia and osteoporosis often become the long term complications in cancer treatment and is defined as cancer treatment-induced bone loss(CTIBL). Hormonal therapy is the main factor for CTIBL in both men and women. Androgen deprivation therapy(ADT)is a mainstay in the systemic therapy for prostate cancer(PC)and often persists for a long term. ADT induces bone loss and increases the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures, which reduces QOL of the patients, results in the need of nursing care state and a serious adverse event to be connected for shortening of the overall survival. It is important that we prevent a fracture above all in the bone management of patients with PC. According to the results of overseas large-scale clinical trials, denosumab is a drug having the highest evidence level. And it is necessary to set a clear treatment objective depending on the clinical condition of the PC patients, and to use it. In the non-bone metastatic, castration-sensitive PC patients, we do it with a dose for the purpose of the prevention of osteoporosis and bone fractures, and it is demanded what a dose for the purpose of prevention and in bone metastatic, castration resistant PC patients, the reduction of symptomatic skeletal events. However, There is no benefit in prolongation of overall survival by addition of denosumab or zoledronic acid. Care for oral hygiene should be considered to avoid osteonecrosis of the jaw, oral infection and hypocalcemia. PMID:27346316

  19. The Effect of Quantitative Computed Tomography Acquisition Protocols on Bone Mineral Density Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambini, Hugo; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Huddleston, Paul M; Camp, Jon J; An, Kai-Nan; Nassr, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by bony material loss and decreased bone strength leading to a significant increase in fracture risk. Patient-specific quantitative computed tomography (QCT) finite element (FE) models may be used to predict fracture under physiological loading. Material properties for the FE models used to predict fracture are obtained by converting grayscale values from the CT into volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) using calibration phantoms. If there are any variations arising from the CT acquisition protocol, vBMD estimation and material property assignment could be affected, thus, affecting fracture risk prediction. We hypothesized that material property assignments may be dependent on scanning and postprocessing settings including voltage, current, and reconstruction kernel, thus potentially having an effect in fracture risk prediction. A rabbit femur and a standard calibration phantom were imaged by QCT using different protocols. Cortical and cancellous regions were segmented, their average Hounsfield unit (HU) values obtained and converted to vBMD. Estimated vBMD for the cortical and cancellous regions were affected by voltage and kernel but not by current. Our study demonstrated that there exists a significant variation in the estimated vBMD values obtained with different scanning acquisitions. In addition, the large noise differences observed utilizing different scanning parameters could have an important negative effect on small subregions containing fewer voxels. PMID:26355694

  20. Are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors a Secondary Cause of Low Bone Density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that can significantly impact numerous aspects of health and wellness. The individual consequences of osteoporosis can be devastating, often resulting in substantial loss of independence and sometimes death. One of the few illnesses with greater disease burden than low bone mineral density (BMD is major depressive disorder (MDD. Both depression and antidepressant use have been identified as secondary causes of osteoporosis. The objective of this paper is to review and summarize the current findings on the relationship between antidepressant use and BMD. Methods. Relevant sources were identified from the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases, citing articles from the first relevant publication to September 1st, 2010. Results. 2001 articles initially met the search criteria, and 35 studies were thoroughly reviewed for evidence of an association between SSRI use and BMD, and 8 clinical studies were detailed and summarized in this paper. Conclusions. Current findings suggest a link between mental illness and osteoporosis that is of clinical relevance. Additional longitudinal studies and further research on possible mechanisms surrounding the association between SSRI use on bone metabolism need to be conducted. Treatment algorithms need to recognize this association to ensure that vulnerable populations are screened.

  1. Height and weight are correlated with lumbar spinal bone mineral contents and densities in Chinese adolescents with early ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xing; HU Yun-yu; MA Xiang-dong; WANG Quan-ping; LI Xiao-juan; LU Rong; WANG Jun; XU Xin-zhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible factors influencing lumbar spinal bone mineral contents and bone mineral densities in Chinese adolescents with early ankylosing spondylitis(AS). Methods: Thirty-one male Chinese adolescent outpatients with early AS were included and compared with 31 age-matched male controls. Age (year), height (cm), total body weight (kg) together with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ) of all subjects and disease duration (month), BASMI,BASFI, BASDAI, SASSS as well as ESR (mm/h) of AS patients were obtained. Lumbar2-4 bone mineral content (L2-4BMC, g) and lumbar2-4 areal bone mineral density (L2-4 BMD, g/cm2 ) were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) with Lunar DPX-IQ device and lumbar2-4 volumetric bone mineral apparent density (L2-4 BMAD, g/cm3 )was subsequently calculated. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Compared with 31 agematched male controls, AS patients had significantly lower L2-4 BMD [ (0. 984 ± 0.142) g/cm2 vs ( 1.055 ± 0. 137) g/cm2,P = 0.049 ] and L2- 4 BMAD [ (0. 1527 ± 0. 0173) g/cm3 vs (0. 1630 ± 0. 0195) g/cm3, P = 0. 032 ]. In AS patients,multiple regression analysis identified that only the factor of height was significantly correlated with L2- 4 BMC ( R = 0. 673,P = 0.000) and the factor of weight had predominant influences on L2-4 BMD ( R = 0. 620, P = 0. 000) as well as L2-4BMAD (R=0.510, P = 0.003). Conclusion: The young patients with early AS had marked reduction in lumbar spine bone mineral densities, which indicated an important primary event leading to osteoporosis. Positive effects of height and weight on lumbar spine bone mass and densities could expectantly make favorable contributions to early prevention of AS associated bone loss and subsequent osteoporosis.

  2. Effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliano Nicolini Verzeletti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13, which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11 regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P<0.05. Alveolar bone loss [mean (SD, mm] was not statistically different between obese and non-obese groups [0.71 (0.09 and 0.65 (0.07 mm, respectively]. However, when palatal sides are analyzed separately, obese group presented significantly higher alveolar bone loss (P<0.05 as compared to non-obese [0.68 (0.12 and 0.53 (0.13 mm, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the weak differences, it is possible to conclude that the progression of alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis can be potentially influenced by body weight in rats.

  3. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  4. Hyperactive lesions of gingiva associated with severe alveolar bone loss: A rare finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Upadhaya, Vinod; Kumar, Vivek; Saimbi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is an inflammatory reactive hyperplasia of connective tissue. It usually arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, hormonal factors or certain kinds of drugs. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females and rarely may cause significantly alveolar bone loss. It managed by conservative surgical excision and removal of causative irritants. This paper presents the case of a PG in a 55-year-old male with severe alveolar bone loss in the affected site, managed by surgical intervention. PMID:26097359

  5. Hyperactive lesions of gingiva associated with severe alveolar bone loss: A rare finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitandra Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma (PG is an inflammatory reactive hyperplasia of connective tissue. It usually arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, hormonal factors or certain kinds of drugs. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females and rarely may cause significantly alveolar bone loss. It managed by conservative surgical excision and removal of causative irritants. This paper presents the case of a PG in a 55-year-old male with severe alveolar bone loss in the affected site, managed by surgical intervention.

  6. Effects of short-term swimming exercise on bone mineral density, geometry, and microstructural properties in sham and ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong Kiew Ooi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the effects of swimming exercise on bone health in ovariectomized animals with estrogen deficiency, which resembles the postmenopausal state and age-related bone loss in humans. This study investigated the effects of swimming exercise on tibia and femur bone mineral density (BMD, geometry, and microstructure in sham and ovariectomized rats. Forty 3-month-old female rats were divided into four groups: sham operated-sedentary control (Sham-control, sham operated with swimming exercise group (Sham-Swim, ovariectomy-sedentary control (OVx-control, and ovariectomy and swimming exercise (OVx-Swim groups. Swimming sessions were performed by the rats 90 minutes/day for 5 days/week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of the study, tibial and femoral proximal volumetric total BMD, midshaft cortical volumetric BMD, cross-sectional area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia (MOI, and bone microstructural properties were measured for comparison. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The Sham-Swim group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA greater values in bone geometry parameters, that is, tibial midshaft cortical area and MOI compared to the Sham-control group. However, no significant differences were observed in these parameters between the Ovx-Swim and Ovx-control groups. There were no significant differences in femoral BMD between the Sham-Swim and Sham-control groups. Nevertheless, the Ovx-Swim group elicited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA higher femoral proximal total BMD and improved bone microstructure compared to the Ovx-Sham group. In conclusion, the positive effects of swimming on bone properties in the ovariectomized rats in the present study may suggest that swimming as a non- or low-weight-bearing exercise may be beneficial for enhancing bone health in the postmenopausal population.

  7. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measure...

  8. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hideki Ito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art. Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063], while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223] and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]. Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents.

  9. Bone Density in Chronic Schizophrenia with Long-Term Antipsychotic Treatment: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae-Young; Chung, Moon-Yong; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Choi, Jin-Hee; Kim, Tae-Yong; So, Hyung-Seok

    2010-01-01

    Objective Decreased bone mineral density has been found in the chronic schizophrenic patients who have been given a long-term administration of antipsychotics. Hyperprolactinemia from the antipsychotics and the negative symptom of schizophrenia were considered as the causes for this finding. In this study, the effect of hyperprolactinemia and the negative symptom of schizophrenia on bone mineral density was investigated on male schizophrenic patients. Methods The cross-sectional study was car...

