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Sample records for bone conduction

  1. Suboccipital neuropathy after bone conduction device placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, H.T.; Ru, J.A. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of a 70-year-old female with occipital neuropathy following bone conduction device surgery. DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old woman underwent bone conduction device placement surgery on the left temporal bone. Postoperatively she progressively developed c

  2. Active Bone Conduction Prosthesis: BonebridgeTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernotti, Mario E.; Sarasty, Andrea Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bone conduction implants are indicated for patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss, as well as for patients with single-sided deafness (SSD). The transcutaneous technology avoids several complications of the percutaneous bone conduction implants including skin reaction, skin growth over the abutment, and wound infection. The Bonebridge (MED-EL, Austria) prosthesis is a semi-implantable hearing system: the BCI (Bone Conduction Implant) is the implantable part that contains the Bone Conduction-Floating Mass Transducer (BC-FMT), which applies the vibrations directly to the bone; the external component is the audio processor Amadé BB (MED-EL, Austria), which digitally processes the sound and sends the information through the coil to the internal part. Bonebridge may be implanted through three different approaches: the transmastoid, the retrosigmoid, or the middle fossa approach. Objective This systematic review aims to describe the world́s first active bone conduction implant system, Bonebridge, as well as describe the surgical techniques in the three possible approaches, showing results from implant centers in the world in terms of functional gain, speech reception thresholds and word recognition scores. Data Synthesis The authors searched the MEDLINE database using the key term Bonebridge. They selected only five publications to include in this systematic review. The review analyzes 20 patients that received Bonebridge implants with different approaches and pathologies. Conclusion Bonebridge is a solution for patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss and SSD with different surgical approaches, depending on their anatomy. The system imparts fewer complications than percutaneous bone conduction implants and shows proven benefits in speech discrimination and functional gain. PMID:26491482

  3. Active Bone Conduction Prosthesis: Bonebridge(TM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernotti, Mario E; Sarasty, Andrea Bravo

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Bone conduction implants are indicated for patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss, as well as for patients with single-sided deafness (SSD). The transcutaneous technology avoids several complications of the percutaneous bone conduction implants including skin reaction, skin growth over the abutment, and wound infection. The Bonebridge (MED-EL, Austria) prosthesis is a semi-implantable hearing system: the BCI (Bone Conduction Implant) is the implantable part that contains the Bone Conduction-Floating Mass Transducer (BC-FMT), which applies the vibrations directly to the bone; the external component is the audio processor Amadé BB (MED-EL, Austria), which digitally processes the sound and sends the information through the coil to the internal part. Bonebridge may be implanted through three different approaches: the transmastoid, the retrosigmoid, or the middle fossa approach. Objective This systematic review aims to describe the world́s first active bone conduction implant system, Bonebridge, as well as describe the surgical techniques in the three possible approaches, showing results from implant centers in the world in terms of functional gain, speech reception thresholds and word recognition scores. Data Synthesis The authors searched the MEDLINE database using the key term Bonebridge. They selected only five publications to include in this systematic review. The review analyzes 20 patients that received Bonebridge implants with different approaches and pathologies. Conclusion Bonebridge is a solution for patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss and SSD with different surgical approaches, depending on their anatomy. The system imparts fewer complications than percutaneous bone conduction implants and shows proven benefits in speech discrimination and functional gain. PMID:26491482

  4. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahini A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aref Shahini,1 Mostafa Yazdimamaghani,2 Kenneth J Walker,2 Margaret A Eastman,3 Hamed Hatami-Marbini,4 Brenda J Smith,5 John L Ricci,6 Sundar V Madihally,2 Daryoosh Vashaee,1 Lobat Tayebi2,7 1School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, 2School of Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, 4School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA; 6Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University, New York, NY; 7School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA Abstract: Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly(4-styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent

  5. New developments in bone-conduction hearing implants: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Reinfeldt S; Håkansson B; Taghavi H; Eeg-Olofsson M

    2015-01-01

    Sabine Reinfeldt,1 Bo Håkansson,1 Hamidreza Taghavi,1 Måns Eeg-Olofsson21Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: The different kinds of bone-conduction devices (BCDs) available for hearing rehabilitation are growing. In this paper, all BCDs currently available or in c...

  6. Pressures in the human cochlea during bone conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Christof; Farahmand, Rosemary B.; Page, Brent F.; Roushan, Kourosh; Merchant, Julie P.; Abur, Defne; Rosowski, John J.; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of bone conduction (BC) hearing, which is important in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss, are poorly understood, thus limiting use of BC. Recently, information gained by intracochlear pressure measurements has revealed that the mechanisms of sound transmission that drive pressure differences across the cochlear partition are different for air conduction (AC) than for round-window stimulation. Presently we are utilizing these pressure measurement techniques in fresh human cadaveric preparations to improve our understanding of sound transmission during BC. We have modified our technique of intracochlear pressure measurements for the special requirements of studying BC, as bone vibration poses challenges for making these measurements. Fiberoptic pressure sensors were inserted through cochleostomies in both scalae at the base of the cochlea. The cochleostomies were then tightly sealed with the sensors in place to prevent air and fluid leaks, and the sensors were firmly secured to ensure uniform vibrations of the sensors and surrounding bone of the cochlea. The velocity of the stapes, round window and cochlear promontory were each measured with laser Doppler vibrometry simultaneous to the intracochlear pressure measurements. To understand the contribution of middle-ear inertia, the incudo-stapedial joint was severed. Subsequently, the stapes footplate was fixed (similar to the consequence of otosclerosis) to determine the effect of removing the mobility of the oval window. BC stimulation resulted in pressure in scala vestibuli that was significantly higher than in scala tympani, such that the differential pressure across the partition - the cochlear drive input - was similar to scala vestibuli pressure (and overall, similar to the relationship found during AC but different than during round-window stimulation). After removing the inertial mass of the middle ear, with only the stapes attached to the flexible oval window, all pressures dropped

  7. Evaluation of the Speech Test Via Bone Conduction in Normal Subjects Aged Between 18-25 Years Old

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Karimi; Marjan Sabri Leghayi

    1998-01-01

    Background and objectives: This article is aimed at: 1.studying the relationship between Bone conduction pure tone thresholds and speech reception thresholds via bone conduction in normal patients; 2.studying the stability and repeatability of the speech reception thresholds via bone conduction and 3. Comparing the characteristics of the function of the speech gain via bone conduction with that of air conduction. Method: 60 normal hearing subjects (30 males and 30 females) were evaluated by a...

  8. A possible third window for bone conducted hearing: Cochlear aqueduct vs. vestibular aqueduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkeun; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    A third window, which is another cochlear fluid pathway different from the oval window and round window, is considered to be a significant factor in bone-conducted hearing. A three-dimensional finite element model of the human ear consisting of the middle ear and cochlea was used to investigate the effect of the third windows on bone-conducted heraing. This study is aimed to find the third window which causes the consistent cochlear responses with previous studies in air-conducted hearing, and causes the asymmetry of the volume velocity ratio between the oval window and round window in bone-conducted hearing. The preliminary result shows that the cochlear aqueduct and the vestibular aqueduct with high impedance do not affect the basilar membrane velocity in air-conducted hearing. On the contrary, in bone-conducted hearing, the direction of the shaking structure for the bone-conducted stimulation as well as the third window can be a significant factor causing the asymmetry of the volume velocity ratio found by Stenfelt et al.

  9. Vibrant Soundbridge and Bone Conduction Hearing Aid in Patients with Bilateral Malformation of External Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids. PMID:26722343

  10. [Masking in bone-conduction testing--proposal of ABC method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y

    1992-11-01

    A new strategic masking technique, namely the ABC method, has been developed. In performing this method of measuring thresholds of bone-conduction, the vibrator is placed at the forehead with both ears occluded by air-conduction earphones. One of the earphones is for masking noise and the other is a dummy which balances out the occlusive effect of the test ear against the nontest ear. The ABC method is based on the ABC rule that, in bone-conduction testing, the effective masking noise level necessary to block out the nontest ear can be calculated by a simple equation: right AC (A) + left AC (B)--unmasked BCu (C) under the assumption that the BCu belongs to the nontest ear. In some cases of hearing loss, the above noise level might produce overmasking, then an additive safety noise level, BCu + Interaural Attenuation, is employed. This method offers testers step by step directions which consist of indications of the noise level and a criterion for determining whether the measured bone-conduction is free from cross hearing and overmasking for the given configuration of air-conduction of both ears, BCu, and the masking noise level. Compared to the well known Plato method, in which measurements of thresholds are repeated at several masking noise levels in order to find a single bone-conduction threshold, the ABC method can essentially find the threshold at only one masking noise level. Therefore the ABC method makes it possible to save a great deal of time in performing bone conduction testing. PMID:1464791

  11. CT pre-operative planning of a new semi-implantable bone conduction hearing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Eric K.C.; Bhatia, Kunwar S.S. [Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Tsang, Willis S.S.; Tong, Michael C.F. [Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Shi, Lin [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong, SAR (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Chow Yuk Ho Technology Center for Innovative Medicine, Hong Kong, SAR (China)

    2016-06-15

    Accommodating a novel semi-implantable bone conduction hearing device within the temporal bone presents challenges for surgical planning. This study describes the utility of CT in pre-operative assessment of such an implant. Retrospective review of pre-operative CT, clinical and surgical records of 16 adults considered for device implantation. Radiological suitability was assessed on CT using 3D simulation software. Antero-posterior (AP) dimensions of the mastoid bone and minimum skull thickness were measured. CT planning results were correlated with operative records. Eight and five candidates were suitable for device placement in the transmastoid and retrosigmoid positions, respectively, and three were radiologically unsuitable. The mean AP diameter of the mastoid cavity was 14.6 mm for the transmastoid group and 4.6 mm for the retrosigmoid group (p < 0.05). Contracted mastoid and/or prior surgery were predisposing factors for unsuitability. Four transmastoid and five retrosigmoid positions required sigmoid sinus/dural depression and/or use of lifts due to insufficient bone capacity. A high proportion of patients being considered have contracted or operated mastoids, which reduces the feasibility of the transmastoid approach. This finding combined with the complex temporal bone geometry illustrates the importance of careful CT evaluation using 3D software for precise device simulation. (orig.)

  12. Bone-conduction hearing aids in an elderly population: complications and quality of life assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Simon D; Moraleda, Javier; Baldwin, Alice; Ray, Jaydip

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether an elderly population with hearing impairment can be adequately rehabilitated with a bone-conduction hearing aid and whether the putative relationship between the elderly and an increased complication rate is justified. The study design was a retrospective case note review with a postal and telephone questionnaire, which was carried out in a tertiary centre. All patients aged 60 or over underwent implantation with a bone-conduction aid between 2009 and 2013 for conductive, SSD or mixed hearing loss. Outcome measures were complication rates and quality of life assessment using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory. The influence of patient and surgical factors on the complication rate was assessed. Fifty-one patients were implanted. Mean age was 67 years (range 60-89 years). The mean benefit, satisfaction and global GBI scores were 70 % (range 0-100 %), 70 % (0-100 %) and 82 % (83-100 %), respectively. The residual disability was 18 % (0-25 %). The adverse skin reaction rate was 16 % and the fixture loss rate was 2 %. There was a demonstrable increase in the complication rate with the dermatome (45 %; 5 patients) compared to the Sheffield 'S' (13 %; 2 patients) or linear incision techniques (29 %; 7 patients). The bone-conduction hearing aids are ideal method of hearing rehabilitation in the elderly for all forms of hearing loss. It provides significant benefit with no increased complication rate, which is imperative if social isolation is to be avoided and cognition preserved in this growing elderly population. PMID:25736468

  13. Craniocentric body-sway responses to 500 Hz bone-conducted tones in man

    OpenAIRE

    Welgampola, M. S.; Day, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-body responses evoked by bone-conducted sound, a stimulus known to activate vestibular afferents, were recorded in standing subjects deprived of vision. With the head facing forward, unilateral mastoid vibration (500 Hz, 2 s, 136 dB force level) produced an oblique body sway with a consistent lateral component away from the stimulated ear and an average forward component. The side of stimulation had a powerful influence on the direction but not the magnitude of sway. Individuals' mean r...

  14. Modeling of an optimized electrostimulative hip revision system under consideration of uncertainty in the conductivity of bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Zimmermann, Ulf; van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    Since several years, the number of total hip arthroplasty revision surgeries is substantially growing. One of the main reasons for this procedure to become necessary is the loosening or damage of the prothesis, which is facilitated by bone necrosis at the implant-bone interface. Electrostimulation is one promising technique, which can accelerate the growth of bone cells and, therefore, enhance the anchorage of the implant to the bone. We present computational models of an electrostimulative total hip revision system to enhance bone regeneration. In this study, the influence of uncertainty in the conductivity of bone tissue on the electric field strength and the beneficial stimulation volume for an optimized electrode geometry and arrangement is investigated. The generalized polynomial chaos technique is used to quantify the uncertainty in the stimulation volumes with respect to the uncertain conductivity of cancellous bone, bone marrow, and bone substitute, which is used to fill defective areas. The results suggest that the overall beneficial stimulation areas are only slightly sensitive to the uncertainty in conductivity of bone tissue. However, in the proximity of tissue boundaries, larger uncertainties, especially in the transition between beneficial and understimulation areas, can be expected. PMID:25898285

  15. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha(®) bone conduction implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha(R), now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse t...

  16. Individualised headband simulation test for predicting outcome after percutaneous bone conductive implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, S; Filippi, C; Atturo, F; Biagini, M; Lazzarino, A I; Barbara, M

    2015-10-01

    Trans-cutaneous bone conduction (BC) stimulators, when coupled to the HB (BC-HB), are generally used to predict the results that could be achieved after bone conductive implant (BCI) surgery, and their performance is generally considered inferior to that provided by the definitive percutaneous system. The aim of the present study was to compare the performances between BC-HB and BCI of the same typology, when the former's sound processor is fitted in accordance to the individual auditory situation. Twenty-two patients selected for surgical application of a BCI were evaluated and the same audiological protocol was used to select the candidate and assess the final outcome. The BC-HB was properly fitted based on individual hearing loss and personal auditory targets, and tested as primary step of the protocol to obtain the most reliable predictive value. The BAHA Divino and BP100 sound processors were applied in 12 patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss (CMHL) and in 10 subjects with single sided deafness (SSD). Audiometric evaluation included the pure tone average (PTA3) threshold between 250-1000 Hz; the PTA thresholds at 2000 and 4000 Hz; intelligibility scores as percentage of word recognition (WRS) in quiet and in noise; and subjective evaluation of perceived sound quality by a visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical evaluation with a student's t test was used for assessment of efficacy of BC-HB and BCI compared with the unaided condition. Spearman's Rho coefficient was used to confirm the reliability of the BC-HB simulation test as a predictor of definitive outcome. The results showed that the mean PTA difference between BCI and BC-HB ranged from 2.54 to 8.27 decibels in the CMHL group and from 1.27 to 3.9 decibels in the SSD group. Compared with the BC-HB, BCI showed a better WRS both in CMHL (16% in quiet and 12% in noise) and in SSD (5% in quiet and a 1% in noise) groups. Spearman's Rho coefficient, calculated for PTA, WRS in quiet and in noise and VAS

  17. Bone conduction responses of middle ear structures in Thiel embalmed heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andreas; Stieger, Christof; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Guignard, Jérémie

    2015-12-01

    Thiel-embalmed human whole-head specimens offer a promising alternative model for bone conduction (BC) studies of middle ear structures. In this work we present the Thiel model's linearity and stability over time as well as its possible use in the study of a fixed ossicle chain. Using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), the motion of the retroauricular skull, the promontory, the stapes footplate and the round window (RW) were measured. A bone-anchored hearing aid stimulated the ears with step sinus tones logarithmically spread between 0.1 and 10 kHz. Linearity of the model was verified using input levels in steps of 10 dBV. The stability of the Thiel model over time was examined with measurements repeated after hours and weeks. The influence of a cement-fixed stapes was assessed. The middle ear elements measured responded linearly in amplitude for the applied input levels (100, 32.6, and 10 mV). The variability of measurements for both short- (2 h) and long-term (4-16 weeks) repetitions in the same ear was lower than the interindividual difference. The fixation of the stapes induced a lowered RW displacement for frequencies near 750 Hz (-4 dB) and an increased displacement for frequencies above 1 kHz (max. +3.7 dB at 4 kHz). LDV assessment of BC-induced middle ear motion in Thiel heads can be performed with stable results. The vibratory RW response is affected by the fixation of the stapes, indicating a measurable effect of ossicle chain inertia on BC response in Thiel embalmed heads.

  18. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  19. Development of the software tool for generation and visualization of the finite element head model with bone conduction sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Dalibor; Milošević, Žarko; Saveljić, Igor; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Vibration of the skull causes a hearing sensation. We call it Bone Conduction (BC) sound. There are several investigations about transmission properties of bone conducted sound. The aim of this study was to develop a software tool for easy generation of the finite element (FE) model of the human head with different materials based on human head anatomy and to calculate sound conduction through the head. Developed software tool generates a model in a few steps. The first step is to do segmentation of CT medical images (DICOM) and to generate a surface mesh files (STL). Each STL file presents a different layer of human head with different material properties (brain, CSF, different layers of the skull bone, skin, etc.). The next steps are to make tetrahedral mesh from obtained STL files, to define FE model boundary conditions and to solve FE equations. This tool uses PAK solver, which is the open source software implemented in SIFEM FP7 project, for calculations of the head vibration. Purpose of this tool is to show impact of the bone conduction sound of the head on the hearing system and to estimate matching of obtained results with experimental measurements.

  20. Cochlear boundary motion during bone conduction stimulation: Implications for inertial and compressional excitation of the cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    It is well accepted that the perception of bone conducted (BC) sound in the human relies on multiple pathways. Of these pathways, the inertial forces in the cochlear fluid and compression and expansion of the cochlear space have been suggested to be the most important. However, the frequency ranges where these two pathways dominate have not been clarified. This was investigated here using a box-model of the inner ear to estimate wall motion for a one-dimensional BC longitudinal skull vibration. Based on the dimensions of the inner ear and a BC wave speed of 400 m/s, the magnitude of the inertial motion of the cochlea was almost identical to the magnitude of the BC excitation except at the highest frequencies investigated (10 kHz). The compression (differential motion) was almost 100 times smaller than the inertial motion at 100 Hz but increased with frequency and at 5.9 kHz and above, the compression motion was greater than the inertial motion of the cochlea. This data was further analyzed in an impedance model of the cochlea and vestibule where the cochlear fluid, basilar membrane, oval window, round window, and cochlear and vestibular aqueducts were represented by acoustical impedances. That analysis showed that for a normal cochlea, the inertial excitation dominates the basilar membrane excitation for the whole frequency range investigated (0.1 to 10 kHz). However, when the oval window was immobilized simulating otosclerosis, the inertial effect diminished and the compressional excitation mode improved resulting in a dominant excitation from the compression of the cochlea at frequencies of 1.2 kHz and above. Also, the simulated BC hearing losses with otosclerosis according to this model were almost identical to the proposed Carhart's notch seen clinically.

  1. Comparative outcomes of active and passive hearing devices by transcutaneous bone conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernotti, Mario Emilio; Di Gregorio, Maria Fernanda; Galeazzi, Pablo; Tabernero, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion Bonebridge (BB) and Sophono (SP) devices improved hearing; with the BB implant showing a better performance at medium and high frequencies. Furthermore, the BB, as an active implant, showed higher functional gain and increased time of use, when compared to the SP, a passive system. Objectives This study aims to compare surgical and audiological outcomes of SP and BB devices in order to assess and further differentiate the indication criteria. Methods Fourteen patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss were evaluated pre- and post-operatively (BB or SP) (period 2013-2014). Age, gender, surgical history, cause and type of hearing loss, implant use per day, levels of bone and air conduction, and functional gain were recorded. Data was analysed by Wilcoxon singed-rank and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results Fourteen patients (BB; n = 10 and SP; n = 4) with an average age = 25.42 years (CI95 = 12.41-38.43) were evaluated. The gender relation was equal (1:1), with pre-implantation osseous thresholds of 20.42 dB (CI95 = 11.15-29.69), and pre-implantation aerial thresholds of 70.83 dB (CI95 = 62.52-79.14). The SP wearing time was significantly lower than that of the BB (SP = 7-10 h/day, BB = 8-12 h/day; p = 0.0323). The functional gain did not differ significantly between the two devices (BB = 40.00 ± 13.19 dB, SP = 34.06 ± 15.63 dB; p = 0.3434), but a significant improvement from pre- to post-implantation was observed (p < 0.05). BB and SP decreased auditory thresholds at 1 and 2 kHz (< 0.01), respectively. The BB even significantly decreased thresholds at 0.5 kHz (p = 0.0140) and 4 kHz (p < 0.0001). No relevant surgical complications were found. PMID:26981711

  2. Simulation of bone-conducted sound transmission in a three-dimensional finite-element model of a human skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, You; Kim, Namkeun; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Bone conduction (BC) is the transmission of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull. This type of transmission is used in humans fitted with BC hearing aids as well as to classify between conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. The objective of the present study is to develop a finite-element (FE) model of the human skull based on cryosectional images of a female cadaver head in order to gain better understanding of the sound transmission. Further, the BC behavior was validated in terms of sound transmission against experimental data published in the literature. Results showed the responses of the simulated skull FE model were consistent with the experimentally reported data.

  3. Assessment of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity in CFTR-null mice after bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Price, Joanna E.; Cheng, Ee-chun; Weiner, Scott; Caputo, Christina; Ferreira, Elisa C.; Egan, Marie E.; Krause, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells give rise to rare epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory tracts after BM transplantation into myeloablated recipients. We investigate whether, after transplantation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-positive BM-derived cells, BM-derived GI and airway epithelial cells can provide CFTR activity in the GI tract and nasal epithelium of recipient cystic fibrosis mice. CFTR−/− mi...

  4. Loudness functions with air and bone conduction stimulation in normal-hearing subjects using a categorical loudness scaling procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Zeitooni, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study (Stenfelt and Håkansson, 2002) a loudness balance test between bone conducted (BC) sound and air conducted (AC) sound was performed at frequencies between 0.25 and 4 kHz and at levels corresponding to 30–80 dB HL. The main outcome of that study was that for maintaining equal loudness, the level increase of sound with BC stimulation was less than that of AC stimulation with a ratio between 0.8 and 0.93 dB/dB. However, because it was shown that AC and BC tone cancellation wa...