  10. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  11. Lower bone mineral density in Somali women living in Sweden compared with African–Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Demeke, Taye; El-Gawad, Gamal Abd; Osmancevic, Amra; Gillstedt, Martin; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia. Bone mineral density was lower in Somali women, living in Sweden, in relation to both the American and the African–American reference populations. The majority, 73 %, had vitamin D deficiency, and supplementation should be considered to prevent from osteomalacia, osteoporosis and future fractures. Purpose Low vitamin D can lead to osteomalacia. The hypothesis was that bone mineral density (BMD) in Somali women living in Sweden was lower i...

  12. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture. PMID:25245313

  13. Autoradiography of lyophilized animal sections. Bone density measurement in osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain a better understanding on the β-ray radiography of lyophilized animal sections, the bone densities of the osteoporosis rats were measured using a 147Pm planar radiation source. An imaging plate as a radiation sensor was overlaid on the animal section together with a density calibrator. After exposure, radioactivity recorded on the sensor was quantified using a bio-imaging analyzer. The density calibration curve showed linearity in the wide range with a good correlation coefficient (R2≥0.999). The inter- and intra-plate variability showed CV values less than 3.7%. On the measurement of bone density, bone density differences between the sham group and ovariectomized (OVX) group were statistically significant in the femoral cortical (p=0.001) and trabecular bone (p=0.07), and vertebral trabecular bone (p=0.043). Based on these results, we developed a new and valuable method, which made it possible to measure bone density of axial skeleton of a rat, as an alternative to commonly used methods. (author)

  14. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs receive

  15. Probiotic use decreases intestinal inflammation and increases bone density in healthy male but not female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Laura R; Irwin, Regina; Schaefer, Laura; Britton, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    Osteoporosis can result from intestinal inflammation, as is seen with inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics, microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, can have anti-inflammatory properties and are currently being examined to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we examined if treating healthy male mice with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (a candidate probiotic with anti-TNFα activity) could affect intestinal TNFα levels and enhance bone density. Adult male mice were given L. reuteri 6475 orally by gavage for 3×/week for 4 weeks. Examination of jejunal and ileal RNA profiles indicates that L. reuteri suppressed basal TNFα mRNA levels in the jejunum and ileum in male mice, but surprisingly not in female mice. Next, we examined bone responses. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated that L. reuteri 6475 treatment increased male trabecular bone parameters (mineral density, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness) in the distal femur metaphyseal region as well as in the lumbar vertebrae. Cortical bone parameters were unaffected. Dynamic and static histomorphometry and serum remodeling parameters indicate that L. reuteri ingestion increases osteoblast serum markers and dynamic measures of bone formation in male mice. In contrast to male mice, L. reuteri had no effect on bone parameters in female mice. Taken together our studies indicate that femoral and vertebral bone formation increases in response to oral probiotic use, leading to increased trabecular bone volume in male mice. PMID:23389860

  16. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  17. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  18. Premature loss of bone remodeling compartment canopies is associated with deficient bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Søe, Kent;

    2011-01-01

    support to this hypothesis by analyzing the changes in prevalence of BRC canopies during the progress of the remodeling cycle in a cohort of healthy individuals and in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), and by relating these changes in prevalence with the extent of bone forming surfaces...

  19. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  20. Dried plum diet protects from bone loss caused by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone loss caused by ionizing radiation is a potential health concern for radiotherapy patients, radiation workers and astronauts. In animal studies, exposure to ionizing radiation increases oxidative damage in skeletal tissues, and results in an imbalance in bone remodeling initiated by increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Therefore, we evaluated various candidate interventions with antioxidant or antiinflammatory activities (antioxidant cocktail, dihydrolipoic acid, ibuprofen, dried plum) both for their ability to blunt the expression of resorption-related genes in marrow cells after irradiation with either gamma rays (photons, 2 Gy) or simulated space radiation (protons and heavy ions, 1 Gy) and to prevent bone loss. Dried plum was most effective in reducing the expression of genes related to bone resorption (Nfe2l2, Rankl, Mcp1, Opg, TNF-α) and also preventing later cancellous bone decrements caused by irradiation with either photons or heavy ions. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with DP may prevent the skeletal effects of radiation exposures either in space or on Earth

  1. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment on focal and systemic bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Munno, O; Delle Sedie, A

    2008-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by an extensive dysregulation in skeletal homeostasis recognized as 1) focal articular bone erosions, 2) iuxta-articular osteopenia, 3) systemic osteoporosis (OP) and fractures, as is well documented in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. The disease activity, as a consequence of new insights into the complex interaction between bone cells and a variety of cells of the immune system, has emerged as the main responsible for both focal and systemic bone loss. Given this background, the therapeutic approach to RA has become more aggressive, and a more widespread use of low-dose glucocorticoids (GC), recently categorized as disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) because of their additional joint sparing effect on the long-term, has also been recommended from the early stages. Addressing the effects of GC on systemic bone loss in RA, GC are considered, in addition to inflammation and inactivity, the major risk factors for OP and fractures. As a consequence, among the most recent recommendations (i.e. dosing, timing, and tapering strategies) for patients receiving GC for more than 3 months, prevention and treatment of GC-induced OP (i.e. calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates) are included. However, innovative GC, characterized by a more favorable risk/benefit profile such as selective GC receptor agonists (SEGRA), are currently in the pipeline. This article reviews the major points of evidence so far available, regarding the effects of GC on focal and systemic bone loss.

  2. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  3. Jus Tomat Meningkatkan Kepadatan Tulang Tikus Menopause (TOMATO JUICE INCREASE BONE DENSITY OF MENOPAUSE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women happened due to estrogen deficiency which leads imbalancebone-formation and bone-resorption process. Recently, phytoestrogen as an alternative hormon replacementtherapy in postmenopausal women could overcome estrogen deficiency. The objectives of this study was toevaluate the effect of tomato juice administration and combination of physical exercise on bone density inestrogen deficiency condition. Twenty eight postovarectomy female rats (Rattus novergicus were randomizedinto four experiment groups : the controlled group ( 2 mL aquades administration; the exercised group(swimming for 30 minutes, three times in one week, the tomato juice administration every day (44 mg/200g body weight, and the combination exercise and tomato juice administration. Four weeks after treatmentthe samples were collected from os femure for morphological examination. The intervention groups showeda significant difference in bone density with the control group (p<0.05. Bone density highest on the tomatojuice administration group. There is significant difference bone density between tomato juice administrationgroup and the combination group (p<0.05, but no significant difference between physical exercise groupand the combination group. Tomato juice showed an increasing bone density on estrogen deficiencycondition and the combination group have the same effect with the exercised group.

  4. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption and preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Matsumoto, K; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effects of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), a mixture of galactosyl oligosaccharides formed from lactose by the transgalactosyl reaction of beta-D-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans, on calcium absorption and prevention of bone loss were examined in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Rats fed on a diet containing GOS absorbed calcium more efficiently than those on the control diet after 8-10 days and 18-20 days, and the bone (femur and tibia) ash weight and tibia calcium content of OVX rats fed on the GOS diet were significantly higher than those of the control animals. Although the serum total cholesterol of the ovariectomized rats was significantly elevated, GOS produced a significant hypocholesterolemic effect in the OVX rats. GOS, which is fermented by bacteria in the lower part of the intestine, enhanced volatile fatty acid production, and thus prevented bone loss and lower serum total cholesterol concentration in the ovariectomized rats.

  5. The management of bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty: rebuild, reinforce, and augment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculco, P K; Abdel, M P; Hanssen, A D; Lewallen, D G

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty has evolved over the past decade. While the management of small to moderate sized defects has demonstrated good results with a variety of traditional techniques (cement and screws, small metal augments, impaction bone grafting or modular stems), the treatment of severe defects continues to be problematic. The use of a structural allograft has declined in recent years due to an increased failure rate with long-term follow-up and with the introduction of highly porous metal augments that emphasise biological metaphyseal fixation. Recently published mid-term results on the use of tantalum cones in patients with severe bone loss has reaffirmed the success of this treatment strategy. PMID:26733657

  6. Higher bone turnover is related to spinal radiographic damage and low bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis patients with active disease: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Arends

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is characterized by excessive bone formation and bone loss. Our aim was to investigate the association of bone turnover markers (BTM with spinal radiographic damage and bone mineral density (BMD in AS patients with active disease. METHODS: 201 consecutive AS outpatients of the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS cohort were included. Serum markers of bone resorption (C-telopeptides of type-I collagen, sCTX and bone formation (procollagen type-I N-terminal peptide, PINP; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BALP were measured. Z-scores were used to correct for the normal influence that age and gender have on bone turnover. Radiographs were scored by two independent readers according to modified Stoke AS Spinal Score (mSASSS. The presence of complete bridging (ankylosis of at least two vertebrae was considered as measure of more advanced radiographic damage. Low BMD was defined as lumbar spine and/or hip BMD Z-score ≤ -1. RESULTS: Of the 151 patients with complete data, 52 (34% had ≥ 1 complete bridge, 49 (33% had ≥ 1 syndesmophyte (non-bridging, and 50 (33% had no syndesmophytes. 66 (44% had low BMD. Patients with bridging had significantly higher sCTX and PINP Z-scores than patients without bridging (0.43 vs. -0.55 and 0.55 vs. 0.04, respectively. Patients with low BMD had significantly higher sCTX Z-score than patients with normal BMD (-0.08 vs. -0.61. After correcting for gender, symptom duration, and CRP, sCTX Z-score remained significantly related to the presence of low BMD alone (OR: 1.60, bridging alone (OR: 1.82, and bridging in combination with low BMD (OR: 2.26. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study in AS patients with active and relatively long-standing disease demonstrated that higher serum levels of sCTX, and to a lesser extent PINP, are associated with the presence of complete bridging. sCTX was also associated with low BMD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm that serum levels of s

  7. The influence of smoking on bone loss and response to nasal estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N.H.; Nielsen, T.F.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl;

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of smoking on bone during therapy with nasally administrated estradiol in sequential combination with oral progesterone in early postmenopausal women. In addition, to observe the consequences of smoking on bone in untreated women. Methods Post-hoc exploratory......-smokers (1.4% vs. 1.4%, p=0.89), whereas the change in the hip on the placebo was similar to that seen in the spine (-3.7% vs. -2.6%, p=0.08). Supportive changes were seen in urinary CTX and in serum osteocalcin. Conclusions These results indicate that cigarette smoking may reduce the efficacy of nasal...... estradiol to increase bone mass in early postmenopausal women. In addition, smoking may increase spontaneous bone loss in untreated women Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  8. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of aging...

  9. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Teeuw; L. Coelho; A. de Silva; C.J.N.M. van der Palen; F.G.J.M. Lessmann; U. van der Velden; B.G. Loos

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  10. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p<0.01. Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss.

  11. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  12. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the N

  13. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  14. The role of osteocyte apoptosis in cancer chemotherapy-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, Tetyana; Shen Ng, Yeap; Hopwood, Blair; Yip, Yuen-Ching; Foster, Bruce K; Xian, Cory J

    2012-07-01

    Intensive cancer chemotherapy leads to significant bone loss, the underlying mechanism of which remains unclear. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms for effect of the commonly used anti-metabolite methotrexate (MTX) on osteocytes and on general bone homeostasis. The current study in juvenile rats showed that MTX chemotherapy caused a 4.3-fold increase in the number of apoptotic osteocytes in tibial metaphysis, which was accompanied by a 1.8-fold increase in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive bone resorbing osteoclasts, and a 35% loss of trabecular bone. This was associated with an increase in transcription of the osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-6 (10-fold) and IL-11 (2-fold). Moreover, the metaphyseal bone of MTX-treated animals exhibited a 37.6% increase in the total number of osteocytes, along with 4.9-fold higher expression of the DMP-1 transcript. In cultured osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, MTX treatment significantly increased caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, which was accompanied by the formation of plasma membrane-born apoptotic bodies and an increase in IL-6 (24-fold) and IL-11 (29-fold) mRNA expression. Conditioned media derived from MTX-treated MLO-Y4 cells was twice as strong as untreated media in its capacity to induce osteoclast formation in primary bone marrow osteoclast precursors. Thus, our in vivo and in vitro data suggested that MTX-induced apoptosis of osteocytes caused higher recruitment of DMP-1 positive osteocytes and increased osteoclast formation, which could contribute towards the loss of bone homeostasis in vivo. PMID:21938727

  15. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Cancer Survivorship, Memphis, TN (United States); Shelso, John [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Memphis, TN (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Li, Chin-Shang [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Thomas, Nicole A.; Karimova, E.J.; Merchant, Thomas [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P = 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  16. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is associated with low spinal bone density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Christensen, Finn B; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt;

    2013-01-01

    and degenerative spondylolisthesis patients. 81 patients older than 60 years, who underwent DXA-scanning of their lumbar spine one year after a lumbar spinal fusion procedure, were included. Radiographs were assessed for disc height, vertebral wedging, and osteophytosis. Pain was assessed using the Low Back Pain...... Rating Scale pain index. T-score of the lumbar spine was significantly lower among degenerative spondylolisthesis patients compared with spinal stenosis patients (-1.52 versus -0.52, P = 0.04). Thirty-nine percent of degenerative spondylolisthesis patients were classified as osteoporotic and further 30......% osteopenic compared to only 9% of spinal stenosis patients being osteoporotic and 30% osteopenic (P = 0.01). Pain levels tended to increase with poorer bone status (P = 0.06). Patients treated surgically for symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis have much lower bone mass than patients of similar age...

  17. Trabecular bone loss after administration of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone is independent of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Dick-de-Paula, Ingrid; Maloney, Ann E; Lotinun, Sutada; Bornstein, Sheila; de Paula, Francisco J A; Baron, Roland; Houseknecht, Karen L; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-02-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been linked to metabolic and bone disorders in clinical studies, but the mechanisms of these side effects remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have examined whether SGAs cause bone loss in mice. Using in vivo and in vitro modeling we examined the effects of risperidone, the most commonly prescribed SGA, on bone in C57BL6/J (B6) mice. Mice were treated with risperidone orally by food supplementation at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg daily for 5 and 8 weeks, starting at 3.5 weeks of age. Risperidone reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number and percent cortical area. Trabecular histomorphometry demonstrated increased resorption parameters, with no change in osteoblast number or function. Risperidone also altered adipose tissue distribution such that white adipose tissue mass was reduced and liver had significantly higher lipid infiltration. Next, in order to tightly control risperidone exposure, we administered risperidone by chronic subcutaneous infusion with osmotic minipumps (0.5 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) in 7 week old female B6 mice. Similar trabecular and cortical bone differences were observed compared to the orally treated groups (reduced trabecular BV/TV, and connectivity density, and reduced percent cortical area) with no change in body mass, percent body fat, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Unlike in orally treated mice, risperidone infusion reduced bone formation parameters (serum P1NP, MAR and BFR/BV). Resorption parameters were elevated, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. To determine if risperidone could directly affect bone cells, primary bone marrow cells were cultured with osteoclast or osteoblast differentiation media. Risperidone was added to culture medium in clinically relevant doses of 0, 2.5 or 25 ng/ml. The number of osteoclasts was significantly increased by addition in vitro of risperidone while osteoblast differentiation was not altered. These studies indicate that

  18. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  19. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of the Prevalence of Maxillary Sinus Mucosal Thickening in the Patients with Periodontal Bone Loss: A Digital Panoramic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mirbeigi

    2015-07-01

    Results: Mucosal thickening was significantly correlated with the bone loss and pattern type of the bone loss. Moreover, the prevalence of sinus mucosal thickening was 12.10% in patients with mild bone loss, 27.45% in patients with moderate bone loss, 63.15% in patients with severe bone loss. No statistically significant relationship was detected between Maxillary sinus mucositis with patients’ age and sex (p =0.05. Conclusion: In patients suffering from the bone loss, increased severity of the bone loss can lead to an increase in the prevalence of sinus mucosal thickening. The maxillary sinus mucositis was reported to be more prevalent in the bone loss with a vertical pattern rather than the bone loss with a horizontal pattern. Moreover, based on the results of the present study, the periodontal disease may increase the risk of sinus mucosal thickening.

  1. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2007-01-01

    assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  2. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  3. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  4. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  5. Antiosteoporosis Effect of Radix Scutellariae Extract on Density and Microstructure of Long Bones in Tail-Suspended Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Rui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Scutellariae (RS, a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  6. Antiosteoporosis effect of radix scutellariae extract on density and microstructure of long bones in tail-suspended sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Rui; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Pan, Ya-Lei; Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  7. In vitro and in vivo MR evaluation of internal gradient to assess trabecular bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, S; Rebuzzi, M; Capuani, S [CNR IPCF UOS Roma, Department of Physics, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Di Pietro, G; Maraviglia, B [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Fasano, F, E-mail: silvia.capuani@roma1.infn.i [Siemens Medical, Milan (Italy)

    2010-10-07

    Here we propose a new magnetic resonance (MR) strategy based on the evaluation of internal gradient (G{sub i}) to assess the trabecular bone (TB) density in spongy bone. Spongy bone is a porous system characterized by a solid trabecular network immersed in bone marrow and characterized by a different relative percentage of water and fats. Using a 9.4 T MR micro-imaging system, we first evaluated the relative water and fat G{sub i} as extracted from the Spin-Echo decay function in vitro of femoral head samples from calves. Indeed, the differential effects of fat and water diffusion result in different types of G{sub i} behavior. Using a clinical MR 3T scanner, we then investigated in vivo the calcanei of individuals characterized by different known TB densities. We demonstrate, on these samples, that water is more prevalent in the boundary zone, while fats are rearranged primarily in the central zone of each pore. In vitro experiments showed that water G{sub i} magnitude from the samples was directly proportional to their TB density. Similar behavior was also observed in the clinical measures. Conversely, fat G{sub i} did not provide any information on spongy-bone density. Our results suggest that water G{sub i} may be a reliable marker to assess the status of spongy bone.

  8. Density measurement of thin layers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Ramm, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    A method to measure the density of thin layers is presented which utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques within a transmission electron microscope. The method is based on the acquisition of energy filtered images in the low loss region as well as of an element distribution map using core loss edges. After correction of multiple inelastic scattering effects, the intensity of the element distribution map is proportional to density and thickness. The dependence of the intensities of images with low energy loss electrons on the density is different from that. This difference allows the calculation of the relative density pixel by pixel and to determine lateral density gradients or fluctuations in thin films without relying on a constant specimen thickness. The method is demonstrated at thin carbon layers produced with density gradients.