  5. Vibrotactile threshold for hairy skin and its transformation into equivalent bone-conduction loss for the mastoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoré, P J

    1984-01-01

    Vibrotactile thresholds for the glabrous skin of the hand and for the hairy skin of the arm are investigated as a function of frequency in the range from 40 to 2 000 Hz, using a heavy vibrator. These thresholds are expressed as equivalent bone-conduction loss and compared with vibrotactile thresholds determined with bone vibrators on the arm and mastoid for normally hearing and severely hearing-impaired subjects. The results are used to predict the vibrotactile threshold of the hairy skin of the mastoid under conditions of severe hearing impairment and deafness. The frequency characteristics of a number of vibrators are discussed with respect to their suitability for skin stimulation. PMID:6517747

  6. High frequency bone conduction auditory evoked potentials in the guinea pig: Assessing cochlear injury after ossicular chain manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, M J; Bird, P A; Vlajkovic, S M; Thorne, P R

    2015-12-01

    Permanent high frequency (>4 kHz) sensorineural hearing loss following middle ear surgery occurs in up to 25% of patients. The aetiology of this loss is poorly understood and may involve transmission of supra-physiological forces down the ossicular chain to the cochlea. Investigating the mechanisms of this injury using animal models is challenging, as evaluating cochlear function with evoked potentials is confounded when ossicular manipulation disrupts the normal air conduction (AC) pathway. Bone conduction (BC) using clinical bone vibrators in small animals is limited by poor transducer output at high frequencies sensitive to trauma. The objectives of the present study were firstly to evaluate a novel high frequency bone conduction transducer with evoked auditory potentials in a guinea pig model, and secondly to use this model to investigate the impact of middle ear surgical manipulation on cochlear function. We modified a magnetostrictive device as a high frequency BC transducer and evaluated its performance by comparison with a calibrated AC transducer at frequencies up to 32 kHz using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP). To mimic a middle ear traumatising stimulus, a rotating bur was brought in to contact with the incudomalleal complex and the effect on evoked cochlear potentials was observed. BC-evoked potentials followed the same input-output function pattern as AC potentials for all ABR frequencies. Deterioration in CAP and SP thresholds was observed after ossicular manipulation. It is possible to use high frequency BC to evoke responses from the injury sensitive basal region of the cochlea and so not rely on AC with the potential confounder of conductive hearing loss. Ongoing research explores how these findings evolve over time, and ways in which injury may be reduced and the cochlea protected during middle ear surgery. PMID:26493491

  7. Contralateral routing of signal hearing aid versus transcutaneous bone conduction in single-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Gaëlle; Bernardeschi, Daniele; Bensemman, Anissa; Coudert, Cyrille; Portal, Jean-Jacques; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Vicaut, Eric; Frachet, Bruno; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a contralateral routing of signal (CROS) hearing aid to a transcutaneous bone-anchored device in the same conditions. This prospective crossover study included 18 adult patients with a single-sided deafness (SSD). After a trial period of 60 days with CROS and 7 days with a transcutaneous bone-anchored device (Alpha 1®, Sophono, Boulder, Colo., USA) on a headband, 13 (72%) patients opted for Alpha 1, 2 patients for CROS, and 3 rejected both rehabilitation methods. Clinical tolerance, satisfaction, hearing performances (pure-tone audiometry, speech test in quiet and in noise, stereo audiometry, sound localization, and Hearing in Noise Test), and quality of life (Glasgow Benefit Inventory, Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaires) were measured at 3 and 12 months after the implantation. Both devices improved equally the hearing in noise and the quality of life. Transcutaneous devices represent an effective option in SSD. PMID:26021779

  8. Tuning nano-architectures and improving bioactivity of conducting polypyrrole coating on bone implants by incorporating bone-borne small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jingwen; Zhu, Ye; Yin, Zhaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid, a molecule present in fresh bone, was introduced into template-free electrochemical polymerization to form biocompatible coating made of polypyrrole (PPy) nano-cones on bone implants. It served not only as a dopant to tune the nano-architectures but also as a promoter to enhance bioactivity of the PPy-coated implants. PMID:25530857

  9. Law of cooling, heat conduction and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation laws fitted to experimental data for bones irradiated by CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Luc

    2014-03-01

    The rate of cooling of domesticated pig bones is investigated within the temperature range of 20°C-320°C. Within the afore-mentioned temperature range, it was found that different behaviors in the rate of cooling were taking place. For bones reaching a temperature within the lower temperature range of 20°C-50°C, it was found that the rate of cooling is mostly governed by the empirical Newton's law of cooling. It is also shown that a transition is taking place somewhere within 50°C-100°C, where both the heat conduction equation and Newton's law apply. As bones can be raised at a fairly high temperature before burning, it was found that the rate of cooling within the range 125°C-320°C is mostly behaving according to the heat conduction equation and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law. A pulsed CO2 laser was used to heat the bones up to a given temperature and the change of temperature as a function of time was recorded by non-contact infrared thermometer during the cooling period. PMID:24688807

  10. 正常青年人气、骨导听性脑干反应的比较研究%A comparative research on auditory brain stem reaction of air conduction and bone conduction in normal young people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宇虹; 梁力; 江刚

    2004-01-01

    conduction and bone conduction are different because of different auditory characteristics of these two transducers.OBJECTIVE: To discuss and compare the difference of auditory brain stem reaction(ABR) on air conduction(AC) and bone conduction(BC) for providing a gist in clinical application of bone-conducted auditory brain stem reaction.DESIGN: A self and inter control study was conducted.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The research was completed in a sound insulated and electric screened room of Department of Otolaryngology, Zhujiang Hospital, First Military Medical University. All subjects were a group of young people with normal hearing(31 male ears and 30 female ears) and an age from 19 to 23 years old(average 21.7 years old).INTERVENTIONS: American NicoIet spirit inducing electric potential instrument was introduced. The earphones for air conduction and bone conduction testing were TDH-39P and Radioear B-71 models, which accorded with GB/T 4851. 1 and GB/T 4854. 3 criteria after adjustment. The impedances of electrode were all less than 5 kΩ, and the impedance between electrodes was ≤4 kΩ. Short sound air-conducted and bone-conducted ABR for both ears were tested separately. The strength of stimulant started from 100 dB(nHL) (the maximum output of the machine) and decreased in turn by 20 dB(nHL), which was set as one grade, recorded twice. And 5 dB was chosen as one grade when closed to reactive threshold to induce the minimum repeatable sound strength as ABR threshold. Once ABR reactive threshold obtained, 60 dB(nHL) above threshold stimulant was operated to test air and bone conducted ABR and the latency of Ⅰ, Ⅲ, Ⅴ wave was recorded separately. Two groups of data obtained from same ear were self-paired for t test. The test results among normal young males and females were gone through unpaired t test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Threshold of air conduction and bone conduction for short sound in both males and females, latency and interval of each wave in air and bone

  11. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Produced by Bone-Conducted Stimuli: A Study on its Basics and Clinical Applications in Patients With Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss and a Group With Vestibular Schawannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvane Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP has recently been broadly studied in vestibular disorders. As it is evoked by loud sound stimulation, even mild conductive hearing loss may affect VEMP results. Bone-conducted (BC stimulus is an alternative stimulation for evoking this response. This study aims to assess the characteristics of BC-VEMP in different groups of patients.   Materials and Methods: We performed a cross sectional analysis on 20 healthy volunteers with normal pure-tone audiometry as a control group; and on a group of patients consisted of 20 participants with conductive hearing loss, five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and four with vestibular schawannoma. AC and BC-VEMP were performed in all participants.   Results: In control group the VEMP responses to both kinds of stimuli had an acceptable morphology and consisted of p13 and n23 waves. Latency value of these main components in each type of stimulus was not significantly different (P>0.05. However, the mean amplitude was larger in BC modality than AC stimulation (P=0.025. In the group with conductive hearing loss, the VEMP response was absent in fifteen (46.87% of the 32 ears using the AC method, whereas all (100% displayed positive elicitability of VEMP by BC method. Normal VEMP responses in both stimuli were evoked in all patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS, 2 (50.00% had neither AC-VEMP nor BC-VEMP. Conclusion:  Auditory stimuli delivered by bone conduction can evoke VEMP response. These responses are of vestibular origin and can be used in vestibular evaluation of patients with conductive hearing loss.

  12. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  13. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  14. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  15. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transmitted very efficiently through the head using bone conduction. The Baha device uses sound vibrations, and those ... changed from a normal soundwave into a bone conduction vibration, and that is what is passed then ...

  16. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  17. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S. K.; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  18. Bone Positron Emission Tomography with or without CT Is More Accurate than Bone Scan for Detection of Bone Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Na18F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Materials and Methods Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na18F, and a bone scan was perfo...

  19. Stability, Survival, and Tolerability of an Auditory Osseointegrated Implant for Bone Conduction Hearing: Long-Term Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Christine A.; Stalfors, Joacim; Wigren, Stina; Blechert, Johan Ivarsson; Flynn, Mark; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns; Aggarwal, Rohini; Green, Kevin; Nelissen, Rik C.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Hol, Myrthe K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare implant stability, survival, and soft tissue reactions for a novel (test) and previous generation (control) percutaneous auditory osseointegrated implant for bone conduction hearing at long-term follow-up of 5 years. Study Design: Single follow-up visit of a previously completed multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Patients: Fifty-seven of the 77 participants of a completed randomized controlled trial on a new auditory osseointegrated implant underwent a single follow-up visit 5 years after implantation, which comprised implant stability measurements and collection of Holgers scores. Additionally, implant survival was recorded for all 77 patients from the original trial. Results: The test implant showed significantly higher implant stability quotient (ISQ) values compared with the control implant throughout the 5-year follow-up. Mean area under the curve of ISQ high from baseline to 5 years was 71.6 (standard deviation [SD] ±2.0) and 66.7 (SD ±3.4) for the test and control implant, respectively (p < 0.0001). For both implants, the mean ISQ value recorded at 5 years was higher compared with implantation (test group +2.03 [SD ±2.55, within group p < 0.0001] and control group +2.25 [SD ±4.95, within group p = 0.12]). No difference was noticed in increase from baseline between groups (p = 0.64). Furthermore, evaluation of soft tissue reactions continued to show superiority of the test implant. At the 5-year follow-up visit, one patient (2.5%) presented with a Holgers grade 2 in the test group, compared with four patients (23.5%) in the control group (p = 0.048); no patient presented with more severe soft tissue reactions. Excluding explantations, the survival rate was 95.8% for the test group and 95.0% for the control group. The corresponding rates including explantations were 93.9 and 90.0%. Conclusion: The test implant showed superiority in terms of higher mean ISQ values and less adverse soft tissue reactions, both

  20. Law of cooling, heat conduction and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation laws fitted to experimental data for bones irradiated by CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Lévesque, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The rate of cooling of domesticated pig bones is investigated within the temperature range of 20°C-320°C. Within the afore-mentioned temperature range, it was found that different behaviors in the rate of cooling were taking place. For bones reaching a temperature within the lower temperature range of 20°C-50°C, it was found that the rate of cooling is mostly governed by the empirical Newton’s law of cooling. It is also shown that a transition is taking place somewhere within 50°C-100°C, wher...

  1. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  2. Air and Bone Conduction Thresholds of Deaf and Normal Hearing Subjects before and during the Elimination of Cutaneous-Tactile Interference with Anesthesia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nober, E. Harris

    The study investigated whether low frequency air and bone thresholds elicited at high intensity levels from deaf children with a sensory-neural diagnosis reflect valid auditory sensitivity or are mediated through cutaneous-tactile receptors. Subjects were five totally deaf (mean age 17.0) yielding vibrotactile thresholds but with no air and bone…

  3. Development of cartilage conduction hearing aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoi, H; S. Yanai; Nishimura, T; Sakaguchi, T.; T. Iwakura; Yoshino, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The potential demand for hearing aids is increasing in accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries. Because certain patients cannot use air conduction hearing aids, they usually use bone conduction hearing aids. However, bone does not transmit sound as efficiently as air, and bone conduction hearing aids require surgery (bone anchored hearing aid) or great pressure to the skull. The first purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a new sound conduction ...

  4. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  5. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  6. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  7. Issues in modern bone histomorphometry☆

    OpenAIRE

    Recker, R R; Kimmel, D. B.; Dempster, D.; Weinstein, R S; Wronski, T.J.; Burr, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on proceedings of a bone histomorphometry session conducted at the Fortieth International IBMS Sun Valley Skeletal Tissue Biology Workshop held on August 1, 2010. The session was prompted by recent technical problems encountered in conducting histomorphometry on bone biopsies from humans and animals treated with anti-remodeling agents such as bisphosphonates and RANKL antibodies. These agents reduce remodeling substantially, and thus cause problems in calculating bone remo...

  8. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  9. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  10. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  11. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  12. Immunoregulation of bone remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai; Mehdi, Abbass A; Srivastava, Rajeshwer N; Verma, Nar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling, a continuous physiological process maintains the strength of the bones, which maintains a delicate balance between bone formation and resorption process. This review gives an insight to the complex interaction and correlation between the bone remodeling and the corresponding changes in host immunological environment and also summarises the most recent developments occuring in the understanding of this complex field. T cells, both directly and indirectly increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL); a vital step in the activation of osteoclasts, thus positively regulates the osteoclastogenesis. Though various cytokines, chemikines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules are shared by both skeletal and immune systems, but researches are being conducted to establish and analyse their role and / or control on this complex but vital process. The understanding of this part of research may open new horizons in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, resulting into bone loss and that of osteoporosis also. PMID:22837895

  13. Bone position emission tomography with or without CT Is more accurate than bone scan for detection of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na18F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na18F, and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p 8F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation.

  14. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  15. Bone conduction hearing in congenital aural atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lichun; Gao, Na; Yin, Yanbo; Yang, Lin; Xie, Youzhou; Chen, Ying; Dai, Peidong; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-07-01

    Previous researches focusing on BC hearing mechanisms proved that the two routes, (1) EAC sound radiation and (2) inertial of ossicular chain, partially contribute to normal BC hearing. Therefore, the BC hearing for those patients with congenital aural atresia should partially decrease theoretically due to their abnormal anatomy. However, there are not many studies which mention these patients' BC hearing up till now. The objective of this study is to investigate congenital aural atresia patient's BC hearing by analysis of pre-surgical audiogram and to study their potential BC hearing mechanisms using animal modeling and their ABR measurements. The study methoed involves analyzing 75 patients' pre-operative audiogram. Then we produced an animal model by surgery to measure their BC hearing threshold changes. Clinical data showed that those patients had some BC hearing loss; and there were 25 cases (25/75, 33.3 %) which present with typical Carhart's Notch. The animal experiments proved that inertia of ossicular chain contribute to partial BC hearing, which demonstrated that the inertia produced more affects on high frequencies by comparing with low frequencies. The patients with congenital aural atresia present BC hearing loss, which could be mainly ascribed to the absence of inertia of ossicular chain. PMID:26205153

  16. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... appropriately. The way the device works is it uses the fact that sound is transmitted very efficiently ... the head using bone conduction. The Baha device uses sound vibrations, and those vibrations then are passed ...

  17. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as the bone conduction thresholds, which is the test of the sensory ability of the inner ear, ... and also responses to pure tones, which would test their hearing throughout the hearing range from low, ...

  18. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  19. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  20. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  1. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  2. Cartilage conduction hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Levitt, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Sound information is known to travel to the cochlea via either air or bone conduction. However, a vibration signal, delivered to the aural cartilage via a transducer, can also produce a clearly audible sound. This type of conduction has been termed "cartilage conduction." The aural cartilage forms the outer ear and is distributed around the exterior half of the external auditory canal. In cartilage conduction, the cartilage and transducer play the roles of a diaphragm and voice coil of a loudspeaker, respectively. There is a large gap between the impedances of cartilage and skull bone, such that cartilage vibrations are not easily transmitted through bone. Thus, these methods of conduction are distinct. In this study, force was used to apply a transducer to aural cartilage, and it was found that the sound in the auditory canal was amplified, especially for frequencies below 2 kHz. This effect was most pronounced at an application force of 1 N, which is low enough to ensure comfort in the design of hearing aids. The possibility of using force adjustments to vary amplification may also have applications for cell phone design. PMID:25234994

  3. Solid freeform fabrication of bone tissue engineering scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhuo; YAN Yongnian; ZHANG Renji; CHEN Lifeng; WANG Li

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTIONTissue engineering is a promising approach to large segmental bone repair fortrauma, replacement surgery, skeletal deficiency or abnormal development. Thefabrication of bone regeneration scaffolds with appropriate bone conductive property,bone inductive property, biodegradation property and mechanical properties is thecrux of this approach.

  4. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  5. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  6. Development of cartilage conduction hearing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hosoi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The potential demand for hearing aids is increasing in accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries. Because certain patients cannot use air conduction hearing aids, they usually use bone conduction hearing aids. However, bone does not transmit sound as efficiently as air, and bone conduction hearing aids require surgery (bone anchored hearing aid or great pressure to the skull. The first purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a new sound conduction pathway via the cartilage. The second purpose is to develop a hearing aid with a cartilage conduction transducer for patients who cannot use regular air conduction hearing aids.Design/methodology/approach: We examined the hearing ability of a patient with atresia of both external auditory meatuses via three kinds of conduction pathways (air, bone, and cartilage. After the best position for the cartilage conduction transducer was found, audiometric evaluation was performed for his left ear with an insertion earphone (air conduction, a bone conduction transducer, and a cartilage conduction transducer. Then we made a new hearing aid using cartilage conduction and got subjective data from the patients.Findings: The tragal cartilage was the best position for the cartilage conduction transducer. The patient’s mean hearing levels were 58.3 dBHL, 6.7 dBHL, and 3.3 dBHL for air conduction, bone conduction, and cartilage conduction respectively. The hearing ability of the patients obtained from the cartilage conduction hearing aid was comparable to those from the bone conduction hearing aid.Practical implications: Hearing levels using cartilage conduction are very similar to those via bone conduction. Cartilage conduction hearing aids may overcome the practical disadvantages of bone conduction hearing aids such as pain and the need for surgery.Originality/value: We have clarified the efficacy of the cartilage conduction pathway and developed a prototype

  7. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  8. Estudo dos limiares eletrofisiológicos das vias aérea e óssea em crianças com até 2 meses de idade Electrophysiologic threshold study in air and bone conduction in children with 2 months or less age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nápole Fichino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico diferencial de perdas auditivas com potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico por via aérea e por via óssea em crianças pequenas tem sido pouco estudado no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Comparar as respostas do potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico por vias aérea e óssea em crianças de até 2 meses de idade sem perdas auditivas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 12 crianças que passaram na triagem auditiva, por meio do potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico por via aérea e via óssea. A via óssea foi realizada sem mascaramento contralateral. As respostas foram comparadas e analisadas por meio do teste de McNemar e pela análise de variância com medidas repetidas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística no limiar eletrofisiológico por via aérea e via óssea (p>0,05. O tempo de latência por via óssea foi estatisticamente maior do que o tempo de latência por via aérea (p=0,000. CONCLUSÃO: Houve concordância no registro do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico captado por vias aérea e óssea nas intensidades próximas ao limiar auditivo; a latência da onda V registrada por via óssea foi estatisticamente maior que a registrada por via aérea.The differential diagnosis of hearing loss with air and bone Auditory Brainstem Response in small children has not been enough studied in Brazil. AIM: To compare air and bone Auditory Brainstem Response results in children under 2 months of age with normal hearing. STUDY DESIGN: clinical with transversal cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 children who passed the hearing screening were evaluated using air and bone Auditory Brainstem Response. No contralateral masking was used in the bone conduction test. The responses were compared and analyzed by the McNemar test and repetitive measurements of the variance test. RESULTS: There were no statistic differences between air and bone

  9. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian; Gehrchen, P Martin; Kiaer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws.......A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws....

  10. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  11. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  12. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  13. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  14. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  16. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  17. The conductivity of neonatal piglet skulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first measured values of conductivities for neonatal mammalian skull samples. We measured the average radial (normal to the skull surface) conductivity of fresh neonatal piglet skull samples at 1 kHz and found it to be around 30 mS m−1 at ambient room temperatures of about 23 °C. Measurements were made on samples of either frontal or parietal cranial bone, using a saline-filled cell technique. The conductivity value we observed was approximately twice the values reported for adult skulls (Oostendorp et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47 1487–92) using a similar technique, but at a frequency of around 5 Hz. Further, we found that the conductivity of skull fragments increased linearly with thickness. We found evidence that this was related to differences in composition between the frontal and parietal bone samples tested, which we believe is because frontal bones contained a larger fraction of higher conductivity cancellous bone material

  18. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  19. Battling Brittle Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The accuDEXA(R) Bone Mineral Density Assessment System, manufactured by Schick Technologies, Inc., utilizes "camera on a chip" sensor technology invented and developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Schick's accuDEXA system offers several advantages over traditional osteoporosis tests, which assess bone density loss in the hip and spine, and require specialized personnel to conduct. With accuDEXA, physicians can test the entire body's bone density at a peripheral site, such as the finger, without applying gels or having patients remove garments. Results are achieved in 30 seconds and printed out in less than a minute, compared to the estimated exam time of 15 minutes for hip and spine density analyses. Schick has also applied the CMOS APS technology to a new software product that performs dental radiography using up to 90 percent less radiation exposure than conventional X-rays. Called Computed Dental Radiography(R), the new digital imaging product utilizes an electronic sensor in place of X-ray film to generate sharp and clear images that appear on a computer screen within 3 seconds, and can be enlarged and enhanced to identify problems.

  20. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Jou, I.-M.; Lee, B.-F.; Yao, W.-J.; Tu, D.-G.; Wu, P.-S

    2000-05-01

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  1. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  2. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  3. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  4. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  5. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824

  6. Bone strength: more than just bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The following bone density measurements have limited utility in determining bone strength because they do not include bone quality: microarchitecture, mineralization, ability to repair damage, collagen structure, crystal size, or marrow composition. Patients with kidney disease have poor bone quality. Newman et al. now describe beneficial effects with raloxifene in an animal model of progressive kidney disease. These biomechanical measurements will be important in the development of medications to decrease fractures in patients. PMID:26759040

  7. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  8. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of bone ...

  9. Biochemical markers of bone turnover and their association with bone marrow lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, D.J.; LaValley, M.; Li, J.; Bauer, D.C.; Nevitt, M.; Groot, J. de; Poole, R.; Eyre, D.; Guermazi, A.; Gale, D.; Totterman, S.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Our objective was to determine whether markers of bone resorption and formation could serve as markers for the presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Methods: We conducted an analysis of data from the Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study (BOKS). Knee magnetic resonance images were

  10. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  11. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  12. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  13. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  14. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  15. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  16. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal Sanjay; Chauhan Vijendra; Sharma Sansar; Maheshwari Rajesh; Juyal Anil; Raghuvanshi Shailendra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autologous cancellous bone is the most effective biological graft material. However, harvest of autologous bone is associated with significant morbidity. Since porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate are biodegradable materials and can be replaced by bone tissue, but it lacks osteogenic property. We conducted a study to assess their use as a scaffold and combine them with bone marrow aspirate for bone regeneration using its osteogenic property for posterolateral spina...

  17. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  18. A new concept for implant fixation: bone-to-bone biologic fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D-Y; Kim, J-R; Jang, K Y; Lee, K-B

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to reduce complications of bone implant, such as pedicle screw loosening. To address this problem, the authors suggest a new concept of bone-to-bone biologic fixation using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded cannulated pedicle screws. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 is an osteoinductive cytokine. Four types of titanium pedicle screws were tested (uncannulated, cannulated with no loading, beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-loaded, and TCP/BMP2 loaded) using 16 miniature pigs. Radiological evaluation was conducted to assess the fusion and loosening of pedicle screws. Twelve weeks after implantation, peak torsional extraction torque was measured, and the pedicle screw and bone interface was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histologic examination. The mean value of the radiological score was significantly greater in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group at 12 weeks post-operation compared to those in the other groups. CT images showed distinct bone formation surrounding TCP/BMP2 loaded cannulated pedicle screws compared to the other groups. Mean extraction torsional peak torque at 12 weeks postoperative was more than 10-fold higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screw group than in the other groups. Bone surface and bone volume, as quantitated through µCT, were higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group. Histologic examination revealed bone-to-bone fixation at the interface of pedicle screws and pre-existing bone. Bone-to-bone biologic fixation through the holes of TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screws significantly increased fixation strength and represents a novel method that can be applied to osteoporotic or tumour spine surgeries. PMID:25978116

  19. A new concept for implant fixation: bone-to-bone biologic fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D-Y Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to reduce complications of bone implant, such as pedicle screw loosening. To address this problem, the authors suggest a new concept of bone-to-bone biologic fixation using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2-loaded cannulated pedicle screws. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 is an osteoinductive cytokine. Four types of titanium pedicle screws were tested (uncannulated, cannulated with no loading, beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP-loaded, and TCP/BMP2 loaded using 16 miniature pigs. Radiological evaluation was conducted to assess the fusion and loosening of pedicle screws. Twelve weeks after implantation, peak torsional extraction torque was measured, and the pedicle screw and bone interface was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (µCT and histologic examination. The mean value of the radiological score was significantly greater in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group at 12 weeks post-operation compared to those in the other groups. CT images showed distinct bone formation surrounding TCP/BMP2 loaded cannulated pedicle screws compared to the other groups. Mean extraction torsional peak torque at 12 weeks postoperative was more than 10-fold higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screw group than in the other groups. Bone surface and bone volume, as quantitated through µCT, were higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group. Histologic examination revealed bone-to-bone fixation at the interface of pedicle screws and pre-existing bone. Bone-to-bone biologic fixation through the holes of TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screws significantly increased fixation strength and represents a novel method that can be applied to osteoporotic or tumour spine surgeries.

  20. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  1. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  2. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  3. The BMD muddle: the disconnect between bone densitometry results and perception of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Joanna E M; Beaton, Dorcas E; Bogoch, Eal R; Elliot-Gibson, Victoria; Frankel, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a phenomenological qualitative study to examine fracture patients' interpretations of their most recent bone densitometry results and perceptions of their current bone health. English-speaking outpatients who had sustained a fragility fracture in the previous 18-24 mo and reported having at least 1 previous bone mineral density (BMD) test were eligible. Data were collected through semistructured interviews in patients' homes. Patients were asked to describe their most recent BMD test results and perception of their bone health status based on these results. Eighteen patients (14 women and 4 men) aged 49-82 yr were recruited. BMD results showed bone density in patients to be normal (n=4), osteopenic (n=9), and osteoporotic (n=5). A correct diagnosis was recalled by 6 patients. Two common interpretations of BMD test results emerged: (1) no news was considered to be good news (n=9) and (2) evidence of compromised bone health was not considered to be serious or accurate (n=6). Medication adherence did not appear to be associated with perception of bone health or actual BMD results. Patients' perceptions of their current bone health did not correspond to the results of their most recent BMD test. Standardized bone densitometry reporting may improve patients' understanding of their bone health. PMID:21029973

  4. Nanotechnology in the targeted drug delivery for bone diseases and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenyi Gu,1,2 Chengtie Wu,3 Jiezhong Chen,1 Yin Xiao1 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment approaches. Similarly, this technique has been used for treating bone diseases including bone regeneration. In this review, we have summarized and highlighted the recent advancement of nanostructured particles and scaffolds for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis, osteosarcoma, bone infections and inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as for bone regeneration. Nanoparticles used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules to specific bone sites for gene therapies are also included. The investigation of the implications of nanoparticles in bone diseases have just begun, and has already shown some promising potential. Further studies have to be conducted, aimed specifically at assessing targeted delivery and bioactive scaffolds to further improve their efficacy before they can be used clinically. Keywords: nanoparticles, nanostructured scaffold, cancer bone metastasis, bone diseases, target drug delivery, bone regeneration

  5. Conduction apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochipa, C; Rothi, L J; Heilman, K M

    1994-10-01

    A left hemisphere damaged patient with ideomotor apraxia is described, whose performance on pantomime to verbal command was superior to pantomime imitation. His reception of these same gestures (gesture naming) was spared. This syndrome has been named conduction apraxia. To account for this selective impaired performance on gesture imitation, a separation of the representations for gesture production and reception is proposed and a non-lexical gesture processing route for gesture imitation is suggested. PMID:7931387

  6. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending). PMID:25269164

  7. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF ARTHROSCOPY ASSISTED ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING BONE PATELLAR TENDON BONE AUTOGRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is one of the most frequently injured ligaments in the human body. 1 The Anterior Cruciate ligament (ACL is the primary stabilizer of the knee and prevents the knee against anterior translation. 2 It is also important in counteracting rotational and valgus stress. 1 The middle third of the patellar tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction can be readily procured and firmly fixed. 3 It can tolerate the loads produced by an intensive rehabilitation programme. 3 Fixation of bone plugs using interference screws provides sufficient stability to meet the demand of a vigorous postoperative protocol. 3 It remains the gold standard for ACL reconstruction. 3 This study is to assess the functional outcome of arthroscopy assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone patellar tendon bone autograft. METHODS: This study was conducted in Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital from November 2012 to April 2014. During this period 20 cases of adult patients with ACL deficient patients were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Study aims to assess the functional outcome of arthroscopy assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone - patellar tendon - bone autograft in terms of range of motion, postoperative knee stability, graft site morbidity and subjective knee functions. RESULTS: Results of our study showed that arthroscopy assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone - patellar tendon - bone autograft could effectively improve knee stability and functions after surgery without any complication. CONCLUSION : Arthroscopy assisted anterior cruciate l igament reconstruction with bone - patellar tendon - bone autograft is an excellent treatment option for anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees. It provides a stable knee and reduces postoperative morbidity and enables early rehabilitation. The functional outcome of arthroscopy assisted anterior

  8. Myth & Bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Recently museums are re-discussing traditional practices, as they became concerned with visitors' experience and learning. In this study communication is found to be mono-directional, especially towards captive audiences, like primary school children. The diachronic perspective seems neglected, a...... design of a new interactive installation, conducted with 8-10 years old children. Field study and initial evaluation show that introduction of notions related to human life-cycle and myth may further enrich learning from children's perspective....

  9. Conducted Vasoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A Y; Sosnovtseva, Olga;

    2015-01-01

    , the underlying mechanisms are debated. Here, we focus on dynamical aspects of the problem hypothesizing the existence of a bistability-powered mechanism for regenerative pulse transmission along the endothelium. Bistability implies that the cell can have two different stable resting potentials and can......Conducted vasodilation is part of the physiological response to increasing metabolic demand of the tissue. Similar responses can be elicited by focal electrical or chemical stimulation. Some evidence suggests an endothelial pathway for nondecremental transmission of hyperpolarizing pulses. However...

  10. Radiological safety of bone mineral densitometry equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease leading to increased risk of bone fractures. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) is a well accepted clinical tool for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. There are several different modalities for BMD such as Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, Radiographic Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computerized Tomography. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is now well established as the method of choice for osteoporosis assessment. This study was conducted to assess the radiation dose to patients and staff from the standard scan modes

  11. Molecular mechanisms of bone formation in spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chávez, Susana Aideé; Quiñonez-Flores, Celia María; Pacheco-Tena, César

    2016-07-01

    Spondyloarthritis comprise a group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases characterized by its association to HLA-B27 and the presence of arthritis and enthesitis. The pathogenesis involves both an inflammatory process and new bone formation, which eventually lead to ankylosis of the spine. To date, the intrinsic mechanisms of the pathogenic process have not been fully elucidated, and our progress is remarkable in the identification of therapeutic targets to achieve the control of the inflammatory process, yet our ability to inhibit the excessive bone formation is still insufficient. The study of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis has been mostly conducted in animal models of the disease and only few experiments have been done using human biopsies. The deregulation and overexpression of molecules involved in the osteogenesis process have been observed in bone cells, mesenchymal cells, and fibroblasts. The signaling associated to the excessive bone formation is congruent with those involved in the physiological processes of bone remodeling. Bone morphogenetic proteins and Wnt pathways have been found deregulated in this disease; however, the cause for uncontrolled stimulation remains unknown. Mechanical stress appears to play an important role in the pathological osteogenesis process; nevertheless, the association of other important factors, such as the presence of HLA-B27 and environmental factors, remains uncertain. The present review summarizes the experimental findings that describe the signaling pathways involved in the new bone formation process in spondyloarthritis in animal models and in human biopsies. The role of mechanical stress as the trigger of these pathways is also reviewed. PMID:26838262

  12. The effect of smoking on bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, R. A.; Wilson, R. F.; Patel, P A; Palmer, R M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To review the systemic impact of smoking on bone healing as evidenced within the orthopaedic literature. Methods A protocol was established and studies were sourced from five electronic databases. Screening, data abstraction and quality assessment was conducted by two review authors. Prospective and retrospective clinical studies were included. The primary outcome measures were based on clinical and/or radiological indicators of bone healing. This review specifically focused on non...

  13. Natural History of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Bone Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Santini Daniele; Barni Sandro; Intagliata Salvatore; Falcone Alfredo; Ferraù Francesco; Galetta Domenico; Moscetti Luca; La Verde Nicla; Ibrahim Toni; Petrelli Fausto; Vasile Enrico; Ginocchi Laura; Ottaviani Davide; Longo Flavia; Ortega Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large, multicenter, retrospective survey aimed to explore the impact of tumor bone involvement in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.Data on clinical-pathology, skeletal outcomes and bone-directed therapies for 661 deceased patients with evidence of bone metastasis were collected and statistically analyzed. Bone metastases were evident at diagnosis in 57.5% of patients. In the remaining cases median time to bone metastases appearance was 9 months. Biphosphonates were administered in 59...

  14. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  15. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  16. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  17. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  18. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  19. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  20. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  1. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  2. Gelatin-Modified Bone Substitute with Bioactive Molecules Enhance Cellular Interactions and Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Ankur; Raina, Deepak Bushan; Lidgren, Lars; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we have synthesized injectable bone cement incorporated with gelatin to enhance cellular interaction. Human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) and a bisphosphonate (zoledronic acid (0.2 mM)) were also incorporated to cement. In vitro studies conducted using Saos-2 demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation on gelatin (0.2%w/v) cement. The differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells into bone forming cells showed 6-fold increase in ALP levels on gelatin cement. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bone biomarkers showed osteoinductive potential of gelatin cement. We investigated efficacy for local delivery of these bioactive molecules in enhancing bone substitution qualities of bone cements by implanting in 3.5 mm critical size defect in tibial metaphysis of wistar rats. The rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks and 16 weeks post implantation. X-ray, micro-CT, histology, and histomorphometry analysis were performed to check bone healing. The cement materials slowly resorbed from the defect site leaving HAP creating porous matrix providing surface for bone formation. The materials showed high biocompatibility and initial bridging was observed in all the animals but maximum bone formation was observed in animals implanted with cement incorporated with zoledronic acid followed by cement with BMP's compared to other groups. PMID:27077816

  3. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  4. Eating disorders and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  5. Bone densitometry and osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to provide a perspective on the current status of bone densitometry and its relevance to osteoporosis diagnosis and management. Therefore, this book will give the reader an introduction to the nature of osteoporosis, its pathophysiology and epidemiology, and the clinical consequences of performing bone densitometry. Aside from standard bone densitometry, newer technologies such as quantitative ultrasound techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and bone structure analysis are discussed in the context of diagnosing osteoporosis. (orig.)

  6. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  7. EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES FOR CLEANING EMBALMED CADAVER BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawani Shankar Modi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to find new technique for development of bone specimens from cadavers. Material and methods: Long bones, skull and other bones from embalmed cadaver were taken and cleansed by various methods. Four methods were employed for preparing specimens. In 1st method bones were boiled in tap water for 7-8 hours on gas stove. In 2nd method bones were immersed in water with addition of detergent at constant temperature. In 3rd method bones were kept at constant temperature in water without addition of detergent. In 4th method bones were buried for one month under superficial surface of soil during rainy season after boiling the bones for 7-8 hours Observations: Use of detergent in warm water (65o C was good for cleaning long bones while best result for long bones as well as skull was seen with boiling followed by burial of embalmed specimens. Results were found as expected. Time consumed in the present study was less than old classical methods. Bones specimens formed were of high quality. Conclusions: Preparation of bone specimen by embalmed cadaver can be of immense value and time saver for many research institutes to get their self-prepared specimens. There are many more ways which has to be modified or rediscovered in this area of research, which has been neglected so far.

  8. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  9. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  10. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  11. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  12. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  13. Application of Petri Nets in Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding a mechanism of bone remodeling is a challenging task for both life scientists and model builders, since this highly interactive and nonlinear process can seldom be grasped by simple intuition. A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs have been built for simulating bone formation as well as bone resorption. Although solving ODEs numerically can provide useful predictions for dynamical behaviors in a continuous time frame, an actual bone remodeling process in living tissues is driven by discrete events of molecular and cellular interactions. Thus, an event-driven tool such as Petri nets (PNs, which may dynamically and graphically mimic individual molecular collisions or cellular interactions, seems to augment the existing ODE-based systems analysis. Here, we applied PNs to expand the ODE-based approach and examined discrete, dynamical behaviors of key regulatory molecules and bone cells. PNs have been used in many engineering areas, but their application to biological systems needs to be explored. Our PN model was based on 8 ODEs that described an osteoprotegerin linked molecular pathway consisting of 4 types of bone cells. The models allowed us to conduct both qualitative and quantitative evaluations and evaluate homeostatic equilibrium states. The results support that application of PN models assists understanding of an event-driven bone remodeling mechanism using PN-specific procedures such as places, transitions, and firings.

  14. Bone stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications

  15. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction using Bone Patellar Tendon Bone autograft in ACL deficient Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Kumar Karn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Injury to Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL reconstruction has increased because of increased interest in sports. There are various grafts used for reconstruction of ACL, for example, Bone Patellar Tendon Bone, Hamstring etc. The study was conducted to evaluate the results of Bone Patellar Tendon Bone graft used for reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament.Materials & Methods: 40 patients with chronic ACL deficient knee presenting to Neuro Hospital from July 2011 to June 2013 were included in the study. The patients with intraarticular fracture of knee, severe OA knee, local active or suspected infection and systemic disease that might influence the study results were excluded from the study. Bone patellar tendon bone graft was harvested from ipsilateral knee in all the cases. The patient was followed till 2 year with specified programme of rehabilitation. The pain was assessed using VAS and the function of the knee was assessed using Modified WOMAC knee index.Results: The long term satisfactory results in terms of functional stability, symptom relief and return to preinjury level of activity was seen in 32 cases (80%. Two knees got infected out of which one required arthroscopic debridement. Mean visual analogue scale was 8 and modified WOMAC knee score was 3 at 2 year follow up.Conclusion: Bone patellar tendon bone graft is useful in high demand patients and cost effective option with high patient satisfaction rate for reconstruction of ACL.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:12-15.

  16. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  17. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  18. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  19. Bone fractures after menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Evers, J.L.H.; Glasier, A.; Negri, Eva; Papapoulos, Socrates E; Ralston, Stuart H; Rizzoli, Rene; Baird, D T; Collins, J.; G. Benagiano; P.G. Crosignani; La Vecchia, C.; Volpe, A

    2010-01-01

    Every year 30% of individuals above age 65 fall, and falls are the principal cause of bone fractures. To reduce fracture incidence requires both prevention of falls and maintenance of bone strength.PubMed searches were performed, for studies of the epidemiology of fractures, bone physiology, endocrine effects, osteoporosis measurement, genetics, prevention and effectiveness. Topic summaries were presented to the Workshop Group and omissions or disagreements were resolved by discussion.Ageing ...

  20. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  1. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  2. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  3. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  4. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  5. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  6. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Shahini A; Yazdimamaghani M; Walker KJ; Eastman MA; Hatami-Marbini H; Smith BJ; Ricci JL; Madihally SV; Vashaee D; Tayebi L

    2013-01-01

    Aref Shahini,1 Mostafa Yazdimamaghani,2 Kenneth J Walker,2 Margaret A Eastman,3 Hamed Hatami-Marbini,4 Brenda J Smith,5 John L Ricci,6 Sundar V Madihally,2 Daryoosh Vashaee,1 Lobat Tayebi2,7 1School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, 2School of Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, 4School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA; 6Department of Bio...

  7. Effect of Microstructure on Fatigue Strength of Bovine Compact Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Heon; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Akahori, Toshikazu; Takeda, Junji; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Despite its clinical importance in developing artificial bone, limited information is available regarding the microstructure with respect to the fatigue characteristics of bones. In this study, the fatigue characteristics of the bovine humerus and femur were investigated with respect to microstructures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the bovine humerus and femur at a stress ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue strength of the plexiform bone is slightly greater than that of the haversian bone. This is because the volume fraction of voids in the haversian bone, which is the site of stress concentration, is higher than that of voids in the plexiform bone. Several microcracks are observed on the fatigue fracture surface of the haversian bone. The microcracks are short and their propagation directions are random. However, the number of the microcracks in the plexiform bone is very small. The microcracks are relatively long and their propagation directions are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the lamellar bone. Therefore, the crack requires relatively more energy to propagate across the lamella in the plexiform bone.

  8. Characterization of bone microstructure using photoacoustic spectrum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Perosky, Joseph E; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Xu, Guan; Cheng, Qian; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X; Wang, Xueding

    2015-09-21

    Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the deterioration in bone microarchitecture. This study investigates the feasibility of characterizing bone microstructure by analyzing the frequency spectrum of the photoacoustic (PA) signal from the bone. Modeling and numerical simulation of PA signal were performed on trabecular bone simulations and CT scans with different trabecular thicknesses. The resulting quasi-linear photoacoustic spectra were fittted by linear regression, from which the spectral parameter slope was quantified. The simulation based on two different models both demonstrate that bone specimens with thinner trabecular thicknesses have higher slope. Experiment on osteoporotic rat femoral heads with different mineral content was conducted. The finding from the experiment was in good agreement with the simulation, demonstrating that the frequency-domain analysis of PA signals can provide an objective assessment of bone microstructure and deterioration. Considering that PA measurement is non-ionizing, non-invasive, and has sufficient penetration in both calcified and non-calcified tissues, this new bone evaluation method based on photoacoustic spectral analysis holds potential for clinical management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. PMID:26406719

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  13. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  14. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  15. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  16. Parathyroid and bone imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-Sen; LU Han-Kui; LUO Quan-Yong; CHEN Li-Bo; MA Ji-Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal derangements occur quite often in patient with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We investigated parathyroid and bone imagings in 59 cases of pathologically proven PHPT. Forty-nine cases were pathologically proven parathyroid adenomas; 8 presented hyperplasia and the other 2 were adenocarcinomas. Parathyroid imaging (early phase imaging, EPI) was conducted at 30 min after injecting 740~925MBq 99mTc-MIBI and 2~3h later (delayed phase imaging, DPI) separately. The following thyroid imagings were performed at the same posture 10 min after intravenous injection of 74~111MBq 99mTcO4-. The 99mTc- MIBI subtraction imaging data were obtained by subtracting thyroid imaging from that of DPI. Among 49 cases of proven hyperparathyroid adenoma 45 yielded positive imagings. Eight cases with hyperplasia gave negative results. The results were positive in 2 cases of parathyroid adenocarcinoma. Results of 99mTc-MDP/bone imaging: 35 cases of hyperparathyroid adenocarcinoma (disease duration 1-6 months) showed normal bone images, while 14 cases showed superscan images, course being 4-12 months. Bone imaging for 2 cases of adenocarcinoma showed multiple, radioactive aggregated foci (brown tumor imaging); course lasting 10-24 months. The results of bone imaging in 8 cases of hyperplasia/ hyperparathyroidism were normal. It was concluded that diagnostic accuracy for parathyroid was 79.6% and for parathyroid adenoma was 91.8%, and the technique has no diagnostic value for hyperplasia. The 99mTc-MDP / bone imaging results for PHPT can be classified into three categories, i.e. normal, superscan and brown tumor. The imaging results correlated well with the different categories and degrees of bone damage, the duration of clinical course and the pathological types. Therefore, it's important to use bone imaging data in association with therapy to reflect the stage and progress of PHPT.

  17. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  18. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  19. Do Premenopausal Hypothyroid Women on Levothyroxine Therapy Need Bone Status Monitoring?

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Ruby P.; Alap Christy; Anupama Hegde; Poornima Manjrekar; Vivian D’Souza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based case–control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30–45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and ...

  20. The normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses applications of the bone scan. It is the most frequently performed nuclear medicine investigation, the commonest indication being the detection of occult metastases, for which purpose the entire skeleton should be imaged. For other purposes it is often adequate to examine only part of the skeleton. The amount of isotope taken up at any site depends primarily on the local rate of bone turnover rather than on bone mass. The scintigraphic appearance therefore does not necessarily correlate with the radiographic one; however, as there is a relationship between the rate at which bone is replaced and the quantity of bone which is present at any point, the two appearances are not entirely unrelated. Recognition of abnormality is based on a detailed knowledge of normal scintigraphic appearances

  1. Bone markers and osteoporosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are involved in determining bone quality including bone density, bone turnover, the extent of trabecular bone connectivity, cortical porosity and geometry. Metabolically active and in a continuous process of remodeling, approximately 20% of bone tissue is renewed annually. Bone turn over markers (BTM are frequently used in clinical trials and to provide valid information about the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment, reflecting the state of bone metabolism and its response to treatment, although they are not useful alone to estimate bone loss. In this review the behavior of BTM from different clinical trials or different osteoporotic drugs will be addressed.

  2. Bone scanning in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on bone scanning in osteoporosis a diagnosis of osteoporosis most often follows fracture, and clearly this should be confirmed by x-ray. The bone scan therefore does not have an important role to play in the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis. While the exact mechanism by which the 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates localize in the skeleton is not fully understood, it is believed that they adsorb onto bone surfaces most probably via the calcium of hydroxyapatite crystals. Because the major factors that affect adsorption are osteoblastic activity and to a lesser extent skeletal vascularity, it is apparent that a bone scan image presents a functional display of skeletal metabolic activity. However, osteoporosis is a disorder in which gradual change in bone mass may occur over many years and, in keeping with this minor imbalance in skeletal metabolism, the bone scan appearances are usually normal. However, the scan images may appear of poor quality because of relatively low bone uptake of tracer with, on occasion, a washed-out pattern of activity in the axial and appendicular bone. It has been suggested that such a pattern occurs in severe or end-stage osteoporosis caused by markedly reduced osteoblastic activity. If kyphosis is observed on the bone scan or if there appears to be loss of spinal height with proximity of ribs to each other or increased closeness of rib cage to pelvis, then appearances suggest vertebral collapse and would be in keeping with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Such evidence is, however, indirect and in practice a bone scan is an extremely unreliable means of diagnosing osteoporosis

  3. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs

  5. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  6. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  7. Pathogenetic differentiation of the bone superscan using bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a 54-year old patient suffering from a prostatic carcinoma is presented. At the time of diagnosis multiple bone metastases were detected by bone scintigraphy. An initial improvement was observed following antiandrogenic therapy. After three years the patient presented with increasing bone pain, which was most prominent in the knee joints. A 'superscan' was found in bone scintigraphy with an unusually high uptake in the peripheral skeleton. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed a nearly complete metastatic displacement of central bone marrow and a peripheral marrow extension as explanation for the bone scan findings. (orig.)