  9. Current concepts in the management of recurrent anterior gleno-humeral joint instability with bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramhamadany, Eamon; Modi, Chetan S

    2016-01-01

    The management of recurrent anterior gleno-humeral joint instability is challenging in the presence of bone loss. It is often seen in young athletic patients and dislocations related to epileptic seizures and may involve glenoid bone deficiency, humeral bone deficiency or combined bipolar lesions. It is critical to accurately identify and assess the amount and position of bone loss in order to select the most appropriate treatment and reduce the risk of recurrent instability after surgery. The current literature suggests that coracoid and iliac crest bone block transfers are reliable for treating glenoid defects. The treatment of humeral defects is more controversial, however, although good early results have been reported after arthroscopic Remplissage for small defects. Larger humeral defects may require complex reconstruction or partial resurfacing. There is currently very limited evidence to support treatment strategies when dealing with bipolar lesions. The aim of this review is to summarise the current evidence regarding the best imaging modalities and treatment strategies in managing this complex problem relating particularly to contact athletes and dislocations related to epileptic seizures. PMID:27335809

  10. Chronic skin inflammation leads to bone loss by IL-17-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluçkan, Özge; Jimenez, Maria; Karbach, Susanne; Jeschke, Anke; Graña, Osvaldo; Keller, Johannes; Busse, Björn; Croxford, Andrew L; Finzel, Stephanie; Koenders, Marije; van den Berg, Wim; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Waisman, Ari; Schett, Georg; Wagner, Erwin F

    2016-03-16

    Inflammation has important roles in tissue regeneration, autoimmunity, and cancer. Different inflammatory stimuli can lead to bone loss by mechanisms that are not well understood. We show that skin inflammation induces bone loss in mice and humans. In psoriasis, one of the prototypic IL-17A-mediated inflammatory human skin diseases, low bone formation and bone loss correlated with increased serum IL-17A levels. Similarly, in two mouse models with chronic IL-17A-mediated skin inflammation,K14-IL17A(ind)andJunB(Δep), strong inhibition of bone formation was observed, different from classical inflammatory bone loss where osteoclast activation leads to bone degradation. We show that under inflammatory conditions, skin-resident cells such as keratinocytes, γδ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells were able to express IL-17A, which acted systemically to inhibit osteoblast and osteocyte function by a mechanism involving Wnt signaling. IL-17A led to decreased Wnt signaling in vitro, and importantly, pharmacological blockade of IL-17A rescued Wnt target gene expression and bone formation in vivo. These data provide a mechanism where IL-17A affects bone formation by regulating Wnt signaling in osteoblasts and osteocytes. This study suggests that using IL-17A blocking agents in psoriasis could be beneficial against bone loss in these patients. PMID:27089206

  11. Bone density as a marker for local response to radiotherapy of spinal bone metastases in women with breast cancer: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We designed this study to quantify the effects of radiotherapy (RT) on bone density as a local response in spinal bone metastases of women with breast cancer and, secondly, to establish bone density as an accurate and reproducible marker for assessment of local response to RT in spinal bone metastases. We retrospectively assessed 135 osteolytic spinal metastases in 115 women with metastatic breast cancer treated at our department between January 2000 and January 2012. Primary endpoint was to compare bone density in the bone metastases before, 3 months after and 6 months after RT. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) in computed tomography scans. We calculated mean values in HU and the standard deviation (SD) as a measurement of bone density before, 3 months and 6 months after RT. T-test was used for statistical analysis of difference in bone density as well as for univariate analysis of prognostic factors for difference in bone density 3 and 6 months after RT. Mean bone density was 194.8 HU ± SD 123.0 at baseline. Bone density increased significantly by a mean of 145.8 HU ± SD 139.4 after 3 months (p = .0001) and by 250.3 HU ± SD 147.1 after 6 months (p < .0001). Women receiving bisphosphonates showed a tendency towards higher increase in bone density in the metastases after 3 months (152.6 HU ± SD 141.9 vs. 76.0 HU ± SD 86.1; p = .069) and pathological fractures before RT were associated with a significantly higher increase in bone density after 3 months (202.3 HU ± SD 161.9 vs. 130.3 HU ± SD 129.2; p = .013). Concomitant chemotherapy (ChT) or endocrine therapy (ET), hormone receptor status, performance score, applied overall RT dose and prescription of a surgical corset did not correlate with a difference in bone density after RT. Bone density measurement in HU is a practicable and reproducible method for assessment of local RT response in osteolytic metastases in breast cancer. Our analysis demonstrated an excellent local response within

  12. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  13. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made...... in the ITI site (anteriorly), the premolar region just behind the fixtures, and the standard site of the mandible for obtaining reference values of the age-related MBC loss. The increased function of the mandible after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation that minimizes, or in some...

  14. Bone loss and fractures in multiple sclerosis: focus on epidemiologic and physiopathological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionyssiotis Y

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yannis DionyssiotisRehabilitation Department, Physical and Social Rehabilitation Center, Amyntæo, Florina, GreeceAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS affects the central nervous system leading to disability and is complicated by bone loss and fractures. Despite the acceptance of osteoporosis and fractures as two major public health problems, in people with MS the mechanisms have not been investigated adequately. Physicians and patients usually focus on the major cause of disability and neglect the multiple risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures in this specific population. This review updates the epidemiology and physiopathological mechanisms in MS.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, bone, fractures, osteoporosis, osteopenia

  15. Hospitalization for fractures and bone loss in adults. Why do we regard these phenomena as dull?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C M

    1977-01-01

    The epidemiology of serious fractures in adults relates less to the frequency of forceful accidents and more directly to the loss of bone in middle-aged and older people. To support this statement, hospital discharge rates for fractures in recent years are examined from different geographic areas. Rates for the United States rise with age, so that serious fractures form 10 percent of all hospital discharges at 85 years and older. Saskatchewan data suggest that rates for men remain low until 60 years; for women the figures began to rise at 45 years, before many had reached the menopause. Rates are lower among women than men in Saskatchewan until around 50 years, surpassing those of men at age 55 and older. Among Medicare enrollees in 1967 in the United States, women had higher discharge rates for fractures than men of the same age and race. Whites also had higher rates than blacks, so much so that white males had higher rates than black women of the same age. Such data confirm the past impression that blacks who survive into the older ages are a biological elite, more able to maintain bone strength than whites of either sex, although by no means being exempt from bone loss with age. A fractured femur was the most frequent diagnosis, forming a higher percentage of all fractures in women than men, and rising steeply with age in both sexes. The pattern of fractures by sex differs from the epidemiology of forceful accidents, which more often involve men than women. Bone loss with age, or osteoporosis, is perhaps the most powerful host factor to dominate the picture of fractures in the elderly. The existing possibilities for preventing or slowing this change are thus assessed; women may no longer accept as natural the widespread bone loss and accompanying fractures that lower the quality of life in later years. PMID:319479

  16. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jena (Germany); Vollandt, Ruediger [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis increases osteoblastic bone formation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Yang, Hua; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Naidan; Qin, Luping; Xin, Hailiang

    2016-04-01

    Monotropein is a natural iridoid glycoside enriched in Morinda officinalis and has been used for medicinal purposes in China. In the present study, we systematically examined its effects on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in mice and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells for the first time. Eight-week-old female C57/BL6 mice were used to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of monotropein. Results showed that administration of monotropein (40 or 80mg/kg/day) for four weeks exerted good bone protective effects as evidenced by the increase of bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BVF) and improvement of bone microstructure. Monotropein also enhanced the parameters of biomechanical properties, including maximum load, maximum stress and elastic modulus of femur in OVX mice. In addition, monotropein treatment decreased the serum levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) in OVX mice. In this study, we also assessed the effects of monotropein on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. After incubation for 48h, the cell proliferation was increased at the concentration of 10μM, 25μM, 50μM and 100μM. ALP activities were significantly increased after treatment with monotropein for 72h. Quantitative analyses with alizarin red staining showed significantly increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment with monotropein for 28days. Based on these results, monotropein may serve as a new candidate or a leading compound for antiosteoporosis. PMID:26996879

  18. Addition of Fructooligosaccharides and Dried Plum to Soy-Based Diets Reverses Bone Loss in the Ovariectomized Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine D. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary bioactive components that play a role in improving skeletal health have received considerable attention in complementary and alternative medicine practices as a result of their increased efficacy to combat chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the additive or synergistic effects of dried plum and fructooligosaccharides (FOS and to determine whether dried plum and FOS or their combination in a soy protein-based diet can restore bone mass in ovarian hormone deficient rats. For this purpose, 72 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n = 12 and either ovariectomized (Ovx, five groups or sham-operated (sham, one group. The rats were maintained on a semipurified standard diet for 45 days after surgery to establish bone loss. Thereafter, the rats were placed on one of the following dietary treatments for 60 days: casein-based diet (Sham and Ovx, soy-based diet (Ovx + soy or soy-based diet with dried plum (Ovx + soy + plum, FOS (Ovx + soy + FOS and combination of dried plum and FOS (Ovx + soy + plum + FOS. Soy protein in combination with the test compounds significantly improved whole-body bone mineral density (BMD. All test compounds in combination with soy protein significantly increased femoral BMD but the combination of soy protein, dried plum and FOS had the most pronounced effect in increasing lumbar BMD. Similarly, all of the test compounds increased ultimate load, indicating improved biomechanical properties. The positive effects of these test compounds on bone may be due to their ability to modulate bone resorption and formation, as shown by suppressed urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity.

  19. Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, Ulf; Belavy, Daniel; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Kusy, Krzysztof; Lexy, H; Rawer, R; Rittweger, Jörn; Winwood, Keith; Zielinski, Jacek; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary Individuals who are involved in explosive sport types, such as 100-m sprints and long jump, have greater bone density, leg muscle size, jumping height and grip strength than individuals involved in long-distance running. Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between different types of physical activity with bone, lean mass and neuromuscular performance in older individuals. Methods We examined short- (n050), middle- (n019) and lo...

  20. Independent measurement of femoral cortical thickness and cortical bone density using clinical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, G M; Gee, A H

    2015-02-01

    The local structure of the proximal femoral cortex is of interest since both fracture risk, and the effects of various interventions aimed at reducing that risk, are associated with cortical properties focused in particular regions rather than dispersed over the whole bone. Much of the femoral cortex is less than 3mm thick, appearing so blurred in clinical CT that its actual density is not apparent in the data, and neither thresholding nor full-width half-maximum techniques are capable of determining its width. Our previous work on cortical bone mapping showed how to produce more accurate estimates of cortical thickness by assuming a fixed value of the cortical density for each hip. However, although cortical density varies much less over the proximal femur than thickness, what little variation there is leads to errors in thickness measurement. In this paper, we develop the cortical bone mapping technique by exploiting local estimates of imaging blur to correct the global density estimate, thus providing a local density estimate as well as more accurate estimates of thickness. We also consider measurement of cortical mass surface density and the density of trabecular bone immediately adjacent to the cortex. Performance is assessed with ex vivo clinical QCT scans of proximal femurs, with true values derived from high resolution HRpQCT scans of the same bones. We demonstrate superior estimation of thickness than is possible with alternative techniques (accuracy 0.12 ± 0.39 mm for cortices in the range 1-3mm), and that local cortical density estimation is feasible for densities >800 mg/cm(3).

  1. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  2. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  3. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF JUDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH-SCHOOL BOYS IN KOREA

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Kim; Shin, Y. H.; Noh, S.K.; Jung, H.L.; Lee, C D; Kang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Judo, an Olympic combat sport, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of Judo practice on the bone health of male high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to measure and compare the bone mineral density (BMD) of the hands of Judo players and sedentary control subje...

  4. Diabetes and change in bone mineral density at the hip, calcaneus, spine, and radius in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Schwartz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have higher bone mineral density (BMD but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women >65 years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S. DM was ascertained by self-report. BMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at least one follow-up visit at the hip (N=6624 and calcaneus (N=6700 and, on a subset of women, at the spine (N=396 and distal radius (N=306. Annualized percent change in BMD was compared by DM status, using random effects models. Of 6,867 women with at least one follow-up DXA scan, 409 had DM at baseline. Mean age was 70.8 (SD 4.7 years. Baseline BMD was higher in women with DM at all measured sites. In models adjusted for age and clinic, women with prevalent DM lost bone more rapidly than those without DM at the femoral neck (-0.96% vs. -0.59% per year, p < 0.001, total hip (-0.98% vs. -0.70% per year, p<0.001, calcaneus (-1.64% vs. -1.40% per year, p=0.005, and spine (-0.33% vs. +0.33% per year, p=0.033, but not at the distal radius (-0.97% vs. -0.90% per year, p=0.91. These findings suggest that despite higher baseline BMD, older women with DM experience more rapid bone loss than those without DM at the hip, spine and calcaneus, but not the radius. Higher rates of bone loss may partially explain higher fracture rates in older women with DM.

  5. The effects of the organopollutant PCB 126 on bone density in juvenile diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Dawn K., E-mail: dawn.holliday@westminster-mo.edu [Department of Biological Sciences and the Appalachian Rural Health Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Holliday, Casey M., E-mail: hollidayca@missouri.edu [Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, M318 Medical Sciences Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Bone is a dynamic tissue with diverse functions including growth, structural support, pH balance and reproduction. These functions may be compromised in the presence of organopollutants that can alter bone properties. We exposed juvenile diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) to 3,3 Prime ,4,4 Prime ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a ubiquitous anthropogenic organochlorine, and measured organic content, apparent bone mineral density (aBMD) using radiography and computed tomography, and quantified bone microstructure using histological preparations of femora. PCB-exposed terrapins were smaller in total size. Skulls of exposed animals had a higher organic content and a skeletal phenotype more typical of younger animals. The femora of exposed individuals had significantly reduced aBMD and significantly more cortical area occupied by non-bone. Because bone is an integral component of physiology, the observed skeletal changes can have far-reaching impacts on feeding and locomotor performance, calcium reserves and ultimately life history traits and reproductive success. Additionally, we caution that measurements of bone morphology, density, and composition from field-collected animals need to account not only for relatedness and age, but also environmental pollutants.

  6. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jikun [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Chen Laigao [BioImaging Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth RD, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Liang Yun [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Xu, Lisa X [School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  7. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  8. Moderate aerobic exercise (brisk walking increases bone density in cART-treated persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bonato

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moderate intensity aerobic activity reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the general population and has a potential in preventing bone loss. We evaluated the effects of brisk walking, with or without strength exercise, on bone mineral density in HIV-infected treated persons. Twenty-eight HIV-infected, cART-treated, sedentary subjects with VL<50 c/mL were enrolled in a 12-week exercise program, consisting of 3 outdoor sessions/week of 60 min walking at 67–70% of HR (heart rate max±30 min circuit training at 65% of 1-RM (repetition maximum. Subjects were examined at baseline (BL and 12 weeks (W12 by 6-minute walking test (6MWT and by counting the number of repetitions for each strength exercise; and by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA to evaluate lumbar spine and femoral bone mineral density with t- and z-scores - in addition to morphometric (BMI, waist, hip and leg circumference and blood examination (cytometry, fasting total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin; AST/ALT, ALP, gGT, creatinine, CPK, HbA1c; CD4+ and CD8+, plasma HIV-RNA. Differences over time were tested by Wilcoxon-signed rank test and between groups by Mann-Whitney test. Twenty-seven (96% participants (19M, 8F; median 48 y-o, IQR 43–54; median CD4+624/µL, IQR 478–708; ART with PI: 13 patients, with NNRTI: 7 patients, and including TDF: 15 patients completed the 12-week program with a median adherence of 61% (IQR 50–70: 18 in the ‘walk only’ only group and 9 in the ‘walk and strength’ group. At W12, participants showed significant improvement of distance by 6MWT (Table, and of performance in all strength exercises (crunch p=0.023, lat machine p=0.016, chest press p=0.016, leg extension p=0.016, sitting calf p=0.008, leg press p=0.016. DEXA spine z-score improved significantly in the whole group, and femoral z-scores in the ‘walk only’ group. There was no z-score difference at BL between

  9. A Surrogate Measure of Cortical Bone Matrix Density by Long T2 -Suppressed MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Alan C; Li, Cheng; Wehrli, Suzanne L; Wehrli, Felix W

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance has the potential to image and quantify two pools of water within bone: free water within the Haversian pore system (transverse relaxation time, T2 > 1 ms), and water hydrogen-bonded to matrix collagen (T2 ∼ 300 to 400 μs). Although total bone water concentration quantified by MRI has been shown to scale with porosity, greater insight into bone matrix density and porosity may be gained by relaxation-based separation of bound and pore water fractions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a recently developed surrogate measurement for matrix density, single adiabatic inversion recovery (SIR) zero echo-time (ZTE) MRI, in human bone. Specimens of tibial cortical bone from 15 donors (aged 27 to 97 years; 8 female and 7 male) were examined at 9.4T field strength using two methods: (1) (1)H ZTE MRI, to capture total (1)H signal, and (2) (1)H SIR-ZTE MRI, to selectively image matrix-associated (1)H signal. Total water, bone matrix, and bone mineral densities were also quantified gravimetrically, and porosity was measured by micro-CT. ZTE apparent total water (1)H concentration was 32.7 ± 3.2 M (range 28.5 to 40.3 M), and was correlated positively with porosity (R(2) = 0.80) and negatively with matrix and mineral densities (R(2) =  0.90 and 0.82, respectively). SIR-ZTE apparent bound water (1)H concentration was 32.9 ± 3.9 M (range 24.4 to 39.8 M), and its correlations were opposite to those of apparent total water: negative with porosity (R(2) = 0.73) and positive with matrix density (R(2) = 0.74) and mineral density (R(2) = 0.72). Porosity was strongly correlated with gravimetric matrix density (R(2) = 0.91, negative) and total water density (R(2) = 0.92, positive). The strong correlations of SIR-ZTE-derived apparent bound water (1)H concentration with ground-truth measurements suggest that this quantitative solid-state MRI method provides a nondestructive surrogate measure of bone matrix density