  8. Bone cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the considerable disparity in published values of the risk for bone cancers from ionising radiation, the article 'An analysis of bone and head sinus cancers in radium dial painters using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model' by Leenhouts and Brugmans in the June 2000 issue of this Journal deserves further comment and consideration. The letter concludes that radiological protection and risk estimation has acquired an extra dimension, and it is clear that the risk of bone cancer from exposure to ionising radiation needs further review. Letter-to-the-editor

  9. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  10. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces and...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  11. Why date old bones?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for pretreatment and purification of bone have not been accorded the same standard protocols that are applied to other sample materials. Many users lack confidence in bone dates, with some justification, and it is not clear how to proceed. With the advent of AMS dating, it is becoming easy to date very small amounts of highly purified samples such as single amino acids from bone collagen. This note serves a warning that there are dangers in the uncritical application of powerful separation and measurement techniques to uncharacterized material. (orig.)

  12. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  13. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and periphe...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  17. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  18. Osteomyelitis of frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedil, V. N.; Raizada, R. M.; Singh, A. K. Kennedy; Puttewar, M. P.; Bali, S.

    2004-01-01

    A case of Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with a subperiosteal absces s, an extrudural abscess and a frontal sinus fistula is presented here for its rarity. A brief review of literature and management of the condition is also discussed.

  19. Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wiercigroch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H2 receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H3 receptor antagonist and H1 receptor agonist is used in the treatment of Ménière’s disease.Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results.Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H1 and H2 receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed.

  20. [Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercigroch, Marek; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H₁ receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H₂ receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H₃ receptor antagonist and H₁ receptor agonist) is used in the treatment of Ménière's disease. Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results. Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts). Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed. PMID:24018454

  1. Skull base bone hyperpneumatization

    OpenAIRE

    Houet, E J; Kouokam, L.M.; Nchimi, A L

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old male with a long standing history of compulsive Valsalva maneuvers, complaining of episodes of vertigo underwent head computed tomography. Axial CT slices at the level of the skull base (Fig. A) and the first cervical vertebrae (Fig. B) shows an extensive unusual pneumatization of both the body and lateral processes of the first cervical vertebrae (arrows), with air pouches dissecting planes between bone cortex and the periosteum around the occipital bone and the lateral process...

  2. Inca bones at asterion

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant E Natekar; Suhit E Natekar; Fatima M De Souza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid) fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, In...

  3. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  4. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  5. Detecting microdamage in bone.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, T Clive; Mohsin, Sahar; Taylor, David; Parkesh, Raman; Gunnlaugsson, TThorfinnur; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Giehl, Michael; Gowin, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium. Nonetheless, some artefactual cracks are partially stained and ...

  6. Fracture Nasal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and u...

  7. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography a...

  8. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and fu...

  9. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in ...

  10. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  11. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  12. Bone scintigraphy in the follow-up of thyroid carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with bone metastases of papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas (n=23 and n=92, resp.) a retrospective study is conducted to find out whether the follow-up requires bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastases. Although there was no case of primary diagnosis of bone metastases established by bone scintigraphy, further bone focusses that had not been detected by I-131-whole body scintigraphy nor by whole body radiology were found in 24 patients by bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy is of no use if applied as a routine to follow-up tumor patients with papillary of follicular thyroid carcinomas, but it is necessary if clinical findings, tumor markers, I-131 scans or X-rays suggest the occurence of metastases. (orig./TRV)

  13. Microstructural and physicochemical analysis of collagen in intramuscular pin bones of Bocachico fish (Prochilodus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Suárez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the presence of intramuscular pin bones hinders the production and commercialization of fish fillet products; however, application of physical processes, such as thermal treatments, offers alternatives for the degradation of said bones. Objective: the present study aimed to conduct a microstructural and physicochemical analysis of Bocachico intramuscular pin bones subjected to a thermal treatment. Methods: collagen extracted from intramuscular pin bones of Bocachico fillets was analyzed using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and viscosity. Pin bones were subjected to 1.5, 2, and 3 minutes heating time and analyzed using electron microscopy and cutting force. Results: intramuscular pin bones contain type I collagen. Threeminute thermal treatment degraded collagen components present in the internal pin bone structure, coinciding with the lowest values of the cutting force test. Conclusions: according to our results, collagen degradation initiates in the internal structure of intramuscular pin bones and moves towards the external layer which does not show the effects of thermal treatment.

  14. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  15. Crosstalk between cancer cells and bone microenvironment in bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, as well as lung and liver, is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites for cancers including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this preference need to be elucidated, it appears that bone microenvironments possess unique biological features that enable circulating cancer cells to home, survive and proliferate, and destroy bone. In conjunction, cancers that develop bone metastases likely have the capacity to utilize these unique bone environments for colonization and bone destruction. This crosstalk between metastatic cancer cells and bone is critical to the development and progression of bone metastases. Disruption of this interaction will allow us to design mechanism-based effective and specific therapeutic interventions for bone metastases

  16. [Morphological analysis of bone dynamics and metabolic bone disease. Histomorphometric concepts of bone remodeling and modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki E

    2011-04-01

    In tissue level turnover of bone cells, bone remodeling shows a sequential events of activation, resorption, reversal and formation. This may be observed as secondary osteons in the cortical bone and trabecular packets in the cancellous bone. Microcracks are repaired by targeted remodeling, and calcium is released by non-targeted remodeling. In macromodeling, a macroscopic size of a bone increases with growth, without changing its basic figure. In micromodelimg, a shift of trabecula, a minishift, is biomechnically controlled. New lamellar bone is added parallel to compressive and tensile force, and bone resorption occurs at the opposite surface of formation. In minimodeling new lamellar bone is formed with a sequence of activation, then directly formation, without scalloping at the cement line between newly formed bone and its basic bone. PMID:21447918

  17. A Brief Review of Bone Adaptation to Unloading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhang; Kazunori Hamamura; Hiroki Yokota

    2008-01-01

    Weight-bearing bone is constantly adapting its structure and function to mechanical environments. Loading through routine exercises stimulates bone formation and prevents bone loss, but unloading through bed rest and cast immobilization as well as exposure to weightlessness during spaceflight reduces its mass and strength. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying unloading-driven bone adaptation, ground-based in vitro and in vivo analyses have been conducted using rotating cell culturing and hindlimb suspension. Focusing on gene expression studies in osteoblasts and hindlimb suspension studies, this minireview introduces our recent understanding on bone homeostasis under weightlessness in space. Most of the existing data indicate that unloading has the opposite effects to loading through common signaling pathways. However, a question remains as to whether any pathway unique to unloading (and not to loading) may exist.

  18. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  19. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  20. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  1. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99mTc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99mTc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67Ga citrate and 111In white blood cells (111In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  2. Management of temporal bone trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alpen; Groppo, Eli

    2010-06-01

    The temporal bones are paired structures located on the lateral aspects of the skull and contribute to the skull base. Trauma is usually the result of blunt head injury and can result in damage to the brain and meninges, the middle and internal ear, and the facial nerve. Complications can include intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral contusion, CSF leak and meningitis, hearing loss, vertigo, and facial paralysis. To prevent these complications, diagnosis followed by appropriate medical and surgical management is critical. Diagnosis relies primarily on physical signs and symptoms as well as radiographic imaging. Emergent intervention is required in situations involving herniation of the brain into the middle ear cavity or hemorrhage of the intratemporal carotid artery. Patients with declining facial nerve function are candidates for early surgical intervention. Conductive hearing loss can be corrected surgically as an elective procedure, while sensorineural hearing loss carries a poor prognosis, regardless of management approach. Children generally recover from temporal bone trauma with fewer complications than adults and experience a markedly lower incidence of facial nerve paralysis. PMID:22110824

  3. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  4. Bone health in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman-Levin, N; Hochberg, Z; Latzer, Y

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) put adolescents and young adults at risk for impaired bone health. Low bone mineral density (BMD) with ED is caused by failure to accrue peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. Although ED patients diagnosed with bone loss may be asymptomatic, some suffer bone pains and have increased incidence of fractures. Adolescents with ED are prone to increased prevalence of stress fractures, kyphoscoliosis and height loss. The clinical picture of the various EDs involves endocrinopathies that contribute to impaired bone health. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by low bone turnover, with relatively higher osteoclastic (bone resorptive) than osteoblastic (bone formation) activity. Bone loss in AN occurs in both the trabecular and cortical bones, although the former is more vulnerable. Bone loss in AN has been shown to be influenced by malnutrition and low weight, reduced fat mass, oestrogen and androgen deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis, and more. Bone loss in AN may not be completely reversible despite recovery from the illness. Treatment modalities involving hormonal therapies have limited effectiveness, whereas increased caloric intake, weight gain and resumption of menses are essential to improved BMD. PMID:24165231

  5. Inca bones at asterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, India and other neighboring medical colleges by examining the asterion, and its sutural articulations with parietal, temporal and occipital bones and also anatomical variations if any in adults. Discussion: The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify. Bony structures are more suitable than soft tissue or cartilaginous landmarks because of their rigid and reliable location. Presence of these bones provides false impressions of fractures or the fractures may be interpreted for inca bones especially in the region of asterion either radiologically or clinically which may lead to complications during burr hole surgeries.

  6. Periostin action in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Periostin is a highly conserved matricellular protein that shares close homology with the insect cell adhesion molecule fasciclin 1. Periostin is expressed in a broad range of tissues including the skeleton, where it serves both as a structural molecule of the bone matrix and a signaling molecule through integrin receptors and Wnt-beta-catenin pathways whereby it stimulates osteoblast functions and bone formation. The development of periostin null mice has allowed to elucidate the crucial role of periostin on dentinogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as on the skeletal response to mechanical loading and parathyroid hormone. The use of circulating periostin as a potential clinical biomarker has been explored in different non skeletal conditions. These include cancers and more specifically in the metastasis process, respiratory diseases such as asthma, kidney failure, renal injury and cardiac infarction. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels have been shown to predict the risk of fracture-more specifically non-vertebral- independently of bone mineral density. Because of its preferential localization in cortical bone and periosteal tissue, it can be speculated that serum periostin may be a marker of cortical bone metabolism, although additional studies are clearly needed. PMID:26721738

  7. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Bone metabolism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-01

    During pregnancy, mineral concentrations, of calcium and phosphorus in particular, are maintained at a high level in fetal blood so that the developing skeleton may accrete adequate mineral content. The placenta actively transports minerals for this purpose. Maternal intestinal absorption increases in order to meet the fetal demand for calcium, which is only partly dependent on calcitriol. Mineral regulation is essentially dependent on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH and PTHrP production. If calcium intake is insufficient, the maternal skeleton will undergo resorption due to PTHrP. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal homeostasis occurs through increase in PTH and calcitriol, and developmental adaptation of the kidneys and intestines with bone turnover contributing additional mineral to the circulation. Calcium absorption becomes progressively active and dependent on calcitriol. The postnatal skeleton can transiently present with osteoposis but adequate mineral diet usually allows full restoration. Cases of primary osteoporosis must be identified. Loss of trabecular mineral content occurs during lactation in order to provide calcium to the newborn. This programmed bone loss is dependent on a "brain-breast-bone" circuit. The physiological bone resorption during reproduction does not normally cause fractures or persistent osteoporosis. Women who experience fracture are likely to have other causes of bone loss. PMID:27157104

  9. [Inflammation and bone : Osteoimmunological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, K W; Neumann, E; Lange, U

    2016-06-01

    Microscopic fractures (so-called microcracks) or traumatic macrofractures require bone, as the basic scaffold of the human body, to have a high regenerative capability. In order to be able to provide this regenerative capability, bone is in a constant process of remodeling. This finely tuned homeostasis of bone formation and degradation can become disrupted, which leads to osteoporosis or other bone disorders. It has been shown that the immune system is substantially involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and that chronic inflammation in particular can disturb this balance; therefore, this article reviews the osteoimmunological aspects contributing to osteoporosis and other diseases associated with bone degradation. PMID:27250491

  10. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  11. Radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between December 1986 and January 1978, 68 patients with bone metastases were analyzed to evaluate the effect of radiation for the relief of pain. The 68 patients, who had a total of 97 lesions, complained of pain caused by their bone metastasis. The good, fair, and poor responses were found to be 18%, 60%, and 22%, respectively. With reference to the primary neoplasms, the effective response rate was 73% in lung cancer, 100% in breast cancer, 75% in gastric cancer, 100% in hepatic cancer, 100% in bladder cancer, 25% in epipharyngeal cancer, and 70% in the other neoplasms. Depending on the cell types of the lung cancer, the effective response rate was 80% for small cell carcinomas, 72% for adenocarcinomas and 40% for squamous cell carcinomas. Our results suggest that radiotherapy for bone metastases is to be recommended, since the effective response rate was 78% for the relief of pain. (author)

  12. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  13. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poundarik, Atharva A; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and functions to dissipate energy and avert fracture. Microdamage formation is a key determinant of bone quality, and through a range of biological and physical mechanisms, accumulates with age and disease. Accumulated microdamage in bone decreases bone strength and increases bone's propensity to fracture. Thus, a thorough assessment of microdamage, across the hierarchical levels of bone, is crucial to better understand bone quality and bone fracture. This review article details multiple imaging modalities that have been used to study and characterize microdamage; from bulk staining techniques originally developed by Harold Frost to assess linear microcracks, to atomic force microscopy, a modality that revealed mechanistic insights into the formation diffuse damage at the ultrastructural level in bone. New automated techniques using imaging modalities, such as microcomputed tomography are also presented for a comprehensive overview. PMID:25664772

  14. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  15. Bone formation following implantation of bone biomaterials into extraction sites

    OpenAIRE

    Molly, Liene; Vandromme, Heleen; Quirynen, Marc; Schepers, Evert; Adams, Jessica L; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adequate bone volume is imperative for the osseointegration of endosseous implants, but post-extraction resorption and remodeling may challenge implant placement. The use of bone biomaterials has been advocated to fill extraction sites and to enhance primary implant stability during osseointegration. The objective of the case series was to evaluate bone formation histologically and biomechanically in extraction sites following implantation of three commercially available bone biom...

  16. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  17. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  18. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and ultrasound in their diagnosis and their management.

  19. [Cytogenetics of bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner-Capodano, A M; Poitout, D

    There has been much progress in the cytogenesis, and molecular biology of bone tumours such as Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcomas, greatly improving diagnostic possibilities and prognosis. Ewing's sarcoma is an indifferentiated sarcoma with round cells which usually occurs in children or adolescents. Ewing's sarcoma corresponds to 6% of all bone tumours. Histologically Ewing's sarcoma belongs to a group of small round cell tumours including neuroblastoma, embryon and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Differential diagnosis is difficult. Cytogenetic examinations can now differentiate Ewing's sarcoma from other small round cell tumours. There is a specific 11:12 translocation (q24; q12) which can be used as a marker. PMID:8785922

  20. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  1. Bone lesions in early syphilis detected by bone scintigraphy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, K.; Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Lindewald, H; Sørensen, P S; Weismann, K

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of early syphilis with multiple bone lesions which all resolved after treatment with penicillin. We discuss why bone lesions may be more prevalent than generally believed and why 99m-Tc-MDP-bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiography in detecting syphilitic periostitis.

  2. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  3. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no ... might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist ...

  5. Uranium concentrations in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural uranium content in the bone of one person has been determined by a new method. The results were obtained by quantitative analysis of fission track autoradiographs of bone from a person injected witn 239Pu

  6. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Donate Now Select Page Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Late Effects of Treatment > Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Limb salvage is a surgical procedure that replaces ...

  7. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importantly, this low bone mass is also associated with a seven-fold increased risk of fracture. Therefore, strategies to effectively prevent bone loss and increase bone mass are critical. We will review hormonal adaptations that contribute to bone loss in this population as well as promising new therapies that may increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk in AN. PMID:24882734

  8. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  9. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  12. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  13. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importantly, this low bone mass is also associated with a seven-fold increased risk of fracture. Therefore, strategies to effectively prevent bone loss and increase low bone mass are critical. We will review hormonal adaptations that contribute to bone loss in this population as well as promising new therapies that may increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk in AN. PMID:24882734

  14. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  15. Cancellous structure of tarsal bones.

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha

    1985-01-01

    The internal structure of the tarsal bones has been studied to investigate their cancellous architecture. It is revealed that these bones have fine and coarse meshworks and even a tendency for obliteration of the trabecular pattern in the bones lying distal to this midtarsal joint. Internal structure of the talus does not show an arched pattern of bony lamellae. An increased density of bony lamellae in the internal structure of the navicular bone could result from excessive stress, enforced b...

  16. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Noble B.

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas o...

  17. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J; Partridge, Nicola C

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  18. Cellulose based conductive polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Haishu

    2015-01-01

    Conductive fibers show potential applications in different areas. In this thesis, cellulose and its derivatives, including carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate as well as methyl cellulose were used to produce fibers via wet spinning. Different conductive materials were also introduced in an attempt to obtain cellulose-derived conductive fibers. Different conductive fillers (Zelec, carbon black, conductive polymers) were evaluated. Among them, PEDOT and PPy conductive polymers showed...

  19. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  20. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  2. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or...

  3. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeyere, A.; Somer, F. de; Perdieus, D.; Lemmens, L.; Schillebeeckx, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imeldaziekenhuis Bonheiden (Belgium); Hauwe, L. van den [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp (Belgium)

    2000-02-01

    The CT and MRI findings in a case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone are reported. Although chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, only 10 % of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. The hyoid bone is a rare site of involvement with only seven cases reported previously. (orig.)

  4. Bone metastases: When and how lung cancer interacts with bone

    OpenAIRE

    Roato, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and debilitating consequence of lung cancer: 30%-40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer develop bone metastases during the course of their disease. Lung cancer cells find a favorable soil in the bone microenvironment due to factors released by the bone matrix, the immune system cells, and the same cancer cells. Many aspects of the cross-talk among lung tumor cells, the immune system, and bone cells are not clear, but this review aims to summarize the recen...

  5. Craniocervical bone pneumatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of extensive craniocervical bone pneumatisation presenting after minor trauma. The patient had neurological signs and initial radiographs showed multiple lucencies in the skull base and the atlas vertebra. CT established the true nature of this rare condition. (orig.). With 3 figs

  6. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.;

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  7. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern for patients with MBD is the general loss in quality of life. How much of an effect MBD has on ... to be most effective in maintaining quality of life. A technetium bone scan ... blood count, because loss of red blood cells (anemia) is a frequent ...

  8. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think that this is something that only older people need to worry about. BUT—you can take action right now to help make sure that as you get older your bones are as healthy as they can be. Eating a balanced diet ...

  9. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of the concept of life…

  10. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Nutrition Nutrition Food For Thought Quiz True or false: Prunes contain ... health. True False View Answers Loading ... Sponsored by: Food and Your Bones – Osteoporosis Nutrition Guidelines The food ...

  11. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  12. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  13. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

  14. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.)

  15. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  16. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C.; Gehrchen, P.M.; Kiaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    spine operated on with pedicle screws between L4 and L5. The stress shielding effect was also examined. The bone remodeling results were compared with prospective bone mineral content measurements of 4 patients. They were measured after surgery, 3-, 6- and 12-months postoperatively. RESULTS: After 1......STUDY DESIGN: A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws. OBJECTIVE: The......, in the human spine, the bone remodeling algorithms have neither been evaluated experimentally nor been examined by comparing to unsystematic experimental data. METHODS: The site-specific and nonsite-specific iterative bone remodeling algorithms were applied to a finite element model of the lumbar...

  17. Combined bone grafting: an alternative method for bone healing stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most provocative problem in bone grafting is the effectiveness of healing of the graft. When you use the heterogenous bone graft, it may take one or more than two years for consolidation and union depends on the graft quality and the situation of surrounding blood supply. In our preliminary report seven cases of freeze-dried heterogenous bone graft from the Bangkok Biomaterial Center were mixed with autogenous iliac bone graft from the patient in the ratio of 3:1. After that the healing was checked by clinical examination and X-ray in the periodic follow up. The causes of bone lost are post evacuation of benign bone tumor and post infection of bone after trauma. The result of bony union could be tested by clinical examination and showed in the X-ray films as early as 3 months post grafting

  18. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  19. Intensive care outcomes in bone marrow transplant recipients: a population-based cohort analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scales, Damon C.; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Kiss, Alexander; Sibbald, William J; Donald A Redelmeier

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Intensive care unit (ICU) admission for bone marrow transplant recipients immediately following transplantation is an ominous event, yet the survival of these patients with subsequent ICU admissions is unknown. Our objective was to determine the long-term outcome of bone marrow transplant recipients admitted to an ICU during subsequent hospitalizations. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort analysis of all adult bone marrow transplant recipients who received subsequent I...

  20. A radiological evaluation of marginal bone around dental implants: An in-vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Nandal, Shikha; Ghalaut, Pankaj; Shekhawat, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Context: This article presents an original research conducted at Government Dental College, PGIDS, Rohtak. Aims: (1) To evaluate the marginal bone level changes around dental implants based on the radiological examination. (2) To evaluate the relationship of various parameters, i.e., gender, implant length, implant diameter and location of implants on the amount of bone loss around dental implants. Materials and Methods: An in-vivo study was undertaken to evaluate the crestal bone loss on mes...

  1. Efficacy of PRP in the Reconstruction of Mandibular Segmental Defects Using Iliac Bone Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Magesh, D. P. Uma; Kumaravelu, C.; Maheshwari, G. Uma

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects using iliac bone grafts. Thirteen patients underwent reconstruction of post-resection segmental defects of the mandible using titanium reconstruction plates, cortico cancellous iliac bone graft. The patients were randomly separated into two groups. One group of the patients received a PRP graft in addition to the iliac bone graft. Post-operative dimen...

  2. MORPHOLOGY, LOCALIZATION AND ACCUMULATION OF IN VIVO MICRODAMAGE IN HUMAN CORTICAL BONE

    OpenAIRE

    Diab, Tamim; Vashishth, Deepak

    2006-01-01

    In vivo, microdamage occurs in the form of linear microcracks and diffuse damage. However, it is unknown whether the age-related changes in bone quality predispose bone to form one type of damage morphology over the other during in vivo loading. In this study, histological and histomorphometrical analyses were conducted on transverse cross sections, obtained from the tibiae of aging human bone (age 19 to 89), to investigate the in vivo accumulation and localization of damage morphologies. The...

  3. A case of cuboid bone stress fracture in a senior high school rugby athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Hagino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cuboid bone stress fracture in a 17-year-old rugby athlete. Cuboid bone stress fractures are rare in athletes. When an athlete with no history of trauma presents with pain on the lateral side of the foot and no abnormality on plain radiograph, cuboid bone stress fracture should be suspected and magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted.

  4. Annular bone growth in phalanges of five Neotropical Harlequin Frogs (Anura: Bufonidae: Atelopus)

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Lindquist; Michael Redmer; Emily Brantner

    2012-01-01

    Skeletochronological studies were conducted on museum specimensrepresenting five species of the highly threatened Neotropical genus Atelopus (Bufonidae). We detected annular bone growth (expressed as lines of arrested growth [LAGs]) patterns in each species, and this might provide insight to understand demographic constituency infuture studies. In four of the five species under consideration, LAG counts in fore and hind limb bone occurred in a 1:1 ratio, indicating that bone growth was consis...

  5. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, N; H.R Zakeri; G Amin ansafi; A. Shafiee; Sarkhail, P.; Heshmat, R; H Sereshti; B Larijani

    2010-01-01

    "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa) seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic wo...

  6. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats reve...

  7. Quality of life measurement in bone metastases: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirtha Tharmalingam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sukirtha Tharmalingam, Edward Chow, Kristin Harris, Amanda Hird, Emily SinclairRapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Quality of life (QOL has become an important consideration in the care of patients with bone metastases as prevalence, incidence and patient survival are on the rise. As a result, more interventional studies now measure patient’s QOL as a meaningful endpoint. However, well-developed bone metastases specific quality of life instruments are lacking. A literature review was conducted to better understand the nature of QOL instruments used in bone metastases trials. A total of 47 articles evaluating QOL in patients with bone metastases were identified. Twenty-five different instruments were used to evaluate QOL with study-designed questionnaires and the EORTC QLQ-C30 being most commonly employed. Many studies used more than one scale or instrument to measure QOL. This makes it difficult to compare QOL in bone metastases patients across studies and come to any formal conclusions. Therefore, this review demonstrates the need to develop a bone module that can be used across countries in future clinical trials.Keywords: bone metastases, quality of life, QOL instrument, review

  8. Bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed, chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical comorbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  9. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  10. Influence of bone environment on ceramic osteointegration in spinal fusion: comparison of bone-poor and bone-rich sites

    OpenAIRE

    Delécrin, Joël; Deschamps, Cédric; Romih, Mostafa; Heymann, Dominique; Passuti, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative experimental data showed differences in bone quality and ceramic incorporation between bone-rich and bone-poor implantation sites. Bone in-growth was significantly lower for ceramic implanted at a lumbar intertransverse than a laminar site. Bone-marrow enrichment of the lumbar intertransverse site (regarded as bone-poor) greatly facilitated ceramic osteointegration. The vertebral interbody site, despite theoretical richness in osteogenic precursor cells, might be bone-poor at the...

  11. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  12. Enhancing the mechanical integrity of the implant-bone interface with BoneWelding technology: determination of quasi-static interfacial strength and fatigue resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stephen J; Weber, Urs; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Mayer, Joerg

    2006-04-01

    The BoneWelding technology is an innovative bonding method, which offers new alternatives in the treatment of fractures and other degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The BoneWelding process employs ultrasonic energy to liquefy a polymeric interface between orthopaedic implants and the host bone. Polymer penetrates the pores of the surrounding bone and, following a rapid solidification, forms a strong and uniform bond between implant and bone. Biomechanical testing was performed to determine the quasi-static push-out strength and fatigue performance of 3.5-mm-diameter polymeric dowels bonded to a bone surrogate material (Sawbones solid and cellular polyurethane foam) using the BoneWelding process. Fatigue tests were conducted over 100,000 cycles of 20-100 N loading. Mechanical test results were compared with those obtained with a comparably-sized, commercial metallic fracture fixation screw. Tests in surrogate bone material of varying density demonstrated significantly superior mechanical performance of the bonded dowels in comparison to conventional bone screws (p Ultrasonically inserted implants migrated, on average, less than 20 microm over, and interfacial stiffness remained constant the full duration of fatigue testing. With further refinement, the BoneWelding technology may offer a quicker, simpler, and more effective method for achieving strong fixation and primary stability for fracture fixation or other orthopaedic and dental implant applications. PMID:16211571

  13. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Son, Soo Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, was evaluated. The rabbits were assigned to the following groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (PCL/PLGA hybrid scaffolds), group 3 (PCL/PLGA/TCP hybrid scaffolds), and group 4 (PCL/PLGA/DB hybrid scaffolds). A 5 mm critical defect was induced in the diaphysis of the left radius. X-ray, micro-CT, and histological analyses were conducted at (time 0) 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and osteocalcin) were measured and oxidative stress status was determined. X-ray, micro-CT, biochemistry, and histological analyses revealed that the PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold promotes new bone formation in rabbit radius by inducing repair, suggesting that it could be a good option for the treatment of fracture. PMID:27042660

  14. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yeon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone (PCL, β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, was evaluated. The rabbits were assigned to the following groups: group 1 (control, group 2 (PCL/PLGA hybrid scaffolds, group 3 (PCL/PLGA/TCP hybrid scaffolds, and group 4 (PCL/PLGA/DB hybrid scaffolds. A 5 mm critical defect was induced in the diaphysis of the left radius. X-ray, micro-CT, and histological analyses were conducted at (time 0 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and osteocalcin were measured and oxidative stress status was determined. X-ray, micro-CT, biochemistry, and histological analyses revealed that the PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold promotes new bone formation in rabbit radius by inducing repair, suggesting that it could be a good option for the treatment of fracture.

  15. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Son, Soo Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, was evaluated. The rabbits were assigned to the following groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (PCL/PLGA hybrid scaffolds), group 3 (PCL/PLGA/TCP hybrid scaffolds), and group 4 (PCL/PLGA/DB hybrid scaffolds). A 5 mm critical defect was induced in the diaphysis of the left radius. X-ray, micro-CT, and histological analyses were conducted at (time 0) 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and osteocalcin) were measured and oxidative stress status was determined. X-ray, micro-CT, biochemistry, and histological analyses revealed that the PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold promotes new bone formation in rabbit radius by inducing repair, suggesting that it could be a good option for the treatment of fracture. PMID:27042660

  16. Heat conduction in nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liqiu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)], E-mail: lqwang@hkucc.hku.hk; Wei Xiaohao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2009-03-15

    We show that macroscale heat conduction in nanofluids is of a dual-phase-lagging type rather than the Fourier type. This leads to models for effective thermal capacity, conductivity and diffusivity of nanofluids and reveals even more anomalous thermal behavior of nanofluids than those reported in the literature. Due to the coupled conduction of the two phases, thermal waves and possibly resonance may appear in nanofluid heat conduction. Such waves and resonance are responsible for the extraordinary conductivity enhancement. The analysis and result are also valid for heat conduction in two-phase systems.

  17. Dynamic scintigraphy of bone and bone marrow in multiple myeloma patients with bone-marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether dynamic registration at bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy produces additional information compared to subsequent static registrations of bone-marrow transplants in multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 8 dynamic bone and 6 dynamic bone-marrow scintigraphies were performed in 10 patients. The dynamic scintigraphies were compared with conventional radiography, MR images, and static scintigraphies of bone and bone marrow. Results: No additional information was revealed by the dynamic registration method; on the contrary, 4 of the 8 known lesions were not discerned at dynamic registration. An incidental observation was that the time-activity curves of both radiopharmaceuticals had a specific pattern. (orig.)

  18. Shang Oracle Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankenier, David W.

    Astronomical observations first appear in China's archaeological record on turtle plastrons and ox scapulae from the reigns of the last few kings of the Shang Dynasty (1250-1046 BCE). A variety of meteorological and astronomical phenomena were divined about and recorded by scribes in formulaic language that is recognizably archaic Chinese. The oracle bone inscriptions record sacrifices to celestial bodies and the proper ritual response to anomalous phenomena like eclipses.

  19. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA) and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame) was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ...

  20. Bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Cameron R. M.; Goriainov, Vitali; Gibbs, David; Kanczler, Janos; Tare, Rahul S; Richard O. C. Oreffo

    2015-01-01

    Medical advances have led to a welcome increase in life expectancy. However, accompanying longevity introduces new challenges: increases in age-related diseases and associated reductions in quality of life. The loss of skeletal tissue that can accompany trauma, injury, disease or advancing years can result in significant morbidity and significant socio-economic cost and emphasise the need for new, more reliable skeletal regeneration strategies. To address the unmet need for bone augmentation,...

  1. [Primary liposarcoma of bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatić, V; Cerović, S; Skaro-Milić, A; Jovanović, Z

    2001-01-01

    A case of 75-year-old man with extremely rare primary liposarcoma of the bone was presented. Stains for lipid, Sudan III, Sudan IV, and Oil Red "O", demonstrated the presence of intracellular lipid in the lipoblasts. Similarly, the S-100 immunoreactivity and electron microscopic findings of tumor cells confirmed the diagnosis of liposarcoma. Histochemical stains for PAS, Alcian-blue, mucikarmin, Toluidin-blue and Coloidal Iron were negative. PMID:11419292

  2. Scapular Free Vascularised Bone Flaps for Mandibular Reconstruction: Are Dental Implants Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lanzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Free fibula flap remains the flap of choice for reconstruction of mandibular defects. If free fibula flap is not possible, the subscapular system of flaps is a valid option. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of dental implant placement in patients receiving a scapular free flap for oromandibular reconstruction. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients undergoing mandible reconstruction with a subscapular system free-tissue (lateral border of the scapula transfer at the University Hospital Zürich between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Bone density in cortical and cancellous bone was measured in Hounsfield units (HU. Changes of bone density, height and width were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Comparisons of bone dimensions as well as bone density were performed using a chi-square test. Results: Ten patients were included. Implantation was conducted in 50%. However, all patients could have received dental implants considering bone stock. Loss of bone height and width were significant (P < 0.001. There was a statistical significant increase in bone density in cortical (P < 0.001 and cancellous (P = 0.004 bone. Conclusions: Dental implants are possible after scapular free flap reconstruction of oromandibular defects. Bone height and width were reduced, while bone density increased with time.

  3. Microfibrous {beta}-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shen; Zhang Xin; Cai Qing; Yang Xiaoping [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Bo; Deng Xuliang, E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.c [Department of VIP Dental Service, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Woven bone, as the initial form of bone tissue, is always found in developing and repairing bone. It is thought of as a temporary scaffold for the deposition of osteogenic cells and the laying down of lamellar bone. Thus, we hypothesize that a matrix which resembles the architecture and components of woven bone can provide an osteoblastic microenvironment for bone cell growth and new bone formation. In this study, woven-bone-like beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP)/collagen scaffolds were fabricated by sol-gel electrospinning and impregnating methods. Optimization studies on sol-gel synthesis and electrospinning process were conducted respectively to prepare pure {beta}-TCP fibers with dimensions close to mineralized collagen fibrils in woven bone. The collagen-coating layer prepared by impregnation had an adhesive role that held the {beta}-TCP fibers together, and resulted in rapid degradation and matrix mineralization in in vitro tests. MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the resultant scaffolds showed three-dimensional (3D) morphologies, and merged into multicellular layers after 7 days culture. Cytotoxicity test further revealed that extracts from the resultant scaffolds could promote the proliferation of MG63 cells. Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone.

  4. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  5. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often ...

  6. Automatic recognition of bone for x-ray bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepp, Larry A.; Vardi, Y.; Lazewatsky, J.; Libeau, James; Stein, Jay A.

    1991-06-01

    We described a method for automatically identifying and separating pixels representing bone from those representing soft tissue in a dual- energy point-scanned projection radiograph of the abdomen. In order to achieve stable quantitative measurement of projected bone mineral density, a calibration using sample bone in regions containing only soft tissue must be performed. In addition, the projected area of bone must be measured. We show that, using an image with a realistically low noise, the histogram of pixel values exhibits a well-defined peak corresponding to the soft tissue region. A threshold at a fixed multiple of the calibration segment value readily separates bone from soft tissue in a wide variety of patient studies. Our technique, which is employed in the Hologic QDR-1000 Bone Densitometer, is rapid, robust, and significantly simpler than a conventional artificial intelligence approach using edge-detection to define objects and expert systems to recognize them.

  7. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam M Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search. All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.

  8. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction (β2M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and β2M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone density.

  9. Preclinical evaluation of strontium-containing bioactive bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium (Sr) has become more attractive for orthopaedic applications as they can simultaneously stimulate bone formation and prevent bone loss. A Sr-containing bioactive bone cement (Sr-BC) has been designed to fix osteoporotic bone fracture. Sr is a trace element, so the safety of containing Sr is concerned when Sr-BC is implanted in human body. The preclinical assessment of biocompatibility of Sr-BC was conducted according to ISO 10993 standards. MTT assay showed that this bioactive bone cement was non-toxic to mouse fibroblasts, and it met the basic requirement for the orthopaedic implant. The three independent genetic toxicity studies including Ames, chromosome aberration and bone marrow micronucleus assays demonstrated absence of genotoxic components in Sr-BC, which reassured the safety concerns of this novel bone cement. The muscle implantation results in present study were also encouraging. The acute inflammation around the cement was observed at 1 week post-implantation; however, no significant difference was observed between control and Sr-BC groups. These responses may be attributed to the presence of the foreign body, but the tissue healed after 12 weeks implantation. In summary, the above preclinical results provide additional assurance for the safety of this implant. Sr-BC can be used as a potential alternative to the traditional bone cement. - Highlights: • Strontium-containing bioactive bone cement (Sr-BC) was designed. • The biocompatibility of Sr-BC was evaluated according ISO 10993 standards. • Preclinical results provide additional assurance for the safety of Sr-BC

  10. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  11. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Gessmann; Manfred Köller; Holger Godry; Thomas Armin Schildhauer; Dominik Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect ...

  12. Method for Automated Bone Shape Correction within Bone Distraction Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blynskiy, F. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The method for automated bone shape correction within bone distraction procedure is presented. High precision deformation angle measurement is provided by the software for X- Ray images processing. Special BDC v.1.0.1. application is designed. The purpose of the BDC is modeling of the bone geometry structure to calculate the appropriate distraction forces. The correction procedure control is realized by the hardware of the distraction system.

  13. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons are the ch...... awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry “for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”....

  14. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  15. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  16. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  17. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  18. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermets have been proposed as a candidate fuel for space reactors for several reasons, including their potential for high thermal conductivity. However, there is currently no accepted model for cermet fuel thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to (a) investigate the adequacy of existing models; (b) develop, if necessary, an improved model; and (c) provide recommendations for future work on cermet thermal conductivity. The results from this work indicate that further work is needed to accurately characterize cermet fuel thermal conductivity. It was determined that particle shape and orientation have a large impact on cermet thermal conductivity

  19. Tarsal bone disintegration in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarsal bone disintegration is characterised by fragmentation and progressive collapse of one or more tarsal bones. It occurs in 10% of leprosy patients, and is responsible for many severe foot deformities associated with this disease. The main cause is micro-traumata, but sensory impairment, sepsis and osteoporosis are predisposing factors. In this series of 400 consecutive patients the talus and navicular were involved most frequently (72% of 119 tarsal lesions). Treatment, including prolonged immobilisation of the foot, results in dense sclerosis of the affected bone, and leaves a functional limb. Initial radiological features include bone fragmentation, calcified fragments in adjacent soft tissues, linear fractures, progressive compression and deformity of the affected bone, loss of density of the affected bone and flattening of the longitudinal plantar arch. Illustrative case histories are presented, and the differential diagnosis discussed. (author)

  20. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M;

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  1. Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu

    2009-01-01

    Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...

  2. [Radiological assessment of bone quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Structural property of bone includes micro- or nano-structural property of the trabecular and cortical bone, and macroscopic geometry. Radiological technique is useful to analyze the bone structural property;micro-CT or synchrotron-CT is available to analyze micro- or nano-structural property of bone samples ex vivo, and multi-detector row CT(MDCT)or high-resolution peripheral QCT(HR-pQCT)is available to analyze human bone in vivo. For the analysis of hip geometry, CT-based hip structure analysis(HSA)is available aw sell se radiography and DXA-based HSA. These structural parameters are related to biomechanical property, and these assessment tools provide information of pathological changes or the effects of anti-osteoporotic agents on bone. PMID:26728530

  3. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  4. Development, validation and characterization of a novel mouse model of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2014-11-01

    The etiology of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD) is poorly understood but the hallmark of ABD is a lack of bone turnover. ABD occurs in renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and is suspected to occur in elderly patients on long-term anti-resorptive therapy. A major clinical concern of ABD is diminished bone quality and an increased fracture risk. To our knowledge, experimental animal models for ABD other than ROD-ABD have not been developed or studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a mouse model of ABD without the complications of renal ablation, and to characterize changes in bone quality in ABD relative to controls. To re-create the adynamic bone condition, 4-month old female Col2.3Δtk mice were treated with ganciclovir to specifically ablate osteoblasts, and pamidronate was used to inhibit osteoclastic resorption. Four groups of animals were used to characterize bone quality in ABD: Normal bone controls, No Formation controls, No Resorption controls, and an Adynamic group. After a 6-week treatment period, the animals were sacrificed and the bones were harvested for analyses. Bone quality assessments were conducted using established techniques including bone histology, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and biomechanical testing. Histomorphometry confirmed osteoblast-related hallmarks of ABD in our mouse model. Bone formation was near complete suppression in the No Formation and Adynamic specimens. Inhibition of bone resorption in the Adynamic group was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. Normal bone mineral density and architecture were maintained in the Adynamic group, whereas the No Formation group showed a reduction in bone mineral content and trabecular thickness relative to the Adynamic group. As expected, the No Formation group had a more hypomineralized profile and the Adynamic group had a higher mean mineralization profile that is

  5. Symmetry analysis of talus bone

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K.; Dobbe, A.; Komeili, A.; Duke, K; EL-RICH,M; Dhillon, S.; Adeeb, S.; Jomha, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Methods Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric sh...

  6. Bone and cancer: the osteoncology

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Toni; Mercatali, Laura; Amadori, Dino

    2013-01-01

    In recent years clinicians have witnessed a radical change in the relationship between bone and cancer, with in particular an increase in bone metastases incidence due to an improvement of patients survival. Bone metastases are responsible for the high morbidity in cancer patients with a strong clinical impact. For all these reasons, efforts have been directed to this important field with the foundation of the osteoncology, a new scientific and clinical branch involved in the management of pa...

  7. Where did bone come from?

    OpenAIRE

    Obradovic Wagner, Darja; Aspenberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Bone is specific to vertebrates, and originated as mineralization around the basal membrane of the throat or skin, giving rise to tooth-like structures and protective shields in animals with a soft cartilage-like endoskeleton. A combination of fossil anatomy and genetic information from modern species has improved our understanding of the evolution of bone. Thus, even in man, there are still similarities in the molecular regulation of skin append-ages and bone. This article gives a brief over...

  8. Bone Density in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Houlihan, Christine Murray; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture.1 Osteoporosis remains a major health problem worldwide, costing an estimated $13.8 billion in health care each year in the United States. Despite advances in treating osteoporosis in the elderly, no cure exists. Osteoporosis has its roots in childhood. Accrual of bone mass occurs throughout childhood and early adulthood, and peak bone mass is a key determinant...

  9. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importa...

  10. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (...

  11. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  12. Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia, wormian bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, J M; Hall, C M; García-Miñaur, S; Delgado, A

    1998-05-18

    We report on a 4-year-old boy with craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CMDD), wormian bone type. Component manifestations include a large head with prominent forehead, skull changes showing multiple wormian bones, wide long tubular bones without the usual metaphyseal flare, wide and short tubular bones without the normal diaphyseal constriction, and wide ribs and clavicles. In addition to these findings, the propositus, his brother, his father, and a paternal aunt all have parietal protuberances, which seem not related to CMDD. Parental consanguineity supports the autosomal recessive transmission of the condition. PMID:9605592

  13. Dissociation of bone formation markers in bone metastasis of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, M; Maeda, H.; Yoshimura, K; Yamauchi, T.; Kawai, T.; Ogata, E

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the meaning and clinical value of bone formation markers in bone metastasis from prostate cancer, we investigated the bone formation markers carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BA1-p) and osteocalcin, so-called bone gla protein (BGP) in 43 prostate cancer patients with and 46 patients without overt bone metastasis. Patients with bone metastasis were evaluated repeatedly by bone scan at intervals of 3-6 months. The expression...

  14. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.; Helbo, M.; Vikjær, D.

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  15. The Dragon Bone Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Finding of a dinosaur fossil skeleton sparks excitement among paleontologists and locals in a poor Henan village Avillager’s accidental discovery four years ago has made known to the world a rich mine of dinosaur fossils in Ruyang County,central China’s Henan Province.At the same time,the fate of the small village has been changed. Li Chui,a farmer in Shaping Village, thought he had found bones of a"dragon"when he dug up stones for his new house on an April morning in 2005.

  16. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  17. Bone-Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, J.; Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Fehm, T.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates and denosumab are well established components of the therapy for osteoporosis and osseous metastases. Their relevance in the adjuvant situation for breast cancer patients is being discussed in part controversially due to the heterogeneous nature of the available data. In particular, it appears that post-menopausal women benefit from an adjuvant therapy with bisphosphonates. In the present contribution we discuss the clinical relevance of osteoprotective therapy in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. Above all the current AGO guidelines on osteo-oncology and bone health have been taken into consideration for recommendations to implement the available data. PMID:26166839

  18. Crosstalk between cartilage and bone: when bone cytokines matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Cohen-Solal, Martine

    2011-04-01

    The cartilage damage which characterizes osteoarthritis is often accompanied by bone lesions. Joint integrity results from the balance in the physiological interactions between bone and cartilage. Several local factors regulate the physiological remodeling of cartilage, the disequilibrium of these leading to a higher cartilage catabolism. Several cytokines secreted by bone cells can induce chondrocyte differentiation, which suggests their role in the dialogue between both cells. Accumulative in vivo evidence shows that increased bone resorption occurs at an early stage in the development of osteoarthritis and that blocking bone-resorbing cytokines prevents cartilage damage, confirming the role of bone factors in the crosstalk of both tissues. Recently, molecules of the Wnt pathway have emerged as key regulators of bone and cartilage. Activation of Wnt/βcatenin induces an imbalance in cartilage homeostasis, and agonists/antagonists of Wnt are potential candidates for this interaction. This review will summarize what is known about the contribution of bone cytokines to the physiological remodeling of cartilage and in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. PMID:21596615

  19. Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

  20. Evaluation of Bone Regeneration on Polyhydroxyethyl-polymethyl Methacrylate Membrane in a Rabbit Calvarial Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somin; Hwang, Yawon; Kashif, Muhammad; Jeong, Dosun; Kim, Gonhyung

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capacity of guiding bone regeneration of polyhydroxyethyl-polymethyl methacrylate (PHEMA-PMMA) membrane as a guided tissue regeneration membrane for bone defects. Two 8-mm diameter transosseous round defects were made at the parietal bone of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. Defects were covered with or without PHEMA-PMMA membrane. Radiological and histological evaluation revealed that the bone tissue over the defect was more regenerated with time in both groups. However, there was significantly more bone regeneration at 8 weeks in the experimental group than the control group (p<0.05). There was no sign of membrane degradation or tissue inflammation and no invasion of muscle and fibrous tissue into defects. PHEMA-PMMA is a potential material for guided tissue regeneration membrane as it induces no adverse tissue reaction and effectively supports selective bone regeneration. PMID:27566076

  1. Etiological Profile of Plasmacytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, during routine examination of bone marrow aspirates, an increased plasma cell per­centage has been noted in a good number of cases which included both neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. An attempt has been made to observe the spectra of condi­tions with plasmacytosis in bone marrow. Methods: The present study was conducted in the de­partment of pathology over a period of one year. A total of 114 bone marrow aspirates that showed increased plas­ma cells (>3.5% constitute the study material. A detailed relevant clinical examination followed by complete blood count, peripheral smear examination and bone marrow aspiration was done in all cases. Results: There was slight female predominance with male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The majority of patients were in 4th decade. The plasma cell concentration ranged from 5% to 36%. As far as the etiology is concerned, 96 cases (84.2% were non-neoplastic and 18 cases (15.7% had neoplastic etiology. Conclusion: Bone marrow plasmacytosis can present as diagnostic dilemma and some time can be challenging to differentiate reactive from neoplastic condition as there is an overlap both in counts and morphology. Each case with plasmacytosis especially in the overlap range requires complete clinical evaluation, individualized investigations and more specific tests like immunoelectrophoresis and bone marrow biopsy with immunohistochemistry to arrive at a final diagnosis for patient management.