  10. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pgroups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  11. Nanogel-crosslinked nanoparticles increase the inhibitory effects of W9 synthetic peptide on bone loss in a murine bone resorption model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Toshimi Sato,1 Neil Alles,1,2 Masud Khan,1,3 Kenichi Nagano,1,4 Mariko Takahashi,1 Yukihiko Tamura,1 Asako Shimoda,5,6 Keiichi Ohya,1 Kazunari Akiyoshi,5,6 Kazuhiro Aoki1 1Department of Bio-Matrix (Pharmacology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; 3Department of Dental Pharmacology, City Dental College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, 6ERATO Akiyoshi Bio-Nanotransporter Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Katsura Int’tech Center Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: We investigated the biological activity of W9, a bone resorption inhibitor peptide, using NanoClik nanoparticles as an injectable carrier, where acryloyl group-modified cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHPOA nanogels were crosslinked by pentaerythritol tetra (mercaptoethyl polyoxyethylene. Thirty 5-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low calcium diet and received once-daily subcutaneous injections of the carrier alone, W9 24 mg/kg/day alone, W9 24 mg/kg/day incorporated in cholesterol bearing pullulan (CHP nanogels, or W9 (8 and 24 mg/kg/day incorporated in NanoClik nanoparticles for 4 days (n=5. Mice that received a normal calcium diet with NanoClik nanoparticle injections without W9 were used as a control group. Radiological analyses showed that administration of W9 24 mg/kg/day significantly prevented low calcium-induced reduction of bone mineral density in the long bones and lumbar vertebrae, but only when the NanoClik nanoparticles were used as a carrier. Histomorphometric analyses of the proximal tibiae revealed that W9 24 mg/kg/day incorporated in NanoClik nanoparticles prevented the increase in bone resorption indices

  12. Effects of endurance and resistance exercises on bone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporotic male rats

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    Maryam Banparvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoporosis is a complex disease characterized by  loss of bone mass, resulting in bone weakness and an increase in susceptibility to fractures. The aim of the current study was to determine skeletal changes induced by two progressive loading training programs on the bone properties of osteoporotic male rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done on 30 Wistar male rats having mean weight of 180-200 g. They were divided into .5 equal groups. In the experimental group, osteoporosis was induced through intraperitoneal injection of 20% ethanol solution (3g/kg/day for four consecutive days for 3 weeks. The rest of the groups were  baseline group (pre test, resistance training, endurance training, and the control. The two training groups completed 12 five-day weeks of training program. according to resistance or endurance protocols. The other 6 rats were considered as the healthy group without any intervention . At the end of the intervention, the animals were killed and their bone mineral density (BMD of the femur and  L4, L5 were measured. Tensile max load of the left tibia and compression of the L5 vertebra were measured using mechanical tests. Results: The endurance (P= 0.035 and resistance (P= 0.001 groups femur BMD had significantly increased compared to that of the control . L4, L5 BMD in resistance training and control was significantly greater than that of endurance group (P= 0.001,P= 0.001. The tensile maximum load of the tibia and compression of the L5 in the resistance group was significantly greater than the control (P=0.01,P=0.03. Conclusion: Resistance training, compared to endurance training, can induce more effective favourable changes in bone mineral status and bone strength.

  13. High-intensity exercise of short duration alters bovine bone density and shape.

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    Hiney, K M; Nielsen, B D; Rosenstein, D; Orth, M W; Marks, B P

    2004-06-01

    The ability of short-duration high-intensity exercise to stimulate bone formation in confinement was investigated using immature Holstein bull calves as a model. Eighteen bull calves, 8 wk of age, were assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) group-housed (GR, which served as a control), 2) confined with no exercise (CF), or 3) confined with exercise (EX). The exercise protocol consisted of running 50 m on a concrete surface once daily, 5 d/wk. Confined calves remained stalled for the 42-d duration of the trial. Blood samples were taken to analyze concentrations of osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline, markers of bone formation and resorption. At the completion of the trial, calves were humanely killed, and both forelegs were collected. The fused third and fourth metacarpal bone was scanned using computed tomography for determination of cross-sectional geometry and bone mineral density. Three-point bending tests to failure were performed on metacarpal bones. The exercise protocol resulted in the formation of a rounder bone in EX as well as in increased dorsal cortex thickness compared with those in the GR and CF. The exercised calves had a significantly smaller medullary cavity than CF and GR (P CF (P CF (P CF (P CF (P < 0.05). Therefore, the exercise protocol altered bone shape and seemed to increase bone formation comparison with the stalled and group-housed calves. PMID:15216986

  14. Can vitamin D3 supplementation prevent bone loss in persons with MS?

    OpenAIRE

    Steffensen, Linn Hofsøy

    2012-01-01

    In persons with Multiple sclerosis (MS) low bone mineral density (BMD) is more prevalent when compared with healthy controls and MS may be a possible cause of secondary osteoporosis. BMD is primarily determined by genetic and hormonal factors, body mass index, physical activity and intake of calcium and vitamin D. Vitamin D level at 50 nmol/L or higher is classified as sufficient, however, optimal vitamin D level for bone health is according to many experts at least 75 nmol/L. In this 96 week...

  15. Inadequate Loading Stimulus on ISS Results in Bone and Muscle Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exercise has been the primary countermeasure to combat musculoskeletal changes during International Space Station (ISS) missions. However, these countermeasures have not been successful in preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD) or muscle volume in crew members. METHODS We examined lower extremity loading during typical days on-orbit and on Earth for four ISS crew members. In-shoe forces were monitored using force-measuring insoles placed inside the shoes. BMD (by DXA), muscle volumes (by MRI), and strength were measured before and after long-duration spaceflight (181 +/- 15 days). RESULTS The peak forces measured during ISS activity were significantly less than those measured in 1g for the same activities. Typical single-leg loads on-orbit during walking and running were 0.89 +/- 0.17 body weights (BW) and 1.28 +/- 0.18 BW compared to 1.18 +/- 0.11 BW and 2.36 +/- .22 BW in 1g, respectively [2]. Crew members were only loaded for an average of 43.17 +/- 14.96 min a day while performing exercise on-orbit even though 146.8 min were assigned for exercise each day. Areal BMD decreased in the femoral neck and total hip by 0.71 +/- 0.34% and 0.81 +/- 0.21% per month, respectively. Changes in muscle volume were observed in the lower extremity (-10 to -16% calf; -4 to -7% thigh) but there were no changes in the upper extremity (+0.4 to -0.8%). Decrements in isometric and isokinetic strength at the knee (range: -10.4 to -24.1%), ankle (range: -4 to -22.3%), and elbow (range: -7.5 to - 16.7%) were also observed. Knee extension endurance tests showed an overall decline in total work (-14%) but an increased resistance to fatigue post-flight. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the conclusion that the measured exercise durations and/or loading stimuli were insufficient to protect bone and muscle health.

  16. Effects of swimming training and free mobilization on bone mineral densities of rats with the immobilization-induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible effects of regular swimming exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) compared with free activity after cast immobilization of rats. We carried out the study from April 2005 to June 2005 at the Department of Sports Medicine, Medical School of Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. The study included a total of 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were randomized to control (n = 6), swimming training (ST) n = 9, and free mobilization (FM) n = 9 groups. We measured Bone mineral densities of femur and vertebra of all rats with a total body scanner using software specifically designed for small animals, before study started and at weeks 3 and 7. Timepoints corresponded to basal, after cast removal (ACIM), and after 3 weeks of free mobilization (AFM) or swimming training (AST). We immobilized the right hindlimb of each ST and FM animal with a cast while the left hindlimbs were kept free. After 3 weeks, the casts were removed. Then we allowed the rats to move freely in their cage for one week, after which the animals in ST group started to swim for 5 days a week for 3 weeks for 30 minutes per day. The group FM rats moved freely in the cage. Bone mineral density of the femur and vertebra after cast immobilization was significantly decreased compared with both their basal and age-matched control group. After mobilization, significant increases occurred in both groups according to ACIM. Similar but milder changes were observed in free limbs femur BMD of rats. Interestingly, vertebra BMD of swimming group was also higher than its age-matched control group (p<0.05). Our study showed that swimming exercise had a significant rehabilitative effect on BMD loss associated with immobilization. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of swimming on other bone properties. (author)

  17. Cyclosporine-a and bone density around titanium implants: a histometric study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Eduardo Sakakura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cyclosporine A (CsA is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used to prevent organ transplantation rejection. It has been demonstrated that CsA may negatively affect osseointegration around dental implants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CsA administration on bone density around titanium dental implants. Materials and Methods: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups with seven animals each. The test group (CsA received daily subcutaneous injection of CsA (10mg/kg body weight and the control group (CTL received saline solution by the same route of administration. Three days after the beginning of immunosuppressive therapy, one machined dental implant (7.00 mm in lenght and 3.75 mm in diameter was inserted bilaterally at the region of the tibial methaphysis. After 4 and 8 weeks the animals were sacrificed and the histometrical procedures were performed to analyse the bone density around the first four threads of the coronal part of the implant. Results: A significant increase in the bone density was observed from the 4- to the 8 week-period in the control group (37.41% + 14.85 versus 58.23% + 16.38 – p < 0.01. In contrast, bone density consistently decreased in the test group overtime (46.31% + 17.38 versus 16.28 + 5.08 – p <0.05. In the 8-week period, there was a significant difference in bone density between the control and the test groups (58.23 + 16.38 eand16.28 + 5.08 – p= 0.001. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, long-term CsA administration may reduce bone density around titanium dental implants during the osseointegration process.