  2. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers studies of the microdistribution of radium and plutonium in human bone, conducted at Argonne with emphasis on the alpha-spectrometric method of measurement. Alpha spectrometry offers high spatial resolution and is well suited to the measurement of radionuclide concentrations near bone surfaces. With these techniques surface deposit thicknesses have been measured to be about 1 μm thick for isotopes of lead, radium and the actinides, and volume deposits of 226Ra have been found to be quite nonuniform near bone surfaces, leading to endosteal tissue dose rates that are higher than expected under the assumption of uniform volume concentration normally used in radiation protection calculations. With autoradiography, the bony septa of the mastoid air cell system have been found to be depleted in radium relative to the bone tissue surrounding them; this is expected to have a significant influence on the dosimetry of the mastoid epithelia. A combination of autoradiographic and morphometric measurements indicates that specific activities in the axial skeleton are higher than in the appendicular skeleton, primarily because the former has higher bone surface-to-volume ratios and higher bone surface concentrations of plutonium. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  3. Voltammetry of conducting polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin

    2014-01-01

    The search for new materials for enhancing electrical conductivity of various materials is one of the most active research areas today. Conducting polymers represent a unique class of organic materials that have been used in many applications such as bioelectronics, sensors, corrosion protection, electrocatalysis, and energy storage devices. Application of the conductive polymers in electrochemistry is almost inevitable in order to get better features of the voltammetric systems ...

  4. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    OpenAIRE

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1997-01-01

    The electronic conductance of metal nanocontacts is analyzed in terms of eigenchannels for the transmission. The transmission through individual eigenchannels is calculated numerically for realistic models of gold point contacts based on molecular-dynamics simulation of the elongation of a contact. The conductance as a function of contact elongation exhibits a step structure. For the smallest contact areas of one or a few atom diameters, the conductance is typically quantized, and a specific ...

  5. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1997-01-01

    The electronic conductance of metal nanocontacts is analyzed in terms of eigenchannels for the transmission. The transmission through individual eigenchannels is calculated numerically for realistic models of gold point contacts based on molecular-dynamics simulation of the elongation of a contac...... partly open channels, but plateaus in the conductance can still be present. We also show that the finite stiffness of the experimental setup can significantly affect the step structure of the conductance curves....

  6. The correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone and the bone quality in the jaw bone of implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone in the jawbone and the grading of the bone quality by operative findings in implant patients. The jawbones of 53 implant patients (15 males and 38 females), 150 sites (maxilla 50 sites, mandible :100 sites) were analyzed by the preoperative Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) examination. The oral surgeons categorized the bone quality in four grades based on the operative findings (tactile sense). Statistical analyses were performed and the bone mineral densities of cancellous bone were compared with the grades of the bone qualities. The results were as follows: The bone mineral density of cancellous bone of males was significantly higher than that of females (p<0.05). The bone quality of females was significantly poorer than that of males (p<0.05). The bone mineral density of cancellous bone of the maxillae tended to be lower than that of the mandibles. The bone quality of the maxillae was significantly poorer than that of the mandibles (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone and the bone quality in the implant patients (p<0.05, r=-0.60). These results demonstrated that the measurement of the bone mineral density of cancellous bone in the implant patients from the preoperative Quantitative Computed Tomography examination had the potential to diagnose the bone quality of the implant sites. (author)

  7. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  8. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  9. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  10. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  11. Molecular mechanism of bone formation and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Bone formation and regeneration are mediated by the coordinate action of various factors. Among these, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) play crucial roles in bone formation.

  12. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health for Lupus Patients Bone Health and Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources Screening Tests and Immunizations Guidelines for ... calcium. Physical Activity. Girls and boys and young adults who exercise regularly generally achieve greater peak bone ...

  13. Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones, ... home. What to Do: For a Suspected Broken Bone: Do not move a child whose injury involves ...

  14. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Bones, Muscles, and Joints KidsHealth > For Parents > Bones, Muscles, ... able to stand, walk, run, or even sit. Bones and What They Do From our head to ...

  15. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available in: ... been one or more osteoporotic fractures. Low Bone Mass Versus Osteoporosis The information provided by a BMD ...

  16. Interrelationships between electrical properties and microstructure of human trabecular bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpowska, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Töyräs, J.; Day, J. S.; Weinans, H.; Kiviranta, I.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2006-10-01

    Microstructural changes, such as reduction of trabecular thickness and number, are characteristic signs of osteoporosis leading to diminished bone strength. Electrical and dielectric parameters might provide diagnostically valuable information on trabecular bone microstructure not extractable from bone mineral density measurements. In this study, structural properties of human trabecular bone samples (n = 26) harvested from the distal femur and proximal tibia were investigated using the computed microtomography (microCT) technique. Quantitative parameters, e.g. structural model index (SMI) or trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), were calculated. In addition, the samples were examined electrically over a wide frequency range (50 Hz-5 MHz) using a two-electrode impedance spectroscopy set-up. Relative permittivity, loss factor, conductivity, phase angle, specific impedance and dissipation factor were determined. Significant linear correlations were obtained between the dissipation factor and BV/TV or SMI (|r| >= 0.70, p < 0.01, n = 26). Principal component analyses, conducted on electrical and structural parameters, revealed that the high frequency principal component of the dissipation factor was significantly related to SMI (r = 0.72, p < 0.01, n = 26). The linear combination of high and low frequency relative permittivity predicted 73% of the variation in BV/TV. To conclude, electrical and dielectric parameters of trabecular bone, especially relative permittivity and dissipation factor, were significantly and specifically related to a trabecular microstructure as characterized with microCT. The data gathered in this study constitute a useful basis for theoretical and experimental work towards the development of impedance spectroscopy techniques for detection of bone quality in vitro or in special cases of open surgery.

  17. Interrelationships between electrical properties and microstructure of human trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierpowska, J [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Hakulinen, M A [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, J [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, PO Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Day, J S [Erasmus Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Erasmus MC EE1614, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Weinans, H [Erasmus Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Erasmus MC EE1614, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kiviranta, I [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Jyvaeskylae Central Hospital, Keskussairaalantie 19, FI-40620 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Jurvelin, J S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lappalainen, R [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2006-10-21

    Microstructural changes, such as reduction of trabecular thickness and number, are characteristic signs of osteoporosis leading to diminished bone strength. Electrical and dielectric parameters might provide diagnostically valuable information on trabecular bone microstructure not extractable from bone mineral density measurements. In this study, structural properties of human trabecular bone samples (n = 26) harvested from the distal femur and proximal tibia were investigated using the computed microtomography (microCT) technique. Quantitative parameters, e.g. structural model index (SMI) or trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), were calculated. In addition, the samples were examined electrically over a wide frequency range (50 Hz-5 MHz) using a two-electrode impedance spectroscopy set-up. Relative permittivity, loss factor, conductivity, phase angle, specific impedance and dissipation factor were determined. Significant linear correlations were obtained between the dissipation factor and BV/TV or SMI (vertical bar r vertical bar {>=} 0.70, p < 0.01, n = 26). Principal component analyses, conducted on electrical and structural parameters, revealed that the high frequency principal component of the dissipation factor was significantly related to SMI (r = 0.72, p < 0.01, n = 26). The linear combination of high and low frequency relative permittivity predicted 73% of the variation in BV/TV. To conclude, electrical and dielectric parameters of trabecular bone, especially relative permittivity and dissipation factor, were significantly and specifically related to a trabecular microstructure as characterized with microCT. The data gathered in this study constitute a useful basis for theoretical and experimental work towards the development of impedance spectroscopy techniques for detection of bone quality in vitro or in special cases of open surgery.

  18. Effect of the "protein diet" and bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraide Nascimento da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the hyperproteic diet consumption on bone tissue. Methods: The study was conducted during sixty days. Twenty eight Wistar albinus rats, adults, originated from Laboratory of Experimental Nutrition were divided in four groups: (n = 7; Control 1 (C1, Control 2 (C2, Hyperproteic 1 (HP1 e Hyperproteic 2 (HP2. The C2 and HP2 groups were submitted to 30% of food restriction. The hyperproteic diet was based on the Atkins diet and prepared to simulate the protein diet. At the end of the study the animals were anesthetized to performer bone densitometry analyses by DEXA and blood and tissue collection. Serum and bone minerals analyses were conducted by colorimetric methods in automated equipment. Results: The total bone mineral density (BMD of the pelvis and the spine of the food restriction groups (HP2 e C2 were lower (p < 0.05 than C1 e HP1 groups. While the femur BMD of the HP2 was lower (p < 0.05 related to others groups. It had been observed reduction (p < 0.05 in the medium point of the width of femur diaphysis and in bone calcium level in the hyperproteic groups (HP1 e HP2. It was observed similar effect on the osteocalcin level, that presented lower (p < 0.05 in the hyperproteic groups. The insulin level was lower only in HP2 and serum calcium of the HP1 and HP2 groups was lower than C1. Conclusion: The protein diet promotes significant bone change on femur and in the hormones levels related to bone synthesis and maintenance of this tissue.

  19. Electrical stunning, hot boning, and quality of chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, C C; Beraquet, N J

    2001-04-01

    The first experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying voltage, 20, 40, 80, and 100 V at 60 Hz, on stunning efficiency, blood loss, and carcass defects. In the second experiment, the same parameters were evaluated to determine the effects of varying frequency, 60, 200, 350, 500, and 1,000 Hz at 40 V. A control group for both experiments was not stunned. At 40V, 30 to 50 mA, 90% of the birds were unconscious, as shown by no response to comb piercing, and blood loss was maximized (55.3%). When varying the stunning frequency, maximum blood loss (73.1%), 90% of the birds were unconscious, and minimum carcass defects were observed at 1,000 Hz, 40 V. In the third experiment, birds were stunned at 40 V, 1,000 Hz and deboned immediately after defeathering (hot boning) and chilled or deboned after passing through all stages of a commercial abattoir operation (conventional boning). Control lots were unstunned and followed normal abattoir stages. Average shear value was significantly lower for stunned compared to unstunned birds (6.0 vs. 7.1 kg/g), although tenderness scores, as measured by a trained panel, were not significantly different (6.6 for stunned birds vs. 6.1 for unstunned). Scores for juiciness were also not significantly different (5.5 for stunned vs. 5.8 for unstunned). Average shear value was also significantly lower for conventionally boned birds (5.2 kg/g) than for hot boned birds (7.9 kg/g). Sensory analysis confirmed the shear value results. Conventionally boned breasts had an average tenderness score of 7.4 vs. an average of 5.3 for hot boned breast. No statistical differences were observed with respect to juiciness, although a score of 6.2 was observed for conventionally boned breast meat vs. a score of 5.1 for hot boned breast meat. PMID:11297290

  20. ICTP in Bone Metastases of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Franjević, Ana; Pavićević, Radomir; Bubanović, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases often appear in advanced stages of lung cancer. They are the result of modulation of bone metabolism by tumor cells that migrated into bone microenvironment and degraded bone organic matrix. Measurement of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in the serum of subjects with lung cancer with and without bone metastases and healthy population is the way to explore bone resorption. In 343 subjects included in this research ICTP level was significantly higher...

  1. Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbaecher, Katherine N.; Guise, Theresa A.; McCauley, Laurie K

    2011-01-01

    When cancer metastasizes to bone, considerable pain and deregulated bone remodelling occurs, greatly diminishing the possibility of cure. Metastasizing tumour cells mobilize and sculpt the bone microenvironment to enhance tumour growth and to promote bone invasion. Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components of bone to favour tumour expansion and...

  2. Porous hydroxyapatite for artificial bone applications

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sopyan et al

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used clinically for many years. It has good biocompatibility in bone contact as its chemical composition is similar to that of bone material. Porous HA ceramics have found enormous use in biomedical applications including bone tissue regeneration, cell proliferation, and drug delivery. In bone tissue engineering it has been applied as filling material for bone defects and augmentation, artificial bone graft material, and prosthesis revision surgery. Its high surfa...

  3. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  4. Bone Grafting the Cleft Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... systemic disease such as diabetes, or has poor oral hygiene, the risk that the graft may fail increases even more. Once the bone graft has been placed, there are three options that ... replacement (dental bridge); or 3) dental metallic bone implants. The ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing ...

  6. Fusion of the ear bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by: Birth (congenital) defect Infection Injury Symptoms Fusion of the bones leads to hearing loss, because the bones are not moving and vibrating in reaction to sound waves. Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References Torres AI, ...

  7. Unusual sutural bones at pterion

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak SB; KV S

    2008-01-01

    The existence of Wormian (sutural) bones in the skull is well known. We found three unusual Wormian bones at the right pterion in an adult Indian skull. The variation noted was unilateral. This type of variation has not been reported yet.

  8. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can ... suspected spine injury or other complicated injuries, 3-D reconstructed CT ...

  10. Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age. PMID:23562167

  11. Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia • In addition to a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, your doctor may recommend taking calcium ... What can be done to treat low bone mass? Following all of the above prevention measures is ...

  12. Space Radiation and Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

  13. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  14. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the...

  15. Conductive Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  16. The conducting disk, revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1999-01-01

    The classical formula for the charge distribution on a conducting circular disk is proved by establishing the constancy of the potential on the disk, utilizing known properties of hypergeometric functions......The classical formula for the charge distribution on a conducting circular disk is proved by establishing the constancy of the potential on the disk, utilizing known properties of hypergeometric functions...

  17. The conducting disk, revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    2000-01-01

    The classical formula for the charge distribution on a conducting disk is proved by establishing the constancy of the potential on the disk, utilizing known properties of hypergeometric functions.......The classical formula for the charge distribution on a conducting disk is proved by establishing the constancy of the potential on the disk, utilizing known properties of hypergeometric functions....

  18. Conductivity testing and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygita Makaravičiūtė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface wastewater is consideredas effluents, which are formed on the surface of urbanized areas. Stormwater treatment is performed out using a variety of filters: sand, grass. Wastewater penetration into the deeper layers is called hydraulic conductivity. After evaluation of the hydraulic conductivity, it is possible to determine the ability of the investigated fillers to entrap the stormwater flow. The hydraulic conductivity tests can indicate which fillers of stormwater filters may influence the more effective stormwater cleaning. Four stormwater filters were tested: crushed autoclaved aerated concrete filter; crushed autoclaved aerated concrete with Meadow grass (Poa pratensis layer; silica sand filter with Meadow grass (Poa pratensis layer; silica sand filter. Under in-situ conditions hydraulic conductivity in filters is investigated using Constant-head method. Mathematical modeling program Hydrus-1D presentsthe changes of hydraulic conductivity in each filler layer of the filter. Assessed hydraulic conductivity in filters under in-situ conditions hasn‘t changed only in crushed autoclaved aerated concrete filter (30 000 mm/d. The smallest hydraulic conductivity in filters under in-situ conditions was estimated in silica sand filter with Meadow grass (Poa pratensis layer, here it was equal to 209.3 mm/d.With mathematical modeling program Hydrus-1D it was found that the hydraulic conductivity in each filter decreases, depending on the depth of filler in the filter.

  19. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  20. Conductive fabric seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  1. Researches of mechanical behavior of bone tissues for development and selection of individual ceramic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakova, T. V.; Buyakova, S. P.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2016-04-01

    The researches of mechanical behavior were conducted and the effective mechanical properties of model compact bone micro volumes under uniaxial compression were obtained taking into account the structural characteristics and the mineral content; experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior and the effective mechanical parameters of obtained porous zirconia ceramics were conducted. The comparison of obtained in paper calculated and experimental mechanical properties of bone and ceramics was carry out and the recommendations on the use the ceramics with certain porosity to replace the compact bone fragment with a certain structure and mineral content were suggested.

  2. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  3. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  4. Radiodiagnosis of hemophiliac bone pseudotumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 259 hemophiliacs bone pseudotumors were diagnosed in 11 (4.3 %); they were localised in the femur (6 cases), calcaneus (4) and in the iliac bone (3). Two cases of combined fermoral and calcaneal lesions and 4 cases of bone fracture were observed. As a rule, pseudotumors developed in hemophiliacs with severe disease. An x-ray picture of a pseudotumor depended on its site and was characterized by a large soft tissue tumor shadow, often with calcinosis, and serious destructive changes in bones in the form or round foci of 7 cm in diameter with clear-cut contours. An adge defect of the cortical layer was defined in the diaphysis of the femoral bone (15 cm long). Destructive changes were often accompanied by osteosclerosis and periostitis

  5. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  6. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesion in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose 99mTc-MDP bone scan showed cold defects, 99mTc-sulfur colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy clearly delineated the areas of tumor-cell invasion. In all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but abnormalities were not recognized on bone-marrow scintigram in all of their lesions. In conclusion, the combination technique of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy was a useful method in evaluating bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  7. Diabetes-related impairment in bone strength is established early in the life course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Hanks, Lynae J; Clines, Gregory A; Tse, Hubert M; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate properties of bone quantity/quality using young non-obese Type 1 (T1D)-diabetic (NOD) prone and syngenic non-diabetic (NOD.scid) mice. METHODS: Quantitative bone assessment of tibia was conducted using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the evaluation of body mass, bone mineral content, body fat mass and lean mass. Qualitative assessment was accomplished by three-point breakage for assessment of force to failure and micro-computed tomography for evaluation of trabecular and cortical properties of bone. In addition, fasting blood was evaluated prior to sacrifice at week eleven and fifteen to evaluate and compare glucose homeostasis between the strains of mice. RESULTS: Our findings support a perturbation in the relationship between bone quantity, quality, and subsequently, the association between structure and strength. There were no differences in DXA-assessed body composition (body fat, % fat mass and lean mass) and bone composition (bone mineral content and bone mineral density) between strains. However, relative to NOD.scid, NOD mice had lower trabecular bone volume, relative trabecular bone volume, trabecular number and trabecular total material density (P < 0.05). Conversely, NOD mice had greater cortical total mean volume (P < 0.05). General linear models analysis adjusted for body weight revealed a significant contribution of T1D to bone health as early as 5 wk. CONCLUSION: It is well-established that diabetes is a significant risk factor for increased fractures, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Investigation of bone parameters encompassing strength and structure early in the life course will facilitate the elucidation of the pathogenesis of impaired bone integrity. PMID:23961325

  8. Diabetes-related impairment in bone strength is established early in the life course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Casazza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate properties of bone quantity/quality using young non-obese Type 1 (T1D-diabetic (NOD prone and syngenic non-diabetic (NOD.scid mice. METHODS: Quantitative bone assessment of tibia was conducted using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for the evaluation of body mass, bone mineral content, body fat mass and lean mass. Qualitative assessment was accomplished by three-point breakage for assessment of force to failure and micro-computed tomography for evaluation of trabecular and cortical properties of bone. In addition, fasting blood was evaluated prior to sacrifice at week eleven and fifteen to evaluate and compare glucose homeostasis between the strains of mice. RESULTS: Our findings support a perturbation in the relationship between bone quantity, quality, and subsequently, the association between structure and strength. There were no differences in DXA-assessed body composition (body fat, % fat mass and lean mass and bone composition (bone mineral content and bone mineral density between strains. However, relative to NOD.scid, NOD mice had lower trabecular bone volume, relative trabecular bone volume, trabecular number and trabecular total material density (P < 0.05. Conversely, NOD mice had greater cortical total mean volume (P < 0.05. General linear models analysis adjusted for body weight revealed a significant contribution of T1D to bone health as early as 5 wk. CONCLUSION: It is well-established that diabetes is a significant risk factor for increased fractures, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Investigation of bone parameters encompassing strength and structure early in the life course will facilitate the elucidation of the pathogenesis of impaired bone integrity.

  9. Bone composition: relationship to bone fragility and antiosteoporotic drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a bone can be described in terms of the mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, the organic phase, which consists of collagen type I, noncollagenous proteins, other components and water. The relative proportions of these various components vary with age, site, gender, disease and treatment. Any drug therapy could change the composition of a bone. This review, however, will only address those pharmaceuticals used to treat or prevent diseases of bone: fragility fractures in particular, and the way they can alter the composition. As bone is a heterogeneous tissue, its composition must be discussed in terms of the chemical makeup, properties of its chemical constituents and their distributions in the ever-changing bone matrix. Emphasis, in this review, is placed on changes in composition as a function of age and various diseases of bone, particularly osteoporosis. It is suggested that while some of the antiosteoporotic drugs can and do modify composition, their positive effects on bone strength may be balanced by negative ones. PMID:24501681

  10. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  11. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  12. Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides for painful bone metastases in patients with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle D; Karthigaseu, Nita Nishanthiny; Fuglsang, Randi;

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides may provide palliation from pain originating from bone metastases. However, most studies have been conducted in patients with prostate cancer and patients with breast cancer. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the use of radionuclide treatment in...... lung cancer in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. In the eligible trials, pain relief was reported in 75% of the patients included in the studies. The onset of pain relief was seen within 1-5 weeks after treatment, lasting up to 6 months. However, the methodology in the included trials was poor...... prior/concomitant analgaesics. Large randomised controlled trials are needed to clarify the efficacy of radionuclide treatment in lung cancer....

  13. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  14. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  15. PENGGUNAAN BONE GRAFT PADA PERAWATAN KERUSAKAN TULANG PERIODONTAL (Used Bone Graft for Periodontal Defect Treatment)

    OpenAIRE

    Elly Munadziroh; Mohamad Rubianto; Asti Meizarini

    2015-01-01

    Generally the signs and symptoms of advances periodontal disease are periodontal pockets formation to alveolar bone defect. Bone defect treated with placement a preparation material to promote new bone formation. Tissue transplantation were developed, to recontsruct bone defect with the placement of bone graft material. This paper will discuss the used of demineralied freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and anorganic bone mineral combined with synthetic 15 amino acid sequence within type I co...

  16. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can res...

  17. Use of Spongious Bone Chips and Fascia Temporalis in Alveolar Bone Defects

    OpenAIRE

    TÜZ, Hakan H.; AKAL, Ümit K.; CAMBAZOĞLU, Mine; KİŞNİŞCİ, Reha Ş.

    2004-01-01

    Graft materials are used for inducement of regeneration in bone defects. Organic and synthetic bone graft materials facilitate remodelation or healing of the bone and induce new bone formation in the area of bone resorption caused by pathological, traumatic, and physiological reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of spongious allogenic bone graft and fascia temporalis membranous collagen tissue on the healing of bone defects clinically and radiologically. The study was c...

  18. A case of primary myelofibrosis showing an interesting image on bone and bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a 73-year-old woman with primary myelofibrosis, bone and bone marrow scintigraphy were performed. Bone scintigram showed the diffusely increased skeletal uptake, especially in peripheral bones, and the relatively diminished renal uptake. On the other hand, bone marrow scintigraphy showed the remarkable peripheral expansion. Thus, to evaluate the pathophysiology and the lesion of bone and bone marrow in primary myelofibrosis, both scintigraphies seem to be useful and essential. (author)

  19. Dissecting holographic conductivities

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    The DC thermoelectric conductivities of holographic systems in which translational symmetry is broken can be efficiently computed in terms of the near-horizon data of the dual black hole. By calculating the frequency dependent conductivities to the first subleading order in the momentum relaxation rate, we give a physical explanation for these conductivities in the simplest such example, in the limit of slow momentum relaxation. Specifically, we decompose each conductivity into the sum of a coherent contribution due to momentum relaxation and an incoherent contribution, due to intrinsic current relaxation. This decomposition is different from those previously proposed, and is consistent with the known hydrodynamic properties in the translationally invariant limit. This is the first step towards constructing a consistent theory of charged hydrodynamics with slow momentum relaxation.

  20. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... surface electrodes are placed on the skin over nerves at different spots. Each patch gives off a ...

  1. Conducting polymers: polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Humpolíček, P.; Kašpárková, V.; Sapurina, I.; Shishov, M. A.; Varga, M.

    Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015, s. 1-44. ISBN 9780471440260 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymers * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/0471440264/

  2. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. PMID:26051481

  3. Thermal conductivity of HNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubion, B.D.

    1976-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of HNS I and two samples of HNS II was determined at 222, 293, 347 and 394/sup 0/K. The thermal diffusivity of pellets of each HNS lot pressed to three densities was measured using the pulse heating method. The thermal conductivity was calculated for each pellet from the thermal diffusivity, density and the specific heat. The specific heat for each HNS sample was measured at each temperature using the DSC method.

  4. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas of physiological need. The mechanism by which cells are precisely targeted to areas requiring repair is both clinically relevant and poorly understood. The osteocyte has been assumed to play a role in sensing damage and signaling for its removal, due largely to its abundance throughout the mineralized bone matrix. However, until recently there has been little evidence that osteocyte function is modified in the vicinity of the microdamage. Here I outline the possibility that the targeted removal of bone containing microcracks might involve signals derived from the apoptotic death of the osteocyte. I shall discuss data that support or refute this view and will consider the possible molecular mechanisms by which controlled cell death might contribute to the signals for repair in the light of work involving cells in bone and other tissue systems.

  5. Bone health in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), concerning for an increased risk of fractures, and decreased bone accrual in adolescents, concerning for suboptimal peak bone mass. This review discusses causes of impaired bone health in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Low BMD in anorexia nervosa is consequent to decreased lean mass, hypogonadism, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia and alterations in hormones impacted by energy availability. Weight gain causes some improvement in bone accrual, but not to the extent observed in controls, and vitamin D supplementation does not increase BMD. Oral estrogen is not effective in increasing BMD, likely from IGF-1 suppressive effects. In contrast, transdermal estrogen replacement is effective in increasing bone accrual in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, although not to the extent seen in controls. Recombinant human IGF-1 increases bone formation in adolescents, and with oral estrogen increases BMD in adults with anorexia nervosa. Bisphosphonates increase BMD in adults, but not in adolescents, and should be used cautiously given their long half-life. Summary Further investigation is necessary to explore therapies for low BMD in anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is to be encouraged. Transdermal estrogen in adolescents, and bisphosphonates in adults, have a potential therapeutic role. PMID:21897220

  6. Plutonium microdistribution in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount and location of plutonium in bone from three humans injected during the mid-1940's has been studied by autoradiography and alpha particle spectrometry. Concentrations are similar on endosteal surfaces, Haversian canal surfaces and periosteal surfaces of long bone midshafts 17 months after injection. Endosteal surface concentrations are higher in the axial skeleton than in the appendicular skeleton 15 and 17 months post injection. For dosimetric purposes, volume deposits may be considered to be infinitely thick whereas surface deposits may be considered to have zero thickness. Secondary surface deposits are dosimetrically important, even when the plutonium is almost completely deposited in bone volume

  7. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikare S

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for the diagnosis of various sports injuries in sports medicine.

  8. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  9. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  10. Reconstruction of saddle nose deformity with calvarial bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of calvarial bone in the reconstruction of saddle nose deformity. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Plastic Surgery Unit of Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from July 2004 to October 2009. It comprised 19 patients who underwent saddle nose deformity reconstruction with calvarial bone graft. All patients were operated upon under general anaesthesia. They were followed up periodically. Results: The patients followed up for 25 to 61 months for an average period of 39.2+-4.3 months. In 14 (74%) patients the result of the surgical intervention was excellent, while in 5 (26%) it was acceptable. All patients were satisfied and there was not displacement, absorption, distortion or infection of the graft. Conclusion: Calvarial bone graft is a viable option for the reconstruction of saddle nose deformity, especially in severe cases. (author)

  11. Sinonasal Schwannoma with New Bone Formation Expressing Bone Morphogenic Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Satoru Kodama; Tomoyo Okamoto; Masashi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign tumor that arises from the sheath of myelinated nerve fibers and may occur in any part of the body. Osteogenesis in schwannoma is extremely rare and, to date, new bone formation in sinonasal schwannoma has not yet been reported. Here, we describe the first reported case of sinonasal schwannoma with new bone formation. The tumor was successfully treated by endoscopic sinus surgery, and the patient showed no evidence of recurrence 24 months postoperatively. Immunohistoche...

  12. Osseointegration of Titanium Implants in Onlay of Cerament™, a New Ceramic Bone Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Truedsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate whether a new biphasic and injectable ceramic bone substitute Cerament™ that rapidly remodels to bone, may contribute to the retention of titanium implant screws during the healing period, and to analyze the pattern of bone formation around titanium implants.Titanium screws were implanted in rat tibiae and embedded with or without Cerament™ on the cortical surface. Torsional resistance was measured after 1 day, and after 6 and 12 weeks. Implant areas without bone substitute were analyzed histologically for comparison. The torsional resistance increased over time as the screws were osseointegrated. There was no difference in resistance between screws embedded in the bone substitute and control screws. The bone apposition was more pronounced on the proximal side of the screw than on the distal side. Cerament™ is capable of conducting bone growth from a cortical bone surface. The newly formed bone in this application does not significantly add to the osseointegrative strength of the implant screw, as measured by torque resistance, during the first 12 weeks.

  13. Osseointegration of Titanium Implants in Onlay of Cerament™, a New Ceramic Bone Substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truedsson, Anna; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Lindberg, Pia; Warfvinge, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether a new biphasic and injectable ceramic bone substitute Cerament™ that rapidly remodels to bone, may contribute to the retention of titanium implant screws during the healing period, and to analyze the pattern of bone formation around titanium implants.Titanium screws were implanted in rat tibiae and embedded with or without Cerament™ on the cortical surface. Torsional resistance was measured after 1 day, and after 6 and 12 weeks. Implant areas without bone substitute were analyzed histologically for comparison. The torsional resistance increased over time as the screws were osseointegrated. There was no difference in resistance between screws embedded in the bone substitute and control screws. The bone apposition was more pronounced on the proximal side of the screw than on the distal side. Cerament™ is capable of conducting bone growth from a cortical bone surface. The newly formed bone in this application does not significantly add to the osseointegrative strength of the implant screw, as measured by torque resistance, during the first 12 weeks. PMID:26751485

  14. Use of demineralized bone as an osteoinductive orbital enucleation implant in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sires, B S; Geggel, H S; Heffernan, J T; Crane, R D; Holds, J B

    1993-06-01

    Implanted allogeneic demineralized bone particles (DBP) may be transformed into endochondral bone by inductive or conductive new bone formation. Using a rabbit model, enucleation or evisceration was performed, and DBP was implanted into the socket. Histology confirmed endochondral bone formation in both groups. A morphologic difference existed between enucleation and evisceration: compact bone was produced following evisceration, and cancellous bony spheres were formed following enucleation. Serial quantitative computed tomography (qCT) was performed to monitor mineral density and proved to be an ideal technique to monitor bone mineralization noninvasively in the postoperative orbit. Bone mineral density (BMD, mg/ml) increased approximately 300% in DBP implanted orbits when compared to controls at 6 weeks. The ideal mass/volume ratio of DBP to socket volume was 400 mg/ml. The rapidly formed bone is well vascularized and creates a stable integrated orbital implant, following enucleation and evisceration surgery. DBP implantation into the central orbit results in inductive bone formation with interesting potential in socket and orbit reconstruction. PMID:8323902

  15. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p vol (r 0.866, p vol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality

  16. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  17. Temporal bone trauma and the role of multidetector CT in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Julio O; Feliciano, Yara Z; Hadley, Celene R; Gomez, Angel A; Vidal, Jorge A

    2011-10-01

    The temporal bone anatomy is complex, with many critical structures in close association with one another. The temporal bone region comprises cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VIII; vascular structures such as the internal carotid and middle meningeal arteries; sigmoid sinus; jugular bulb; and sensorineural and membranous structures of the inner ear. Most temporal bone fractures are a result of high-energy blunt head trauma. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) plays a fundamental role in the initial evaluation of patients with polytrauma in the emergency department. Multidetector CT may help identify important structural injuries that may have devastating complications such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, dizziness and balance dysfunction, perilymphatic fistulas, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, facial nerve paralysis, and vascular injury. Although classifying temporal bone fractures helps physicians understand and predict trauma-associated complications and guide treatment, identifying injury to critical structures is more important for guiding management and determining prognosis than is simply classifying temporal bone fractures into a general category. Many temporal bone fractures and complications may be readily identified and characterized at routine cervical, maxillofacial, and head multidetector CT performed in patients with polytrauma, without the need for dedicated temporal bone multidetector CT. Dedicated temporal bone multidetector CT should be considered when there is a high degree of suspicion for temporal bone fractures and no fractures are identified at head, cervical, or maxillofacial CT. PMID:21997992

  18. Osseointegration of Titanium Implants in Onlay of Cerament™, a New Ceramic Bone Substitute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truedsson, Anna; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Lindberg, Pia; Warfvinge, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether a new biphasic and injectable ceramic bone substitute Cerament™ that rapidly remodels to bone, may contribute to the retention of titanium implant screws during the healing period, and to analyze the pattern of bone formation around titanium implants.Titanium screws were implanted in rat tibiae and embedded with or without Cerament™ on the cortical surface. Torsional resistance was measured after 1 day, and after 6 and 12 weeks. Implant areas without bone substitute were analyzed histologically for comparison. The torsional resistance increased over time as the screws were osseointegrated. There was no difference in resistance between screws embedded in the bone substitute and control screws. The bone apposition was more pronounced on the proximal side of the screw than on the distal side. Cerament™ is capable of conducting bone growth from a cortical bone surface. The newly formed bone in this application does not significantly add to the osseointegrative strength of the implant screw, as measured by torque resistance, during the first 12 weeks. PMID:26751485

  19. Natural History of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Santini; Sandro, Barni; Salvatore, Intagliata; Alfredo, Falcone; Francesco, Ferraù; Domenico, Galetta; Luca, Moscetti; Nicla, La Verde; Toni, Ibrahim; Fausto, Petrelli; Enrico, Vasile; Laura, Ginocchi; Davide, Ottaviani; Flavia, Longo; Cinzia, Ortega; Antonio, Russo; Giuseppe, Badalamenti; Elena, Collovà; Gaetano, Lanzetta; Giovanni, Mansueto; Vincenzo, Adamo; Filippo, De Marinis; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Flavia, Cantile; Andrea, Mancuso; Tanca, Francesca Maria; Raffaele, Addeo; Marco, Russano; Sterpi, M; Francesco, Pantano; Bruno, Vincenzi; Giuseppe, Tonini

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large, multicenter, retrospective survey aimed to explore the impact of tumor bone involvement in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.Data on clinical-pathology, skeletal outcomes and bone-directed therapies for 661 deceased patients with evidence of bone metastasis were collected and statistically analyzed. Bone metastases were evident at diagnosis in 57.5% of patients. In the remaining cases median time to bone metastases appearance was 9 months. Biphosphonates were administered in 59.6% of patients. Skeletal-related events were experienced by 57.7% of patients; the most common was the need for radiotherapy. Median time to first skeletal-related event was 6 months. Median survival after bone metastases diagnosis was 9.5 months and after the first skeletal-related event was 7 months. We created a score based on four factors used to predict the overall survival from the diagnosis of bone metastases: age >65 years, non-adenocarcinoma histology, ECOG Performance Status >2, concomitant presence of visceral metastases at the bone metastases diagnosis. The presence of more than two of these factors is associated with a worse prognosis.This study demonstrates that patients affected by Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with bone metastases represent a heterogeneous population in terms of risk of skeletal events and survival. PMID:26690845

  20. Demineralized Bone Matrix Add-On for Acceleration of Bone Healing in Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Consecutive Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Noratep Kulachote; Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong; Norachart Sirisreetreerux; Pongsthorn Chanplakorn; Praman Fuangfa; Chanyut Suphachatwong; Wiwat Wajanavisit

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delayed union and nonunion are common complications in atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) despite having good fracture fixation. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a successfully proven method for enhancing fracture healing of the long bone fracture and nonunion and should be used in AFFs. This study aimed to compare the outcome after subtrochanteric AFFs (ST-AFFs) fixation with and without DBM. Materials and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 9 ST-AFFs patients using DB...

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review discusses the current status of available radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging. For skeletal imaging 99Tcsup(m)-labelled diphosphonates as a group seem to be superior to other phosphorous compounds including pyrophosphate. Of the diphosphonates, 99Tcsup(m)-labelled MDP is better than EHDP. The new compound 99Tcsup(m)-IDP shows more skeletal uptake than MDP or EHDP in patients, but requires further clinical evaluation. Bone-marrow imaging has not received as much attention as bone imaging because of the lack of suitable radiopharmaceuticals. The erythropoietic marrow can be well visualized by using iron-52, an accelerator-produced positron emitter (511 keV gamma). However, availability (short half-life) and instrumentation problems limit its use to only a few institutions with access to an accelerator. The RES cell function of the bone marrow can be demonstrated by using colloids labelled with a suitable radionuclide. However, none of the available colloids of short-lived radionuclides (99Tcsup(m) or 113Insup(m)) localize to any great extent in the marrow - their localization often being limited to 10-15% of the injected dose in normal patients. Indium-111 chloride has been claimed to be useful as an erythropoietic cell marrow imaging agent by some investigators but others have disputed this claim. At the present time, we do not have an optimal agent for bone-marrow imaging and further work in this area is warranted. (author)

  2. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  3. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current–voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10−4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10−1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10−4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm–1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples. (paper)

  4. Temporal bone dissection skill: A necessity for life otologic surgeries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomy of the temporal bone is complex and not easily learned. Hours of study in the temporal bone laboratory are required for a good grasp by the intending otologic surgeon in order to avoid predictable complications. Aim and Objective: This study aims at highlighting the steps involved toward acquiring the necessary skills and understanding this complex anatomy before embarking on life otological surgeries (temporal bones surgeries and cochlear implant in our center. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of cadaver temporal bone dissection conducted over a period of 3 months. A total of 10 dry, formalin-fixed cadavers were used for the dissection. A team of doctors headed by a consultant otolaryngologist carried out the dissections on the cadavers. The landmark of importance for the dissections was the McEwen′s triangle. From this starting point, various otologic surgeries were performed hands-on on the cadavers using the appropriate burs and their sizes. Anatomic features encountered during the dissection were noted and recorded. Results: The 10 cadavers (100% were all adult males. The youngest and oldest cadavers were aged 25 and 45 years, respectively, with an overall mean age of 38.9 years. The interval between death and embalmment varied from 5 to 79 days. The suprameatal crest, dural plate, aditus and antrum were all present in the 20 temporal bones dissected. Cribrifossae and wide marrow mastoid cavity were noted in 17 (85% temporal bones each, highly pneumatized mastoid, herald air cells and incus were seen in 14 (70% each, tympanic remnant was seen in 13 (65% and stapes in 6 (30%. Conclusion: Temporal bone dissection provides an avenue in understanding the anatomic features and the variations that may pose a challenge in cochlear implant and other otologic surgeries and it enhances the dexterity of the otologic surgeon.

  5. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in bone metastases of solid tumors (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H

    1998-01-01

    The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and resorpti

  6. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  7. Conductive epoxypolyamide coating composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabeau, M.N.; Rohrbacher, F.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a conductive coating composition comprising a film forming binder and pigment in a pigment to binder weight ratio of about 15:100 to 100:100. It comprises 40-70% by weight of an amine component having at least two reactive amine groups selected from the group consisting of an amine, polyamide, polyamido amine resin or mixtures thereof; and 30-60% by weight of an epoxy resin having at least two epoxy groups per resin molecule; wherein the pigment comprises an electrically conductive pigment that comprises silica selected from the group consisting of amorphous silica, a silica containing material or silica coated pigment, the silica being in association with a two- dimensional network of antimony-containing tin oxide crystallites in which the antimony content ranges from about 1-30% by weight of the tin oxide and the composition forms a coating having a surface conductivity of at least 100 Ransburg units.

  8. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed by......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes...... using materials from my ongoing Ph.D. project which is based on cultural-historical research traditions and critical psychological conceptualizations. The project is a qualitative study of 6 children, who for various reasons are defined as being children-at-risk. Due to concerns about their development...

  9. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A; Lee, Damian J; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (pimplant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (pimplant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  10. Bone bruise of the knee associated with the lesions of anterior cruciate ligament and menisci on magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bone bruise is a common finding in acutely injured knee examined by magnetic resonance (MR. The aim of the study was to determine the association of bone bruise frequency with postinjury lesions of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and menisci. Bone bruise involves posttraumatic bone marrow change with hemorrhages, edema and microtrabecular fractures without disruption of adjacent cortices or articular cartilage. MR imaging is a method of choice for detecting bone bruises which can not be seen on conventional radiographic techniques. Methods. A representative review of 120 MR examinations for the acute knee trauma was conducted. All the patients were examined within one month of trauma. All MR examinations were performed by using a 0.3T MR unit. Results. Posttraumatic bone bruise was seen in 39 (32.5% patients out of 120. Three patients had fracture of the cortex, so-called “occult” fracture (not seen on plain radiography. We analyzed only bone bruises without these fractures of the cortex. Bone bruise was associated with the lesion of ACL in 27 (69% patients. In 28 (72% patients bone bruise was in combination with the lesion of menisci. Only two patients with bone bruise had neither ACL nor menisci lesions. There were 78 patients without bone bruise but 33 (43% of them had lesions of ACL and 49 (63% had lesions of menisci. Conclusion. Bone bruise is best seen in STIR (Short TI Inversion Recovery images and is very often found in acute knee trauma. Very often it is associated with posttraumatic lesions of ACL and menisci, so attention must be paid to this when bone bruise is seen. The difference in frequency of internal structures of the knee lesions in patients with bone bruise is highly statistically significant as compared to patients with no bone bruise.

  11. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... implanted, the Baha device will allow sound to travel through bone and restore close-to-normal hearing ... through the abutment so the sound can then travel through the head to the functional cochlea, or ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  14. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and out. It's important that we don't heat the bone up too much. And you can ... way give her -- help her get over the challenges that single-sided deafness presents. But important to ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Arthritis X- ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... a comment, please complete the following form: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Images × Image Gallery ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ...

  20. Bone growth in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research performed in several laboratories has shown that artificially induced currents affect bone growth. Studies of various current characteristics produced by implanted electrodes indicate that continuous dc, interrupted dc, and asymmetric ac all increase osteogenesis at the cathode. Stimulation from an externally applied balanced ac field was reported to reduce bone loss from disuse. The purpose of the study being reported here was to examine the influence of a uniform ac electric field on the normal skeletal growth pattern of rats. Juvenile rats received whole body exposure to uniform, vertical 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m for 30 days. There were no marked alterations in the general growth pattern of the exposed animals compared to controls maintained under similar conditions. Bone growth rate, measured by tetracycline labeling, morphology of lumbar vertebrae and tibias and cortical bone area and marrow space area of tibias were not disturbed by exposure to the electric fields. (author)

  1. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for periodontitis and tooth loss. Role of the Dentist and Dental X Rays Research supported by the ... normal bone density. Because many people see their dentist more regularly than their doctor, dentists are in ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  3. Bone disease in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Anastasia D; Lyritis, George P; Tournis, Symeon

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by emaciation due to self-starvation and displays a unique hormonal profile. Alterations in gonadal axis, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor I levels, hypercortisolemia and low triiodothyronine levels are almost universally present and constitute an adaptive response to malnutrition. Bone metabolism is likewise affected resulting in low bone mineral density, reduced bone accrual and increased fracture risk. Skeletal deficits often persist even after recovery from the disease with serious implications for future skeletal health. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying bone disease are quite complicated and treatment is a particularly challenging task. PMID:24722126

  4. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... see bone beneath with no soft tissue. And something I notice sometimes is that the skull is ... of how I'm just finishing up. But something else I want to emphasize that's important is -- ...

  5. Healthy Bones at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include walking and running, as well as team sports like soccer and basketball. AAOS does not endorse ... to cause hormonal changes that stop menstrual periods (amenorrhea). This loss of estrogen can cause bone loss ...

  6. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slide not shown here, where a small pilot hole is drilled into the bone and a small ... fixture. This is done by creating a small hole in the skin flap and stretching it over ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little ... stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, ...

  9. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you're seeing with Dr. Eisen operating today, firm bone in the vicinity where the implant will ... approximately 45 decibels or less. So the critical factors there is how the inner ear is functioning ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much ...

  13. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to determine the level of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. A large amount of this enzyme is present ... of abnormal bone tissue. Because high levels of alkaline phosphatase are normal in growing children and adolescents, this ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of ... oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... a comment, please complete the following form: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Please help us ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x- ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your ... clothes and to wear a gown during the exam. You may also be asked to remove jewelry, ...

  19. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin, the transference of that energy is less efficient, and therefore the sound quality is poorer, less ... that transference of those sound vibrations is very efficient because it's directly into the bone itself. I' ...

  20. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the bone oscillator is superficial on the skin, the transference of that energy is less efficient, ... slides, is to mark the location in the skin where the screwlike fixture will be anchored. Subsequent ...

  1. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  2. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed. PMID:3461626

  3. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.; Clemenson, P. I.; Carneiro, K.; Yueqiuan, S.; Mortensen, Kell

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  4. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  5. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  6. Influence of Experimental Dehydration on Structural Characteristics of Bone Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Husak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer structure of bone tissue, the mineral bases of it is bioapatite, provides wide spectrum of mechanical and physiological properties. Water is also a significant component of bone matrix, which ensures relation between internal and external environment and transports nutrients from extracellular matrix to the cells. Violation of the water content and its ratio in extracellular and cellular sectors may change structure and function of the mineral component of bone. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine the structure of bioapatite in case of water imbalance. The experiment was conducted on laboratory rats, which modeled a heavy degree of water deficiency. X-Ray diffraction was applied to samples bioapatite pelvic bone, annealed at 200 °C and 900 °C. The research results demonstrate the high level of β-tricalcium-magnesium-phosphate as bone mineral component in conditions of experimental dehydration, which formed after burning in 900 °C. It testifies a significant calcium deficiency in the original apatite. The relatively high level of microstrain in the mineral component of experimental group indicates the dominant role of heterovalent substitutions in the crystal lattice (Na+ or K+ → Са2+ which is confirmed by lower content of magnesium in β-tricalcium-magnesium-phosphate after specimen’s annealing in 900 °C.

  7. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  8. Bone allografting: an Indian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kurup, Harish V; Rao, Prabhakar; Patro, Dilip K.

    2004-01-01

    Freeze-drying is considered to be the best technique for allograft preparation and storage. This method is, however, unsuitable for use in developing countries due to high costs. Ethylene oxide sterilization is still controversial because of its effect on osteoinductive capacity. This study involved setting up a bone bank for the first time. Cancellous bone collected from 40 patients was cleaned thoroughly, chemically processed, and sterilized with ethylene oxide gas and stored doubly packed....

  9. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  10. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p

  11. An automatic approach for calibrating dielectric bone properties by combining finite-element and optimization software tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yukun; Kluess, Daniel; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; van Rienen, Ursula; Bader, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The dielectric properties of human bone are one of the most essential inputs required by electromagnetic stimulation for improved bone regeneration. Measuring the electric properties of bone is a difficult task because of the complexity of the bone structure. Therefore, an automatic approach is presented to calibrate the electric properties of bone. The numerical method consists of three steps: generating input from experimental data, performing the numerical simulation, and calibrating the bone dielectric properties. As an example, the dielectric properties at 20 Hz of a rabbit distal femur were calibrated. The calibration process was considered as an optimization process with the aim of finding the optimum dielectric bone properties that match most of the numerically calculated simulation and experimentally measured data sets. The optimization was carried out automatically by the optimization software tool iSIGHT in combination with the finite-element solver COMSOL Multiphysics. As a result, the optimum conductivity and relative permittivity of the rabbit distal femur at 20 Hz were found to be 0.09615 S/m and 19522 for cortical bone and 0.14913 S/m and 1561507 for cancellous bone, respectively. The proposed method is a potential tool for the identification of realistic dielectric properties of the entire bone volume. The presented approach combining iSIGHT with COMSOL is applicable to, amongst others, designing implantable electro-stimulative devices or the optimization of electrical stimulation parameters for improved bone regeneration. PMID:26777343

  12. Myeloma bone disease: Pathophysiology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma bone disease is marked by severe dysfunction of both bone formation and resorption and serves as a model for understanding the regulation of osteoblasts (OBL) and osteoclasts (OCL) in cancer. Myeloma bone lesions are purely osteolytic and are associated with severe and debilitating bone pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression, as well as increased mortality. Interactions within the bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma are responsible for the ...

  13. Mechanisms of cancer metastasis to the bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Juan YIN; Claire B. POLLOCK; Kathleen KELLY

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most common human cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer, metastasize with avidity to bone. What is the basis for their preferential growth within the bone microenvironment? Bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and cells that make up bone result in a selective advantage for tumor growth and can lead to bone destruction or new bone matrix deposition. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular components and mechanisms that are responsible for those interactions.

  14. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James

    2010-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We ...

  15. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1900?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective: This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy...

  16. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, Rogério; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  17. Cellular Mechanisms of Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Oranger; Claudia Carbone; Maddalena Izzo; Maria Grano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulates and proliferates in the bone marrow. MM patients often develop bone disease that results in severe bone pain, osteolytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. These skeletal complications have not only a negative impact on quality of life but also a possible effect in overall survival. MM osteolytic bone lesions arise from the altered bone remodeling due to both increased osteoclast activation and d...

  18. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, R. P.; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  19. Local treatment of a bone graft by soaking in zoledronic acid inhibits bone resorption and bone formation. A bone chamber study in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Belfrage Ola; Isaksson Hanna; Tägil Magnus

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bone grafts are frequently used in orthopaedic surgery. Graft remodelling is advantageous but can occur too quickly, and premature bone resorption might lead to decreased mechanical integrity of the graft. Bisphosphonates delay osteoclastic bone resorption but may also impair formation of new bone. We hypothesize that these effects are dose dependent. In the present study we evaluate different ways of applying bisphosphonates locally to the graft in a bone...

  20. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  1. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  2. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  3. Entropy and Ionic Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    It is known that the ionic conductivity can be obtained by using the diffusion constant and the Einstein relation. We derive it here by extracting it from the steady electric current which we calculate in three ways, using statistics analysis, an entropy method, and an entropy production approach.

  4. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mentus, S.; Ciric-Marjanovic, G.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 24 (2009), 245601/1-245601/10. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymers * polyaniline * carbonization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2009

  5. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  6. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  7. Conducting the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Heat conduction plays an important role in the efficiency and life span of electronic components. To keep electronic components running efficiently and at a proper temperature, thermal management systems transfer heat generated from the components to thermal surfaces such as heat sinks, heat pipes, radiators, or heat spreaders. Thermal surfaces absorb the heat from the electrical components and dissipate it into the environment, preventing overheating. To ensure the best contact between electrical components and thermal surfaces, thermal interface materials are applied. In addition to having high conductivity, ideal thermal interface materials should be compliant to conform to the components, increasing the surface contact. While many different types of interface materials exist for varying purposes, Energy Science Laboratories, Inc. (ESLI), of San Diego, California, proposed using carbon velvets as thermal interface materials for general aerospace and electronics applications. NASA s Johnson Space Center granted ESLI a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to develop thermal interface materials that are lightweight and compliant, and demonstrate high thermal conductance even for nonflat surfaces. Through Phase II SBIR work, ESLI created Vel-Therm for the commercial market. Vel-Therm is a soft, carbon fiber velvet consisting of numerous high thermal conductivity carbon fibers anchored in a thin layer of adhesive. The velvets are fabricated by precision cutting continuous carbon fiber tows and electrostatically flocking the fibers into uncured adhesive, using proprietary techniques.

  8. Nonlinear Conductivity in Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Abukari, S. S.; Mensah, S. Y.; Musah, R.; Mensah, N. G.; Dompreh, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the tight-binding approximation for the description of energy bands of graphene, together with the standard Boltzmann's transport equation and constant relaxation time, an expression for the conductivity was obtained. We predicted strong nonlinear effects in graphene which may be useful for high frequency generation.

  9. Effect of morselized bones on binding of the canine hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ke-guan; MA De-sheng; HOU Jian-wen; WANG Huan; YAN Jing-long; YU Zhan-ge; LIANG Zhi-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-cement femoral stems are recognized in clinical use, but there are still some problems. The aim of this research was to make non-cement femoral stems to be press-fit with the medullary cavity. Methods Twenty-four healthy adult mongrel dogs were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the right hip joint, an artificial femoral bone replacement surgery was conducted. For the experimental group, the replacement surgery of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated femoral stems was done, while autogeneous morselized bone was implanted into the medullary cavity. For the control group, morselized bone was not implanted. At postoperative 1, 3, 6 months, a test for interfacial shear characteristics was conducted in the MTS810 Tester. The comparison between the two groups' bone-prostheses in shear strength for their interface from shearing destruction was made. A histological observation to check prosthesis-bone interface contact ratios and bone growth was carried out. Results For the experimental group, shear strength was 0.317 MPa in 1 month, 1.447 MPa in 3 months, and 1.621 MPa in 6 months. For the control group, shear strength was 0.195 MPa in 1 month, 1.023 MPa in 3 months, and 1.483 MPa in 6 months. The difference was statistically significant. Stereomicroscope-based observation showed that the number of trabecular bones in the experimental group was larger than that of the control group, and bone growth of the former group was better than that of the latter group. Inverted microscopic observation showed that the binding degree between the prosthesis and trabecular bone of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group. Comparatively, the experimental group's trabecular bone had more stromal cells. Conclusions The morselized bones can effectively improve the biological bonding strength and bone-contact ratios in the short term for the HA-coated femoral stem and accelerate the bonding process. The use of morselized autogenous bones

  10. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often begins in the adolescent years, and decreased rates of bone mass accrual at this critical time are therefore also concerning for deficits in peak bone mass. Factors contributing to low bone density and decreased rates of bone accrual include alterations in body composition such as low BMI and lean body mass, and hormonal alterations such as hypogonadism, a nutritionally acquired resistance to growth hormone and low levels of IGF-1, relative hypercortisolemia, low levels of leptin, and increased adiponectin (for fat mass) and peptide YY. Therapeutic strategies include optimizing weight and menstrual recovery, and adequate calcium and vitamin D replacement. Oral estrogen-progesterone combination pills are not effective in increasing bone density in adolescents with AN. RhIGF-1 increases levels of bone formation markers in the short-term, while long-term effects remain to be determined. Bisphosphonates act by decreasing bone resorption, and are not optimal for use in adolescents with AN, in whom the primary defect is low bone formation. PMID:21301203

  11. Small-Angle X-ray Study of the Three-Dimensional Collagen/Mineral Superstructure in Intramuscular Fish Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was conducted on native intramuscular shad/herring bone samples. Two-dimensional SAXS patterns were quantitatively analyzed with special consideration for preferred orientation effects, leading to new insights into the three-dimensional superstructure of mineralized collagen fibrils in shad/herring bone

  12. Obesity-related changes in bone structural and material properties in hyperphagic OLETF rats and protection by voluntary wheel running

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a study to examine how the development of obesity and the associated insulin resistance affect bone structural and material properties, and bone formation and resorption markers in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model. This was a 36-week study of sedentary, hyperphag...

  13. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P < 0.01). As expected, linear increases in tibia and femur bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P < 0.01). Right and left hip angle increased with duck age (P < 0.01). Additionally, ducks with a GS2 had wider hip angles opposed to ducks with a GS0 (P < 0.01). Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P < 0.05). Femur ash content was lowest in 32-day-old ducks and ducks with GS1 and GS2 (P < 0.0001). Tibia ash content increased with age, but decreased as gait score increased (P < 0.001). The observation that right hip angle changed with gait scores merits further investigation into the relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth. PMID:25810406

  14. STUDIES ON ENHANCED CONDUCTIVITY OF STRETCHED CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Meixiang

    1995-01-01

    A physical model of series of the conductivity on chain and the interchain conductivity between chains is proposed to explain enhanced conductivity of stretched conducting polymers.This model suggests that the enhanced conductivity for stretched conducting polymers might be due to increasing of the interchain conductivity between chains along the elongation direction after drawing processes if the conductivity on chain is assumed much larger than that of the interchain conductivity between chains. According to this model, it is expected that the temperature dependence of conductivity measured by four-probe method for stretched conducting polymers is controlled by a variation of the interchain conductivity between chains with temperature, which can be used to explain that a metallic temperature dependence of conductivity for stretched conducting polymers is not observed although the conductivity along the elongation direction is enhanced by two or three orders of magnitude.

  15. Comparison of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to define the role of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of skeletal metastasis. The bone scan has remained the screening method of choice for many years, because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection and its ability to evaluate the whole skeleton in one setting. Bone-marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibodies allows high-quality, whole-body visualization of hematopoetically active bone marrow. The importance of imaging the bone marrow is founded in the fact that, in general, bone-marrow invasion precedes skeletal involvement in the development of skeletal metastasis. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are compared, and the possible indications for using bone-marrow scintigraphy complementary to or instead of the bone scan are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Effect of simvastatin versus low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone regeneration in rabbit's tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Mostafa E.; Khairy, Maggie A.

    2014-02-01

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering drug which proved effective on promoting bone healing. Recently low level laser therapy (LLLT) proved its effect as a biostimulator promoting bone regeneration. This study aims to compare the effect of both Simvastatin versus low level laser on bone healing in surgically created bone defects in rabbit's tibia. Material and methods: The study included 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Three successive 3mm defects were created in rabbits tibia first defect was left as control, second defect was filled with Simvastatin while the third defect was acted on with Low Level Laser (optical fiber 320micrometer). Rabbits were sacrificed after 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks intervals. Histopathology was conducted on the three defects Results: The histopathologic studies showed that the bony defects treated with the Low Level Laser showed superior healing patterns and bone regeneration than those treated with Simvastatin. While the control defect showed the least healing pattern.

  17. Bone disease in patients with haemophilia A and B--where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, P; Karras, S N; Goulis, D G

    2015-01-01

    It is evident that haemophilia A and B are associated with decreased bone mass in both adults and children. Decreased physical activity and vitamin D deficiency are some of the major factors leading to bone loss. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may also contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD). However, definite conclusions regarding the exact prevalence and pathogenesis of osteoporosis cannot be conducted yet, due to the small sample size and significant heterogeneity among studies. Discordant findings with regard to the skeletal site of low BMD have also been reported. Furthermore, data on fracture risk are sparse. The use of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) for assessing fracture risk, regular BMD assessment at the age of 25 and thereafter, careful evaluation of risk factors associated with bone loss and optimal calcium and vitamin D intake are recommended. Long-term prophylactic factor replacement therapy, resistance exercise and bisphosphonates, in severe cases of increased fracture risk, can prevent bone loss. PMID:25251867

  18. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  19. Robust mixed conducting membrane structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane structure, comprising in said order a first electronically conducting layer, an ionically conducting layer, and a second electronically conducting layer, characterized in that the first and second electronically conducting layers are internally short circ...

  20. Analysis of changes in bone cement damping factor and its effect on bone load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents the results of simulations and material-related investigations for bone cement used for alloplasty of hip joint. Mechanical properties of bone cements are of key importance for a successful surgery and further use of the joint as well as its behaviour during complex load which appears during patient’s walk.Design/methodology/approach: One of the methods of thermal analysis for polymeric materials has been used for investigations. DMTA method is based on the analysis of the signal (reaction from the deformed material under particular conditions, at the changeable ambient temperature as well as frequency and amplitude of vibrations. DMTA thermograms give information on change in storage modulus E’ and the mechanical loss factor tgδ, which is responsible for dissipation of energy during deformation.Findings: During simulation investigations ADINA engineering environment has been used; it enabled, at the assumed boundary and initial conditions, to assess the stress which appears in individual cross-sections of the analysed bone and the implant fixed by means of bone cement. During the analysis the cross-sections have been presented and the values of the stress which appears in individual zones have been determined.Research limitations/implications: Due to high complexity, only the results of simulation software have been used, clinic trials will be possible not before thorough check and analysis of the obtained results.Practical implications: Practical application of the results of the investigations described in this paper will be possible after long and comprehensive clinical trials.Originality/value: Original value of this paper are the results of tests since such an analysis has never been conducted by scientific environment working on this subject.

  1. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  2. Embalmed and fresh frozen human bones in orthopedic cadaveric studies: which bone is authentic and feasible?

    OpenAIRE

    Topp, Tobias; Müller, Thorben; Huss, Sebastian; Kann, Peter Herbert; Weihe, Eberhard; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Zettl, Ralph Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The most frequently used bones for mechanical testing of orthopedic and trauma devices are fresh frozen cadaveric bones, embalmed cadaveric bones, and artificial composite bones. Even today, the comparability of these different bone types has not been established. Methods We tested fresh frozen and embalmed cadaveric femora that were similar concerning age, sex, bone mineral density, and stiffness. Artificial composite femora were used as a reference group. Testing para...

  3. Skeletal Cell Fate Decisions Within Periosteum and Bone Marrow During Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Colnot, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results...

  4. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Knapen, M. H. J.; Schurgers, L.J.; Vermeer, C

    2007-01-01

    Summary Vitamin K mediates the synthesis of proteins regulating bone metabolism. We have tested whether high vitamin K2 intake promotes bone mineral density and bone strength. Results showed that K2 improved BMC and femoral neck width, but not DXA-BMD. Hence high vitamin K2 intake may contribute to preventing postmenopausal bone loss. Introduction Vitamin K is involved in the synthesis of several proteins in bone. The importance of K vitamins for optimal bone health has been suggested by popu...

  5. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells combined with Allograft Cancellous Bone in Treatment of Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thua Trung Hau; Duc Phu Bui; Nguyen Duy Thang; Pham Dang Nhat; Le Quy Bao; Nguyen Phan Huy; Tran Ngoc Vu; Le Phuoc Quang; Boeckx willy Denis; Mey Albert De

    2015-01-01

    Autologous cancellous bone graft is currently used as a gold standard method for treatment of bone nonunion. However, there is a limit to the amount of autologous cancellous bone that can be harvested and the donor site morbidity presents a major disadvantage to autologous bone grafting. Embedding viable cells within biological scaffolds appears to be extremely promising. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of autologous bone marrow stem cells combined with a cancellous bone a...

  6. Therapeutic inhibition of cathepsin K—reducing bone resorption while maintaining bone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Le T.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of high bone remodeling with an imbalance of bone resorption over bone formation, resulting in decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. From the emerging understandings of the molecular and cellular regulators of bone remodeling, potential new targets for therapeutic intervention for this disease have been identified. Cathepsin K (CatK), a cysteine protease produced by osteoclasts, is the primary enzyme mediating the degradation of ...

  7. Thermal contribution of compact bone to intervening tissue-like media exposed to planar ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    than fourfold) were induced in soft tissue-like phantom materials adjacent (within ∼5 mm) to a bovine bone as compared to similar experiments without bone inclusions. For low-power long-exposure experiments, where thermal conduction effects are significant, the thermal impact of bone reached at distances >10 mm from the bone surface (upstream of the bone). Therefore, we hypothesize that underlying bone exposed to planar ultrasound hyperthermia creates a high-temperature thermal boundary at depth that compensates for beam attenuation, thus producing more uniform temperature distribution in the intervening tissue layers. With appropriate technology, this finding may lead to improved thermal doses in superficial treatment sites such as the chest wall and the head/neck

  8. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld;

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Wildfire plume electrical conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mphale, Kgakgamatso; Heron, Malcom

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires are weakly ionized gas. The ionization is mainly due to plant's inorganic ash content species (more especially potassium), that are emitted from thermally decomposing plant structure into the flame during combustion. The amount of ionization in flames with potassium impurities is influenced by both the temperature and the amount potassium impurities in the flame. A numerical experiment was conducted using a local thermal equilibrium-based model to study the influence of inorganic wi...

  10. Conduction cooled tube supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  11. Natures of Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sielemann, Rasmus Basse

    Natures of Conduct explores the rationalities, practices and techniques of government processes in the Danish West Indies in the period between the late eighteenth century to the end of Danish colonial rule in 1917. In doing so, it engages Michel Foucault’s concepts of governmentality and the ‘di...... – to specific historical contexts, as well as applying preconceived notions of a teleological movement towards more liberal modes of government....

  12. Conductive Polymer Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Pierini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanotechnologies have led to the production of materials with new and sometimes unexpected qualities through the manipulation of nanoscale components. This research aimed primarily to the study of the correlation between hierarchical structures of hybrid organic-inorganic materials such as conductive polymer composites (CPCs). Using a bottom-up methodology, we could synthesize a wide range of inorganic nanometric materials with a high degree of homogeneity and purity, ...

  13. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  14. Transparent conductive coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thin film transparent conductors are discussed. Materials with electrical conductivity and optical transparency are highly desirable in many optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics. Certain binary oxide semiconductors such as tin oxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) offer much better performance tradeoff in optoelectronics as well as better mechanical and chemical stability than thin semitransparent films. These thin-film transparent conductors (TC) are essentially wide-bandgap degenerate semiconductors - invariably n-type - and hence are transparent to sub-bandgap (visible) radiation while affording high electrical conductivity due to the large free electron concentration. The principal performance characteristics of TC's are, of course, electrical conductivity and optical transmission. The TC's have a refractive index of around 2.0 and hence act as very efficient antireflection coatings. For using TC's in surface barrier solar cells, the photovoltaic barrier is of utmost importance and so the work function or electron affinity of the TC is also a very important material parameter. Fabrication processes are discussed.

  15. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs

  16. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  17. Localization of brain functions by dipole tracing method using individually measured tissue conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dipole tracing method (DT) has permitted calculations of source locations using a Scalp-Skull-Brain (SSB) real-shaped three-shell model of the head because bone conductivity is lower than the skin and the brain. The SSB/DT method utilizes standard conductivities of the three layers: scalp, skull, and brain. These conductivities are not calculated for each individual. We have previously used a realistic three-shell head model using realistic individually calculated conductivities of the scalp and skull layers with the SSB/DT method for current location mapping. The individual conductivities of the scalp and the skull were calculated from electrical stimulation through surface electrodes. Individual conductivities were used to calculate the source locations of SEP based upon surface EEG recordings using the SSB/DT method. A current square-wave pulse (0.1 mA and 10 msec duration) was applied through a pair of EEG electrodes; four different pairs were usually selected. The voltage change during the stimulation was recorded with the remaining surface electrodes and the conductivities of the skin and skull were calculated from the recorded signals. In nine healthy men, the mean skin conductivity was 0.61441±0.30128 [S/m], while the skull conductivity mean 0.00576±0.00397 [S/m]. Simulation for dipole current movement indicated lower bone conductivity in the inner location and high bone conductivity in the outer location. The conductivity ratios of bone and skin were 0.0125 in standard model and 0.00956 (mean) in realistic individually calculated conductivities. We compared the locations of the SEP estimated with the standard conductivity and realistic individually calculated conductivities; the dipole location was not significantly different. (author)

  18. Implant-induced microdamage in osteoporotic bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Zhi-feng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】With the increase of elderly population, more and more implant operations need to be performed in osteoporotic bone, while different forms of microdamage will be produced in peri-implant bone intraoperatively, in-cluding high- and low-density diffuse damages, as well as linear cracks. The length and location of the microcracks are the main factors in affecting the biomechanical performance of bone. Suppression of bone remodeling by bisphosphonates may lead to microdamage accumulation, which is often accompanied with the decrease of bone strength and the increase of bone fragility. Microdamage can be repaired by bone remodeling or mineralization to maintain the strength and structural integrity. Both remo-deling and mineralization can affect the bone quality and long-term implant stability. In this paper, we make a brief summary of some important issues and research progresses in this field. Key words: Osteoporosis, postmenopausal; Bone remodeling; Aged

  19. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  20. PENGGUNAAN BONE GRAFT PADA PERAWATAN KERUSAKAN TULANG PERIODONTAL (Used Bone Graft for Periodontal Defect Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Munadziroh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally the signs and symptoms of advances periodontal disease are periodontal pockets formation to alveolar bone defect. Bone defect treated with placement a preparation material to promote new bone formation. Tissue transplantation were developed, to recontsruct bone defect with the placement of bone graft material. This paper will discuss the used of demineralied freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA and anorganic bone mineral combined with synthetic 15 amino acid sequence within type I collagen (PepGen P-15 the potential healing of bone defect to enhance the optimum treatment of periodontal disease.