  18. Severe Bone Loss as Part of the Life History Strategy of Bowhead Whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Suydam, Robert; Usip, Sharon; Givens, Geof; Sformo, Todd; Thewissen, J G M

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of baleen constituted a major evolutionary change that made it possible for baleen whales to reach enormous body sizes while filter feeding on tiny organisms and migrating over tremendous distances. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) live in the Arctic where the annual cycle of increasing and decreasing ice cover affects their habitat, prey, and migration. During the nursing period, bowheads grow rapidly; but between weaning and approximately year 5, bowhead whales display sustained baleen and head growth while limiting growth in the rest of their bodies. During this period, they withdraw resources from the skeleton, in particular the ribs, which may lose 40% of bone mass. Such dramatic changes in bones of immature mammals are rare, although fossil cetaceans between 40 and 50 million years ago show an array of rib specializations that include bone loss and are usually interpreted as related to buoyancy control. PMID:27333180

  19. Severe Bone Loss as Part of the Life History Strategy of Bowhead Whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C George

    Full Text Available The evolution of baleen constituted a major evolutionary change that made it possible for baleen whales to reach enormous body sizes while filter feeding on tiny organisms and migrating over tremendous distances. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus live in the Arctic where the annual cycle of increasing and decreasing ice cover affects their habitat, prey, and migration. During the nursing period, bowheads grow rapidly; but between weaning and approximately year 5, bowhead whales display sustained baleen and head growth while limiting growth in the rest of their bodies. During this period, they withdraw resources from the skeleton, in particular the ribs, which may lose 40% of bone mass. Such dramatic changes in bones of immature mammals are rare, although fossil cetaceans between 40 and 50 million years ago show an array of rib specializations that include bone loss and are usually interpreted as related to buoyancy control.

  20. Severe Bone Loss as Part of the Life History Strategy of Bowhead Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C.; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Suydam, Robert; Usip, Sharon; Givens, Geof; Sformo, Todd; Thewissen, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of baleen constituted a major evolutionary change that made it possible for baleen whales to reach enormous body sizes while filter feeding on tiny organisms and migrating over tremendous distances. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) live in the Arctic where the annual cycle of increasing and decreasing ice cover affects their habitat, prey, and migration. During the nursing period, bowheads grow rapidly; but between weaning and approximately year 5, bowhead whales display sustained baleen and head growth while limiting growth in the rest of their bodies. During this period, they withdraw resources from the skeleton, in particular the ribs, which may lose 40% of bone mass. Such dramatic changes in bones of immature mammals are rare, although fossil cetaceans between 40 and 50 million years ago show an array of rib specializations that include bone loss and are usually interpreted as related to buoyancy control. PMID:27333180

  1. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wei; Lu, Gan; Xin, Sha; Huanyu, Lu; Yinghao, Jiang; Xiaoying, Lei; Chengming, Xu; Banjun, Ruan; Li, Wang; Zifan, Lu

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27237975

  2. Pyogenic granuloma associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss - A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panseriya, Bhrugesh J; Hungund, Shital

    2011-07-01

    A diverse group of the pathologic process can produce the enlargement of soft tissues in the oral cavity and often present a diagnostic challenge. This soft tissue enlargement may represent a variation of the normal anatomic structure, inflammatory reaction, cyst, neoplasm, and developmental anomalies. A group of reactive hyperplasias, which develop in response to chronic recurring tissue injury that stimulates an excessive tissue repair response. The pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a reactive enlargement that is an inflammatory response to local irritation such as calculus, a fractured tooth, rough dental restoration, and foreign materials or hormonal (pregnancy tumor) and rarely associated with bone loss. This paper presents a rare case of PG associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss in a 30-year-old male. PMID:22090773

  3. Pyogenic granuloma associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhrugesh J Panseriya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A diverse group of the pathologic process can produce the enlargement of soft tissues in the oral cavity and often present a diagnostic challenge. This soft tissue enlargement may represent a variation of the normal anatomic structure, inflammatory reaction, cyst, neoplasm, and developmental anomalies. A group of reactive hyperplasias, which develop in response to chronic recurring tissue injury that stimulates an excessive tissue repair response. The pyogenic granuloma (PG is a reactive enlargement that is an inflammatory response to local irritation such as calculus, a fractured tooth, rough dental restoration, and foreign materials or hormonal (pregnancy tumor and rarely associated with bone loss. This paper presents a rare case of PG associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss in a 30-year-old male.

  4. Ethanol Extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Protects Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation

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    Youn-Hwan Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese Medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE on osteoclast differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclast differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine required for osteoclast differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  5. Bone Loss During Space Flights: Implication of the Vestibular System, Sex-Dependence and Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaux, G.; Besnard, S.; Philoxene, B.; Sabatier, J. P.; Allouche, S.; Denise, P.

    2008-06-01

    The decrease of mechanical load due to microgravity induces bone loss (BL) during long-term space flights. We previously postulated that vestibular system could also be involved in bone modeling. Herein, we evaluated by tomography, long-term (2 months) effects of bilateral vestibular lesion (Bilab) on BL compared to a model of diffuse osteoporosis induced by gonadectomy in male and female rats. BL (about 12%) was observed on femoral metaphysis and femoral metaphysis/diaphysis respectively in male and female Bilab groups compared to shams. Whole body and spine mineralization remained unchanged in Bilab groups while it appeared decreased in gonadectomy groups as expected. BL in Bilab groups was reported at 1 month and recovered at 2 months while it remained decreased at 2 months in our model of diffuse osteoporosis. Risedronate over counterbalanced BL in both models of BL (Bilab and gonadectomy) at 1 and 2 months. Bilateral vestibular lesions on Earth induced regional bone loss focused on bearing bones in male and female at 1 month with unknown compensatory mechanisms 2 months later.

  6. Evaluation of the Survival Rate and Bone Loss of Implants with Various Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The replacement of missing teeth with implant-associated restorations has become a widely used treatment modality in recent years. The length of dental implants may be a critical factor in achieving and maintaining osseointegration.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and bone loss of dental implants with different lengthsMaterials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 60 ITI-system implants, evenly distributed into three groups including 8, 10 and 12 mm high implants in the posterior segments of both jaws. Demographic information, oral hygiene,cigarette smoking, implant length, duration of implant placement (at least 24 months,bleeding on probing index and pocket probing depth were recorded for all participants.Bone loss was calculated using pre- and post-operative panoramic radiographs.Results: The mean rate of bone loss was different among the three groups and were found to be 0.21 (0.45, 0.3 (0.41 and 0.43 (0.55 mm in the 8, 10, and 12 mm high implants, respectively. Neither mean bone loss nor bleeding on probing index showed significant differences with implant length. A significant correlation was found between implant length and pocket probing depth (P<0.0001.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both short (8 mm high and long (10 or 12 mm high implants may be used with nearly equal success rates in the posterior segments of the jaws.

  7. Hyperactive lesions of gingiva associated with severe alveolar bone loss: A rare finding

    OpenAIRE

    Amitandra Kumar Tripathi; Vinod Upadhaya; Vivek Kumar; Saimbi, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is an inflammatory reactive hyperplasia of connective tissue. It usually arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, hormonal factors or certain kinds of drugs. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females and rarely may cause significantly alveolar bone loss. It managed by conservative surgical excision and removal of causative irritants. This paper presents the case of a PG in a 55-year-old male...

  8. Denosumab, a RANK ligand inhibitor, for the management of bone loss in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yee AJ; Raje NS

    2012-01-01

    Andrew J Yee, Noopur S RajeDivision of Hematology-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Bone loss is a common side effect of cancer treatments, especially antihormonal treatments used in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody given subcutaneously that inhibits osteoclast activity by targeting the RANK ligand. It is effective in settings ranging from preventing skeletal-related complications in cancer patients ...

  9. Evaluation of the Survival Rate and Bone Loss of Implants with Various Lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Rokn AR.; H Noorani; R. Afzalifar

    2006-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The replacement of missing teeth with implant-associated restorations has become a widely used treatment modality in recent years. The length of dental implants may be a critical factor in achieving and maintaining osseointegration.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and bone loss of dental implants with different lengthsMaterials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 60 ITI-system implants, evenly distributed into three ...

  10. Massive Bone Loss from Fungal Infection after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Arthroscopic Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Muscolo, D. Luis; Carbo, Lisandro; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A.; Ayerza, Miguel A.; Makino, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Although there are numerous reports of septic pyogenic arthritis after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, there is limited information regarding the outcomes of fungal infection. We determined the outcomes of six patients with mycotic infection after regular ACL reconstruction. There were four males and two females with a mean age of 33 years. We determined the number of procedures performed, bone loss originating to control infection, and final reconstruction in th...

  11. Eriodicyol inhibits osteoclast differentiation and ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhyun; Noh, A Long Sae Mi; Zheng, Ting; Kang, Ju-hee; Yim, Mijung

    2015-12-10

    Osteoclasts are responsible for bone erosion in diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we investigate the effects of eriodictyol, a flavonoid found naturally in citrus fruits, on the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation using mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Eriodictyol inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. In addition, eriodictyol suppressed bone resorption activity of differentiated osteoclasts. The inhibitory effect of eriodictyol was associated with impaired activation of multiple signaling events downstream of RANK, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun terminal kinase phosphorylation, followed by decreased nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)c1 expression. Ectopic overexpression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 completely rescued the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of eriodictyol, suggesting that the anti-osteoclastogenic effect was mainly attributed to the reduction in NFATc1 expression. Consistent with the in vitro anti-osteoclastogenic effect, eriodictyol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclast formation in the calvarial model and ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that eriodictyol is a new therapeutic agent with the potential to prevent bone destructive diseases by reducing both osteoclast differentiation and function.

  12. Erythropoietin treatment in murine multiple myeloma: immune gain and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Haim-Ohana, Yasmin; Mittelman, Moshe; Gabet, Yankel; Neumann, Drorit

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy, characterized by osteolytic lesions and monoclonal immunoglobulins. The anemia, accompanying the disease is often treated with recombinant human EPO. Diverse non-erythropoietic effects of EPO have led us to question its combined action on the immune system and bone in the 5T33MM mouse model. EPO administration to MM mice attenuated disease progression as demonstrated by a decrease in serum MM IgG2b, splenic CD138 expressing cells, IL-6 and RORγτ transcripts in bone marrow (BM). IFN-γ transcript levels and macrophages (F4/80(+)CD11b(+)) in the BM both increased ~1.5 fold in the EPO-treated MM mice. In-vitro, EPO stimulated phagocytosis of 5T33MM cells (+30%) by BM-derived macrophages. In contrast, high-resolution microCT analysis of distal femurs revealed EPO-associated bone loss in both healthy and 5T33MM mice. EPO significantly increased expression of the osteoclastogenic nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in healthy mice, but not in MM mice, likely due to antagonizing effects on MM progression. Thus, in MM, EPO may act as a double-edged-sword stimulating immune response, while accelerating bone resorption, possibly via direct action on BM macrophages. This study supports a prudent approach of treating anemia in MM patients, aiming to maintain EPO-associated anti-MM effects, while considering bone damage. PMID:27481313

  13. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg(-1)∙day(-1), respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  14. Maintenance of bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurstegge Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis. Methods We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome and the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur up to one year after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis in 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. The bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three months and 12 months after surgery. Results The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 89 points, the global WOMAC index from 5,3 preoperatively to 0,8 at 12 months postoperatively. In contrast to conventional implants, the DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. Conclusion The short femoral neck stem lead to a distinct bone reaction. This was significantly different when compared to the changes in bone mineral density reported after implantation of conventional implants.

  15. Physical activity and bone mineral density in Italian middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue in postmenopausal women on account of the association between low bone mineral density and fractures. A role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of low bone mineral density is possible but still unclear. The relationship between low spine bone mineral density measured by means of dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spines, and levels of past and recent physical activity has been assessed by means of a population-based screening study carried out on 1373 women (age 40-64 years) in the North-East of Italy. Physical activity at work and in leisure time was investigated for three specific periods of life: at age 12, between 15 and 19 years (during bone formative years), and in the recent years prior to the interview (30-39 or 50-59 years). Data were analysed comparing low versus high bone mineral density tertile (i.e., 458 and 461 women, respectively), after controlling for other known contributory factors in the development of osteoporosis. A positive association emerged with leisure time physical activity, with significant trends at age 15-19 (odds ratio (OR) for low versus high tertile of leisure time activity: 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4) and at most recent age (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Risk trends with occupational physical activity were less clear and non-statistically significant. The present Southern European cross-sectional study lends further support to the possibility that past and recent physical activity helps increasing bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Although the most beneficial type and intensity level of exercise has yet to be determined, the present results provide further evidence that participation in even moderate exercise programs should be encouraged

  16. Methodological study for the determination the bone density of bovines in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are diseases in vertebrates associated with the structure of bone tissue that directly affect the locomotor system of the animal. Being an endoskeleton, the diagnosis of these diseases becomes difficult in vivo. The characterization of the physical structure of the bone tissue of healthy animals becomes a major tool in the diagnosis comparison of live animals. Thus, the objective of this work is to determine the average value of the key physical properties of the bone structure used in the clinical diagnosis, such as: bone density, and mass attenuation coefficient of 59.6 keV photons of bone tissue and bovine and equine check variations in these values. The samples were provided by the pathology department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny of Botucatu - Sao Paulo, which are of one male equine and one female bovine animals, using the radio and metacarpus. They were withdrawn ten samples in cuts of 10 cm over the bone. These samples were submitted to the wet method of immersion in water for the density, by the method of attenuation of gamma radiation of radioisotope 241Am, it is estimated the mass attenuation coefficient, and then were dried in the oven for determining the content moisture. (author)

  17. Methodological study for the determination the bone density of bovines in laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklauss, Dany Bruno Borella dos Santos; Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica

    2009-07-01

    Full text: There are diseases in vertebrates associated with the structure of bone tissue that directly affect the locomotor system of the animal. Being an endoskeleton, the diagnosis of these diseases becomes difficult in vivo. The characterization of the physical structure of the bone tissue of healthy animals becomes a major tool in the diagnosis comparison of live animals. Thus, the objective of this work is to determine the average value of the key physical properties of the bone structure used in the clinical diagnosis, such as: bone density, and mass attenuation coefficient of 59.6 keV photons of bone tissue and bovine and equine check variations in these values. The samples were provided by the pathology department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny of Botucatu - Sao Paulo, which are of one male equine and one female bovine animals, using the radio and metacarpus. They were withdrawn ten samples in cuts of 10 cm over the bone. These samples were submitted to the wet method of immersion in water for the density, by the method of attenuation of gamma radiation of radioisotope {sup 241}Am, it is estimated the mass attenuation coefficient, and then were dried in the oven for determining the content moisture. (author)

  18. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  19. Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Hubert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss.

  20. Three-year experience with combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in Japanese patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Yoshihiro Sato2, Mitsuyoshi Uzawa3, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keiyu Orthopaedic Hospital, Gunma, JapanPurpose: Combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol is more useful to increase bone mineral density (BMD than alendronate or alfacalcidol alone. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the 3-year outcome of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in patients with severe bone loss (BMD ≤ 50% of the young adult mean and osteoporotic fracture.Methods: Thirty-four patients (six men and 28 postmenopausal women with primary or secondary osteoporosis who had been treated with alendronate and alfacalcidol for more than 3 years were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was assessed.Results: The urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (-42.5% at 3 months and -18.9% at 3 years, and the lumbar spine BMD, but not the total hip BMD, significantly increased (14.8% at 3 years, compared with the baseline values. However, the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was 26.5% and 2.9%, respectively, suggesting a high incidence of vertebral fractures.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol may be useful to reduce bone turnover and increase the lumbar spine BMD in patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. However, its efficacy against vertebral fractures appears not to be sufficient. Thus, anabolic agents such as teriparatide should be taken into consideration as first-line drugs in patients with severe osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis

  1. Association of lipid profile with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Yazd province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Mortezaii-Shoroki, Zahra; Modarresi, Mozhgan; Dehghan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low bone mass is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. There is no general agreement regarding relationship between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the association between lipid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years old with menopause for at least one year from Yazd, Iran, between March 2013 to September 2013. Association of lipid profile and BMD were measured in all study participants. Results: Among our participants 73 cases had lumbar osteoporosis, 17 cases had femoral osteoporosis and 80 cases did n’t have osteoporosis. After controlling for body mass index, there were no correlations between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density of femur and lumbar bones. Conclusion: No significant association between serum level of lipids and BMD of femur and lumbar was found in postmenopausal women. PMID:27738662

  2. Gait analysis, bone and muscle density assessment for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Magnússon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA is performed with or without the use of bone cement. Facing the lack of reliable clinical guidelines on decision making whether a patient should receive THA with or without bone cement, a joint clinical and engineering approach is proposed here with the objective to assess patient recovery developing monitoring techniques based on gait analysis, measurements of bone mineral density and structural and functional changes of quadriceps muscles. A clinical trial was conducted with 36 volunteer patients that were undergoing THA surgery for the first time: 18 receiving cemented implant and 18 receiving non-cemented implant. The patients are scanned with Computer Tomographic (CT modality prior-, immediately- and 12 months post-surgery. The CT data are further processed to segment muscles and bones for calculating bone mineral density (BMD. Quadriceps muscle density Hounsfield (HU based value is calculated from the segmented file on healthy and operated leg before and after THA surgery. Furthermore clinical assessment is performed using gait analysis technologies such as a sensing carpet, wireless electrodes and video. Patients undergo these measurements prior-, 6 weeks post - and 52 weeks post-surgery. The preliminary results indicate computational tools and methods that are able to quantitatively analyze patient’s condition pre and post-surgery: The spatial parameters such as step length and stride length increase 6 weeks post op in the patient group receiving cemented implant while the angle in the toe in/out parameter decrease in both patient groups.

  3. Power loss and electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive metamaterial medium

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Pi-Gang

    2009-01-01

    The power loss and electromagnetic energy density of a metamaterial consisting of arrays of wires and split-ring resonators (SRRs) are investigated. We show that a field energy density formula can be derived consistently from both the electrodynamic (ED) approach and the equivalent circuit (EC) approach. The derivations are based on the knowledge of the dynamical equations of the electric and magnetic dipoles in the medium and the correct form of the power loss. We discuss the role of power l...

  4. Decreased trabecular bone biomechanical competence, apparent density, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueland, Thor; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus;

    2002-01-01

    of these growth factors in relation to biomechanical properties in acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trabecular bone biomechanical competence (compression test), apparent density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pQCT), and bone matrix contents of calcium (HCl hydrolysis) and IGFs (guanidinium......-HCl extraction) were measured in iliac crest biopsies from 13 patients with active acromegaly (two women and 11 men, aged 21-61 years) and 21 age- and sex-matched controls (four women and 17 men, aged 23-64 years). RESULTS: Trabecular bone pQCT was reduced in acromegalic patients compared with controls (P = 0...... bone content of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or osteocalcin. However, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content was decreased (P acromegaly, supporting previous observations...

  5. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess...

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess....

  7. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  8. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  9. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstract