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Sample records for bone cements part

  1. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two-Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility.

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    Bercier, Ariane; Gonçalves, Stéphane; Autefage, Helène; Briand-Mesange, Fabienne; Lignon, Olivier; Fitremann, Juliette

    2010-12-02

    Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, which were measured by tack tests. Finally, some properties related to biological applications are described, including gentamicine release and osteoblast viability experiments. The whole study demonstrates that addition of these mild surfactants improved several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing function.

  2. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two—Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility

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    Fabienne Briand-Mesange

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, which were measured by tack tests. Finally, some properties related to biological applications are described, including gentamicine release and osteoblast viability experiments. The whole study demonstrates that addition of these mild surfactants improved several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing function.

  3. Rheology of acrylic bone cements.

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    Ferracane, J L; Greener, E H

    1981-01-01

    The rheological properties of setting acrylic bone cements were examined with a rotational cone and plate viscometer. The cements were tested over two orders of magnitude of shear rate to determine the nature of any non-Newtonian flow behavior. All three cements behaved with moderate pseudoplasticity (i.e., shear thinning) during setting, suggesting the use of higher pressures during administration for better flow and penetration. The low viscosity brand was found to be nearly one-half as viscous as the conventional cements during the working time (i.e., 2-5 minutes). A series of sieving experiments were performed to determine the particle size distributions of the powder components. Statistical analysis (chi square) showed the cements to have different distributions, with the low viscosity brand containing a larger proportion of smaller polymer particles. This difference is thought to contribute to the lower viscosity of this cement.

  4. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

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    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  5. Nanofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives

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    Riaz Gillani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Riaz Gillani1, Batur Ercan1, Alex Qiao3, Thomas J Webster1,21Division of Engineering, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3G3 Technology Innovations, LLC, Pittsford, NY, USAAbstract: Zirconia (ZrO2 and barium sulfate (BaSO4 particles were introduced into a methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA solution with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA beads during polymerization to develop the following novel bone cements: bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles, bone cements with ZrO2 nanoparticles functionalized with 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMS, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, and bone cements with BaSO4 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS. Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO4 ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements. Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles. Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes. Finally, all bone cements containing ceramic particles possessed greater radio-opacity than unmodified bone cements. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated a positive impact on the properties of traditional bone cements for orthopedic applications with the addition of unfunctionalized and TMS functionalized ceramic nanoparticles

  6. Development of a biodegradable bone cement

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    Yusof Abdullah; Nurhaslinda Ee Abdullah; Wee Pee Chai; Norita Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Biodegradable bone cement is a newly developed bone repair material, which is able to give immediate support to the implant area, and does not obstruct the bone repairing and regeneration process through appropriate biodegradation rate, which is synchronized with the mechanical load it should bear. The purpose of this study is to locally produce biodegradable bone cement using HA as absorbable filler. The cement is composed of an absorbable filler and unsaturated polyester for 100% degradation. Cross-linking effect is achieved through the action of poly (vinyl pyrrol lidone) (PVP) and an initiator. On the other hand, PPF was synthesized using direct esterification method. Characteristics of the bone cement were studied; these included the curing time, cross-linking effect and curing temperature. The products were characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) to perform phase analysis and Scanning Electrons Microscopes to determine the morphology. The physical and mechanical properties of the bone cement were also investigated. The biocompatibility of the bone cement was tested using simulated body physiological solution. (Author)

  7. Bone cement allocation analysis in artificial cancellous bone structures

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    Ivan Zderic

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The simulated leakage path seemed to be the most important adverse injection factor influencing the uniformity of cement distribution. Another adverse factor causing dispersion of this distribution was represented by the simulated bone marrow. However, the rather uniform distribution of the totally injected cement amount, considered as one unit, could be ascribed to the medium viscosity of the used cement. Finally, with its short waiting time of 45 s, the stepwise injection procedure was shown to be ineffective in preventing cement leakage.

  8. Preparation and characterization of a novel bioactive bone cement: glass based nanoscale hydroxyapatite bone cement.

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    Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Nai; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Liying; Li, Haifeng

    2004-12-01

    A novel type of glass-based nanoscale hydorxypatite (HAP) bioactive bone cement (designed as GBNHAPC) was synthesized by adding nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystalline (20-40 nm), into the self-setting glass-based bone cement (GBC). The inhibition rate of nanoscale HAP and micron HAP on osteosarcoma U2-OS cells was examined. The effects of nanoscale HAP on the crystal phase, microstructure and compressive strength of GBNHAPC were studied respectively. It was concluded that nanoscale HAP could inhibit the cell proliferation, while micron HAP could not, and that nanoscale HAP could be dispersed in the cement evenly and the morphology did not change significantly after a longer immersion time. XRD and FTIR results show nanoscale HAP did not affect the setting reaction of the cement. Furthermore, GBNHAPC had a higher compressive strength (92 MPa) than GBC. It was believed that GBNHAPC might be a desirable biomaterial that could not only fill bone defects but also inhibit cancer cell growth.

  9. Bone-Cement: The New Medical Quick Fix

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    Dinesh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

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    Bone Cement is being widely used in vertebroplasty, a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat spinal fractures and collapsed vertebrae. It is being labeled as a concrete success in medical field. It is being used to treat fractures due to osteoporosis, menopause, steroids, hyperthyroidism and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.  In this technique a needle with bone cement (PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate is injected into the collapsed vertebra after administering local anesthesia to patient. It solidifies within few minutes and provides support to damaged bone resulting in relief to the patient. It also prevents the movement between different parts of the broken bone. Hence it requires a short hospital stay for the patient and the procedure can be performed with much ease and at significant lower costs. Patient can resume normal activity within a day or so. Bone cement is now being referred to as the quick medical fix material for early repair of fractures.

  10. Polyethylene glycol improves elution properties of polymethyl methacrylate bone cements.

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    Handal, John A; Tiedeken, Nathan C; Gershkovich, Grigory E; Kushner, Jeffrey A; Dratch, Benjamin; Samuel, Solomon P

    2015-03-01

    Bone cements are used as adjuncts to fracture fixation methods and can also function as a local drug delivery system. The ability to elute drugs makes bone cement a promising and powerful chemotherapy treatment modality for osseous tumors. However, because of poor elution rates, the clinical application of this drug delivery mode remains challenging. Soluble fillers, such as sugars, salts, or biocompatible polymers, offer a solution to improve elution rates. This study quantified the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the elution properties of three commercially available bone cements. Two grams of Vertebroplastic, Palacos, and Confidence bone cement powder containing three concentrations (0%, 20%, or 50%) of PEG filler were hand mixed with 10 mg of methotrexate. This powder mixture was then polymerized with 1.0 mL of the cement specific liquid monomer. The cylindrical elution samples were placed in saline solution and methotrexate elution was recorded for 720 h. The cumulative and daily elution rate increased as the concentration of PEG increased for each bone cement. However, the percent of increase depended on the bone cement used. Cumulative methotrexate elution increased by 40%-54% in case of the highest PEG filler concentration when compared with controls. PEG soluble filler offers a promising method for improving methotrexate drug elution in bone cement. Future studies need to optimize the PEG and bone cement ratio that produces the greatest drug elution profile without sacrificing the biomechanical properties of bone cement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Particle Model for Prediction of Cement Infiltration of Cancellous Bone in Osteoporotic Bone Augmentation

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    Basafa, Ehsan; Murphy, Ryan J.; Kutzer, Michael D.; Otake, Yoshito; Armand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Femoroplasty is a potential preventive treatment for osteoporotic hip fractures. It involves augmenting mechanical properties of the femur by injecting Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. To reduce the risks involved and maximize the outcome, however, the procedure needs to be carefully planned and executed. An important part of the planning system is predicting infiltration of cement into the porous medium of cancellous bone. We used the method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the flow of PMMA inside porous media. We modified the standard formulation of SPH to incorporate the extreme viscosities associated with bone cement. Darcy creeping flow of fluids through isotropic porous media was simulated and the results were compared with those reported in the literature. Further validation involved injecting PMMA cement inside porous foam blocks — osteoporotic cancellous bone surrogates — and simulating the injections using our proposed SPH model. Millimeter accuracy was obtained in comparing the simulated and actual cement shapes. Also, strong correlations were found between the simulated and the experimental data of spreading distance (R2 = 0.86) and normalized pressure (R2 = 0.90). Results suggest that the proposed model is suitable for use in an osteoporotic femoral augmentation planning framework. PMID:23840794

  12. A Particle Model for Prediction of Cement Infiltration of Cancellous Bone in Osteoporotic Bone Augmentation.

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    Ehsan Basafa

    Full Text Available Femoroplasty is a potential preventive treatment for osteoporotic hip fractures. It involves augmenting mechanical properties of the femur by injecting Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA bone cement. To reduce the risks involved and maximize the outcome, however, the procedure needs to be carefully planned and executed. An important part of the planning system is predicting infiltration of cement into the porous medium of cancellous bone. We used the method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH to model the flow of PMMA inside porous media. We modified the standard formulation of SPH to incorporate the extreme viscosities associated with bone cement. Darcy creeping flow of fluids through isotropic porous media was simulated and the results were compared with those reported in the literature. Further validation involved injecting PMMA cement inside porous foam blocks - osteoporotic cancellous bone surrogates - and simulating the injections using our proposed SPH model. Millimeter accuracy was obtained in comparing the simulated and actual cement shapes. Also, strong correlations were found between the simulated and the experimental data of spreading distance (R(2 = 0.86 and normalized pressure (R(2 = 0.90. Results suggest that the proposed model is suitable for use in an osteoporotic femoral augmentation planning framework.

  13. Pedicle screw augmentation with bone cement enforced Vicryl mesh.

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    Schmid, Samuel L; Bachmann, Elias; Fischer, Michael; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christoph A; Snedeker, Jess G; Farshad, Mazda

    2018-01-01

    Achieving sufficient mechanical purchase of pedicle screws in osteoporotic or previously instrumented bone is technically and biologically challenging. Techniques using different kinds of pedicle screws or methods of cement augmentation have been used to address this challenge, but are associated with difficult revisions and complications. The purpose of this biomechanical trial was to investigate the use of biocompatible textile materials in combination with bone cement to augment pullout strength of pedicle screws while reducing the risk of cement extrusion. Pedicle screws (6/40 mm) were either augmented with standard bone-cement (Palacos LV + G) in one group (BC, n = 13) or with bone-cement enforced by Vicryl mesh in another group (BCVM, n = 13) in osteoporosis-like saw bone blocks. Pullout testing was subsequently performed. In a second experimental phase, similar experiments were performed using human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (n = 10). In osteoporosis-like saw bone blocks, a mean screw pullout force of 350 N (±125) was significantly higher with the Bone cement (BC) compared to bone-cement enforced by Vicryl mesh (BCVM) technique with 240 N (±64) (p = 0.030). In human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae the mean screw pullout force was 784 ± 366 N with BC and not statistically different to BCVM with 757 ± 303 N (p = 0.836). Importantly, cement extrusion was only observed in the BC group (40%) and never with the BCVM technique. In vitro textile reinforcement of bone cement for pedicle screw augmentation successfully reduced cement extrusion compared to conventionally delivered bone cement. The mechanical strength of textile delivered cement constructs was more reproducible than standard cementing. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:212-216, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microindentation of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA Based Bone Cement

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    F. Zivic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA based bone cement subjected to cyclical loading using microindentation technique is presented in this paper. Indentation technique represents flexible mechanical testing due to its simplicity, minimal specimen preparation and short time needed for tests. The mechanical response of bone cement samples was studied. Realised microindentation enabled determination of the indentation testing hardness HIT and indentation modulus EIT of the observed bone cement. Analysis of optical photographs of the imprints showed that this technique can be effectively used for characterization of bone cements.

  15. Chemical and physical properties of bone cement for vertebroplasty

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    Po-Liang Lai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral compression fracture is the most common complication of osteoporosis. It may result in persistent severe pain and limited mobility, and significantly impacts the quality of life. Vertebroplasty involves a percutaneous injection of bone cement into the collapsed vertebrae by fluorescent guide. The most commonly used bone cement in percutaneous vertebroplasty is based on the polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomers to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA polymers. However, information on the properties of bone cement is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the clinical community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the physical properties of PMMA. The effects of altering the portions and contents of monomer liquid and polymer powders on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also discussed. This information will allow spine surgeons to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific clinical applications and improve safety.

  16. Bone cement implantation syndrome in hip replacement procedure

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    Onur Palabiyik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Total hip replacement procedures are common in geriatric patients with osteoarthrosis of the hip or femur fracture. We planned combined spinal epidural anesthesia for total hip replacement operation due to femur fracture in a ninety-five female case with cardiorespiratory failure. Although the regional anesthesia had applied smoothly, intraoperative cardiac arrest during the placement of cement was thought to be a case with bone cement implantation syndrome. Bone cement implantation syndrome is occured in cemented prosthesis operations and a life-threatened complication. Clinic presentation is characterized by hypoxia, hypotension, unexpected loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest. Mortality rate due to bone cement implantation syndrome is approximately 0.1%. In this present, we examined bone cement implantation syndrome, which is a severe complication. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(2.000: 121-124

  17. The mechanical study of acrylic bone cement reinforced with carbon nanotube

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    Nien, Yu-Hsun; Huang, Chiao-li

    2010-01-01

    Bone cement is used as filler between prosthesis and bone for fixation and force distribution. The major composition of bone cement is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Some disadvantages of PMMA bone cement are found such as significant poor mechanical properties which may cause failure of the cement. In this paper, we exploited carbon nanotube to enhance the mechanical properties of bone cement. The mechanical properties of the bone cement were characterized using tensile and compressive analysis as well as dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The result shows that carbon nanotube is able to enhance the mechanical properties of the modified bone cement.

  18. The mechanical study of acrylic bone cement reinforced with carbon nanotube

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    Nien, Yu-Hsun, E-mail: nienyh@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chiao-li [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-25

    Bone cement is used as filler between prosthesis and bone for fixation and force distribution. The major composition of bone cement is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Some disadvantages of PMMA bone cement are found such as significant poor mechanical properties which may cause failure of the cement. In this paper, we exploited carbon nanotube to enhance the mechanical properties of bone cement. The mechanical properties of the bone cement were characterized using tensile and compressive analysis as well as dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The result shows that carbon nanotube is able to enhance the mechanical properties of the modified bone cement.

  19. Thermal Manifestations and Nanoindentation of Bone Cements for Orthopaedic Surgery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hloch, Sergej; Monka, P.; Hvizdoš, P.; Jakubéczyová, D.; Kozak, D.; Čolič, K.; Kloc, J.; Magurová, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2013), s. 251-258 ISSN 0354-9836 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bone cement * exothermic behaviour * nanoindentation * porosity * osteonecrosis Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 0.962, year: 2013

  20. Experimental study with domestic bone cement in the percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Caifang; Liu Xisheng; Chen Long; Yang Huilin; Tang Tiansi; Ding Yi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of injecting domestic bone cement in the process of the percutaneous vertebroplasty. Methods: (1) Various types cement were disposed with domestic PMMA. The concretionary phases of cement were observed according to the stages and holding time. Then the most ideal ratio of the mixed cement was selected and ten cement columns were made with this ratio, which was taken as the trial group. The other ten referring to was taken as the contrast one. The biological mechanics was measured with a load and the data of the results were compared. (2) Twenty thoracic and lumbar adjacent bodies were removed intact from five human corpses. These bodies were divided into two groups, in one group PMMA were injected, the other was severed as the contrast one. Then in these twenty vertebral bodies the biological mechanics was measured and the treatment effect was evaluated. (3) In 12 healthy dogs PVP in lumber was tried so as to observe the operational difficulty during the process of injected this bone cement and CT was used to evaluate the result of PMMA, diffusion and the complications caused by it. Results: The most ideal ratio was 4:2.6:1 (g, ml, ml) between powder, monome and contrast. After injecting this kind of cement, the loading strength of these vertebral bodies was increased remarkably (P<0.01). Conclusion: Injecting domestic bone cement provides the theoretical foundations for the clinical application of PVP. (author)

  1. Nanoparticulate fillers improve the mechanical strength of bone cement.

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    Gomoll, Andreas H; Fitz, Wolfgang; Scott, Richard D; Thornhill, Thomas S; Bellare, Anuj

    2008-06-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-) based bone cement contains micrometer-size barium sulfate or zirconium oxide particles to radiopacify the cement for radiographic monitoring during follow-up. Considerable effort has been expended to improve the mechanical qualities of cements, largely through substitution of PMMA with new chemical structures. The introduction of these materials into clinical practice has been complicated by concerns over the unknown long-term risk profile of these new structures in vivo. We investigated a new composite with the well characterized chemical composition of current cements, but with nanoparticles instead of the conventional, micrometer-size barium sulfate radiopacifier. In this study, we replaced the barium sulfate microparticles that are usually present in commercial PMMA cements with barium sulfate nanoparticles. The resultant "microcomposite" and "nanocomposite" cements were then characterized through morphological investigations such as ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical characterization included compression, tensile, compact tension, and fatigue testing. SEM and USAXS showed excellent dispersion of nanoparticles. Substitution of nanoparticles for microparticles resulted in a 41% increase in tensile strain-to-failure (p = 0.002) and a 70% increase in tensile work-of-fracture (p = 0.005). The nanocomposite cement also showed a two-fold increase in fatigue life compared to the conventional, microcomposite cement. In summary, nanoparticulate substitution of radiopacifiers substantially improved the in vitro mechanical properties of PMMA bone cement without changing the known chemical composition.

  2. Method of adhering bone to a rigid substrate using a graphite fiber reinforced bone cement

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    Knoell, A. C.; Maxwell, H. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for adhering bone to the surface of a rigid substrate such as a metal or resin prosthesis using an improved surgical bone cement. The bone cement has mechanical properties more nearly matched to those of animal bone and thermal curing characteristics which result in less traumatization of body tissues and comprises a dispersion of short high modulus graphite fibers within a bonder composition including polymer dissolved in reactive monomer such as polymethylmethacrylate dissolved in methylmethacrylate monomer.

  3. Preclinical evaluation of strontium-containing bioactive bone cement

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    Li, Zhaoyang, E-mail: lizy@hku.hk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yuan, Ning [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin 300051 (China); Lam, Raymond Wing Moon [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu, William Weijia, E-mail: wwlu@hku.hk [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-12-01

    Strontium (Sr) has become more attractive for orthopaedic applications as they can simultaneously stimulate bone formation and prevent bone loss. A Sr-containing bioactive bone cement (Sr-BC) has been designed to fix osteoporotic bone fracture. Sr is a trace element, so the safety of containing Sr is concerned when Sr-BC is implanted in human body. The preclinical assessment of biocompatibility of Sr-BC was conducted according to ISO 10993 standards. MTT assay showed that this bioactive bone cement was non-toxic to mouse fibroblasts, and it met the basic requirement for the orthopaedic implant. The three independent genetic toxicity studies including Ames, chromosome aberration and bone marrow micronucleus assays demonstrated absence of genotoxic components in Sr-BC, which reassured the safety concerns of this novel bone cement. The muscle implantation results in present study were also encouraging. The acute inflammation around the cement was observed at 1 week post-implantation; however, no significant difference was observed between control and Sr-BC groups. These responses may be attributed to the presence of the foreign body, but the tissue healed after 12 weeks implantation. In summary, the above preclinical results provide additional assurance for the safety of this implant. Sr-BC can be used as a potential alternative to the traditional bone cement. - Highlights: • Strontium-containing bioactive bone cement (Sr-BC) was designed. • The biocompatibility of Sr-BC was evaluated according ISO 10993 standards. • Preclinical results provide additional assurance for the safety of Sr-BC.

  4. Calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate mixed cement compositions for bone reconstruction.

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    Combes, C; Bareille, R; Rey, C

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of making calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate (CaCO(3)-CaP) mixed cements, comprising at least 40% (w/w) CaCO(3) in the dry powder ingredients, has been demonstrated. Several original cement compositions were obtained by mixing metastable crystalline CaCO(3) phases with metastable amorphous or crystalline CaP powders in aqueous medium. The cements set within at most 1 h at 37 degrees C in atmosphere saturated with water. The hardened cement is microporous and exhibits weak compressive strength. The setting reaction appeared to be essentially related to the formation of a highly carbonated nanocrystalline apatite phase by reaction of the metastable CaP phase with part or almost all of the metastable CaCO(3) phase. The recrystallization of metastable CaP varieties led to a final cement consisting of a highly carbonated poorly crystalline apatite analogous to bone mineral associated with various amounts of vaterite and/or aragonite. The presence of controlled amounts of CaCO(3) with a higher solubility than that of the apatite formed in the well-developed CaP cements might be of interest to increase resorption rates in biomedical cement and favors its replacement by bone tissue. Cytotoxicity testing revealed excellent cytocompatibility of CaCO(3)-CaP mixed cement compositions.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles

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    Perni S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Perni,1,2 Victorien Thenault,1 Pauline Abdo,1 Katrin Margulis,3 Shlomo Magdassi,3 Polina Prokopovich1,2 1School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 2Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3Casali Institute, Institute of Chemistry, The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, IsraelAbstract: Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No ­detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial

  6. A comparison of high viscosity bone cement and low viscosity bone cement vertebroplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

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    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Shengfei; Cai, Jun; Huang, Jijun

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical outcome and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity poly-methyl methacrylate bone cement PVP for severe OVCFs. From December 2010 to December 2012, 32 patients with severe OVCFs were randomly assigned to either group H using high viscosity cement (n=14) or group L using low viscosity cement (n=18). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 General Health Survey (SF-36), kyphosis Cobb's angle, vertebral height, and complications. Significant improvement in the VAS, ODI, SF-36 scores, kyphosis Cobb's angle, and vertebral height were noted in both the groups, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. Cement leakage was seen less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 5 of 17 (29.4%) vertebrae in group H and in 15 of 22 (68.2%) vertebrae in group L (P=0.025). The PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcome and fewer complications compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Ageing and moisture uptake in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements.

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    Ayre, Wayne Nishio; Denyer, Stephen P; Evans, Samuel L

    2014-04-01

    Bone cements are extensively employed in orthopaedics for joint arthroplasty, however implant failure in the form of aseptic loosening is known to occur after long-term use. The exact mechanism causing this is not well understood, however it is thought to arise from a combination of fatigue and chemical degradation resulting from the hostile in vivo environment. In this study, two commercial bone cements were aged in an isotonic fluid at physiological temperatures and changes in moisture uptake, microstructure and mechanical and fatigue properties were studied. Initial penetration of water into the cement followed Fickian diffusion and was thought to be caused by vacancies created by leaching monomer. An increase in weight of approximately 2% was experienced after 30 days ageing and was accompanied by hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in the outermost layers of the cement. This molecular change and the plasticising effect of water resulted in reduced mechanical and fatigue properties over time. Cement ageing is therefore thought to be a key contributor in the long-term failure of cemented joint replacements. The results from this study have highlighted the need to develop cements capable of withstanding long-term degradation and for more accurate test methods, which fully account for physiological ageing. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G [Unit of Dental Physical Sciences, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Gentleman, Eileen; Stevens, Molly M [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Farrar, David F, E-mail: d.brauer@qmul.ac.uk [Smith and Nephew Research Centre, York Science Park, Heslington YO10 5DF (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) based on poly(acrylic acid) and fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses are successfully used in a variety of orthopaedic and dental applications; however, they release small amounts of aluminium, which is a neurotoxin and inhibits bone mineralization in vivo. Therefore there has been significant interest in developing aluminium-free glasses containing zinc for forming GPCs because zinc can play a similar structural role in the glass, allowing for glass degradation and subsequent cement setting, and is reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation. We created zinc-containing GPCs and characterized their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Zinc-containing cements showed adhesion to bone close to 1 MPa, which was significantly greater than that of zinc-free cements (<0.05 MPa) and other currently approved biological adhesives. However, zinc-containing cements produced significantly lower metabolic activity in mouse osteoblasts exposed to cell culture medium conditioned with the cements than controls. Results show that although low levels of zinc may be beneficial to cells, zinc concentrations of 400 {mu}M Zn{sup 2+} or more resulted in cell death. In summary, we demonstrate that while zinc-containing GPCs possess excellent mechanical properties, they fail basic biocompatibility tests, produce an acute cytotoxic response in vitro, which may preclude their use in vivo.

  9. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimised mechanical properties: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J; Buchanan, Fraser; Clarke, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    This work establishes the in vivo performance of modified calcium phosphate bone cements for vertebroplasty of spinal fractures using a lapine model. A non-modified calcium phosphate bone cement and collagen-calcium phosphate bone cements composites with enhanced mechanical properties, utilising either bovine collagen or collagen from a marine sponge, were compared to a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Conical cement samples (8 mm height × 4 mm base diameter) were press-fit into distal femoral condyle defects in New Zealand White rabbits and assessed after 5 and 10 weeks. Bone apposition and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity around cements were assessed. All implants were well tolerated, but bone apposition was higher on calcium phosphate bone cements than on poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Incorporation of collagen showed no evidence of inflammatory or immune reactions. Presence of positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining within cracks formed in calcium phosphate bone cements suggested active osteoclasts were present within the implants and were actively remodelling within the cements. Bone growth was also observed within these cracks. These findings confirm the biological advantages of calcium phosphate bone cements over poly(methyl methacrylate) and, coupled with previous work on enhancement of mechanical properties through collagen incorporation, suggest collagen-calcium phosphate bone cement composite may offer an alternative to calcium phosphate bone cements in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important.

  10. Backgrounds of antibiotic-loaded bone cement and prosthesis-related infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, JGE; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    Antibiotic-loaded bone cement has been in use for over 30 years for the fixation of total joint arthroplasties, although its mechanism of action is still poorly understood. This review presents the backgrounds of bone cements, prosthesis-related infection and antibiotic-loaded bone cements. It is

  11. Creep and fatigue behavior of a novel 2-component paste-like formulation of acrylic bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Ulrike; Jaeger, Raimund; Bardts, Mareike; Wahnes, Christian; Büchner, Hubert; Kühn, Klaus-Dieter; Vogt, Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    The fatigue and creep performance of two novel acrylic bone cement formulations (one bone cement without antibiotics, one with antibiotics) was compared to the performance of clinically used bone cements (Osteopal V, Palacos R, Simplex P, SmartSet GHV, Palacos R+G and CMW1 with Gentamicin). The preparation of the novel bone cement formulations involves the mixing of two paste-like substances in a static mixer integrated into the cartridge which is used to apply the bone cement. The fatigue performance of the two novel bone cement formulations is comparable to the performance of the reference bone cements. The creep compliance of the bone cements is significantly influenced by the effects of physical ageing. The model parameters of Struik's creep law are used to compare the creep behavior of different bone cements. The novel 2-component paste-like bone cement formulations are in the group of bone cements which exhibit a higher creep resistance.

  12. Bone tissue aging affects mineralization of cement lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Petar; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Mletzko, Kathrin; Sarau, George; Püschel, Klaus; Djuric, Marija; Amling, Michael; Christiansen, Silke; Busse, Björn

    2018-02-07

    Cement lines are known as thin peripheral boundaries of the osteons. With a thickness below 5 μm their composition of inorganic and organic compounds has been a matter of debate. Here, we hypothesized that cement lines become hypermineralized and their degree of mineralization is not constant but related to the tissue age of the osteon. Therefore, we analyzed the calcium content of osteons and their corresponding cement lines in a range of different tissue ages reflected by osteonal mineralization levels in femoral cortical bone of both postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated cases. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) showed that cement lines are hypermineralized entities with consistently higher calcium content than their corresponding osteons (mean calcium content: 29.46 ± 0.80 vs. 26.62 ± 1.11 wt%; p lines compared to the osteonal bone (8.78 ± 0.66 vs. 6.33 ± 0.58, p lines. A clear positive correlation of cement line mineralization and the mineralization of the osteon was observed (r = 0.839, p = 0.003). However, the magnitude of the difference between cement line and osteonal calcium content decreased with increased osteonal calcium content (r = -0.709, p line calcium content (p lines may represent another tissue-age related phenomenon, given that it strongly relates to the osteonal mineralization level. Understanding of the cement lines' mineralization and their changes in aging and disease states is important for predicting crack propagation pathways and fracture resistance mechanisms in human cortical bone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wear and Mechanical Behaviour of Various Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balko, J.; Ballóková, B.; Jakubéczyová, D.; Hvizdoš, P.; Hloch, Sergej; Kloc, J.; Monka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 34-43 ISSN 1335-8987 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bone cements * mixing * pin-on-plate * porosity * nano-hardness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.imr.saske.sk/pmp/issue/1-2013/PMP_Vol13_No1_p_034-043.pdf

  14. PMMA/Ca2+ bone cements. Hydrolytic properties and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica L. Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone cements of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA have been used for about 40 years to fix artificial prosthesis to bone structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption, solubility, degradation and bioactivity of novel formulations of PMMA/Ca2+ bone cements. These properties were evaluated using a fractional experimental design. Hydrolytic parameters were determined, from which we found that 7/8 of the formulations for absorption and 6/8 for solubility fulfill the ISO 4049:2000 requirements. The final degradation values ranged between 1 and 5%, except for one of the formulations. Besides, some formulations showed bioactivity after seven days of immersion in SBF solution.

  15. Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G; Gentleman, Eileen; Stevens, Molly M; Farrar, David F

    2011-01-01

    Glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) based on poly(acrylic acid) and fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses are successfully used in a variety of orthopaedic and dental applications; however, they release small amounts of aluminium, which is a neurotoxin and inhibits bone mineralization in vivo. Therefore there has been significant interest in developing aluminium-free glasses containing zinc for forming GPCs because zinc can play a similar structural role in the glass, allowing for glass degradation and subsequent cement setting, and is reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation. We created zinc-containing GPCs and characterized their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Zinc-containing cements showed adhesion to bone close to 1 MPa, which was significantly greater than that of zinc-free cements ( 2+ or more resulted in cell death. In summary, we demonstrate that while zinc-containing GPCs possess excellent mechanical properties, they fail basic biocompatibility tests, produce an acute cytotoxic response in vitro, which may preclude their use in vivo.

  16. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements for enhanced bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue, E-mail: jacaza@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Química-Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Estomatología III, Facultad de Odontología UCM, Madrid (Spain); Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Rueda, Carmen [Departamento de Química-Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Torres, Jesús [Facultad de Ciencias de la salud URJC, Alcorcón, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Luis [Departamento de Estomatología III, Facultad de Odontología UCM, Madrid (Spain); López-Cabarcos, Enrique [Departamento de Química-Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    We have synthesized calcium phosphate cements doped with different amounts of magnesium (Mg-CPC) with a twofold purpose: i) to evaluate in vitro the osteoblast cell response to this material, and ii) to compare the bone regeneration capacity of the doped material with a calcium cement prepared without magnesium (CPC). Cell proliferation and in vivo response increased in the Mg-CPCs in comparison with CPC. The Mg-CPCs have promoted higher new bone formation than the CPC (p < 0.05). The cytocompatibility and histomorfometric analysis performed in the rabbit calvaria showed that the incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation and provides higher new bone formation. The development of a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties and improved bone regeneration can be considered a step toward personalized therapy that can adapt to patient needs and clinical situations. - Highlights: • The Mg-CPCs promote higher new bone formation than the CPC. • The incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation. • Mg-CPC is a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties. • We suggest that the use of Mg ions could improve the clinical efficiency of CPCs.

  17. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements for enhanced bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Rueda, Carmen; Torres, Jesús; Blanco, Luis; López-Cabarcos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized calcium phosphate cements doped with different amounts of magnesium (Mg-CPC) with a twofold purpose: i) to evaluate in vitro the osteoblast cell response to this material, and ii) to compare the bone regeneration capacity of the doped material with a calcium cement prepared without magnesium (CPC). Cell proliferation and in vivo response increased in the Mg-CPCs in comparison with CPC. The Mg-CPCs have promoted higher new bone formation than the CPC (p < 0.05). The cytocompatibility and histomorfometric analysis performed in the rabbit calvaria showed that the incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation and provides higher new bone formation. The development of a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties and improved bone regeneration can be considered a step toward personalized therapy that can adapt to patient needs and clinical situations. - Highlights: • The Mg-CPCs promote higher new bone formation than the CPC. • The incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation. • Mg-CPC is a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties. • We suggest that the use of Mg ions could improve the clinical efficiency of CPCs

  18. Preparation of calcium phosphate cement and polymethyl methacrylate for biological composite bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Kairui; Zhang, Sheng; Fan, Jiping; Guo, Xinhui; Dong, Weiqiang; Wang, Shengnan; Chen, Yirong; Yu, Bin

    2015-04-23

    We studied the biological safety, biomechanics, and tissue compatibility of calcium phosphate cement and Polymethyl Methacrylate composite bone cement mixed in different ratios. CPC and PMMA were mixed in different ratios (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20). PMMA solvent is a general solvent containing a dissolved preparation of the composite bone cement specific to a given specimen to determine biological safety, biomechanics, and tissue compatibility. The CPC/PMMA (33%) group, CPC/PMMA (50%) group, CPC/PMMA (67%) group, and CPC/PMMA (75%) group were more in line with the composite bone cement without cytotoxicity requirements. The compressive strength of the CPC/PMMA (67%) group and CPC/PMMA (75%) group was 20 Mpa-30 Mpa, while that of the CPC/PMMA (4.8%) group, CPC/PMMA (6.25%) group, CPC/PMMA (9.1%) group, CPC/PMMA (16.7%) group, CPC/PMMA (33%) group, and CPC/PMMA (50%) group was 40 Mpa-70 Mpa. Curing time was longer in the CPC group (more than 11 min) and shorter in the PMMA group (less than 2 min). The results of weight loss rate showed that there were no significant differences between the CPC/PMMA group (4.8%, 6.25%, 9.1%, 16.7%, 33%) and PMMA control group (p>0.05). With the decrease of CPC content, the rate of weight loss gradually decreased. The CPC/PMMA (50%) group, CPC/PMMA (67%) group, and CPC/PMMA (75%) group provide greater variability and selectivity for the composite bone cement in obtaining better application.

  19. Bone cements for percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty: Current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs have gradually evolved into a serious health care problem globally. In order to reduce the morbidity of OVCF patients and improve their life quality, two minimally invasive surgery procedures, vertebroplasty (VP and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP, have been developed. Both VP and BKP require the injection of bone cement into the vertebrae of patients to stabilize fractured vertebra. As such, bone cement as the filling material plays an essential role in the effectiveness of these treatments. In this review article, we summarize the bone cements that are currently available in the market and those still under development. Two major categories of bone cements, nondegradable acrylic bone cements (ABCs and degradable calcium phosphate cements (CPCs, are introduced in detail. We also provide our perspectives on the future development of bone cements for VP and BKP.

  20. Polymer--calcium phosphate cement composites for bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Rafal A; Mayes, Anne M; Knaack, David

    2002-09-15

    The use of self-setting calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) as bioresorbable bone-replacement implant materials presently is limited to non-load-bearing applications because of their low compressive strength relative to natural bone. The present study investigated the possibility of strengthening a commercially available CPC, alpha-BSM, by incorporating various water-soluble polymers into the cement paste during setting. Several polyelectrolytes, poly(ethylene oxide), and the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) were added in solution to the cement paste to create calcium phosphate-polymer composites. Composites formulated with the polycations poly(ethylenimine) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) exhibited compressive strengths up to six times greater than that of pure alpha-BSM material, with a maximum value reached at intermediate polymer content and for the highest molecular weight studied. Composites containing BSA developed compressive strengths twice that of the original cement at protein concentrations of 13-25% by weight. In each case, XRD studies correlate the improvement in compressive strength with reduced crystallite dimensions, as evidenced by a broadening of the (0,0,2) reflection. This suggests that polycation or BSA adsorption inhibits crystal growth and possibly leads to a larger crystal aspect ratio. SEM results indicate a denser, more interdigitated microstructure. The increased strength was attributed to the polymer's capacity to bridge between multiple crystallites (thus forming a more cohesive composite) and to absorb energy through plastic flow. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bone-Cement: The New Medical Quick Fix

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Bone Cement is being widely used in vertebroplasty, a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat spinal fractures and collapsed vertebrae. It is being labeled as a concrete success in medical field. It is being used to treat fractures due to osteoporosis, menopause, steroids, hyperthyroidis...

  2. Bone Inflammation, Bone Infection and Dental Implants Failure: Histological and Cytological Aspects Related to Cement Excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dental implant failure can recognize several causes and many of them are quite preventable with the right knowledge of some clinical critical factors. Aim of this paper is to investigate about the histological aspects related to dental implants failure in such cases related to cement excess, how such histological picture can increase the risk of bacterial infections and how the different type of cement can interact with osteoblasts in-vitro. Methods: We randomly selected 5 patients with a diagnosis of dental implant failure requiring to be surgically removed: in all patients was observed an excess of dental cement around the failed implants. Histological investigations were performed of the perimplant bone. Cell culture of purchased human Osteoblasts was performed in order to evaluate cell proliferation and cell morphology at 3 time points among 3 cement types and a control surface. Results: Dental cement has been related to a pathognomonic histological picture with a foreign body reaction and many areas with black particles inside macrophage cells. Finally, cell culture on different dental cements resulted in a lower osteoblasts survival rate. Conclusions: It is appropriate that the dentist puts a small amount of dental cement in the prosthetic crown, so to avoid the clinical alterations related to the excess of cement. PMID:28529868

  3. The sealing ability of novel Kryptonite adhesive bone cement as a retrograde filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Uzun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluated the ability of Kryptonite bone cement in sealing retrograde cavities. Methods. The root canals of one hundred extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were instrumented up to master apical file #40 using Mtwo rotary system and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer by cold lateral compaction method. The specimens were assigned to one control group and four experimental groups based on the retrograde filling materials (n=20. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B solution for 48h. Then the specimens were divided longitudinally into two parts and the depth of dye penetration was assessed under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results. There were statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group (P0.05. Conclusion. Kryptonite cement provided optimal apical seal in a manner similar to MTA, amalgam and IRM when used as a retrograde filling cement.

  4. Stem Cells and Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Zhao, L; Chen, W; Liu, X; Weir, M D; Xu, H H K

    2014-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. This article reviews recent developments in stem cell delivery via CPC for bone regeneration. This includes: (1) biofunctionalization of the CPC scaffold, (2) co-culturing of osteoblasts/endothelial cells and prevascularization of CPC, (3) seeding of CPC with different stem cell species, (4) human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) and bone marrow MSC (hBMSC) seeding on CPC for bone regeneration, and (5) human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) seeding with CPC for bone regeneration. Cells exhibited good attachment/proliferation in CPC scaffolds. Stem-cell-CPC constructs generated more new bone and blood vessels in vivo than did the CPC control without cells. hUCMSCs, hESC-MSCs, and hiPSC-MSCs in CPC generated new bone and blood vessels similar to those of hBMSCs; hence, they were viable cell sources for bone engineering. CPC with hESC-MSCs and hiPSC-MSCs generated new bone two- to three-fold that of the CPC control. Therefore, this article demonstrates that: (1) CPC scaffolds are suitable for delivering cells; (2) hUCMSCs, hESCs, and hiPSCs are promising alternatives to hBMSCs, which require invasive procedures to harvest with limited cell quantity; and (3) stem-cell-CPC constructs are highly promising for bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  5. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  6. Crevice corrosion of biomedical alloys: a novel method of assessing the effects of bone cement and its chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Michael; Hu, Xinming; Farrar, Richard; Brummitt, Ken; Freeman, Robert; Neville, Anne

    2013-07-01

    In this study, five commercially available poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA bone cements were tested to investigate the effects of antibiotics on the severity of crevice corrosion. Bone cements with varying chemistry were also tested. A test method was developed in part reference to ASTM F746-04. Cylindrical specimens were fitted with a bone cement tapered collar, creating consistent crevice conditions. Crevice corrosion was then studied using potentiodynamic polarization techniques in 0.9% NaCl solution (pH7.4) at 37°C. Surface analyses using a light microscope and scanning electron microscopy were also conducted to investigate the surface morphology after accelerated electrochemical testing. Initial testing of commercially available bone cements indicated that different PMMA bone cements can affect the initiation and propagation mechanism of crevice corrosion. Further studies, utilising electrochemical and mass spectroscopy techniques, have identified that the addition of radiopaque agent and antibiotics affect the initiation mechanisms of 316L stainless steel, whilst significantly increasing the extent of propagation in CoCrMo alloys. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Structural degradation of acrylic bone cements due to in vivo and simulated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kerry F; Ries, Michael D; Pruitt, Lisa A

    2003-05-01

    Acrylic bone cement is the primary load-bearing material used for the attachment of orthopedic devices to adjoining bone. Degradation of acrylic-based cements in vivo results in a loss of structural integrity of the bone-cement-prosthesis interface and limits the longevity of cemented orthopedic implants. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of in vivo aging on the structure of the acrylic bone cement and to develop an in vitro artificial aging protocol that mimics the observed degradation. Three sets of retrievals are examined in this study: Palacos brand cement retrieved from hip replacements, and Simplex brand cement retrieved from both hip and knee replacement surgeries. In vitro aging is performed using oxidative and acidic environments on three acrylic-based cements: Palacos, Simplex, and CORE. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to examine the evolution of molecular weight and chemical species within the acrylic cements due to both in vivo and simulated aging. GPC analysis indicates that molecular weight is degraded in the hip retrievals but not in the knee retrievals. Artificial aging in an oxidative environment best reproduces this degradation mechanism. FTIR analysis indicates that there exists a chemical evolution within the cement due to in vivo and in vitro aging. These findings are consistent with scission-based degradation schemes in the cement. Based on the results of this study, a pathway for structural degradation of acrylic bone cement is proposed. The findings from this investigation have broad applicability to acrylic-based cements and may provide guidance for the development of new bone cements that resist degradation in the body. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of process variables on the preparation of artificial bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas; Nele, M., E-mail: nele@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2013-10-15

    The present work concerns the preparation of bone cements based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), used mainly for prosthesis fixation and cavity filling for correction of human bone failures. A typical bone cement recipe contains methyl methacrylate, which polymerizes in situ during cement application. An inherent problem of this reaction is the large amount of heat released during the cement preparation, which may lead to irreparable damage of living tissues. Optimization of PMMA-based bone cement recipes is thus an important step towards safe and reliable clinical usage of these materials. Important process variables related to the reaction temperature profile and the mixing of the recipe constituents were studied in order to allow for the adequate production of bone cements. It is shown that the average molar mass and size of the PMMA particles used in the production of the bone cement, as well as incorporation of radiopaque contrast, co-monomers and fillers into the bone recipe play fundamental roles in the course of the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, the injection vessel geometry may interfere dramatically with the temperature profile and the time for its occurrence. Finally, it has been observed that the morphology of the PMMA particles strongly affects the mixing of the bone cement components. (author)

  9. Pulmonary bone cement embolism: CT angiographic evaluation with material decomposition using gemstone special imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sun; Lee, Heon [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Bucheon, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We report a case of pulmonary bone cement embolism in a female who presented with dyspnea following multiple sessions of vertebroplasty. She underwent spectral CT pulmonary angiography and the diagnosis was made based on enhanced visualization of radiopaque cement material in the pulmonary arteries and a corresponding decrease in the parenchymal iodine content. Here, we describe the CT angiography findings of bone cement embolism with special emphasis on the potential benefits of spectral imaging, providing additional information on the material composition.

  10. Enhanced osteointegration of poly(methylmethacrylate) bone cements by incorporating strontium-containing borate bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu; Huang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Meng; Ruan, Changshun; Peng, Songlin; Li, Li; Liu, Wenlong; Wang, Ting; Li, Bing; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Lu, William W; Pan, Haobo

    2017-06-01

    Although poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) cements are widely used in orthopaedics, they have numerous drawbacks. This study aimed to improve their bioactivity and osseointegration by incorporating strontium-containing borate bioactive glass (SrBG) as the reinforcement phase and bioactive filler of PMMA cement. The prepared SrBG/PMMA composite cements showed significantly decreased polymerization temperature when compared with PMMA and retained properties of appropriate setting time and high mechanical strength. The bioactivity of SrBG/PMMA composite cements was confirmed in vitro , evidenced by ion release (Ca, P, B and Sr) from SrBG particles. The cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro demonstrated that SrBG incorporation could promote adhesion, migration, proliferation and collagen secretion of cells. Furthermore, our in vivo investigation revealed that SrBG/PMMA composite cements presented better osseointegration than PMMA bone cement. SrBG in the composite cement could stimulate new-bone formation around the interface between the composite cement and host bone at eight and 12 weeks post-implantation, whereas PMMA bone cement only stimulated development of an intervening connective tissue layer. Consequently, the SrBG/PMMA composite cement may be a better alternative to PMMA cement in clinical applications and has promising orthopaedic applications by minimal invasive surgery. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. A Novel Composite PMMA-based Bone Cement with Reduced Potential for Thermal Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Li, Ailing; Zhou, Fang; Pan, Xiaoyu; Liang, Fuxin; Qu, Xiaozhong; Qiu, Dong; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2015-06-03

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) are now widely used to treat patients who suffer painful vertebral compression fractures. In each of these treatments, a bone cement paste is injected into the fractured vertebral body/bodies, and the cement of choice is a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. One drawback of this cement is the very high exothermic temperature, which, it has been suggested, causes thermal necrosis of surrounding tissue. In the present work, we prepared novel composite PMMA bone cement where microcapsules containing a phase change material (paraffin) (PCMc) were mixed with the powder of the cement. A PCM absorbs generated heat and, as such, its presence in the cement may lead to reduction in thermal necrosis. We determined a number of properties of the composite cement. Compared to the values for a control cement (a commercially available PMMA cement used in VP and BKP), each composite cement was found to have significantly lower maximum exothermic temperature, increased setting time, significantly lower compressive strength, significantly lower compressive modulus, comparable biocompatibility, and significantly smaller thermal necrosis zone. Composite cement containing 20% PCMc may be suitable for use in VP and BKP and thus deserves further evaluation.

  12. Extended fatigue life of a catalyst-free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Alice B.W.; Matthys, Oriane B.; Craig, Stephen L.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, and fatigue lifetime were investigated in accordance with ASTM and ISO standards for the testing of PMMA bone cement. The bending strength of bone cement specimens decreased with increasing wt% capsules content for capsules without or with OCA, with specimens of formulation. PMID:24825796

  13. In vitro study investigating the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement containing calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janet; Orr, John; Dunne, Nicholas

    2008-11-01

    A successful total hip replacement has an expected service life of 10-20 years with over 75% of failures due to aseptic loosening which is directly related to cement mantle failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the addition of nanoparticles of calcium carbonate to acrylic bone cement. It was anticipated that an improvement in mechanical performance of the resultant nanocomposite bone cement would be achieved. A design of experiment approach was adopted to maximise the mechanical properties of the bone cement containing nanoparticles of calcium carbonate and to determine the constituents and preparation methods for which these occur. The selected conditions provided improvements of 21% in energy to maximum load, 10% in elastic modulus, 7% in bending strength and 8% in bending modulus when compared with bone cement without nanoparticles. Although cement containing nanoCaCO(3) coated in sodium citrate also enhanced the energy to maximum load by 28% and the elastic modulus by 14% when compared with control cement, it is not recommended as a factor in the production of nanocomposite bone cement due to reduction in the bending properties of the final bone cement.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Injectable Brushite Filled-Poly (Methyl Methacrylate Bone Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas C. Rodriguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Powder-liquid poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA bone cements are widely utilized for augmentation of bone fractures and fixation of orthopedic implants. These cements typically have an abundance of beneficial qualities, however their lack of bioactivity allows for continued development. To enhance osseointegration and bioactivity, calcium phosphate cements prepared with hydroxyapatite, brushite or tricalcium phosphates have been introduced with rather unsuccessful results due to increased cement viscosity, poor handling and reduced mechanical performance. This has limited the use of such cements in applications requiring delivery through small cannulas and in load bearing. The goal of this study is to design an alternative cement system that can better accommodate calcium-phosphate additives while preserving cement rheological properties and performance. In the present work, a number of brushite-filled two-solution bone cements were prepared and characterized by studying their complex viscosity-versus-test frequency, extrusion stress, clumping tendency during injection through a syringe, extent of fill of a machined void in cortical bone analog specimens, and compressive strength. The addition of brushite into the two-solution cement formulations investigated did not affect the pseudoplastic behavior and handling properties of the materials as demonstrated by rheological experiments. Extrusion stress was observed to vary with brushite concentration with values lower or in the range of control PMMA-based cements. The materials were observed to completely fill pre-formed voids in bone analog specimens. Cement compressive strength was observed to decrease with increasing concentration of fillers; however, the materials exhibited high enough strength for consideration in load bearing applications. The results indicated that partially substituting the PMMA phase of the two-solution cement with brushite at a 40% by mass concentration provided the best

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Injectable Brushite Filled-Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Bone Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lucas C.; Chari, Jonathan; Aghyarian, Shant; Gindri, Izabelle M.; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Rodrigues, Danieli C.

    2014-01-01

    Powder-liquid poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cements are widely utilized for augmentation of bone fractures and fixation of orthopedic implants. These cements typically have an abundance of beneficial qualities, however their lack of bioactivity allows for continued development. To enhance osseointegration and bioactivity, calcium phosphate cements prepared with hydroxyapatite, brushite or tricalcium phosphates have been introduced with rather unsuccessful results due to increased cement viscosity, poor handling and reduced mechanical performance. This has limited the use of such cements in applications requiring delivery through small cannulas and in load bearing. The goal of this study is to design an alternative cement system that can better accommodate calcium-phosphate additives while preserving cement rheological properties and performance. In the present work, a number of brushite-filled two-solution bone cements were prepared and characterized by studying their complex viscosity-versus-test frequency, extrusion stress, clumping tendency during injection through a syringe, extent of fill of a machined void in cortical bone analog specimens, and compressive strength. The addition of brushite into the two-solution cement formulations investigated did not affect the pseudoplastic behavior and handling properties of the materials as demonstrated by rheological experiments. Extrusion stress was observed to vary with brushite concentration with values lower or in the range of control PMMA-based cements. The materials were observed to completely fill pre-formed voids in bone analog specimens. Cement compressive strength was observed to decrease with increasing concentration of fillers; however, the materials exhibited high enough strength for consideration in load bearing applications. The results indicated that partially substituting the PMMA phase of the two-solution cement with brushite at a 40% by mass concentration provided the best combination of the

  16. Influence of HAp on the polymerization processes of a possible radioactive bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaño, Carlos J.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R., E-mail: carlmont@ucm.es, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Radiações Ionizantes; Silva, Adolfo H.M.; Araujo, Maria H., E-mail: adolfohmoraes@ufmg.br, E-mail: mharaujo1993@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (RMN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate PMMA is an acrylic that has been already proposed as a composite to adhere together the fractured bone structures. Subsequently, augmentation bone cements have incorporated Calcium Biophosphonates as vital part of its components to increase the biocompatibility with osseous tissues. Minimally invasive percutaneous techniques such as Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty have been developed to reduce surgical impact on patients, but in turn have been reported undesirable effects as extravasation of the cement outside of the planning target volume due to the compression of the internal bone fluids or other tissues. An in situ variable that helps favoring of the PMMA polymerization process is the temperature; however, it may bring deleterious effects. On the methodology, an assay was addressed varying the Hydroxyapatite HAp concentration. Also the cement processing was modified by setting water as a vehicle for particle dispersion. The ratios of HAp/PMMA concentrations were: 0.00000, 0.02167, 0.09062, 0.16619 and 0.50000 mixed in PMMA and liquid catalyst and monomer. The thermal profiles were measured during polymerization and analyzed. Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR analysis was carried out on the polymerization process in an aqueous state to monitor the H-H{sub 2}O proton signal. As results, an increasing in the cement hardness time was found in the proportion of the HAp concentration. The highest τ polymerization time was found for the x{sub 5} concentration and the signal from the water trapped in the HAp amorphous lattice was determined around ∼5 ppm in the {sup 1}H NMR spectra. (author)

  17. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.

  18. Tensile properties of a bone cement containing non-ionic contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellson, F; Wang, J S; Almén, T; Mattsson, A; Klaveness, J; Tanner, K E; Lidgren, L

    2001-01-01

    The addition of contrast media such as BaSO4 or ZrO2 to bone cement has adverse effects in joint replacements, including third body wear and particle-induced bone resorption. Ground PMMA containing particles of the non-ionic water-soluble iodine-based X-ray contrast media, iohexol (IHX) and iodixanol (IDX), has, in bone tissue culture, shown less bone resorption than commercial cements. These water-soluble non-ceramic contrast media may change the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement. The static mechanical properties of bone cement containing either IHX or IDX have been investigated. There was no significant difference in ultimate stress between Palacos R (with 15.0 wt % of ZrO2) and plain cement with 8.0 wt % of IHX or IDX with mass median diameter (MMD) of 15.0 or 16.0 microm, while strain to failure was higher for the latter (p polymer beads, which may prevent areas of the acrylate bead surface from participating in the polymerization. In conclusion, the mechanical properties of bone cement were influenced by the size and amount of contrast medium particles. By choosing the appropriate amount and size of particles of water-soluble non-ionic contrast media the mechanical properties of the new radio-opaque bone cement can be optimized, thus reaching and surpassing given regulatory standards. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  19. Bone cement penetration pattern and primary stability testing in keeled and pegged glenoid components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiss, Patric; Pape, Guido; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Jäger, Sebastian; Sowa, Boris; Jakubowitz, Eike; Loew, Markus; Bruckner, Thomas; Rickert, Markus

    2011-07-01

    It has been proposed that bone mineral density has an influence on cement penetration in hip and knee arthroplasty. The hypotheses of this study were that: 1) there is a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and cement penetration in cemented glenoid components; and 2) that implant design has an influence on cement penetration into the glenoid bone. BMD of 10 pairs of fresh frozen scapulas was measured. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans in 3 different sections were analyzed after implantation of keeled and pegged glenoid components using a 3(rd)-generation cementing technique with a vacuum mixing system. Cement penetration was analyzed and correlated with BMD. Pull-out strength testing was performed to analyze primary stability. The overall peak BMD was 0.6 [g/cm(2)] (range, 0.33-0.98). A strong negative correlation between BMD and mean cement penetration was found for the peg (R(2) = -.83; P penetration was 78.4 mm(2) (range, 60.6-94.2) in the keel and 113.9 mm(2) (range, 78.2-143.4) in the peg group (P < .0001). In all cases, the components were pulled out of the cement mantle, whereas the bone-cement interfaces remained intact. The mean pull-out strength was 1093N (764-1343N) for keeled and 884N (650-1264N) for pegged components (P < .05). A modern cementing technique, leading to a deep bonding between bone and cement, is crucial to prevent loosening of glenoid components. The findings of this study might help us to better understand the results of follow-up studies of cemented glenoid implants. Our results could be helpful for the choice of implants in patients with poor bone quality like osteoporosis or rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The structural changes in the bone tissue and regional lymph nodes when using bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, D. V.; Zajdman, A. M.; Prohorenko, V. M.; Ustikova, N. V.

    2017-09-01

    In orthopedics bone cement is used to replace defects. However, it is known that it possesses toxic properties, due to its composition monomer methyl methacrylate. There are some unresolved issues, in particular its local action, not investigated reaction of the immune system to respond to any fluctuations of endoecological equilibrium. All this helps to explain not only the intraoperative complications such as acute heart and lung failure, but also many deferred pathological processes, complications in the postoperative period.

  1. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of a silicate-based composite bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Huan, Zhiguang; Xu, Chen; Ma, Nan; Zhu, Haibo; Zhong, Jipin; Chang, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Silicate-based cements have been developed as a class of bioactive and biodegradable bone cements owing to their good in vitro bioactivity and ability to dissolve in a simulated body fluid. Until recently, however, the in vivo evidence of their ability to support bone regeneration is still scarce. In the present study, a pilot in vivo evaluation of a silicate-based composite bone cement (CSC) was carried out in a rabbit femur defect model. The cement was composed of tricalcium silicate, 45S5 bioglass and calcium sulfate, and the self-setting properties of the material were established. The in vivo bone integration and biodegradability of CSC were investigated and compared with those of bioactive glass particulates, and a calcium phosphate cement. The results showed that CSC underwent a relatively slower in vivo degradation as compared with bioactive glass and calcium phosphate cement. Histological observation demonstrated that bone contact area at the interface between the surrounding bone and CSC gradually increased with time proceeding. CSC kept its structural integrity during implantation in vivo because of its acceptable mechanical strength. These results provide evidence of effectiveness in vivo and suggest potential clinical applications of the silicate-based composite bone cements.

  2. Comparison of various vacuum mixing systems and bone cements as regards reliability, porosity and bending strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Hans; Schelling, Katrin; Heisel, Christian; Wang, Jian-Shang; Breusch, Steffen J

    2004-04-01

    There are several vacuum mixing systems on the market which are arbitrarily used with various bone cements in clinical work. Hardly any studies have been done on the performance and handling of these systems in combination with different cement brands. We therefore tested 6 vacuum mixing systems (Palamix, Summit, Cemvac, Optivac, Vacumix, MixOR) in combination with 6 cement brands (Palacos R, Simplex P, CWM 1, CWM 2000, Palamed G, VersaBond) concerning their reliability, user-friendliness, porosity and bending strength. Our study indicated that each system has weak points. The preparation of the mixed cement for gun injection can present problems. If cement collection under vacuum fails, porosity is increased. Manual collection without a vacuum carries the risk of intermixing air. For comfortable and effective retrograde cement application, cement guns should have a stable connection with the cartridge and a high piston stroke. There are marked differences between the systems as regards overall porosity when all tested cements are considered (range 2-18%), and between the cements when all tested systems are considered (range 2-17%). All test samples exceeded the required bending strength of 50 MPa, according to ISO 5833. Palaces specimens showed excessive plastic deformation in the bending test. There are better and worse mixing system/cement combinations for a given system and a given cement. Systems with cement collection under vacuum reduce porosity best.

  3. Wear and Mechanical Properties of Various Bone Cements – Influence of Saline Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balko, J.; Fides, M.; Sedlák, R.; Hvizdoš, P.; Hloch, Sergej; Kloc, J.; Monka, P.

    -, č. 662 (2015), s. 147-150 ISSN 1662-9795 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wear * saline * hardness * bone cement Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.scientific.net/KEM.662.147

  4. Development of hydroxyapatite bone cement for controlled drug ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... difference could be detected in XRD patterns of the TCH–HA cement with various amounts of drug. By increasing the drug concentration, mechanical strength of cement was decreased and its setting time was increased. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using HA cement as a carrier for drug delivery.

  5. Effect of misfit of cement-retained implant single crowns on crestal bone changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Jung; Papaspyridakos, Panos; Guze, Kevin; Singh, Medha; Weber, Hans-Peter; Gallucci, German O

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to compare peri-implant crestal bone levels between misfitting (overhanging/open margin) cement-retained implant single crowns (SCs) vs accurately fitted implant SCs. Seventeen subjects were divided into two groups: test group (misfitting crowns, n = 10) and control group (accurately fitted crowns, n = 7). Crestal bone level changes were assessed using digital software. The average differences in mean bone loss within and between the two groups were statistically significant. Cement-retained implant SCs with marginal misfit resulted in more crestal bone loss than accurately fitted crowns after a mean of 3 years in function.

  6. Calcium phosphate bone cements for local vancomycin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loca, Dagnija; Sokolova, Marina; Locs, Janis; Smirnova, Anastasija; Irbe, Zilgma

    2015-04-01

    Among calcium phosphate biomaterials, calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) have attracted increased attention because of their ability of self-setting in vivo and injectability, opening the new opportunities for minimally invasive surgical procedures. However, any surgical procedure carries potential inflammation and bone infection risks, which could be prevented combining CPC with anti-inflammatory drugs, thus overcoming the disadvantages of systemic antibiotic therapy and controlling the initial burst and total release of active ingredient. Within the current study α-tricalcium phosphate based CPCs were prepared and it was found that decreasing the solid to liquid phase ratio from 1.89g/ml to 1.23g/ml, initial burst release of vancomycin within the first 24h increased from 40.0±2.1% up to 57.8±1.2% and intrinsic properties of CPC were changed. CPC modification with vancomycin loaded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microcapsules decreased the initial burst release of drug down to 7.7±0.6%, while only 30.4±1.3% of drug was transferred into the dissolution medium within 43days, compared to pure vancomycin loaded CPC, where 100% drug release was observed already after 12days. During the current research a new approach was found in order to increase the drug bioavailability. Modification of CPC with novel PLA/vancomycin microcapsules loaded and coated with nanosized hydroxyapatite resulted in 85.3±3.1% of vancomycin release within 43days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Application of an amphiphilic bonder in a goat model to increase the femoral cement-bone adhesion in cemented hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Rath, R; Wirtz, D; Andereya, S; Gravius, S; Hermanns-Sachweh, B; Marx, R; Mumme, T

    2007-01-01

    Cemented revision of femoral components in total hip arthroplasty has shown high rates of early loosening due to reduced micro- and macroretention of the cement to the endostal bone stock. Enhanced stability can be reached by an amphiphilic bonder, which offers a covalent bonding of the hydrophobic cement to the hydrophilic bone. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of such a bonder and its effects on the mechanical stability of cemented hip arthroplasty stems in vivo. Total cemented hip arthroplasties were performed in 20 sheep. In the verum group (n = 10) the implant bed was preconditioned by application of the bonder prior to femoral stem implantation. To study the biocompatibility around the bone-cement interface fluorescent marking of osteoblasts was applied in vivo throughout the observation period of 9 months. Native X-rays of the hip joints were obtained immediately after implantation and after euthanasia. The bone-cement interface was examined histologically. All stems of the verum group showed firm bonding of cement to bone in manual testing, while in 7 of the 10 controls the stems with adherent cement could be easily pulled out off the bony implant bed. This was coherent with significantly higher rates of progredient radiolucent lines and soft-tissue interpositions between bone and cement in the control group. The bonder was biocompatible. When preconditioned with an amphiphilic bonder, cemented stems showed a markedly higher adhesive strength to the cancellous bone without signs of inflammation or neoplasia. This procedure might offer enhanced longevity of cemented femoral revision stems in hip arthroplasty.

  8. Incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to acrylic based bone cements: effects on mechanical and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Ross; McNally, Tony; Mitchell, Christina; Dunne, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites with a weight loading of 0.1% were prepared using 3 different methods of MWCNT incorporation. The mechanical and thermal properties of the resultant nanocomposite cements were characterised in accordance with the international standard for acrylic resin cements. The mechanical properties of the resultant nanocomposite cements were influenced by the type of MWCNT and method of incorporation used. The exothermic polymerisation reaction for the PMMA bone cement was significantly reduced when thermally conductive functionalised MWCNTs were added. This reduction in exotherm translated in a decrease in thermal necrosis index value of the respective nanocomposite cements, which potentially could reduce the hyperthermia experienced in vivo. The morphology and degree of dispersion of the MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix at different scales were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Improvements in mechanical properties were attributed to the MWCNTs arresting/retarding crack propagation through the cement by providing a bridging effect into the wake of the crack, normal to the direction of crack growth. MWCNT agglomerations were evident within the cement microstructure, the degree of these agglomerations was dependent on the method used to incorporate the MWCNTs into the cement. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Micro-stereotactic frame utilizing bone cement for individual fabrication: an initial investigation of its accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thomas S.; Lexow, G. Jakob; Blume, Denise; Kluge, Marcel; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2017-03-01

    A new method for template-guided cochlear implantation surgery is proposed which has been developed to create a minimally invasive access to the inner ear. A first design of the surgical template was drafted, built, and finally tested regarding its accuracy. For individual finalization of the micro-stereotactic frame bone cement is utilized as this well-known and well-established material suggests ease of use as well as high clinical acceptance and enables both sterile and rapid handling. The new concept includes an alignment device, based on a passive hexapod with manually adjustable legs for temporary fixation of the separate parts in the patient-specific pose until the bone cement is spread and finally cured. Additionally, a corresponding evaluation method was developed to determine the accuracy of the microstereotactic frame in some initial experiments. In total 18 samples of the surgical template were fabricated based on previously planned trajectories. The mean positioning error at the target point was 0.30 mm with a standard deviation of 0.25 mm.

  10. Fatigue crack propagation of acrylic bone cements. Influence of the radio-opaque agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginebra, M. P.; Albuixech, L.; Fernandez-Barragan, E.; Gil, F. J.; Planell, J. A.; San Roman, J.; Vazquez, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this work the 2,5-diiodo-8-quinolyl methacrylate (IHQM), is proposed as a new radiopaque agent. The addition of the iodine containing methacrylate provided a statistically significant increase in the tensile strength, fracture toughness and ductility, with respect to the barium sulphate containing cement. This effect was attributed to the fact that the use of a radiopaque monomer eliminated the porosity associated to the barium sulphate particles. However, since fatigue resistance is one of the main properties required to ensure a good long-term performance of permanent pros these, as is the case of acrylic bone cements, it is important to compare the fatigue properties of this new bone cement formulation with the radiolucent and the BaSO 4 containing bone cements. The results show that the absence of inorganic particles with no matrix adhesion plays a negative role when the fatigue crack propagation is considered. (Author) 26 refs

  11. Mechanical properties and antibiotic release characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement formulated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchmanan, Kumaran; Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Kingshuk, Poddar; Shi, Zhilong; Wang, Wilson; Tan, Reginald B H

    2017-08-01

    The influence of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with antibiotics on the mechanical properties of functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-(PMMA) based bone cements is investigated. The incorporation of MSNs to the bone cements (8.15wt%) shows no detrimental effects on the biomechanical properties of the freshly solidified bone cements. Importantly, there are no significant changes in the compression strength and bending modulus up to 6 months of aging in PBS buffer solution. The preserved mechanical properties of MSN-functionalized bone cements is attributed to the unchanged microstructures of the cements, as more than 96% of MSNs remains in the bone cement matrix to support the cement structures after 6 months of aging. In addition, the MSN-functionalized bone cements are able to increase the drug release of gentamicin (GTMC) significantly as compared with commercially available antibiotic-loaded bone cements. It can be attributed to the loaded nano-sized MSNs with uniform pore channels which build up an effective nano-network path enable the diffusion and extended release of GTMC. The combination of excellent mechanical properties and sustainable drug delivery efficiency demonstrates the potential applicability of MSN-functionalized PMMA bone cements for orthopedic surgery to prevent post-surgery infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic review of the use of bone cement in ossicular chain reconstruction and revision stapes surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, Inge; van den Berg, Jelle W G; Smit, Adriana L; Grolman, Wilko

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the effectiveness of bone cement on mean postoperative air-bone gap (ABG) and the proportion of ABG closure to within 20 dB in patients undergoing ossicular chain reconstruction or revision stapes surgery. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, and Central. METHODS: A

  13. Extended fatigue life of a catalyst free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Alice B W; Matthys, Oriane B; Craig, Stephen L; Reichert, William M

    2015-02-01

    The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, and fatigue lifetime were investigated in accordance with ASTM and ISO standards for the testing of PMMA bone cement. The bending strength of bone cement specimens decreased with increasing wt % capsules content for capsules without or with OCA, with specimens of formulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Novel Injectable Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement from Wet Chemical Precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablee, S.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.

    2017-06-01

    Calcium phosphate cement has been prepared via chemical precipitation method for injectable bone filling materials. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH4)2HPO4, were used as calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The synthesized powder was mixed with water at different powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratios, which was adjusted at 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2. The influence of P/L ratio on the injectability, setting time and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement paste has been evaluated. The synthesized powder appeared as purely hydroxyapatite with nanosized and agglomerated spherical particles. All cement pastes show excellent injectability except for the paste with P/L ratio 1.2. Calcium phosphate cement with P/L ratio 1.1 shows the ideal cement for bone filler application with good injectability, the initial and final setting times of 30 min and 160 min, and the compression strength of 2.47 MPa. The result indicated that the newly developed calcium phosphate cement is physically suitable for bone filler application. This paper presents our investigation on the effect of P/L ratio on the handling and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement prepared via wet chemical precipitation method.

  15. Development of hydroxyapatite bone cement for controlled drug ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The purpose of this work was to study the preparation and characterization of drug–hydroxyapatite cement. The hydroxyapatite (HA) cement has been synthesized by using tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with sodium hydrogen phosphate as liquid phase. The effect of ...

  16. Development of hydroxyapatite bone cement for controlled drug ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this work was to study the preparation and characterization of drug–hydroxyapatite cement. The hydroxyapatite (HA) cement has been synthesized by using tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with sodium hydrogen phosphate as liquid phase. The effect of added ...

  17. Removal of hydroxyapatite cement from cadaveric temporal bones after transtemporal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Lan Mary; Durel, Jason; Arriaga, Moises A

    2013-10-01

    To determine the best method of removing hydroxyapatite cement from the temporal bone in the postoperative period. The advent of hydroxyapatite cement in neurotologic surgery of the temporal bone has dramatically decreased the rate of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. However, there is no literature currently available on how to manage these patients in the setting of postoperative hematomas of the cerebellopontine angle. Nine cadaveric temporal bones were obtained that had previously undergone translabyrinthine approach drilling in an academic temporal bone lab. Fascia and adipose tissue were placed medial to the facial nerve and the temporal bone was then filled with hydroxyapatite cement to the level of the cortex. Removal of hydroxyapatite cement was undertaken using a Freer elevator, mastoid bone curette, and finally, a drill in sequential fashion. This occurred at 9 predetermined time intervals from 1 to 30 hours and was timed in each case. Removal using the freer and curette failed in each case, and the drill was ultimately used to remove the hydroxyapatite cement in all cases. The time to reach the packed fascia and adipose tissue varied from 3 to 6 minutes, average time is 4.27 ± 0.84 minutes. Although hydroxyapatite cement has dramatically decreased the rate of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak in translabyrinthine surgery, its use has also brought a new set of considerations. This study suggests that hydroxyapatite cement removal in the setting of postoperative hematoma after translabyrinthine surgery would require drilling rather than bedside incisional opening alone. Like standard craniotomy approaches, postoperative hemorrhage management requires intraoperative drainage.

  18. Bone creep and short and long term subsidence after cemented stem total hip arthroplasty (THA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, T L; Shultz, T; Noble, G; Gruen, T A; Blaha, J D

    2013-03-15

    Stem-cement and cement-bone interfacial failures as well as cement fractures have been noted in cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) as the cause of aseptic loosening. Attempts to reduce the risk of femoral component loosening include improving the stem-cement interface by various coatings, using a textured or porous coated stem surfaces or by using a tapered stem having a highly-polished surface. The latter approach, often referred to as "force-closed" femoral stem design, would theoretically result in stem stabilization subsequent to debonding and 'taper-lock'. Previous work using three-dimensional finite element analysis has shown a state of stress at the stem-cement interface indicative of 'taper-lock' for the debonded stem and indicated that stem-cement interface friction and bone cement creep played a significant role in the magnitudes of stresses and subsidence of the stem. However, the previous analysis did not include the viscoelastic properties of bone, which has been hypothesized to permit additional expansion of the bone canal and allow additional stem subsidence (Lu and McKellop, 1997). The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of bone viscoelastic behavior on stem subsidence using a 3D finite element analysis. It was hypothesized that the viscoelastic behavior of bone in the hoop direction would allow expansion of the bone reducing the constraint on bone over time and permit additional stem subsidence, which may account for the discrepancies between predicted and clinical subsidence measurements. Analyses were conducted using physiological loads, 'average peak loads' and 'high peak loads' for 'normal patient' and 'active patient' (Bergmann et al., 2010) from which short and long term subsidence was predicted. Results indicated that bone creep does contribute to higher stem subsidence initially and after 10 years of simulated loading. However, it was concluded that the "constraint" upon the cement mantle is not mitigated enough to result in

  19. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. (PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano; Nele, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2011-04-15

    Artificial bone cements (BCs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA) liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and acrylic acid (AA) to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired. (author)

  20. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. F. Santos Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bone cements (BCs based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in-situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA and acrylic acid (AA to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired.

  1. The influence of orientation and practical size on the interface fracture of a bone-nano composite cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilik, Igor; Khandaker, Morshed

    2010-01-01

    Clinical follow-up studies in cemented total hip arthroplasties found that femoral prosthesis loosening is caused by the fracture of the bone-cement interfaces. The research objectives were to determine whether orientation of the bone has any influence on the interface fracture strength, and to determine whether inclusion of micro/nano sizes MgO particles on Cobalt HV bone cement has any influence on the interface fracture strength. Flexural tests were conducted on five groups of specimens to find Young Modulus and bending strength: (1) longitudinal bone, (2) transverse bone, (3) pure cement particles, (4) cement with 36 im and 27 nm MgO particles, and (5) cement with 27nm MgO particles. Also, fracture tests were conducted on six groups of bone-cement specimen to find interface fracture toughness: (1) longitudinal bone-cement without MgO particles, (2) transverse bone-cement without MgO particles, (3) longitudinal bone-cement with 36 im MgO particles, (4) transverse bone-cement with 36 im MgO particles, (5) , longitudinal bone-cement with 27 nm MgO particles, and (6) transverse bone-cement with 27 nm MgO particles. Transverse bone specimen was 14% stiffer than longitudinal specimen, while bending strength and fracture toughness of longitudinal specimen was 29% and 2.6 times lower than the transverse specimen, respectively. Reduction of Young's modulus (7.3%), bending strength (27%) and fracture toughness (16%) was observed by the inclusion of microsize MgO particles, and a reduction of the Young's Modulus (19%), bending strength (21%),and fracture toughness (19%) for nanosize MgO particles. The interface toughness of the transverse bone infused with 27nm MgO was about 6 times higher than transverse bone infused with 36 im particles of MgO. Preliminary studies show that orientation of the bone has significant influence on the interface fracture. MgO particles size have a significant effect on the strength of the bone - cement interface.(Author)

  2. The Use of Micro and Nano Particulate Fillers to Modify the Mechanical and Material Properties of Acrylic Bone Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Joshua A.

    Acrylic bone cement (polymethyl methacrylate) is widely used in total joint replacements to provide long-term fixation of implants. In essence, bone cement acts as a grout by filling in the voids left between the implant and the patient's bone, forming a mechanical interlock. While bone cement is considered the `gold standard' for implant fixation, issues such as mechanical failure of the cement mantle (aseptic loosening) and the development of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) still plague joint replacement procedures and often necessitate revision arthroplasty. In an effort to address these failures, various modifications are commonly made to bone cement such as mechanical reinforcement with particles/fibers and the addition of antibiotics to mitigate PJI. Despite these attempts, issues such as poor particle interfacial adhesion, inadequate drug release, and the development of multidrug resistant bacteria limit the effectiveness of bone cement modifications. Therefore, the overall goal of this work was to use micro and nanoparticles to enhance the properties of acrylic bone cement, with particular emphasis placed on improving the mechanical properties, cumulative antibiotic release, and antimicrobial properties. An acrylic bone cement (Palacos R) was modified with three types of particles in various loading ratios: mesoporous silica nanoparticles (for mechanical reinforcement), xylitol microparticles (for increased antibiotic release), and silver nanoparticles (as an antimicrobial agent). These particles were used as sole modifications, not in tandem with one another. The resulting cement composites were characterized using a variety of mechanical (macro to nano, fatigue, fracture, and dynamic), imaging, chemical, thermal, biological, and antimicrobial testing techniques. The primary outcomes of this dissertation demonstrate that: (1) mesoporous silica, as used in this work, is a poor reinforcement phase for acrylic bone cement, (2) xylitol can significantly

  3. The Benefits of Cement Augmentation of Pedicle Screw Fixation Are Increased in Osteoporotic Bone: A Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhai; Baran, George R; Garg, Hitesh; Betz, Randal R; Moumene, Missoum; Cahill, Patrick J

    2014-07-01

    Biomechanical study using a finite element model of a normal and osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae comparing resistance with axial pullout and bending forces on polymethylmethacrylate-augmented and non-augmented pedicle screws. To compare the effect of cement augmentation of pedicle screw fixation in normal and osteoporotic bone with 2 different techniques of cement delivery. Various clinical and biomechanical studies have addressed the benefits of cement augmentation of pedicle screws, but none have evaluated whether this effect is similar, magnified, or attenuated in osteoporotic bone compared with normal bone. In addition, no study has compared the biomechanical strength of augmented pedicle screws using cement delivery through the pedicle screw with delivery through a pilot hole. This study was funded by a grant from DePuy Synthes Spine. Normal and osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae with pedicle screws were simulated. The models were tested for screw pullout strength with and without cement augmentation. Two methods of cement delivery were also tested. Both methods were tested using 1 and 2.5 cm 3 volume of cement infiltrated in normal and osteoporotic bone. The increase in screw pullout force was proportionally greater in osteoporotic bone with equivalent volumes of cement delivered. The researchers found that 1 and 2.5 cm 3 of cement infiltrated bone volume resulted in an increase in pullout force by about 50% and 120% in normal bone, and by about 64% and 156% in osteoporotic bone, respectively. The delivery method had only a minimal effect on pullout force when 2.5 cm 3 of cement was injected (strength of pedicle screws, and this effect is proportionately greater in osteoporotic bone. Cement delivery through fenestrated screws and delivery through a pilot hole result in comparable pullout strength at higher cement volumes. Copyright © 2014 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanical evaluation of a novel fenestrated pedicle screw augmented with bone cement in osteoporotic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Philippe E; Chappuis, James L; Rampersaud, Raja; Agarwala, Amit O; Perra, Joseph H; Erkan, Serkan; Wu, Chunhui

    2011-08-15

    Comparative biomechanical study was conducted in osteoporotic human cadaveric spines. Determine the influence of the volume of polymethyl methacrylate injected through a fenestrated pedicle screw on the pullout strength and on the ability to safely remove the implant. Pedicle screw fixation in the osteoporotic spine can be improved by the addition of bone cement. Various injection techniques have been used. While improvement has been shown for the pullout strength, the optimal volume of cement to inject has not been previously studied. Seven osteoporotic spines were instrumented with a standard and a fenestrated pedicle screw augmented with polymethyl methacrylate at each level (T7-L5). Three volumes of bone cement were randomly injected and stratified to the thoracic (0.5 cc, 1.0 cc, and 1.5 cc) and lumbar spine (1.5 cc, 2.0 cc, and 2.5 cc). Axial pullout strength and removal torque of the pedicle screws were quantified. The pullout strength of the fenestrated screw was normalized with respect to its contralateral control. Student paired t tests were conducted and a statistically significant increase was noted for 1.0 cc (186 ± 45%) and 1.5 cc (158 ± 46%) in the thoracic spine and for 1.5 cc (264 ± 193%), 2.0 cc (221 ± 93%), and 2.5 cc (198 ± 42%) in the lumbar spine. There was no significant difference with higher volumes of cement. The median removal torque was 0.34 Nm for the standard and 1.83 Nm for the augmented screws. When the augmented implants were removed, the bone cement sheared completely off at the fenestrations in 15 of the 17 cases. Significant increases in pullout strength can be accomplished by injecting a limited quantity of bone cement through a fenestrated screw while minimizing the risks associated with higher volume. The majority of implants were removed without damaging the vertebra as the bone cement sheared off at the fenestrations.

  5. Gentamicin release from modified acrylic bone cements with lactose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virto, M R; Frutos, P; Torrado, Susana; Frutos, G

    2003-01-01

    Modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cements formulations were prepared by including different proportions of gentamicin and release modulators such as lactose or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Surface aspect, gentamicin release and porosity of these modified formulations were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a specially designed system for the dissolution studies of the bone cements, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Lactose modified cements presented an irregular surface with numerous hollows and voids due to the lactose dissolution. HPMC cements presented a characteristic laminated and flaky surface. The drug release of lactose formulations was up to four-fold greater (13%) than the commercial bone cement CMW1 Gentamicin one (3%). The amount of gentamicin eluted at the first withdrawn sample ranged from 30% to 60% of total gentamicin released over the assay. Gentamicin release from lactose formulations increased as lactose percentage was increased which agree with the porosity results. Nevertheless, the use of release modulator HPMC increased porosity, but did not produce an increase in the gentamicin release. HPMC dissolution creates a surrounding sticky and viscous medium similar to a gel that makes the gentamicin release from the cement matrix difficult. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. [Effect of different bone cement dispersion types in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Yan-Ping

    2017-05-25

    To observe different bone cement dispersion types of PVP, PKP and manipulative reduction PVP and their effects in the treatment of senile osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and the bone cement leakage rate. The clinical data of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures who underwent unilateral vertebroplasty from January 2012 to January 2015 was retrospectively analyzed. Of them, 56 cases including 22 males and 34 females aged from 60 to 78 years old were treated by PVP operation; Fouty-eight cases including 17 males and 31 females aged from 61 to 79 years old were treated by PKP operation; Forty-three cases including 15 males and 28 females aged from 60 to 76 years old were treated by manipulative reduction PVP operation. AP and lateral DR films were taken after the operation; the vertebral bone cement diffusion district area and mass district area were calculated with AutoCAD graphics processing software by AP and lateral DR picture, then ratio(K) of average diffusion area and mass area were calculated, defining K100% as diffusion type. Different bone cement dispersion types of PVP, PKP and manipulative reduction PVP operation were analyzed. According to bone cement dispersion types, patients were divided into diffusion type, mixed type and mass type groups.Visual analogue scale (VAS), vertebral body compression rate, JOA score and bone cement leakage rate were observed. All patients were followed up for 12-24 months with an average of 17.2 months. There was significant difference in bone cement dispersion type among three groups ( P <0.05). The constituent ratio of diffusion type, mixed type and mass type in PVP operation was 46.43%, 35.71%, 17.86%, in PKP was 16.67%, 37.50% , 45.83%, and in manipulative reduction PVP was 37.21%, 44.19% and 18.60%, respectively. PVP operation and manipulative reduction PVP were mainly composed of diffusion type and mixed type, while PKP was mainly composed of mass type and mixed type. There was no

  7. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Delia S.; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V.; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, gi...

  8. The effect of bone cement particles on the friction of polyethylene and polyurethane knee bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, H E; Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A; Jones, E

    2004-01-01

    Compliant layer knee joints have been considered for use in an attempt to increase the serviceable life of artificial joints. If designed correctly, these joints should operate within the full-fluid film lubrication regime. However, adverse tribological conditions, such as the presence of bone and bone cement particles, may breach the fluid film and cause surface wear. The frictional behaviour of both polyurethane (PU) and conventional polyethylene (PE) tibial components against a metallic femoral component was therefore assessed when bone cement particles were introduced into the lubricant. The bone cement particles caused a large increase in the frictional torque of both the PE and PU bearings; however, the friction produced by the PU bearings was still considerably lower than that produced by the PE bearings. The volume of bone cement particles between each of the bearings and the resultant frictional torque both decreased over time. This occurred more quickly with the PE bearings but greater damage was caused to the surface of the PE bearings than the PU components

  9. [Effects of surface roughness of bone cements on histological characteristics of induced membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Gang; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To explore surface roughness of bone cement and surround tissue on histological characteristic of induced membranes. Bone cements with smooth and rough surface were implanted in radius bone defect, intramuscular and subcutaneous sites of rabbits, and formed induced membranes. Membranes were obtained and stained (HE) 6 weeks later. Images of membrane tissue were obtained and analyzed with an automated image analysis system. Five histological parameters of membranes were measured with thickness,area,cell density,ECM density and microvessel density. Double factor variance analysis was used to evaluate the effect of the two factors on histological characteristics of induced membranes. Membranes can be induced by each kind of bone cement and at all the three tissue sites. In histological parameters of thickness,area and micro vessel,there were significant differences among the membranes induced at different tissue sites (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, P = 0.000); whereas, there were no significant differences in histological parameters of cell density and ECM density (P = 0.734, P = 0.638). In all five histological parameters of membranes, there were no significant differences between the membranes induced by bone cements with different surface roughness (P = 0.506, P = 0.185, P = 0.883, P = 0.093, P = 0.918). Surround tissue rather than surface roughness of bone cements can affect the histological characteristics of induced membranes. The fibrocystic number, vascularity, mechanical tension and micro motion of the surround tissue may be closely correlated with the histological characteristics of induced membranes.

  10. Evaluation of Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface During Removal of Metal Copings Cemented onto Titanium Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Umut; Cakan, Murat; Delilbasi, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the temperature increase due to heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when the abutment screw channel is accessed or a metal-ceramic crown is sectioned buccally with diamond or tungsten carbide bur using an air rotor, with or without irrigation. Cobalt-chromium copings were cemented onto straight titanium abutments. The temperature changes during removal of the copings were recorded over a period of 1 minute. The sectioning of coping with diamond bur and without water irrigation generated the highest temperature change at the cervical part of the implant. Both crown removal methods resulted in an increase in temperature at the implant-bone interface. However, this temperature change did not exceed 47°C, the potentially damaging threshold for bone reported in the literature.

  11. On the development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of the putty were measured using a Vicat type apparatus and the compressive strength was determined with a. Universal Testing Machine. The nature of the precipitated cement was analyzed through X-ray diffraction. (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and energy dispersive electron microprobe (EDAX).

  12. On the development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The setting times of the putty were measured using a Vicat type apparatus and the compressive strength was determined with a Universal Testing Machine. The nature of the precipitated cement was analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and energy dispersive electron ...

  13. On the development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The wetting medium used was distilled water with Na2HPO4 as accelerator to manipulate the setting time. The cement powder, on wetting with the medium, formed a workable putty. The setting times of the putty were measured using a Vicat type apparatus and the compressive strength was determined with a Universal ...

  14. Effect of the sterilization process on physical and mechanical properties of the bonacryl bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morejon, L.; Delgado, J.A.; Aguero, L.; Rapado, M.; Ginebra, M.P.; Gil, F.J.; Mendizabal, E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of bone cements of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fix artificial prosthesis to the human body is a habitual method in orthopedic surgery. The hip and the knee joints have a very complex biomechanics and support high loads, for these reasons, acrylic bone cements have to comply with international standards in order to secure the biofuncionality and durability of the implant. In this work we report the effect of sterilization by ethylene oxide or gamma radiation on the BONACRYL Cuban cement. We determined how sterilization methods affect the molecular weight of the polymer as well as its quasi-static mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the gamma radiation modifies the molecular weight of the PMMA although the compression and bending strength were not affected by the sterilization process applied. (authors)

  15. Nanomechanical properties of bone around cement-retained abutment implants. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.M. de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim The nanomechanical evaluation can provide additional information about the dental implants osseointegration process. The aim of this study was to quantify elastic modulus and hardness of bone around cemented-retained abutment implants positioned at two different crestal bone levels. Materials and methods The mandibular premolars of 7 minipigs were extracted. After 8 weeks, 8 implants were inserted in each animal: crestally on one side of the mandible and subcrestally on the other (crestal and subcrestal groups. Functional loading were immediately provided with abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Eight weeks later, the animals euthanasia was performed and nanoindentation analyses were made at the most coronal newly formed bone region (coronal group, and below in the threaded region (threaded group of histologic sections. Results The comparisons between subcrestal and crestal groups did not achieve statistical relevance; however the elastic modulus and hardness levels were statistically different in the two regions of evaluation (coronal and threaded. Conclusions The crestal and subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants did not affect differently the nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. However the different regions of newly formed bone (coronal and threaded groups were extremely different in both elastic modulus and hardness, probably reflecting their differences in bone composition and structure.

  16. Acetabular reconstruction with bone impaction grafting and a cemented cup: 20 years' experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.W.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Buma, P.

    2001-01-01

    Acetabular bone stock loss compromises the outcome in primary and revision total hip arthroplasty. In 1979, a biologic method was introduced with tightly impacted cancellous allografts in combination with a cemented polyethylene cup for acetabular reconstruction. With this technique, it is possible

  17. Effects of self-blood on the molding process of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin; Zhang, Wen; Mu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether the self-blood has influence on the molding process of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, and to make sure whether it is valuable for the clinical practice. An in vitro study was performed to evaluate the prolonging-effect of self-blood on PMMA bone cement. The effect of prolonging was evaluated by the dough time (TD) and operable time (TO). Moreover, hardness test, squeezing value test and peak temperature test were also conducted to complete the evaluation of this program. The self-blood, especially the plasma, could greatly prolong the handling time of PMMA bone cement without affecting its basic characteristics including hardness, leakage level and peak temperature. On the other hand, we found that in some abnormal conditions, for example with hyperlipemia, self-blood though can also prolong the handling time, would cause some side-effects. We report a new effective way to prolong the handling time of PMMA bone cement by adding moderate amount of self-blood. But "individualized medicine" should be noticed because some abnormal conditions like hyperlipemia would cause undesired side-effects.

  18. Femoral component revision with use of impaction bone-grafting and a cemented polished stem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.W.; Arts, J.J.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Buma, P.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of revision of the femoral component of a hip arthroplasty with use of an impaction bone-grafting technique and a cemented polished stem. METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive femoral reconstructions that were

  19. A novel bone cement impregnated with silver–tiopronin nanoparticles: its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopovich, Polina; Leech, Ralph; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P; Perni, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Post-operatory infections in orthopedic surgeries pose a significant risk. The common approach of using antibiotics, both parenterally or embedded in bone cement (when this is employed during surgery) faces the challenge of the rising population of pathogens exhibiting resistance properties against one or more of these compounds; therefore, novel approaches need to be developed. Silver nanoparticles appear to be an exciting prospect because of their antimicrobial activity and safety at the levels used in medical applications. In this paper, a novel type of silver nanoparticles capped with tiopronin is presented. Two ratios of reagents during synthesis were tested and the effect on the nanoparticles investigated through TEM, TGA, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Once encapsulated in bone cement, only the nanoparticles with the highest amount of inorganic fraction conferred antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at concentrations as low as 0.1% w/w. No other characteristics of the bone cement, such as cytotoxicity or mechanical properties, were affected by the presence of the nanoparticles. Our work presents a new type of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates that they can be embedded in bone cement to prevent infections once the synthetic conditions are tailored for such applications. PMID:23818779

  20. Micromechanical characterisation of failure in acrylic bone cement: the effect of barium sulphate agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearwood-Porter, N; Browne, M; Sinclair, I

    2012-09-01

    Acrylic bone cement has been established as a method of fixation of load-bearing orthopaedic implants for nearly five decades, and has produced excellent long term clinical results. However, increasing patient BMI values and longer life expectancies are placing ever greater demands on joint replacements, so there is a need to further improve the performance of cemented fixation. Damage accumulation in the in vivo cement mantle due to initiation and coalescence of fatigue micro-cracks has been implicated in the aseptic loosening and failure of implants. While the effect of porosity on crack initiation processes has been widely reported, the relative influence of different radiopacifying agents is less well studied. In particular, barium sulphate radiopacifier particles have been reported to form large agglomerates within the cement that have been linked to initiation of fatigue cracks in vitro. However, there appears to be little understanding of the micromechanical aspects of cement failure due to barium sulphate agglomeration. The present study utilised micro-computed tomography (μCT) and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), alongside mechanical testing, to provide a systematic, quantitative assessment of the effect of barium sulphate agglomeration on crack initiation processes in a conventional, vacuum-mixed acrylic cement. Three-dimensional characterisation of defect populations was performed, with agglomerates of barium sulphate particles found to be large (up to 0.37 mm equivalent spherical diameter), present at spatial densities up to 22 per mm³, and evenly distributed through each cement specimen. Fatigue cracks consistently initiated at the largest agglomerates; furthermore, fatigue life was found to scale consistently with largest defect size. As such, the tendency of barium sulphate particles to agglomerate is clearly evidenced to be detrimental to the fatigue performance of this cement in vitro. Optimisation of mixing techniques

  1. Hypothermic manipulation of bone cement can extend the handling time during vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Po-Liang; Tai, Ching-Lung; Chu, I-Ming; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2012-10-16

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used for clinical applications. However, the short handling time increases the probability of a surgeon missing the crucial period in which the cement maintains its ideal viscosity for a successful injection. The aim of this article was to illustrate the effects a reduction in temperature would have on the cement handling time during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The injectability of bone cement was assessed using a cement compressor. By twisting the compressor, the piston transmits its axial load to the plunger, which then pumps the bone cement out. The experiments were categorized based on the different types of hypothermic manipulation that were used. In group I (room temperature, sham group), the syringes were kept at 22°C after mixing the bone cement. In group 2 (precooling the bone cement and the container), the PMMA powder and liquid, as well as the beaker, spatula, and syringe, were stored in the refrigerator (4°C) overnight before mixing. In group 3 (ice bath cooling), the syringes were immediately submerged in ice water after mixing the bone cement at room temperature. The average liquid time, paste time, and handling time were 5.1 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.3, and 8.5 ± 0.8 min, respectively, for group 1; 9.4 ± 1.1, 5.8 ± 0.5, and 15.2 ± 1.2 min, respectively, for group 2; and 83.8 ± 5.2, 28.8 ± 6.9, and 112.5 ± 11.3 min, respectively, for group 3. The liquid and paste times could be increased through different cooling methods. In addition, the liquid time (i.e. waiting time) for ice bath cooling was longer than for that of the precooling method (p < 0.05). Both precooling (i.e. lowering the initial temperature) and ice bath cooling (i.e. lowering the surrounding temperature) can effectively slow polymerization. Precooling is easy for clinical applications, while ice bath cooling might be more suitable for multiple-level vertebroplasty. Clinicians can take advantage of the improved injectability without any

  2. Hypothermic manipulation of bone cement can extend the handling time during vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Po-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is commonly used for clinical applications. However, the short handling time increases the probability of a surgeon missing the crucial period in which the cement maintains its ideal viscosity for a successful injection. The aim of this article was to illustrate the effects a reduction in temperature would have on the cement handling time during percutaneous vertebroplasty. Methods The injectability of bone cement was assessed using a cement compressor. By twisting the compressor, the piston transmits its axial load to the plunger, which then pumps the bone cement out. The experiments were categorized based on the different types of hypothermic manipulation that were used. In group I (room temperature, sham group, the syringes were kept at 22°C after mixing the bone cement. In group 2 (precooling the bone cement and the container, the PMMA powder and liquid, as well as the beaker, spatula, and syringe, were stored in the refrigerator (4°C overnight before mixing. In group 3 (ice bath cooling, the syringes were immediately submerged in ice water after mixing the bone cement at room temperature. Results The average liquid time, paste time, and handling time were 5.1 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.3, and 8.5 ± 0.8 min, respectively, for group 1; 9.4 ± 1.1, 5.8 ± 0.5, and 15.2 ± 1.2 min, respectively, for group 2; and 83.8 ± 5.2, 28.8 ± 6.9, and 112.5 ± 11.3 min, respectively, for group 3. The liquid and paste times could be increased through different cooling methods. In addition, the liquid time (i.e. waiting time for ice bath cooling was longer than for that of the precooling method (p Conclusions Both precooling (i.e. lowering the initial temperature and ice bath cooling (i.e. lowering the surrounding temperature can effectively slow polymerization. Precooling is easy for clinical applications, while ice bath cooling might be more suitable for multiple-level vertebroplasty. Clinicians can take

  3. A rat osteoporotic spine model for the evaluation of bioresorbable bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mark L; Massie, Jennifer; Perry, Andrew; Garfin, Steven R; Kim, Choll W

    2007-01-01

    As the aging population increases, the rising prevalence of osteoporosis-related spine fractures will have a dramatic impact on health care. At present, mainstay treatment relies on systemic medications intended to prevent diminishing bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass. However, an adjunctive treatment strategy is to target specific areas of the skeletal system that are prone to clinically significant osteoporotic fractures. We term this strategy the "local treatment of osteoporosis" or osteoplasty. Potential use of osteoplasty involves the percutaneous injection of bioresorbable and bioactive bone cements into bones at risk of sustaining osteoporotic fractures. Calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) is among the candidate bioresorbable bone cements with the material attributes desirable for potential application with osteoplasty, yet previous studies on the osteoconductive properties of CaSO(4) have been limited to animal models exhibiting normal bone biology and architecture. However, osteoporotic bone physiology may potentially interfere with the material properties of common osteoconductive biomaterials, such as that of CaSO(4). To further test this hypothesis, a suitable animal model is needed to evaluate the in vivo behavior of potential biomaterials in osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the caudal (proximal tail) rat vertebral body as an appropriate system for the in vivo evaluation of bone cement performance in the osteoporotic spine. (1) Micro-computed tomography radiomorphometry study and (2) biomechanical vertebral compression analysis. Female Sprague Dawley rats were ovarectomized (OVX) at age 8 weeks and subsequently maintained on a low-calcium diet for 3 months. Normal nonovarectomized female rats (NL) of similar age and size were maintained on regular rodent feed. Micro-CT analysis was performed on both the lumbar and caudal vertebrae (levels 5-7) of both groups. The following bone radiomorphometric parameters were determined: bone

  4. Strontium doped injectable bone cement for potential drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ali; Akram, Muhammad; Jawad, Zaidoon; Alshemary, Ammar Z; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2017-11-01

    Microwave assisted wet precipitation method was used to synthesize calcium deficient strontium doped β-tricalcium phosphate (Sr-βTCP) with a chemical formula of Ca 2.96-x Sr x (PO 4 ) 2 . Sr-βTCP was reacted with monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, MCPM] in presence of water to furnish corresponding Sr containing brushite cement (Sr-Brc). The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Strontium content in the prepared samples was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The effect of Sr 2+ ions on the structural, mechanical, setting properties and drug release of the cement is reported. Incorporation of Sr 2+ ions improved the injectability, setting time and mechanical properties of the Brc. The release profiles of antibiotics incorporated in Brc and Sr-Brc confirmed that the Sr incorporation into the Brc results in the efficient release of the antibiotics from the cement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary focus on the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Russo

    2017-09-01

    As reported in the literature, the stress distribution may be altered in bones after the implantation of a total joint prosthesis. Some scientific works have also correlated uncemented TKA to a progressive decrease of bone density below the tibial component. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are commonly employed in conjunction with systemic antibiotics to treat infections. Furthermore, nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity have been widely analysed. Accordingly, the current research was focused on a preliminary analysis of the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles. The obtained results demonstrated that nanocomposite cements with a specific concentration of gold nanoparticles improved the punching performance and antibacterial activity. However, critical aspects were found in the optimization of the nanocomposite bone cement.

  6. Heat of hydration measurements on cemented radioactive wastes. Part 1: cement-water pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes the hydration of cement pastes in terms of chemical and kinetic models. A calorimetric technique was used to measure the heat of hydration to develop these models. The effects of temperature, water/cement ratio and cement replacements, ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA) on the hydration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is reported. The incorporation of BFS or PFA has a marked effect on the hydration reaction. The effect of temperature is also important but changing the water/cement ratio has little effect. Results from cement pastes containing only water and cement yield total heats of reaction of 400, 200 and 100 kJ/kg for OPC, BFS and PFA respectively. Using the results from the models which have been developed, the effect of major salts present in radioactive waste streams can be assessed. Values of the total heat of reaction, the time to complete 50 percent reaction, and the energy of activation, can be compared for different waste systems. (U.K.)

  7. New method for antibiotic release from bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate): Redefining boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó-Laso, E; Sanz-Ruiz, P; Del Real-Romero, J C; Ballesteros-Iglesias, Y; Paz-Jiménez, E; Arán-Ais, F; Sánchez-Navarro, M; Pérez-Limiñana, M A; López-Torres, I; Vaquero-Martín, J

    The increasing antimicrobial resistance is promoting the addition of antibiotics with high antistaphylococcal activity to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), for use in cement spacers in periprosthetic joint infection. Linezolid and levofloxacin have already been used in in-vitro studies, however, rifampicin has been shown to have a deleterious effect on the mechanical properties of PMMA, because it inhibits PMMA polymerization. The objective of our study was to isolate the rifampicin during the polymerization process using microencapsulation techniques, in order to obtain a PMMA suitable for manufacturing bone cement spacers. Microcapsules of rifampicin were synthesized with alginate and PHBV, using Rifaldin ® . The concentration levels of rifampicin were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry. Compression, hardness and setting time tests were performed with CMW ® 1 cement samples alone, with non-encapsulated rifampicin and with alginate or PHBV microcapsules. The production yield, efficiency and microencapsulation yield were greater with alginate (P = .0001). The cement with microcapsules demonstrated greater resistance to compression than the cement with rifampicin (91.26±5.13, 91.35±6.29 and 74.04±3.57 MPa in alginate, PHBV and rifampicin, respectively) (P = .0001). The setting time reduced, and the hardness curve of the cement with alginate microcapsules was similar to that of the control. Microencapsulation with alginate is an appropriate technique for introducing rifampicin into PMMA, preserving compression properties and setting time. This could allow intraoperative manufacturing of bone cement spacers that release rifampicin for the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Crowns cemented on crown preparations lacking geometric resistance form. Part II: effect of cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussaefs, Periklis

    2004-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different cements on resistance to dislodgment of crowns cemented on preparations lacking geometric resistance form. A preparation that offered no geometric resistance form, with 20 degrees total occlusal convergence (TOC), 0.9 mm wide shoulder finish line, and a 2.5 mm axial wall height was created on an ivorine tooth using a milling machine. Ten metal test specimen die replicas and 10 standardized metal crowns with recipient sites for the application of external forces through a universal testing machine were fabricated. The crowns were cemented on the dies under 5 and 10 kg external loads, the marginal openings measured, loaded to dislodgment, and cleaned of cement. The process was repeated using zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE), zinc phosphate (ZPh), resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI), and composite resin (CR) cements. Marginal openings under 5 kg cementation loads were 74.63 (+/-15.04) for ZOE, 75.98 (+/-18.20) microm for ZPh, 98.58 (+/-22.62) microm for RMGI, and 105.82 (+/-20.07) microm for CR cements respectively; under 10 kg cementation loads they were 57.62 (+/-15.86) microm, 59.55 (+/-15.41) microm, 95.00 (+/-19.52) microm, 101.30 (+/-12.52) microm respectively. Oblique dislodgment forces, measured with a Universal testing machine, were 40.18 (+/- 6.76) N for ZOE, 215.65 (+/-45.79) N for ZPh, 165.43 (+/-19.53) N for RMGI, and 181.54 (+/-30.75) N for CR respectively when crowns were cemented under 5 kg loads. The corresponding values for 10 kg loads were 38.62 (+/-4.19), 274.86 (+/-54.22), 139.70 (+/-21.71), and 160.40 (+/-21.21) respectively. Only zinc phosphate cement produced statistically enhanced resistance when crowns were cemented under 10 kg force (p value = 0.035). Under the conditions of the present study only crowns cemented with zinc phosphate displayed increased resistance to dislodgment on preparations lacking resistance form.

  9. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  10. Effects of nano HAP on biological and structural properties of glass bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Nai; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Liying; Li, Haifeng

    2005-08-01

    A novel type of glass-based nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HAP) bioactive bone cement (designed as GBNHAPC) was synthesized by adding nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystalline (20-40 nm), into the self-setting glass-based bone cement (GBC). The inhibition rate of nanoscale HAP and micron HAP on osteosarcoma U2-OS cells was examined. The effects of nanoscale HAP on the crystal phase, microstructure and compressive strength of GBNHAPC were studied, respectively. It was concluded that nanoscale HAP could inhibit the cell proliferation, whereas micron HAP could not, and that nanoscale HAP could be dispersed in the cement evenly and the morphology did not change significantly after a longer immersion time. XRD and FTIR results show nanoscale HAP did not affect the setting reaction of the cement. Furthermore, GBNHAPC had a higher compressive strength (92.6 +/- 3.8 MPa) than GBC (80.1 +/- 3.0 MPa). It was believed that GBNHAPC might be a desirable biomaterial that could not only fill bone defects but also inhibit cancer cell growth. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Influence of initial component temperature on the apparent viscosity and handling characteristics of acrylic (PMMA) bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Stacey J Losaw; Topoleski, L D Timmie

    2007-04-01

    The flow and polymerization characteristics of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement can be changed by manipulating the temperature of the bone cement components or the environment that they are prepared in. To quantify the effects of the initial component temperature (T(ic)) of acrylic bone cement on the rheological and handling characteristics, ASTM F451-99a compliant methods and clinically relevant testing methods were utilized. A rheometer was designed and fabricated using the dimensions of a clinical, commercially available, cement gun and nozzle. The influence on the apparent viscosity and handling characteristics (setting time, working time, and peak exotherm temperature) for a high viscosity (HV) commercially-available acrylic bone cement, Palacos R, were determined. The values of T(ic) used were 23 degrees C (room), 6 degrees C (refrigerator), and -14 degrees C (freezer). Using the apparent viscosity of a medium viscosity (MV) bone cement as a benchmark (Simplex P at room temperature), it was found that by adjusting the T(ic) the HV cement was able to mimic the flow characteristics of the MV cement. Lowering the T(ic) lowered the apparent viscosity of the bone cement. The effects of T(ic) on the polymerization of bone cement were studied in dynamic and static conditions. The dynamic test recorded temperature and torque from stirring resistance. Setting times were also determined using the ASTM exotherm mold method. The setting times determined by the dynamic testing conditions were consistently shorter than those determined by the ASTM method. Lowering the T(ic) increased the working and setting times; however, it did not have a significant effect on the peak exotherm temperature. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ergotropic effect of bone cement on pedicle screw fixation in treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da LIU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the ergotropic effect of bone cement on pedicle screw fixation in treatment of osteopo¬rotic thoracolumbar fracture. Methods Fifty-three patients with osteoporotic thoracolumbar fracture, admitted from Jun. 2013 to Dec. 2014, were included for treatment by augmentation of pedicle screw fixation with bone cement. All patients underwent pre-operative examination of bone mineral density with T-score ≤-2.5 and augmentation of pedicle screw fixation with injection of 1.5 ml bone cement in adjacent to fractured vertebra. All patients were treated with anti-osteoporosis therapy pre- and post-operation, ob¬served and recorded with basic conditions and complications. At pre-operation, one-week post-operation and last follow-up, pain vi¬sual analogue scale (VAS and neurological function score (ASIA of all patients were recorded, and the compression rats of anterior and posterior edge of fractured vertebra, and compression rats of spinal canal and Cobb angel of all patients were measured. Results All the 53 patients were successfully undergone operation in about 90-140 min with blood loss of about 150-350 ml. No spinal cord or nerve injury, dural tear and obvious leakage of bone cement and screw loosening occurred during operation. All patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months and the neurological function obviously recovered contrasted with pre-operation. X-ray and CT examination at last follow-up showed good fractures healing, good position and non-loosening of internal fixation device and non-leakage of bone cement. At one week post-operation and last follow-up, VAS, compression rats of anterior edge and posterior edge of fractured vertebra, compression rats of spinal canal and Cobb angel were significantly lower than those at pre-operation (P0.05. Conclusions Augmentation of pedicle screw fixation with bone cement can effectively strengthen the initial stability of pedicle screw in osteo¬porosis, restore the

  13. The influence of ultrasound on the release of gentamicin from antibiotic-loaded acrylic beads and bone cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, GT; Hendriks, JGE; Jongsma, JE; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2005-01-01

    Gentamicin-loaded acrylic beads are loosely placed in infected bone cavities, whereas gentamicin-loaded acrylic bone cement is used as a mechanical filler in bone to anchor prosthetic components. Both drug delivery systems are used to decrease infection rates by gentamicin release. The objective of

  14. The progress of early phase bone healing using porous granules produced from calcium phosphate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Bone grafting is a vital component in many surgical procedures to facilitate the repair of bone defects or fusions. Autologous bone has been the gold standard to date in spite of associated donor-site morbidity and the limited amount of available donor bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the progress of bone regeneration and material degradation of calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder compared to the use of autologous bone grafting in the treatment of "critical size defects" on load-bearing long bones of minipigs. Methods A critical size defect in the tibial metaphysis of 16 mini-pigs was filled either with autologous cancellous graft or with micro- and macroporous carbonated, apatic calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder. After 6 weeks, the specimens were assessed by X-ray and histological evaluation. The amount of new bone formation was analysed histomorphometrically. Results The semi-quantitative analysis of the radiological results showed a complete osseous bridging of the defect in three cases for the autograft group. In the same group five animals showed a beginning, but still incomplete bridging of the defect, whereas in the CPG group just two animals developed this. All other animals of the CPG group showed only a still discontinuous new bone formation. Altogether, radiologically a better osseous bridging was observed in the autograft group compared to the CPG group. Histomorphometrical analysis after six weeks of healing revealed that the area of new bone was significantly greater in the autograft group concerning the central area of the defect zone (p Conclusions Within the limits of the present study it could be demonstrated that autologous cancellous grafts lead to a significantly better bone regeneration compared to the application of calcium phosphate granules (CPG produced from a calcium

  15. Evaluation of the sealing ability of bone cement as furcation perforation repair material when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Chordiya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the sealing ability of bone cement as furcation perforation repair material when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 sound mandibular molars were selected for this study. The sample teeth were randomly divided into five groups: group I - n=20, perforation repair material used, mineral trioxide aggregate; group II - n=20, perforation repair material used, calcium phosphate cement; group III - n=20, perforation repair material used, bone cement; group IV - positive control, n=5, the furcation were not repaired with any material; group V - negative control, n=5, furcation area intact, no perforation done. The teeth were immersed in silver nitrate solution for 2 hours and then rinsed with photographic developer solution for 6 hours. They were then sectioned in a longitudinal direction and examined under a stereomicroscope. In each section the actual values of dye leakage were calculated from outer margins of perforation to the level of pulpal floor and were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: An unpaired ′t′ test revealed that different groups exhibited significantly different dye penetrations (P<0.01. Conclusion: Furcation perforation repaired with MTA showed minimum microleakage (mean 54.5%, calcium phosphate cement showed maximum microleakage (100%, and bone cement showed moderate dye leakage (87.8%.

  16. All About Dowels - A Review Part II Considerations After Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zishan Dangra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the published literature examining cementation of the dowel and factors related to it. The peer reviewed English language literature was reviewed from the period 1990 to 2015. Articles were searched in Pubmed/ Medline for the relevant terms. Additional manual searches of some dental journals were also carried out. The original key terms resulted in 228 articles. After applying inclusion criteria, 64 articles remained to be included in part II of this review. Article search indicates that most published literature on dowels are in the form of in vitro analysis. Literature on prefabricated dowel systems far exceeds than the custom cast dowel and newer fibre dowels. Clinical evidence is not sufficient and cannot be used to inform practice confidently. However, within the limitations of this review it is suggested that adhesive fixation is preferred in case of short dowel. Dowel width should be as small as possible. A ferrule of 2 mm has to be provided. Composites have proven to be a good core material provided that adequate tooth structure remained for bonding. Dowel should be inserted if endodontically treated tooth is to be used as abutment for removable partial dentures.

  17. Acetabular reconstruction with impaction bone grafting and cemented polyethylene socket in total hip revision arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostensalo, I; Seppänen, M; Virolainen, P; Mokka, J; Koivisto, M; Mäkelä, K T

    2015-12-01

    Bone deficiency in revision total hip arthroplasty is a challenge to the surgeon. One option for restoration of the bone stock is impaction bone grafting and use of a cemented socket. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term clinical outcome of impaction bone grafting and cemented socket revisions. A total of 59 patients (60 hips) underwent revision arthroplasty with impaction bone grafting and application of a cemented socket on the acetabular side in the Turku University Hospital from 1999 to 2004. The study end-point was re-revision for any reason. The cumulative percentages for survival were followed and estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Associations between occurrence of re-revision and potential risk factors were analyzed with logistic regression. Results were quantified by odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The mean age of the patients was 69 years (33% male). A total of 3% of the patients had a class I Paprosky acetabular defect, 38% had class II, and 55% had class III. The overall survival rate was 73%. The mean follow-up time was 7 years. The most common reason for re-revision was aseptic loosening of the acetabular component (13 patients, 81% of re-revisions). Cox's regression analysis did not identify any risk factors for re-revision. Our results were inferior compared to some previous studies. Impaction bone grafting of acetabular defects in revision total hip arthroplasty may not always provide a reliable bone stock in long-term. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  18. Evaluation of an injectable bioactive borate glass cement to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Chengcheng; Yu, Zunxiong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wenlong; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping; Pan, Haobo; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2017-04-01

    There is a need for synthetic biomaterials to heal bone defects using minimal invasive surgery. In the present study, an injectable cement composed of bioactive borate glass particles and a chitosan bonding solution was developed and evaluated for its capacity to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model. The injectability and setting time of the cement in vitro decreased but the compressive strength increased (8±2MPa to 31±2MPa) as the ratio of glass particles to chitosan solution increased (from 1.0gml -1 to 2.5gml -1 ). Upon immersing the cement in phosphate-buffered saline, the glass particles reacted and converted to hydroxyapatite, imparting bioactivity to the cement. Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells showed enhanced proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity when incubated in media containing the soluble ionic product of the cement. The bioactive glass cement showed a better capacity to stimulate bone formation in rabbit femoral condyle defects at 12weeks postimplantation when compared to a commercial calcium sulfate cement. The injectable bioactive borate glass cement developed in this study could provide a promising biomaterial to heal bone defects by minimal invasive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-axial loading micromechanics of the cement-bone interface in postmortem retrievals and lab-prepared specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, M.A.; Race, A.; Waanders, D.; Cleary, R.; Janssen, D.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Mann, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining adequate fixation between cement and bone is important for successful long term survival of cemented total joint replacements. Mixed-mode loading conditions (combination of tension/compression and shear) are present during in vivo loading, but the micromotion response of the interface to

  20. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) (PAA) and aqueous tartaric acid to form glass ionomer cements, whose properties were investigated at different time points: the compressive and bi-axial flexure strengths were tested; and, the ion release profile was studied by fluoride Ion ...

  1. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) (PAA) and aqueous tartaric acid to form glass ionomer cements, whose properties were investigated at different time points: working and setting times were determined by rheometry; and, the setting reaction was studied by Fourier transform ...

  2. Effects of Incorporating Carboxymethyl Chitosan into PMMA Bone Cement Containing Methotrexate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ming Liu

    Full Text Available Treatment of bone metastases usually includes surgical resection with local filling of methotrexate (MTX in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA cement. We investigated whether incorporating carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS in MTX-PMMA cement might overcome disadvantages associated with MTX. To determine the optimal CMCS+MTX concentration to suppress the viability of cancer cells, an integrated microfluidic chip culturing highly metastatic lung cancer cells (H460 was employed. The mechanical properties, microstructure, and MTX release of (CMCS+MTX-PMMA cement were evaluated respectively by universal mechanical testing machine, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and incubation in simulated body fluid with subsequent HPLC-MS. Implants of MTX-PMMA and (CMCS+MTX-PMMA cement were evaluated in vivo in guinea pig femurs over time using spiral computed tomography with three-dimensional image reconstruction, and SEM at 6 months. Viability of H460 cells was significantly lowest after treatment with 57 μg/mL CMCS + 21 μg/mL MTX, which was thus used in subsequent experiments. Incorporation of 1.6% (w/w CMCS to MTX-PMMA significantly increased the bending modulus, bending strength, and compressive strength by 5, 2.8, and 5.2%, respectively, confirmed by improved microstructural homogeneity. Incorporation of CMCS delayed the time-to-plateau of MTX release by 2 days, but increased the fraction released at the plateau from 3.24% (MTX-PMMA to 5.34%. Relative to the controls, the (CMCS+MTX-PMMA implants integrated better with the host bone. SEM revealed pores in the cement of the (CMCS+MTX-PMMA implants that were not obvious in the controls. In conclusion, incorporation of CMCS in MTX-PMMA appears a feasible and effective modification for improving the anti-tumor properties of MTX-PMMA cement.

  3. Probability based design of concrete mixes with cow-bone ash admixed cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud ABUBAKAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A probability-based procedure for design of concrete mixes with cow-cone ash admixed cement has been developed considering the strength as a random variable. However, the compressive strength of concrete in turn, depends on the properties of its constituent materials: cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and cow-bone ash. The compressive strength data generated experimentally has been analysed using normal-probability distribution functions based on 95% confidence interval. The proposed probability based design was compared to the method of trial mixture. It was observed that for reliability index (β of 1.3, the proposed probability methodology uses 10.2% less cement content than the method of trial mixture; thus, indicating that the method is conservative. It was also observed that, for concrete grade 25, the proposed methodology gives higher compressive strength at both 7 and 28 days. Hence, the probability-based design procedure was found appropriate and is therefore recommended for the design of concrete mixes with cow-bone ash admixed cement.

  4. The economics of using prophylactic antibiotic-loaded bone cement in total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, C J; Zmistowski, B M; Clyde, C T; Parvizi, J

    2014-01-01

    The rate of peri-prosthetic infection following total joint replacement continues to rise, and attempts to curb this trend have included the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement at the time of primary surgery. We have investigated the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of the use of antibiotic-loaded cement for primary total knee replacement (TKR) by comparing the rate of infection in 3048 TKRs performed without loaded cement over a three-year period versus the incidence of infection after 4830 TKRs performed with tobramycin-loaded cement over a later period of time of a similar duration. In order to adjust for confounding factors, the rate of infection in 3347 and 4702 uncemented total hip replacements (THR) performed during the same time periods, respectively, was also examined. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the patients in the different cohorts. The absolute rate of infection increased when antibiotic-loaded cement was used in TKR. However, this rate of increase was less than the rate of increase in infection following uncemented THR during the same period. If the rise in the rate of infection observed in THR were extrapolated to the TKR cohort, 18 additional cases of infection would have been expected to occur in the cohort receiving antibiotic-loaded cement, compared with the number observed. Depending on the type of antibiotic-loaded cement that is used, its cost in all primary TKRs ranges between USD $2112.72 and USD $112 606.67 per case of infection that is prevented.

  5. Biological responses of brushite-forming Zn- and ZnSr- substituted beta-tricalcium phosphate bone cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The core aim of this study was to investigate zinc (Zn- and zinc and strontium (ZnSr-containing brushite-forming beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP cements for their effects on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cell line as well as for their in vivo behaviour in trabecular bone cylindrical defects in a pilot study. In vitro proliferation and maturation responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic-like cells to bone cements were studied at the cellular and molecular levels. The Zn- and Sr-containing brushite cements were found to stimulate pre-osteoblastic proliferation and osteoblastic maturation. Indeed, MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to the powdered cements had increased proliferative rates and higher adhesiveness capacity, in comparison to control cells. Furthermore, they exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and increased Type-I collagen secretion and fibre deposition into the extracellular matrix. Proliferative and collagen deposition properties were more evident for cells grown in cements doped with Sr. The in vivo osteoconductive propertiesof the ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements were also pursued. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed at 1 and 2 months after implantation, using carbonated apatite cement (Norian SRS® as control. There was no evidence of cement-induced adverse foreign body reactions, and furthermore ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements revealed better in vivo performance in comparison to the control apatite cement. Additionally, the presence of both zinc and strontium resulted in the highest rate of new bone formation. These novel results indicate that the investigated ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements are both biocompatible and osteoconductive, being good candidate materials to use as bone substitutes.

  6. Effect of the calcium to phosphorus ratio on the setting properties of calcium phosphate bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, M D; Gómez, S; Barracó, M; López, J; Fernández, E

    2012-09-01

    α-Tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) has become the main reactant of most experimental and commercial ceramic bone cements. It has calcium-to-phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio of 1.50. The present study expands and reports on the microstructures and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate (CP) cements containing sintered monolithic reactants obtained in the interval 1.29 properties as well as on their microstructure and crystal phase evolution. The results showed that: (a) CP-cements made with reactants with Ca/P ratio other than 1.50 have longer setting and lower hardening properties; (b) CP-cements reactivity was clearly affected by the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant; (c) reactants with Ca/P 1.50 were composed of α-TCP, tetracalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite; (d) only the reactant with Ca/P = 1.50 was monophasic and was made of α-TCP, which transformed during the setting into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite; (e) CP-cements developed different crystal microstructures with specific features depending on the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant.

  7. An experimental approach to the study of the rheology behaviour of synthetic bone calcium phosphate cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friberg, J.; Fernandez, E.; Sarda, S.; Nilsson, M.; Ginebra, M.P.; Planell, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering; Martinez, S. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Mineralogia i Recursos Minerals

    2001-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cements were developed to fit surgical needs in biomedical fields such as odontology or traumatology. Nowadays, a broad field of new applications have been found for this kind of materials. Drug delivery systems, tissue-engineering scaffolds and osteoporotic bone filling applications are some of the new fields that are being benefited with these materials. Looking at both, commercial and new experimental calcium phosphate cements it is found that {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate is the main reactive powder responsible for the setting and the hardening of the cement. Thus, it is important to know how {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate affects injectability of these cements. The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological behaviour of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate slurries in order to know how the cement injectability should be modified. Factors such as liquid to powder ratio, particle size of the main reactive powder and the addition of dispersants have been considered. The results showed that viscosity decreased when particle size of reactant was increased and when liquid to powder ratio was increased. It was also found that a minimum of viscosity exists at an optimum value of the weight percentage of dispersant. (orig.)

  8. Calcium phosphate holmium-166 ceramic to addition in bone cement: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donanzam, Blanda A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Spine metastases are a common and painful complication of cancer. The treatment often consists of bone cement injection (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) within vertebral body for vertebrae stabilization, followed by external beam radiation therapy. Recently, researchers introduced the concept of radioactive bone cement for spine tumors therapy. Then, investigations about bioactive and radioactive materials became interesting. In this study, we present the synthesis of calcium phosphate incorporated holmium (CaP-Ho) via sol-gel technique, and its characterization by XRD, FT-IR, NA and SEM. Results showed a multiphasic bioceramic composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, holmium phosphate and traces of calcium pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the nuclide Ho-166 was the major radioisotope produced. Despite that, the radioactive bioceramic CaP- 166 Ho must be investigated in clinical trials to assure its efficacy and safety on spine tumors treatment (author)

  9. Calcium phosphate holmium-166 ceramic to addition in bone cement: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donanzam, Blanda A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade do Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dalmazio, Ilza; Valente, Eduardo S., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: valente@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Spine metastases are a common and painful complication of cancer. The treatment often consists of bone cement injection (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) within vertebral body for vertebrae stabilization, followed by external beam radiation therapy. Recently, researchers introduced the concept of radioactive bone cement for spine tumors therapy. Then, investigations about bioactive and radioactive materials became interesting. In this study, we present the synthesis of calcium phosphate incorporated holmium (CaP-Ho) via sol-gel technique, and its characterization by XRD, FT-IR, NA and SEM. Results showed a multiphasic bioceramic composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate, holmium phosphate and traces of calcium pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the nuclide Ho-166 was the major radioisotope produced. Despite that, the radioactive bioceramic CaP-{sup 166}Ho must be investigated in clinical trials to assure its efficacy and safety on spine tumors treatment (author)

  10. Experimental in-vitro bone cements disintegration with ultrasonic pulsating water jet for revision arthroplasty

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hloch, Sergej; Foldyna, Josef; Pude, F.; Kloc, J.; Zeleňák, Michal; Hvizdoš, P.; Monka, P.; Smolko, I.; Ščučka, Jiří; Kozak, D.; Sedmak, A.; Mihalčinová, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2015), s. 1609-1616 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bone cement * revision arthroplasty * ultrasonic pulsating water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2015 http://www.tehnicki-vjesnik.com/web/public/archive

  11. Experimental and numerical study of cemented bone-implant interface behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Doktor, Tomáš; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Zlámal, Petr; Pokorný, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 15 (2011), s. 5-13 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : bone-cement interface * computed tomography * hip simulator * crack detection Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics http://www.gruppofrattura.it/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=90&Itemid=284

  12. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Delia S; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G

    2013-01-06

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, giving compressive strength of up to 35 MPa. Strontium release was dependent on BG composition with increasing strontium substitution resulting in higher concentrations in the medium. Bactericidal effects were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis; cell counts were reduced by up to three orders of magnitude over 6 days. Results show that bactericidal action can be increased through BG strontium substitution, allowing for the design of novel antimicrobial and bone enhancing cements for use in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for treating osteoporosis-related vertebral compression fractures.

  13. Activity of Fosfomycin- and Daptomycin-Containing Bone Cement on Selected Bacterial Species Being Associated with Orthopedic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Sigrun; Hofpeter, Kevin; Sculean, Anton; Ender, Claudia; Klimas, Susann; Vogt, Sebastian; Nietzsche, Sandor

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine activity of fosfomycin/gentamicin and daptomycin/gentamicin-containing PMMA bone-cement against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MSSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis , Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and E. coli (ESBL; only fosfomycin). Test specimens of the bone cement were formed and bacteria in two concentrations were added one time or repeatedly up to 96 h. All fosfomycin-containing cement killed ultimately all MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and E. coli within 24 h; growth of MRSA was suppressed up to 48 h. Activity of daptomycin-containing cement depended on the concentration; the highest concentrated bone cement used (1.5 g daptomycin/40 g of powder) was active against all one-time added bacteria. When bacteria were added repeatedly to fosfomycin-containing cement, growth was suppressed up to 96 h and that of MRSA and VRE only up to 24 h. The highest concentration of daptomycin suppressed the growth of repeated added bacteria up to 48 h (VRE) until 96 h (MSSA, MRSA). In conclusion, PMMA bone cement with 1.5 g of daptomycin and 0.5 g of gentamicin may be an alternative in treatment of periprosthetic infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.

  14. Activity of Fosfomycin- and Daptomycin-Containing Bone Cement on Selected Bacterial Species Being Associated with Orthopedic Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Eick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine activity of fosfomycin/gentamicin and daptomycin/gentamicin-containing PMMA bone-cement against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium (VRE, and E. coli (ESBL; only fosfomycin. Test specimens of the bone cement were formed and bacteria in two concentrations were added one time or repeatedly up to 96 h. All fosfomycin-containing cement killed ultimately all MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and E. coli within 24 h; growth of MRSA was suppressed up to 48 h. Activity of daptomycin-containing cement depended on the concentration; the highest concentrated bone cement used (1.5 g daptomycin/40 g of powder was active against all one-time added bacteria. When bacteria were added repeatedly to fosfomycin-containing cement, growth was suppressed up to 96 h and that of MRSA and VRE only up to 24 h. The highest concentration of daptomycin suppressed the growth of repeated added bacteria up to 48 h (VRE until 96 h (MSSA, MRSA. In conclusion, PMMA bone cement with 1.5 g of daptomycin and 0.5 g of gentamicin may be an alternative in treatment of periprosthetic infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Bone Inflammation, Bone Infection and Dental Implants Failure: Histological and Cytological Aspects Related to Cement Excess

    OpenAIRE

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dental implant failure can recognize several causes and many of them are quite preventable with the right knowledge of some clinical critical factors. Aim of this paper is to investigate about the histological aspects related to dental implants failure in such cases related to cement excess, how such histological picture can increase the risk of bacterial infections and how the different type of cement can interact with osteoblasts in-vitro. Methods: We randomly selected 5 patient...

  16. Influence of multiwall carbon nanotube functionality and loading on mechanical properties of PMMA/MWCNT bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Ross; McNally, Tony; Mitchell, Christina; Dunne, Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement-multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites with weight loadings ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 wt% were prepared. The MWCNTs investigated were unfunctionalised, carboxyl and amine functionalised MWCNTs. Mechanical properties of the resultant nanocomposite cements were characterised as per international standards for acrylic resin cements. These mechanical properties were influenced by the type and wt% loading of MWCNT used. The morphology and degree of dispersion of the MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix at different length scales were examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Improvements in mechanical properties were attributed to the MWCNTs arresting/retarding crack propagation through the cement by providing a bridging effect and hindering crack propagation. MWCNTs agglomerations were evident within the cement microstructure, the degree of these agglomerations was dependent on the weight fraction and functionality of MWCNTs incorporated into the cement.

  17. The effect of posterior spinal fixation with bone cement upon vertebral growth in dogs. An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, M S; Ok, I Y

    1980-01-01

    In an experimental study the authors tried to clarify the effect on vertebral growth and spinal curvature in dogs following fixation of the posterior elements of the spine at different levels using bone cement. In three separate experimental groups a segment of the dorsal spine, the dorso-lumbar spine or the lumbar spine was securely fixed with bone cement incorporating a radio-opaque wire marker. Growth of the spine was observed with renal X-rays over a six-month period and the following results obtained: 1. Growth in height of the vertebra was not affected by the fixation; 2. The intervertebral disc spaces widened anteriorly and narrowed posteriorly even when fracture of the bone cement occurred; 3. Increasing lordosis developed in all three experimental groups even when a physiological kyphosis was normally present. The greatest increase occurred in the lumbar spine; 4. Fracture of the cement occurred consistently when attempting to secure the dorso-lumbar junction.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell nanoparticles and their influence on the mechanical behavior of acrylic bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Mejía, A; Herrera-Kao, W; Duarte-Aranda, S; Loría-Bastarrachea, M I; Canché-Escamilla, G; Moscoso-Sánchez, F J; Cauich-Rodríguez, J V; Cervantes-Uc, J M

    2013-04-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of polybutyl acrylate (PBA) rubbery core and a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) shell, with different core-shell ratios, were synthesized in order to enhance the fracture toughness of the acrylic bone cements prepared with them. It was observed by TEM and SEM that the core-shell nanoparticles exhibited a spherical morphology with ca. 120 nm in diameter and that both modulus and tensile strength decreased by increasing the PBA content; the desired structuring pattern in the synthesized particles was confirmed by DMA. Also, experimental bone cements were prepared with variable amounts (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%) of nanoparticles with a core-shell ratio of 30/70 in order to study the influence of these nanostructured particles on the physicochemical, mechanical and fracture properties of bone cements. It was found that the addition of nanostructured particles to bone cements caused a significant reduction in the peak temperature and setting time while the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cements increased with increasing particles content. On the other hand, modulus and strength of bone cements decreased when particles were incorporated but fracture toughness was increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro and in vivo biological responses to a novel radiopacifying agent for bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.S; Diaz, J; Sabokbar, A; Athanasou, N; Kjellson, F; Tanner, K.E; McCarthy, I.D; Lidgren, L

    2005-01-01

    Iodixanol (IDX) and iohexol (IHX) have been investigated as possible radiopacification agents for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, to replace the currently used barium sulphate and zirconia. IDX and IHX are both water-soluble iodine-based contrast media and for the last 20 years have been used extensively in clinical diagnostic procedures such as contrast media enhanced computed tomography, angiography and urography. One of the major reasons to remove the current radiopacifying agents is their well-documented cytotoxicity and their potential to increase bone resorption. Using in vitro bone resorption assays, the effect of PMMA particles plus IDX or IHX to induce osteoclast formation and lacunar resorption on dentine slices has been investigated. These responses have been compared with the in vitro response to PMMA particles containing the conventional radiopacifying agents, that is, barium sulphate and zirconia. In parallel, the in vivo reaction, in terms of new bone formation, to particles of these materials has been tested using a bone harvest chamber in rabbit tibiae. In vitro cell culture showed that PMMA containing IHX resulted in significantly less bone resorption than PMMA containing the conventional opacifiers. In vivo testing, however, showed no significant differences between the amounts of new bone formed around cement samples containing the two iodine-based opacifying agents in particulate form, although both led to fewer inflammatory cells than particles of PMMA containing zirconia. Our results suggest that a non-ionic radiopacifier could be considered as an alternative to the conventional radiopacifying agents used in biomaterials in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:16849166

  20. Bulk physicochemical, interconnectivity, and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements-fibrin glue composites for bone substitute applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Heredia, M.A.; Pattipeilohy, J.; Hsu, S.; Grykien, M.; Weijden, B. van der; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Salmon, P.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) and fibrin glue (FG) are used for surgical applications. Their combination is promising to create bone substitutes able to promote cell attachment and bone remodeling. This study proposes a novel approach to create CPC-FG composites by simultaneous CPC setting and FG

  1. Giant Cell Tumor Of The Long Bones: Results With Combination Of Cryosurgery, Curettage, And Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S.M.J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we evaluated the treatment of giant cell tumor (GCT of long bones using cryosurgery combined with curettage and polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA cementing. Material and methods: From January 1999 to December 2004, twenty patients (mean age at the time of surgery 29.2 years; 13 females and 7 males; were included in the study. Cortical disruption were presented in 7 patients; 4 with soft tissue extension, but none of them had intra-articular extension of tumor, 3 patients presented with pathologic fracture of distal femoral lesions. These tumors were located in distal femur in 6 patients, proximal tibia in 7, distal radius in 3, proximal femur in 2, and each of proximal humerus and distal ulna in one patient. In each case diagnostic biopsy was done and surgical procedure performed including curettage, power burr of the wall, cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen and finally filling the space with PMMA cementing. The mean follow-up was 34 months (7 to 61 . Results: During follow-up, we observed one recurrence of GCT of proximal tibia. Secondary Aneurysmal bone cyst was reported at the site of one primary distal femoral lesion, without any finding in favor of a recurrence. Neurapraxia of the proneal nerve was occurred in one patient with proximal tibia tumor improved after 8 months. Conclusion: Cryosurgery combined with power burr and PMMA cementing in the treatment of GCT could be an effective approach in tumor eradication. This method obviates the need for extensive resections and reconstructive procedure.

  2. Towards optimization of the silanization process of hydroxyapatite for its use in bone cement formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros-Pineda, Olga G.; Herrera Kao, Wilberth; Loría-Bastarrachea, María I.; Veranes-Pantoja, Yaymarilis; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V.; Cervantes-Uc, José M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to provide some fundamental information for optimization of silanization of hydroxyapatite intended for bone cement formulations. The effect of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) concentration and solvent system (acetone/water or methanol/water mixtures) during HA silanization was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis. The effect of silanized HA on the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cements is also reported. It was found that the silanization process rendered hydroxyapatite with lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. Through EDX, it was observed that the silicon concentration in the HA particles was higher for acetone–water than that obtained for methanol–water system, although the mechanical performance of cements prepared with these particles exhibited the opposite behavior. Taking all these results together, it is concluded that methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results during silanization process of HA. - Highlights: • Effect of MPS concentration and solvents during HA silanization was studied. • Silanization rendered HA has lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. • Silicon concentration was higher for acetone than that obtained using methanol. • Methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results

  3. Towards optimization of the silanization process of hydroxyapatite for its use in bone cement formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros-Pineda, Olga G.; Herrera Kao, Wilberth; Loría-Bastarrachea, María I. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Veranes-Pantoja, Yaymarilis [Centro de Biomateriales, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida Universidad, s/n, e/G y Ronda, C.P. 10600 C. de La Habana (Cuba); Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Cervantes-Uc, José M., E-mail: manceruc@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to provide some fundamental information for optimization of silanization of hydroxyapatite intended for bone cement formulations. The effect of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) concentration and solvent system (acetone/water or methanol/water mixtures) during HA silanization was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis. The effect of silanized HA on the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cements is also reported. It was found that the silanization process rendered hydroxyapatite with lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. Through EDX, it was observed that the silicon concentration in the HA particles was higher for acetone–water than that obtained for methanol–water system, although the mechanical performance of cements prepared with these particles exhibited the opposite behavior. Taking all these results together, it is concluded that methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results during silanization process of HA. - Highlights: • Effect of MPS concentration and solvents during HA silanization was studied. • Silanization rendered HA has lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. • Silicon concentration was higher for acetone than that obtained using methanol. • Methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results.

  4. Experimental ex-vivo validation of PMMA-based bone cements loaded with magnetic nanoparticles enabling hyperthermia of metastatic bone tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabech, Mariem; Kiselovs, Normunds Rungevics; Maenhoudt, Wim; Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Van Roost, Dirk; Dupré, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty comprises the injection of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement into vertebrae and can be used for the treatment of compression fractures of vertebrae. Metastatic bone tumors can cause such compression fractures but are not treated when injecting PMMA-based bone cement. Hyperthermia of tumors can on the other hand be attained by placing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Loading the PMMA-based bone cement with MNPs could both serve vertebra stabilization and metastatic bone tumor hyperthermia when subjecting this PMMA-MNP to an AMF. A dedicated pancake coil is designed with a self-inductance of 10 μH in series with a capacitance of 0.1 μF that acts as resonant inductor-capacitor circuit to generate the AMF. The thermal rise is appraised in beef vertebra placed at 10 cm from the AMF generating circuit using optical temperatures sensors, i.e. in the center of the PMMA-MNP bone cement, which is located in the vicinity of metastatic bone tumors in clinical applications; and in the spine, which needs to be safeguarded to high temperature exposures. Results show a temperature rise of about 7 °C in PMMA-MNP whereas the temperature rise in the spine remains limited to 1 °C. Moreover, multicycles heating of PMMA-MNP is experimentally verified, validating the technical feasibility of having PMMA-MNP as basic component for percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with hyperthermia treatment of metastatic bone tumors.

  5. Aluminum-free glass-ionomer bone cements with enhanced bioactivity and biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Filipa O.; Pires, Ricardo A.; Reis, Rui L.

    2013-01-01

    Al-free glasses of general composition 0.340SiO 2 :0.300ZnO:(0.250-a-b)CaO:aSrO:bMgO:0.050Na 2 O:0.060P 2 O 5 (a, b = 0.000 or 0.125) were synthesized by melt quenching and their ability to form glass-ionomer cements was evaluated using poly(acrylic acid) and water. We evaluated the influence of the poly(acrylic acid) molecular weight and glass particle size in the cement mechanical performance. Higher compressive strength (25 ± 5 MPa) and higher compressive elastic modulus (492 ± 17 MPa) were achieved with a poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa and glass particle sizes between 63 and 125 μm. Cements prepared with glass formulation a = 0.125 and b = 0.000 were analyzed after immersion in simulated body fluid; they presented a surface morphology consistent with a calcium phosphate coating and a Ca/P ratio of 1.55 (similar to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite). Addition of starch to the cement formulation induced partial degradability after 8 weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer saline containing α-amylase. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the inclusion of starch increased the cement porosity from 35% to 42%. We were able to produce partially degradable Al-free glass-ionomer bone cements with mechanical performance, bioactivity and biodegradability suitable to be applied on non-load bearing sites and with the appropriate physical characteristics for osteointegration upon partial degradation. Zn release studies (concentrations between 413 μM and 887 μM) evidenced the necessity to tune the cement formulations to reduce the Zn concentration in the surrounding environment. Highlights: ► We developed partially degradable, bioactive, Al-free glass-ionomer cements (GICs). ► Enhanced mechanical behavior was achieved using 63–125 μm glass particle size range. ► The highest mechanical resistance was obtained using poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa. ► Biodegradation was successfully tuned to start 8 weeks after GIC preparation. ► Zn release should be

  6. A novel injectable borate bioactive glass cement for local delivery of vancomycin to cure osteomyelitis and regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Huang, Wenhai; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Jun; Luo, Shihua; Zhang, Changqing; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-03-01

    Osteomyelitis (bone infection) is often difficult to cure. The commonly-used treatment of surgical debridement to remove the infected bone combined with prolonged systemic and local antibiotic treatment has limitations. In the present study, an injectable borate bioactive glass cement was developed as a carrier for the antibiotic vancomycin, characterized in vitro, and evaluated for its capacity to cure osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. The cement (initial setting time = 5.8 ± 0.6 min; compressive strength = 25.6 ± 0.3 MPa) released vancomycin over ~25 days in phosphate-buffered saline, during which time the borate glass converted to hydroxyapatite (HA). When implanted in rabbit tibial defects infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced osteomyelitis, the vancomycin-loaded cement converted to HA and supported new bone formation in the defects within 8 weeks. Osteomyelitis was cured in 87 % of the defects implanted with the vancomycin-loaded borate glass cement, compared to 71 % for the defects implanted with vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate cement. The injectable borate bioactive glass cement developed in this study is a promising treatment for curing osteomyelitis and for regenerating bone in the defects following cure of the infection.

  7. Ternary blend cements concrete. Part II: Transport mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available With today’s extensive use of cements containing two or more additions (blended cements, predicting concrete durability on the grounds of its strength alone leads to errors that may affect the service life of the resulting structures. Indeed, concrete of a given strength class can be made from different materials and proportions of widely varying durability. The present study evaluated water absorption, sorptivity and initial surface absorption in concrete made with unadditioned Portland, binary (limestone and ternary (limestone and granulated slag blend cement.En la actualidad con la utilización de cementos con dos o más adiciones (cementos compuestos predecir la durabilidad del hormigón a partir sólo de su resistencia conduce a cometer errores que pueden afectar la vida útil de las construcciones de hormigón. Pues es bien conocido que se pueden elaborar hormigones de una misma clase resistente con distintos materiales y proporciones, que podrán presentar un comportamiento durable totalmente diferente. En este trabajo se evalúa la absorción de agua, la capacidad de absorción, la absorción inicial superficial de hormigones elaborados con cemento Portland sin adición, cementos compuestos binario (caliza y ternario (escoria granulada y caliza.

  8. Strain shielding in trabecular bone at the tibial cement-bone interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Priyanka; Miller, Mark A.; Verdonschot, Nico; Mann, Kenneth A.; Janssen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Aseptic loosening of the tibial component remains the leading cause for revision surgery in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Understanding the mechanisms leading to loss of fixation can offer insight into preventative measures to ensure a longer survival rate. In cemented TKA, loosening occurs at the

  9. Effect of Combined Calcium Hydroxide and Accelerated Portland Cement on Bone Formation and Soft Tissue Healing in Dog Bone Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recent literatures show that accelerated Portland cement (APC and calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2 may have the potential to promote the bone regeneration. However, certain clinical studies reveal consistency of Ca (OH2, as one of the practical drawbacks of the material when used alone. To overcome such inconvenience, the combination of the Ca (OH2 with a bone replacement material could offer a convenient solution. Objectives: To evaluate the soft tissue healing and bone regeneration in the periodontal intrabony osseous defects using accelerated Portland cement (APC in combination with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2, as a filling material. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adult mongrel dogs aged 2-3 years old (approximately 20 kg in weight with intact dentition and healthy periodontium were selected for this study. Two one-wall defects in both mesial and distal aspects of the 3rd premolars of both sides of the mandible were created. Therefore, four defects were prepared in each dog. Three defects in each dog were randomly filled with one of the following materials: APC alone, APC mixed with Ca (OH2, and Ca (OH2 alone. The fourth defect was left empty (control. Upon clinical examination of the sutured sites, the amount of dehiscence from the adjacent tooth was measured after two and eight weeks, using a periodontal probe mesiodistally. For histometric analysis, the degree of new bone formation was estimated at the end of the eighth postoperative week, by a differential point-counting method. The percentage of the defect volume occupied by new osteoid or trabecular bone was recorded. Results: Measurement of wound dehiscence during the second week revealed that all five APCs had an exposure of 1-2 mm and at the end of the study all samples showed 3-4 mm exposure across the surface of the graft material, whereas the Ca (OH2, control, and APC + Ca (OH2 groups did not show any exposure at the end of the eighth week of the study. The most

  10. Bioactivity of Ceftazidime and Fluconazole Included in Polymethyl Methacrylate Bone Cement for Use in Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, J; Merino, V; Nácher, A; Rodrigo, J L; Bonet Yuste, Blanca B; Merino-Sanjuán, M

    2017-10-01

    The microorganisms that most frequently cause prosthetic joint infection are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic bacillus. Studies have documented the efficacy of mixing antibiotics with polymethyl methacrylate, but that of antifungal drugs has not received much attention. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize the elution profile and bioactivity of ceftazidime and fluconazole when incorporated into bone cement in proportions intended for prophylaxis and treatment of bone infections. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement cylinders in a proportion of 1:40 and 4:40 (ratio of grams of antibiotic to grams of cement) were assayed. Drug delivery was investigated in a flow-through dissolution apparatus (SotaxCE7). To assess bioactivity, antibiotic concentrations were simulated in the joint space of 1000 patients. Antibacterial properties were evaluated by counting colony forming units and the inhibition-halo test. The ratio of released ceftazidime and fluconazole was 453% and 648%, respectively, higher when used for treatment proportions than prophylaxis proportions. A bioactivity simulation exercise showed that the efficacy of ceftazidime/fluconazole determined as the amount of drug is released at the active site in the first 3 days after surgery would depend on the sensitivity of the microorganism and would increase substantially after drain removal. The microbiology study showed that biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be a problem when ceftazidime was used in treatment or prophylaxis proportions. Our in vitro findings suggest that ceftazidime and fluconazole can be added into polymethyl methacrylate for the prevention/treatment of infections associated to joint surgery. Their efficacy depends on the sensitivity of the microorganism causing the infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in microgaps, micromotion, and trabecular strain from interlocked cement-trabecular bone interfaces in total knee replacements with in vivo service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, M.A.; Goodheart, J.R.; Khechen, B.; Janssen, D.W.; Mann, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial fixation of cemented Total Knee Replacements (TKRs) relies on mechanical interlock between cement and bone, but loss of interlock occurs with in vivo service. In this study, cement-trabeculae gap morphology and micromechanics were measured for lab prepared (representing post-operative

  12. A novel and easy-to-prepare strontium(II) modified calcium phosphate bone cement with enhanced mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, M; Henß, A; Rohnke, M; Gelinsky, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two different approaches to obtaining strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs) without elaborate synthesis of Sr-containing calcium phosphate species as cement precursors that could release biologically effective doses of Sr(2+) and thus could improve the healing of osteoporotic bone defects. Using strontium carbonate as a strontium(II) source, it was introduced into a hydroxyapatite-forming cement either by the addition of SrCO3 to an α-tricalcium phosphate-based cement precursor mixture (A-type) or by substitution of CaCO3 by SrCO3 during precursor composition (S-type). The cements, obtained after setting in a water-saturated atmosphere, contained up to 2.2at.% strontium in different distribution patterns as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The setting time of CPC and A-type cements was in the range of 6.5-7.5min and increased for substitution-type cements (12.5-13.0min). Set cements had an open porosity between 26 and 42%. Compressive strength was found to increase from 29MPa up to 90% in substituted S-type cements (58MPa). SrCPC samples released between 0.45 and 1.53mgg(-1) Sr(2+) within 21days and showed increased radiopacity. Based on these findings, the SrCPC developed in this study could be beneficial for the treatment of defects of systemically impaired (e.g. osteoporotic) bone. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 3D-Printed Bioactive Ca3SiO5Bone Cement Scaffolds with Nano Surface Structure for Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoya; Ma, Bing; Zhu, Haibo; Huan, Zhiguang; Ma, Nan; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2017-02-22

    Silicate bioactive materials have been widely studied for bone regeneration because of their eminent physicochemical properties and outstanding osteogenic bioactivity, and different methods have been developed to prepare porous silicate bioactive ceramics scaffolds for bone-tissue engineering applications. Among all of these methods, the 3D-printing technique is obviously the most efficient way to control the porous structure. However, 3D-printed bioceramic porous scaffolds need high-temperature sintering, which will cause volume shrinkage and reduce the controllability of the pore structure accuracy. Unlike silicate bioceramic, bioactive silicate cements such as tricalcium silicate (Ca 3 SiO 5 and C 3 S) can be self-set in water to obtain high mechanical strength under mild conditions. Another advantage of using C 3 S to prepare 3D scaffolds is the possibility of simultaneous drug loading. Herein, we, for the first time, demonstrated successful preparation of uniform 3D-printed C 3 S bone cement scaffolds with controllable 3D structure at room temperature. The scaffolds were loaded with two model drugs and showed a loading location controllable drug-release profile. In addition, we developed a surface modification process to create controllable nanotopography on the surface of pore wall of the scaffolds, which showed activity to enhance rat bone-marrow stem cells (rBMSCs) attachment, spreading, and ALP activities. The in vivo experiments revealed that the 3D-printed C 3 S bone cement scaffolds with nanoneedle-structured surfaces significantly improved bone regeneration, as compared to pure C 3 S bone cement scaffolds, suggesting that 3D-printed C 3 S bone cement scaffolds with controllable nanotopography surface are bioactive implantable biomaterials for bone repair.

  14. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verné, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruno, Matteo [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miola, Marta [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta [Traumatology Orthopedics and Occupational Medicine Dept., Università di Torino, Via G. Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cochis, Andrea [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Rimondini, Lia [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–FeO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and contains magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite – HAp – layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. - Highlights: • An in vitro biological characterization was carried out on ferromagnetic and bioactive composite cements. • No release of iron was revealed in the physiological solution. • Bioactivity tests

  15. Contemporary adjuvant polymethyl methacrylate cementation optimally limits recurrence in primary giant cell tumor of bone patients compared to bone grafting: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dongqing; Zheng, Longpo; Sun, Wei; Fu, Dong; Hua, Yingqi; Cai, Zhengdong

    2013-07-16

    Reports of recurrence following restructuring of primary giant cell tumor (GCT) defects using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cementation or allogeneic bone graft with and without adjuvants for intralesional curettage vary widely. Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate efficacy of PMMA bone cementation and allogeneic bone grafting following intralesional curettage for GCT. Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies reporting GCT of bone treatment with PMMA cementation and/or bone grafting with or without adjuvant therapy following intralesional curettage of primary GCTs. Pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for local recurrence risks were calculated by fixed-effects methods. Of 1,690 relevant titles, 6 eligible studies (1,293 patients) spanning March 2008 to December 2011 were identified in published data. Treatment outcomes of PMMA-only (n = 374), bone graft-only (n = 436), PMMA with or without adjuvant (PMMA + adjuvant; n = 594), and bone graft filling with or without adjuvant (bone graft + adjuvant; n = 699) were compared. Bone graft-only patients exhibited higher recurrence rates than PMMA-treated patients (RR 2.09, 95% CI (1.64, 2.66), Overall effect: Z = 6.00; P <0.001), and bone graft + adjuvant patients exhibited higher recurrence rates than PMMA + adjuvant patients (RR 1.66, 95% CI (1.21, 2.28), Overall effect: Z = 3.15, P = 0.002). Local recurrence was minimal in PMMA cementation patients, suggesting that PMMA is preferable for routine clinical restructuring in eligible GCT patients. Relationships between tumor characteristics, other modern adjuvants, and recurrence require further exploration.

  16. Transformation-toughening in cemented carbides: Part II. Thermomechanical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanadham, R. K.; Lindquist, P. G.

    1987-12-01

    WC-(Fe, Ni, C) cemented carbides can be successfully transformation-toughened by careful control of binder composition and taking into consideration the effect of thermal residual stress on the transformation characteristics of the binder. An additional degree of control on the metastability of the binder phase can be achieved via thermomechanical treatments. These treatments consist of transforming an austenitic binder to martensite by cooling in liquid nitrogen followed by a suitable high temperature heat treatment to reaustenitize it. The in situ deformation of the binder caused by the large shape and volume changes that accompany its transformation to martensite thus provides the mechanical component of the thermomechanical treatment. Subsequent heat treatments not only reaustenitize the binder but also modify its susceptibility to undergo stress-induced transformation. It is shown that the hardness/fracture toughness behavior of WC-(Fe, Ni, C) cemented carbides can be significantly improved by the application of such treatments. A qualitative explanation for the enhancements in fracture toughness provided by thermomechanical treatments is offered based on a careful examination of the changes in phase constitution of the binder that occur during these treatments.

  17. Percutaneous bone cement refixation of aseptically loose hip prostheses: the effect of interface tissue removal on injected cement volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Intelligent Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To quantify whether injected cement volumes differed between two groups of patients who underwent experimental minimally invasive percutaneous cement injection procedures to stabilize aseptically loose hip prostheses. One patient group was preoperatively treated using gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to remove fibrous interface tissue, while the other group received no preoperative treatment. It was hypothesized that cement penetration may have been inhibited by the presence of fibrous interface tissue in periprosthetic lesions. We analyzed 17 patients (14 female, 3 male, ages 72-91, ASA categories 2-4) who were treated at our institution. Osteolytic lesions and injected cement were manually delineated using 3D CT image segmentation, and the deposition of injected cement was quantified. Patients who underwent preoperative gene-directed enzyme therapy to remove fibrous tissue exhibited larger injected cement volumes than those who did not. The observed median increase in injected cement volume was 6.8 ml. Higher cement leakage volumes were also observed for this group. We conclude that prior removal of periprosthetic fibrous interface tissue may enable better cement flow and penetration. This might lead to better refixation of aseptically loosened prostheses. (orig.)

  18. Improved workability of injectable calcium sulfate bone cement by regulation of self-setting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Liu, Huanye; Liu, Xi; Lian, Xiaojie; Guo, Zhongwu; Jiang, Hong-Jiang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powder as an injectable bone cement was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). The prepared materials showed X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the CSH structure without any secondary phases, implying complete conversion from CSD phase to CSH phase. Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses showed the crystal water content of CSH was about 6.0% (wt.), which is near to the theoretic crystal water value of CSH. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, sheet crystal structure of CSD was observed to transform into rod-like crystal structure of CSH. Most interesting and important of all, CSD as setting accelerator was also introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of injectable CSH paste, and thus the self-setting time of CSH paste can be regulated from near 30 min to less than 5 min by adding various amounts of setting accelerator. Because CSD is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, the setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials, such as mechanical properties. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies have demonstrated that the materials have good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration. All these will further improve the workability of CSH in clinic applications. Highlights: ► Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) can be an injectable bone cement. ► CSH was produced by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). ► CSD was introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of CSH. ► Setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials. ► Injectable CSH has good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration

  19. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Concretes with ternary composite cements. Part III: multicriteria optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods are tools of vital importance in composite material design, where large numbers of components and design criteria must be taken into account. The formulation of today’s separately milled custommade cements is a clear example of just such a case, for the components must be proportioned to yield mortars and concretes with the proper balance of durability, strength, financial and environmental features. Multicriteria optimization has been used to develop many materials, although its application in cement formulation has yet to be explored. The present paper discusses the use of an objective function to jointly optimize sorptivity and compressive strength in limestone- (up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag- (up to 20% additioned Portland cement concrete.Los métodos de optimización constituyen una herramienta de vital importancia en el diseño de materiales compuestos, donde la cantidad de componentes de la mezcla y los criterios de diseño que deben tenerse en cuenta en el proceso de fabricación son numerosos. En la actualidad, la formulación de un cemento a medida (tailor made a partir del proceso de molienda separada es un claro ejemplo de ello, pues las proporciones relativas de las componentes de la mezcla deben permitir luego obtener morteros y hormigones con el equilibrio justo entre los requerimientos durables, mecánicos, económicos y ecológicos que se soliciten. La optimización por multicriterios ha sido empleada en el desarrollo de diversos materiales, sin embargo, su aplicación en la formulación del cemento no ha sido aún explorada. En este trabajo se presenta la optimización conjunta de la capacidad de absorción y la resistencia a compresión de hormigones elaborados con cemento Portland con caliza (hasta un 20% y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta un 20% utilizando la función objetivo.

  1. Enhancing pedicle screw fixation in the aging spine with a novel bioactive bone cement: an in vitro biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingan; Kingwell, Stephen; Li, Zhaoyang; Pan, Haobo; Lu, William W; Oxland, Thomas R

    2012-08-01

    A paired biomechanical study of pedicle screws augmented with bone cement in a human cadaveric and osteoporotic lumbar spine model. OBJECTIVES.: To evaluate immediate strength and stiffness of pedicle screw fixation augmented with a novel bioactive bone cement in an osteoporotic spine model and compare it with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. A novel bioactive bone cement, containing nanoscale particles of strontium and hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA), can promote new bone formation and osteointegration and provides a promising reinforcement to the osteoporotic spine. Its immediate mechanical performance in augmenting pedicle screw fixation has not been evaluated. Two pedicle screws augmented with Sr-HA and PMMA cement were applied to each of 10 isolated cadaveric L3 vertebrae. Each screw was subjected to a toggling test and screw kinematics were calculated. The pedicle screw was subjected to a pullout test until failure. Finally, the screw coverage with cement was measured on computed tomographic images. Screw translations in the toggling test were consistently larger in the Sr-HA group than in the PMMA group (1.4 ± 1.2 mm vs. 1.0 ± 1.1 mm at 1000 cycles). The rotation center was located closer to the screw tip in the Sr-HA group (19% of screw length) than in the PMMA group (37%). The only kinematic difference between Sr-HA and PMMA cements was the screw rotation at 1000 cycles (1.5° ± 0.9° vs. 1.3° ± 0.6°; P = 0.0026). All motion parameters increased significantly with more loading cycles. The pullout force was higher in the PMMA group than the Sr-HA group (1.40 ± 0.63 kN vs. 0.93 ± 0.70 kN), and this difference was marginally significant (P = 0.051). Sr-HA cement covered more of the screw length than PMMA cement (79 ± 19% vs. 43 ± 19%) (P = 0.036). This paired-design study identified some subtle but mostly nonsignificant differences in immediate biomechanical fixation of pedicle screws augmented with the Sr-HA cement compared with the PMMA cement.

  2. Graphene oxide versus graphene for optimisation of PMMA bone cement for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, E; Forriol, F; Del Real, J C; Dunne, N

    2017-08-01

    Graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) nano-sized powders with loadings ranging from 0.1 to 1.0wt% were investigated as reinforced agents for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements. The mechanical properties (i.e. bend strength, bend modulus, compression strength, fracture toughness and fatigue performance) and the thermal properties (i.e. maximum temperature, setting time, curing heat and residual monomer) of the resultant nanocomposites were characterised. The mechanical performance of G-PMMA and GO-PMMA bone cements has been improved at low loadings (≤0.25wt%), especially the fracture toughness and fatigue performance. These improvements were attributed to the fact that the G and GO induced deviations in the crack fronts and hampered crack propagation. The high functionalisation of GO compared with G resulted in greater enhancements because it facilitated the creation of a stronger interfacial adhesion between the GO and PMMA. The use of loadings ≥0.25wt% showed a detriment in the mechanical performance as consequence of the formation of agglomerates as well as to an increase in the porosity. The increase in the residual monomer and the decrease in the curing heat, observed with the increase in the level of G and GO added, suggests that such materials retard and inhibit the curing reaction at high levels of loading by interfering in the radical reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brushite-Forming Mg-, Zn- and Sr-Substituted Bone Cements for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M.F. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate cements have been in clinical use for the last 10 years. Their most salient features include good biocompatibility, excellent bioactivity, self-setting characteristics, low setting temperature, adequate stiffness, and easy shaping to accomodate any complicated geometry. They are commonly used in filling bone defects and trauma surgeries as mouldable paste-like bone substitute materials. Substitution of trace elements, such as Mg, Sr and Zn ions, into the structure of calcium phosphates is the subject of widespread investigation nowadays, because of their impending role in the biological process. Subtle differences in composition and structure of these materials may have a profound effect on their in vivo behaviour. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to provide a simple, but comprehensive overview of the present achievements relating to brushite-forming cements doped with Mg, Zn and Sr, and to identify new developments and trends. In particular, the influence of ionic substitution on the chemical, physical and biological properties of these materials is discussed.

  4. Reconstruction of chest wall using a two-layer prolene mesh and bone cement sandwich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanzadeh, Manouchehr; Alavi, Ali; Aghajanzadeh, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Jahromi, Sina Khajeh; Massahnia, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Wide surgical resection is the most effective treatment for the vast majority of chest wall tumors. This study evaluated the clinical success of chest wall reconstruction using a Prolene mesh and bone cement prosthetic sandwich. The records of all patients undergoing chest wall resection and reconstruction were reviewed. Surgical indications, the location and size of the chest wall defect, diaphragm resection, pulmonary performance, postoperative complications, and survival of each patient were recorded. From 1998 to 2008, 43 patients (27 male, 16 female; mean age of 48 years) underwent surgery in our department to treat malignant chest wall tumors: chondrosarcoma (23), osteosarcoma (8), spindle cell sarcoma (6), Ewing's sarcoma (2), and others (4). Nine sternectomies and 34 antero-lateral and postero-lateral chest wall resections were performed. Postoperatively, nine patients experienced respiratory complications, and one patient died because of respiratory failure. The overall 4-year survival rate was 60 %. Chest wall reconstruction using a Prolene mesh and bone cement prosthetic sandwich is a safe and effective surgical procedure for major chest wall defects.

  5. Leaching of radioactive nuclides from cement grouts. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, W.T.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Gonzalez, B.; Hemley, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    The determination of the leaching rate of radioactive 137 Cs from a cement grout should the grout be contacted by water is necessary for environmental protection. The effect of the leachant turnover rate on 137 Cs leaching rates was evaluated with batch and continuous (modified Soxhlet extractor) modes of experimentation. Three additives (Grundite, potter's clay, and Conasauga shale) were compared in terms of capability of radioactive isotope retention, while two leachants (tap and distilled water) were investigated. The Soxhlet extractor experiment resulted in the highest rate of leaching, and Conasauga shale was found the best additive for 137 Cs immobilization. Tap water used as leachant was more effective than distilled water. Data were analyzed using models involving isotopic diffusion in the grout and involving diffusion plus a time dependent boundary condition at the interface of grout specimen and leachant

  6. Bone biology and physiology: Part I. The fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Donald W; Dumanian, Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    The principles of bone biology and physiology permeate all subspecialty practices in plastic and reconstructive surgery from hand surgery to aesthetic surgery. Despite its importance in our practices, the biology of bone healing and bone physiology rarely surfaces within textbooks, literature reviews, or residency curricula. In this article, the authors present the first of a two-part series reviewing the important concepts of bone biology and bone physiology relevant to plastic surgery in an effort to ameliorate this educational gap.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of PMMA-co-EHA bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, T.; Leite Ferreira, B.J.M.; Loureiro, J.; Correia, R.N.; Santos, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports a preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of new poly (methyl methacrylate)-co-ethyl hexylacrylate (PMMA-co-EHA) bone cement by evaluating the effect of its leachables on the viability of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63 line) and their progression through the cell cycle. MG63 cells were exposed to 72 h-extract dilutions of PMMA-co-EHA and their viability was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Also, putative changes in the progression of cells through the cell cycle were monitored using flow cytometry. For that the relative nuclear DNA content and the ratio of cells at G 1 :S:G 2 stages of the cell cycle were measured after three exposure periods (24, 48 and 72 h). The obtained results revealed a dose-dependent influence of the cement extract in MG63 cell metabolism when compared to cells cultivated in a culture medium only. The MTT assay showed that a moderate number of cells died after exposure to the most concentrated extract. The cell cycle analysis revealed that leachables of PMMA-co-EHA led to significant changes in cellular proliferation, with cells exposed for 48 h to the most concentrated extract being arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. However, despite the initial period of cytotoxicity, the obtained results suggest that after 72 h of exposure, the surviving cells are able to recover from this arresting condition and continue to proliferate. Therefore, this preliminary study indicates that, at the biological level, PMMA-co-EHA may have potential of being used as a bone cement matrix. However, a more detailed research work is needed to fully understand the factors responsible for the initial cytotoxicity observed.

  8. Just a drop of cement: a case of cervical spine bone aneurysmal cyst successfully treated by percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahed, Robert; Clarençon, Frédéric; Riouallon, Guillaume; Cormier, Evelyne; Bonaccorsi, Raphael; Pascal-Mousselard, Hugues; Chiras, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign hemorrhagic tumor, commonly revealed by local pain. The best treatment for this lesion is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with chronic neck pain revealing an ABC of the third cervical vertebra. After percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement, the patient experienced significant clinical and radiological improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Graphene oxide versus functionalized carbon nanotubes as a reinforcing agent in a PMMA/HA bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gil; Cruz, Sandra M A; Ramalho, A; Grácio, José; Marques, Paula A A P

    2012-04-28

    Graphene oxide (GO) and functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) (each in the concentration range of 0.01-1.00 wt/wt%) were investigated as the reinforcing agent in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/hydroxyapatite (HA) bone cement. Mixed results were obtained for the changes in the mechanical properties determined (storage modulus, bending strength, and elastic modulus) for the reinforced cement relative to the unreinforced counterpart; that is, some property changes were increased while others were decreased. We postulate that this outcome is a consequence of the fact that each of the nanofillers hampered the polymerization process in the cement; specifically, the nanofiller acts as a scavenger of the radicals produced during polymerization reaction due to the delocalized π-bonds. Results obtained from the chemical structure and polymer chain size distribution determined, respectively, by nuclear magnetic resonance and size exclusion chromatography analysis, on the polymer extracted from the specimens support the postulated mechanism. Furthermore, in the case of the 0.5 wt/wt% GO-reinforced cement, we showed that when the concentration of the radical species in the PMMA bone cement was doubled, mechanical properties markedly improved (relative to the value in the unreinforced cement), suggesting suppression of the aforementioned scavenger activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  10. Experimental ex-vivo validation of PMMA-based bone cements loaded with magnetic nanoparticles enabling hyperthermia of metastatic bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Harabech

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous vertebroplasty comprises the injection of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA bone cement into vertebrae and can be used for the treatment of compression fractures of vertebrae. Metastatic bone tumors can cause such compression fractures but are not treated when injecting PMMA-based bone cement. Hyperthermia of tumors can on the other hand be attained by placing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs in an alternating magnetic field (AMF. Loading the PMMA-based bone cement with MNPs could both serve vertebra stabilization and metastatic bone tumor hyperthermia when subjecting this PMMA-MNP to an AMF. A dedicated pancake coil is designed with a self-inductance of 10 μH in series with a capacitance of 0.1 μF that acts as resonant inductor-capacitor circuit to generate the AMF. The thermal rise is appraised in beef vertebra placed at 10 cm from the AMF generating circuit using optical temperatures sensors, i.e. in the center of the PMMA-MNP bone cement, which is located in the vicinity of metastatic bone tumors in clinical applications; and in the spine, which needs to be safeguarded to high temperature exposures. Results show a temperature rise of about 7 °C in PMMA-MNP whereas the temperature rise in the spine remains limited to 1 °C. Moreover, multicycles heating of PMMA-MNP is experimentally verified, validating the technical feasibility of having PMMA-MNP as basic component for percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with hyperthermia treatment of metastatic bone tumors.

  11. Hydroxyapatite Microspheres as an Additive to Enhance Radiopacity, Biocompatibility, and Osteoconductivity of Poly(methyl methacrylate Bone Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Gu Kang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the utility of hydroxyapatite (HA microspheres as an additive to enhance the radiopaque properties, biocompatibility, and osteoconductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA-based bone cements. HA microspheres were synthesized using spray drying. They had well-defined spherical shapes, thus allowing for the production of PMMA/HA composites with a very high HA content (20 vol % and 40 vol %. The uniform distribution of these HA microspheres in the PMMA matrix resulted in a remarkable increase in compressive modulus (p < 0.05, while preserving a reasonably high compressive strength. The PMMA/HA bone cements showed much higher radiopacity than PMMA containing BaSO4 as the additive. This was attributed to the high HA content up to 40 vol %. In addition, the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of PMMA/HA bone cements were significantly enhanced compared to those of PMMA bone cements containing BaSO4, which were assessed using in vitro tests and in vivo animal experiments.

  12. Femoral component revision with use of impaction bone-grafting and a cemented polished stem. Surgical technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.W.; Arts, J.J.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Buma, P.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of revision of the femoral component of a hip arthroplasty with use of an impaction bone-grafting technique and a cemented polished stem. METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive femoral reconstructions that were

  13. Antibacterial Efficacy of a New Gentamicin-Coating for Cementless Prostheses Compared to Gentamicin-Loaded Bone Cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neut, Danielle; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Thompson, Jonathan I.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2011-01-01

    Cementless prostheses are increasingly popular but require alternative prophylactic measures than the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cements. Here, we determine the 24-h growth inhibition of gentamicin-releasing coatings from grit-blasted and porous-coated titanium alloys, and compare their

  14. Wollastonite nanofiber–doped self-setting calcium phosphate bioactive cement for bone tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo H

    2012-07-01

    incorporation of WNFs into CPC improved the biological properties for wnf-CPC. Following the implantation of wnf-CPC into bone defects of rabbits, histological evaluation showed that wnf-CPC enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation in comparison with CPC, indicating excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis of wnf-CPC. In conclusion, wnf-CPC exhibited promising prospects in bone regeneration.Keywords: calcium phosphate cement, degradability, cell and tissue responses, biocompatibility

  15. A Model of the Action of the Shockwave Generated by a Multichannel Discharge on the Union of Bone Tissue with Bone Cement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeman, J.; Hach, J.; Mikulaková, W.; Derňarová, Ľ.; Eliášová, A.; Lukeš, Petr; Balážová, L.; Beneš, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 237-242 ISSN 0258-851X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Shockwave * bone cement extractions * surgical revision Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.953, year: 2016

  16. Release of zirconia nanoparticles at the metal stem-bone cement interface in implant loosening of total hip replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, Antje; Kronz, Andreas; Fischer, Cornelius; Buchhorn, Gottfried Hans

    2016-02-01

    In a previous failure analysis performed on femoral components of cemented total hip replacements, we determined high volumes of abraded bone cement. Here, we describe the topography of the polished surface of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement containing zirconia radiopacifier, analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and vertical scanning interferometry. Zirconia spikes protruded about 300nm from the PMMA matrix, with pits of former crystal deposition measuring about 400nm in depth. We deduced that the characteristically mulberry-shaped agglomerates of zirconia crystals are ground and truncated into flat surfaces and finally torn out of the PMMA matrix. Additionally, evaluation of in vitro PMMA-on-PMMA articulation confirmed that crystal agglomerations of zirconia were exposed to grain pullout, fatigue, and abrasion. In great quantities, micron-sized PMMA wear and zirconia nanoparticles accumulate in the cement-bone interface and capsular tissues, thereby contributing to osteolysis. Dissemination of nanoparticles to distant lymph nodes and organs of storage has been reported. As sufficient information is lacking, foreign body reactions to accumulated nanosized zirconia in places of long-term storage should be investigated. The production of wear particles of PMMA bone cement in the interface to joint replacement devices, presents a local challenge. The presence of zirconia particles results in frustrated digestion attempts by macrophages, liberation of inflammatory mediators, and necrosis leading to aseptic inflammation and osteolyses. Attempts to minimize wear of articulating joints reduced the attention to the deterioration of cement cuffs. We therefore investigated polished surfaces of retrieved cuffs to demonstrate their morphology and to measure surface roughness. Industrially admixed agglomerates of the radiopacifier are abraded to micron and nano-meter sized particles. The dissemination of zirconia particles in the reticulo-endothelial system to

  17. The Mechanical Properties of Biocompatible Apatite Bone Cement Reinforced with Chemically Activated Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne V. Boehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate cement (CPC is a well-established bone replacement material in dentistry and orthopedics. CPC mimics the physicochemical properties of natural bone and therefore shows excellent in vivo behavior. However, due to their brittleness, the application of CPC implants is limited to non-load bearing areas. Generally, the fiber-reinforcement of ceramic materials enhances fracture resistance, but simultaneously reduces the strength of the composite. Combining strong C-fiber reinforcement with a hydroxyapatite to form a CPC with a chemical modification of the fiber surface allowed us to adjust the fiber–matrix interface and consequently the fracture behavior. Thus, we could demonstrate enhanced mechanical properties of CPC in terms of bending strength and work of fracture to a strain of 5% (WOF5. Hereby, the strength increased by a factor of four from 9.2 ± 1.7 to 38.4 ± 1.7 MPa. Simultaneously, the WOF5 increased from 0.02 ± 0.004 to 2.0 ± 0.6 kJ∙m−2, when utilizing an aqua regia/CaCl2 pretreatment. The cell proliferation and activity of MG63 osteoblast-like cells as biocompatibility markers were not affected by fiber addition nor by fiber treatment. CPC reinforced with chemically activated C-fibers is a promising bone replacement material for load-bearing applications.

  18. Bi-layered calcium phosphate cement-based composite scaffold mimicking natural bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a core/shell bi-layered calcium phosphate cement (CPC)-based composite scaffold with adjustable compressive strength, which mimicked the structure of natural cortical/cancellous bone, was fabricated. The dense tubular CPC shell was prepared by isostatic pressing CPC powder with a specially designed mould. A porous CPC core with unidirectional lamellar pore structure was fabricated inside the cavity of dense tubular CPC shell by unidirectional freeze casting, followed by infiltration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and immobilization of collagen. The compressive strength of bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold can be controlled by varying thickness ratio of dense layer to porous layer. Compared to the scaffold without dense shell, the pore interconnection of bi-layered scaffold was not obviously compromised because of its high unidirectional interconnectivity but poor three dimensional interconnectivity. The in vitro results showed that the rat bone marrow stromal cells attached and proliferated well on the bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold. This novel bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold is promising for bone repair.

  19. Intracardiac bone cement embolism as a complication of vertebroplasty: management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzantonis, Catherine; Czyz, Marcin; Pyzik, Renata; Boszczyk, Bronek M

    2017-12-01

    Vertebroplasty carries multiple complications due to the leakage of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the venous system through the iliolumbar or epidural veins. The rate of venous cement complications may vary from 1 to 10 %, with cement extravasation into the venous system in 24 % of patients. Emboli may further migrate into the right heart chambers and pulmonary arteries. Patients may vary in presentation from asymptomatic or symptoms such as syncope to life-threatening complications. We present a case of a 57-year-old lady diagnosed with osteoporosis who underwent a staged antero-posterior fixation with PMMA vertebroplasty of progressive thoraco-lumbar kyphosis caused by osteoporotic fractures to T12, L1 and L2 vertebral bodies. Four weeks after the operation, the patient developed symptoms of left-sided chest pain, tachycardia and tachypnea. CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) found a high-density material within the right atrium, whilst ECHO demonstrated normal systolic function. The patient was commenced on enoxaparin at therapeutic dose of 1.5 mg/kg for 3 months and remained asymptomatic. Follow-up ECHO found no change to the heart function and no blood clot on the PMMA embolus. Factors influencing the decision about conservative treatment included symptoms, localisation of the embolus, as well as time lapse between vertebroplasty and clinical manifestation. Patients that are commonly asymptomatic can be treated conservatively. The management of choice is anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin or warfarin until the foreign body epithelialises and ceases in becoming potentially thrombogenic. Symptomatic patients with thrombi in the right atrium are commonly managed via percutaneous retrieval, whilst those with RV involvement or perforation are commonly managed with surgical retrieval. Management of individual patients should be based on individual clinical circumstances. Patients presenting with intracardiac bone cement embolism related to spinal

  20. Solidification process for toxic and hazardous wastes. Second part: Cement solidification matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Arcuri, L.; Dotti, M.; Pace, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Ricci, G.; Basta, M.; Cali, V.; Pagliai, V.

    1989-05-01

    This paper reports the second part of a general study carried out at the Nuclear Fuel Division aiming at verifying the possible application of the radioactive waste solidification processes to industrial hazardous wastes (RTN). The cement solidification of several RTN types has been taken into consideration, both from the technical and from the economic point of view. After a short examination of the Italian juridical and economical situation in the field, which demonstrates the need of the RTN solidification, the origin and characteristics of the RTN considered in the study and directly provided by the producing industries are reviewed. The laboratory experimental results of the cementation of RTN produced by gold manufacturing industries and by galvanic industries are reported. The cementation process can be considered a very effective mean for reducing both the RTN management costs and the environmental impact of RTN disposal. (author)

  1. Treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena using high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Shengfei; Zhang, Liang; Feng, Xinmin

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena could cause persistent back pains in patients, even after receiving conservative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty in treating patients who have osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena.Twenty osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients with intraosseous vacuum phenomena, who received at least 2 months of conservative treatment, were further treated by injecting high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty due to failure of conservative treatment. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining the anterior vertebral compression rates, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores at 1 day before the operation, on the first day of postoperation, at 1-month postoperation, and at 1-year postoperation.Three of 20 patients had asymptomatic bone cement leakage when treated via percutaneous vertebroplasty; however, no serious complications related to these treatments were observed during the 1-year follow-up period. A statistically significant improvement on the anterior vertebral compression rates, VAS scores, and ODI scores were achieved after percutaneous vertebroplasty. However, differences in the anterior vertebral compression rate, VAS score, and ODI score in the different time points during the 1-year follow-up period was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).Within the limitations of this study, the injection of high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty for patients who have osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena significantly relieved their back pains and improved their daily life activities shortly after the operation, thereby improving their life quality. In this study, the use of high-viscosity bone

  2. [Polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H L; Li, C D; Yang, Z C; Yi, X D; Liu, H; Lu, H L; Li, H; Wang, Y

    2016-12-18

    To describe the application of polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis. Observation group included 14 cases of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis received polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws from November 2014 to July 2015, control group included 12 cases of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis received polymethylmethacrylate augmentation with traditional pedicle screws.The operation time, blood loss, number of pedicle screws and number of augmented pedicle screws in the two groups were compared. The bone cement leakage and pulmonary bone cement embolism in the two groups were also compared. The fusion rate and pedicle screws loosening by lumbar X ray and dynamic X ray were evaluated. The clinical results were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) of pain on lumbar and lower limbers, lumbar Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores (JOA), Prolo functional scores and Oswestry disability (ODI) scores. Differences of operation time and blood loss in the two groups were not statistically significant. The average number of pedicle screws was 9.9±4.7 and the average number of augmented pedicle screws was 5.9±2.6 in observation group while the average number of pedicle screws was 7.1±2.8 and the average number of augmented pedicle screws was 3.0±1.9 in control group. The ratio of augmented pedicle screws was higher in observation group than in control group (0.69±0.30 vs.0.47±0.30,Pdegenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis was effective, with simple working processes and lower risk of bone cement leakage. The short-term clinical result was good.

  3. Effect of storage temperature and equilibration time on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement polymerization in joint replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Bryan T H; Tan, J H; Ramruttun, Amit Kumarsing; Wang, Wilson

    2015-11-17

    In cemented joint arthroplasty, the handling characteristics (doughing, working, and setting times) of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is important as it determines the amount of time surgeons have to optimally position an implant. Storage conditions (temperature and humidity) and the time given for PMMA cement to equilibrate to ambient operating theater (OT) temperatures are often unregulated and may lead to inconsistencies in its handling characteristics. This has not been previously studied. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the handling characteristics of PMMA cement and the duration of equilibration time needed at each storage temperature to produce consistent and reproducible doughing, setting, and working times. SmartSet® HV cement was stored at three different controlled temperatures: 20 °C (control), 24 °C, and 28 °C for at least 24 h prior to mixing. The cement components were then brought into a room kept at 20 °C and 50 % humidity. Samples were allowed to equilibrate to ambient conditions for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The cement components were mixed and the dough time, temperature-versus-time curve (Lutron TM-947SD, Lutron Electronics, Inc., Coopersburg, PA), and setting time were recorded. Analysis was performed using the two-way ANOVA test (IBM SPSS Statistics V.22). At 20 °C (control) storage temperature, the mean setting time was 534 ± 17 s. At 24 °C storage temperature, the mean setting time was 414 ± 6 s (p  0.05) with 60 min of equilibration. At 28 °C storage temperature, the mean setting time was 381 ± 8 s (p  0.05) with 60 min of equilibration. This study reflects the extent to which storage temperatures and equilibration times can potentially affect the handling characteristics of PMMA cement. We recommend institutions to have a well-regulated temperature and humidity-controlled facility for storage of bone cements and a protocol to

  4. Fabrication and characterization of a novel carbon fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate silicate bone cement with potential osteo-inductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiangjiang; Xiao, Yu; Bao, Chongyun; Gong, Tianxing; Zhou, Shuxin; Troczynski, Tom; Yang, Quanzu; Xu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The repair of bone defects is still a pressing challenge in clinics. Injectable bone cement is regarded as a promising material to solve this problem because of its special self-setting property. Unfortunately, its poor mechanical conformability, unfavorable osteo-genesis ability and insufficient osteo-inductivity seriously limit its clinical application. In this study, novel experimental calcium phosphate silicate bone cement reinforced by carbon fibers (CCPSC) was fabricated and characterized. First, a compressive strength test and cell culture study were carried out. Then, the material was implanted into the femoral epiphysis of beagle dogs to further assess its osteo-conductivity using a micro-computed tomography scan and histological analysis. In addition, we implanted CCPSC into the beagles’ intramuscular pouches to perform an elementary investigation of its osteo-inductivity. The results showed that incorporation of carbon fibers significantly improved its mechanical properties. Meanwhile, CCPSC had better biocompatibility to activate cell adhesion as well as proliferation than poly-methyl methacrylate bone cement based on the cell culture study. Moreover, pronounced biodegradability and improved osteo-conductivity of CCPSC could be observed through the in vivo animal study. Finally, a small amount of osteoid was found at the heterotopic site one month after implantation which indicated potential osteo-inductivity of CCPSC. In conclusion, the novel CCPSC shows promise as a bioactive bone substitute in certain load-bearing circumstances. (paper)

  5. Antibiotic bone cement's effect on infection rates in primary and revision total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppel, Donald; Stirton, Jacob; Liu, Jiayong; Ebraheim, Nabil A

    2017-12-18

    To compare infection rates in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures using antibiotic impregnated bone cement (AIBC) to those rates in procedures not using AIBC. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in search for randomized controlled trials/studies (RCTs) pertaining to the field of antibiotic AIBC vs non-AIBC groups in both primary and revision TKA procedures. The primary literature search performed was to identify all RCTs that assessed AIBC in primary and revision TKA procedures. This search was done strictly through the PubMed database using the article "filters" setting that identified and separated all RCTs from the overall search. The original search was "Primary/revision total knee arthroplasty using AIBC". Other key terms and phrases were included in the search as well. Eligible articles that were used in the "results" of this review met the following criteria: (1) Involved primary or revision TKA procedures (for any reason); (2) included TKA outcome infection rate information; (3) analyzed an AIBC group vs a non-AIBC control group; (4) were found through the RCT filter or hand search in PubMed; and (5) published 1985-2017. Exclusion criteria was as follows: (1) Patients that were not undergoing primary or revision TKA procedures; (2) articles that did not separate total hip arthroplasity (THA) vs TKA results if both hip and knee revisions were evaluated; (3) papers that did not follow up on clinical outcomes of the procedure; (4) extrapolation of data was not possible given published results; (5) knee revisions not done on human patients; (6) studies that were strictly done on THAs; (7) articles that were not found through the RCT filter or through hand search in PubMed; (8) articles that did not evaluate AIBC used in a prosthesis or a spacer during revision; (9) articles that did not compare an AIBC group vs a non-AIBC control group; and (10) articles that were published before 1985. In total, 11 articles were deemed

  6. Curettage with cement augmentation of large bone defects in giant cell tumors with pathological fractures in lower-extremity long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Som P; Garg, Gaurav

    2016-09-01

    Thorough curettage and cement augmentation is the procedure of choice for treating giant cell tumor lesions, particularly those associated with large defects. Its association with pathological fractures has not been studied to a great extent, although a pathological fracture following a giant cell tumor is not a contraindication to treatment by curettage and cementation. We present our experience of bone cementation following intralesional curettage for treatment of giant cell tumors of the long bones of lower limbs with associated pathological fractures. A total of 38 patients who had undergone a procedure in the weight-bearing long bones of lower limbs were included in the study. The age of the patients ranged from 18-79 years with a mean age of 38.57 years. The average follow-up was 102.42 months (8.5 years) ranging from 60-186 months (5-15.5 years). Results were based on serial radiographs showing consolidation of the lesion along with a subjective clinical examination and Enneking functional evaluation noted in the patient's records. Approximately 76 % of the lesions occurred around the knee. The results were graded as excellent (72 %), good (12.82 %) fair (10.25 %) and poor (5.12 %). Four cases developed a recurrence. Apart from a few documented complications, the lesions showed good consolidation and healed well. Giant cell tumors of the long bones of lower limbs with an associated pathological fracture at diagnosis can be managed with thorough curettage and cement augmentation of the bone defect with a satisfactory outcome. Level IV.

  7. A novel test method for evaluation of the abrasive wear behaviour of total hip stems at the interface between implant surface and bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, R; Steinhauser, E; Holzwarth, U; Schmitt, M; Mittelmeier, W

    2004-01-01

    After total hip replacement, some cemented titanium stems show above-average early loosening rates. Increased release of wear particles and resulting reaction of the peri-prosthetic tissue were considered responsible. The objective was to develop a test method for analysing the abrasive wear behaviour of cemented stems and for generating wear particles at the interface with the bone cement. By means of the novel test device, cemented hip stems with different designs, surface topographies and material compositions using various bone cements could be investigated. Before testing, the cemented stems were disconnected from the cement mantle to simulate the situation of stem loosening (debonding). Subsequently, constant radial contact pressures were applied on to the stem surface by a force-controlled hydraulic cylinder. Oscillating micromotions of the stem (+/- 250 microm; 3 x 10(6)cycles; 5 Hz) were carried out at the cement interface initiating the wear process. The usability of the method was demonstrated by testing geometrically identical Ti-6A1-7Nb and Co-28Cr-6Mo hip stems (n= 12) with definite rough and smooth surfaces, combined with commercially available bone cement containing zirconium oxide particles. Under identical frictional conditions with the rough shot-blasted stems, clearly more wear particles were generated than with the smooth stems, whereas the material composition of the hip stems had less impact on the wear behaviour.

  8. A new acoustic method to determine the setting time of calcium sulfate bone cement mixed with antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J J; Brayford, M J; Laycock, P A

    2014-01-01

    A new method is described which can be used to determine the setting times of small amounts of high value bone cements. The test was developed to measure how the setting times of a commercially available synthetic calcium sulfate cement (Stimulan, Biocomposites, UK) in two forms (standard and Rapid Cure) varies with the addition of clinically relevant antibiotics. The importance of being able to accurately quantify these setting times is discussed. The results demonstrate that this new method, which is shown to correlate to the Vicat needle, gives reliable and repeatable data with additional benefits expressed in the article. The majority of antibiotics mixed were found to retard the setting reaction of the calcium sulfate cement. (paper)

  9. The combination of ultrasound with antibiotics released from bone cement decreases the viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria : an in vitro study with clinical strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Geert T.; Neut, Danielle; Horn, Jim R. van; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are used for the permanent fixation of joint prostheses. Antibiotic-loaded cements significantly decrease the incidence of infection. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the viability of bacteria derived from patients with a

  10. Proximal Tibia Chondroblastoma Treated With Curettage and Bone Graft and Cement Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, Yeong Kyoon; Oh, Joo Han; Lee, Jung Hyun; Han, Ilkyu; Kim, Han-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma has a predilection for the epiphyses or apophyses of long tubular bones. Management of lesions in the proximal tibia is challenging because it is difficult to gain access to intraepiphyseal lesions for completion of curettage. From October 2007 to December 2011, 9 patients with de novo chondroblastoma of the proximal tibia underwent surgery at the authors' institution. All patients initially presented with pain, and 5 patients had limitation of range of motion of the ipsilateral knee. Four lesions abutted the tibial attachment sites of the cruciate ligaments. Surgical procedures included intralesional tumor curettage, additional burring, and packing of the defect with bone graft and/or bone cement. The extra-articular approach was used according to tumor location. The medial or lateral parapatellar approach was used when the tumor was located in the anterior two-thirds of the horizontal plane. When a lesion was located in the posterior third, the posteromedial or posterolateral approach was used as the lesion was cornered. Mean duration of follow-up was 47.2 months (range, 27-80 months). No local recurrence or pulmonary metastasis was noted at latest follow-up. Mean functional score was 29.3 points (range, 28-30 points). All patients fully recovered range of motion in the affected knee. No avulsion fracture or anteroposterior instability of the knee joint was detected. Results of the current study suggest that intralesion curettage followed by additional burring with an extra-articular approach is a successful treatment option for chondroblastoma of the proximal tibia. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Bone cement distribution in the vertebral body affects chances of recompression after percutaneous vertebroplasty treatment in elderly patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Liang Zhang, Qiang Wang, Lin Wang, Jian Shen, Qiwei Zhang, Changtai Sun Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, People’s Republic of China Objective: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP is a surgical procedure that has been widely used to treat patients suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs. The procedure involves injection of bone cement into a fractured vertebra. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of the cement in the vertebral body is related to the occurrence of recompression after surgery. Patients and methods: A total of 172 patients diagnosed with OVCF, from January 2008 to June 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty of these patients experienced recompression after surgery during the follow-up period (recompression group, and 122 patients had no recompression observed during the follow-up period (control group. Statistical analysis was performed to compare clinical and operative parameters between these two groups. Results: Differences were found in bone cement distribution between the recompression group and control group (P=0.001. Patients with bone cement distributed around both upper and lower endplates had a significantly less incidence of recompression (4/50 patients, when compared to other patterns of cement distribution (eg, below upper endplate, above lower endplate, and in the middle of vertebral body. The logistic multiple regression analysis also indicated that patients with bone cement distributed around both the upper and lower endplates had a lower risk of recompression when compared to patients with bone cement distributed in the middle of vertebral body (odds ratio =0.223, P=0.003. Conclusion: We herein suggest that the control of bone cement distribution during surgery provides beneficial effects on reducing the risks of recompression after PVP treatment in patients with OVCF. Keywords: elderly, OVCF, PVP, bone cement

  12. A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables. Part II - Validation and localization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arghya; Tengattini, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang D.; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Hall, Stephen A.; Einav, Itai

    2014-10-01

    We study the mechanical failure of cemented granular materials (e.g., sandstones) using a constitutive model based on breakage mechanics for grain crushing and damage mechanics for cement fracture. The theoretical aspects of this model are presented in Part I: Tengattini et al. (2014), A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables, Part I - Theory (Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 10.1016/j.jmps.2014.05.021). In this Part II we investigate the constitutive and structural responses of cemented granular materials through analyses of Boundary Value Problems (BVPs). The multiple failure mechanisms captured by the proposed model enable the behavior of cemented granular rocks to be well reproduced for a wide range of confining pressures. Furthermore, through comparison of the model predictions and experimental data, the micromechanical basis of the model provides improved understanding of failure mechanisms of cemented granular materials. In particular, we show that grain crushing is the predominant inelastic deformation mechanism under high pressures while cement failure is the relevant mechanism at low pressures. Over an intermediate pressure regime a mixed mode of failure mechanisms is observed. Furthermore, the micromechanical roots of the model allow the effects on localized deformation modes of various initial microstructures to be studied. The results obtained from both the constitutive responses and BVP solutions indicate that the proposed approach and model provide a promising basis for future theoretical studies on cemented granular materials.

  13. Biomechanical analysis of pedicle screws in osteoporotic bone with bioactive cement augmentation using simulated in vivo multicomponent loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Theodore J; Frevert, Wesley F; Carson, William L; Waters, Nicole P; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2011-03-15

    Biomechanical analysis of bioactive cements augmenting pedicle screw resistance to loosening in osteoporotic synthetic bone. To simulate in vivo loading-loosening of pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae; and to compare biomechanical efficacy of the following bioactive cements: calcium phosphate (CP), calcium sulfate (CS), and proprietary mixture (M). Pedicle screw instrumentation in osteoporotic spines is limited by poor bone-screw interface strength, resulting in screw loosening fixation failure. Previous in vivo studies evaluated augmented pedicle screw resistance to pure pullout, not simulating in vivo loading/failure. A pedicle screw-instrumented osteoporotic thoracic vertebra subjected to combined pullout, transverse, moment loading was simulated. Unconstrained 3-dimensional screw motion relative to vertebra was optically measured during quasi-static, and dynamic loading. Augmented groups (CP, CS, M) produced (P CS > M failure initiation force (P < 0.006) was because of differences in cement distribution. Animal studies may be required to characterize the remodeling activity of bioactive cements and their longer term efficacies.

  14. Segmenting Bone Parts for Bone Age Assessment using Point Distribution Model and Contour Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh Mann, Kulwinder, Dr.

    2018-01-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) is a task performed on radiographs by the pediatricians in hospitals to predict the final adult height, to diagnose growth disorders by monitoring skeletal development. For building an automatic bone age assessment system the step in routine is to do image pre-processing of the bone X-rays so that features row can be constructed. In this research paper, an enhanced point distribution algorithm using contours has been implemented for segmenting bone parts as per well-established procedure of bone age assessment that would be helpful in building feature row and later on; it would be helpful in construction of automatic bone age assessment system. Implementation of the segmentation algorithm shows high degree of accuracy in terms of recall and precision in segmenting bone parts from left hand X-Rays.

  15. Influence of Alveolar Bone Loss and Cement Layer Thickness on the Biomechanical Behavior of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Incisors: A 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de Assunção E; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the mechanical behavior of a weakened incisor, this study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution caused by different alveolar bone heights and cement layer thickness. A finite element analysis was conducted for this investigation. An intact maxillary central incisor was initially modeled, and the bone of the models was modified in order to simulate 4 levels of bone height: BL0 (no bone loss), BL1 (1/3 bone loss), BL2 (1/2 bone loss), and BL3 (2/3 bone loss). These teeth models were remodeled with a fiber post at 2 different cement thicknesses and restored with a ceramic crown; "A" refers to the well-adapted fiber post (0.3 mm) and "B" to the nonadapted fiber post (1 mm), resulting in 12 models. RelyX ARC (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) cement was simulated for the cementation of the crowns and fiber posts for all groups. Numeric models received a load of 100 N on the lingual surface. All materials and structures were considered linear elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic. Numeric models were plotted and meshed with isoparametric elements, and results were expressed in maximum principal stress. For fiberglass posts, cement, and dentin, the highest stress concentration occurred in the groups with increased bone loss. For cortical bone, the highest values were for the groups with 1/3 bone loss. A greater thickness of cement layer concentrates more stress. More bone loss and greater CLT were the influential factors in concentrating the stress. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intralesional curettage and cementation for low-grade chondrosarcoma of long bones: retrospective study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermerkaya, Musa Ugur; Bekmez, Senol; Karaaslan, Fatih; Danisman, Murat; Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Gedikoglu, Gokhan; Ayvaz, Mehmet; Tokgozoglu, Ahmet Mazhar

    2014-11-10

    Various treatment strategies for low-grade chondrosarcomas with variable outcomes have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the oncological and functional outcomes associated with intralesional curettage followed by adjuvant therapy comprising high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and bone cementation with polymethylmethacrylate. We performed a retrospective review of 21 consecutive patients with intramedullary low-grade chondrosarcoma of long bones treated by intralesional curettage and adjuvant therapy comprising high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and cementation at our institution from 2007 to 2012. The average age of the patients was 48.7 (range, 18-71) years. There were 7 male and 14 female patients. The mean follow-up period was 58.4 (range, 26-85) months after surgery. The treated lesions were located in the proximal humerus (n=10), proximal tibia (n=6), and distal femur (n=5). At the average follow-up time point of 58.4 (range, 26-85) months, no patient had developed local recurrence and no distant metastases were observed. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score among all 21 patients was 95% (84-100). The combination of intralesional curettage, application of high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and cementation is an effective treatment strategy for low-grade intramedullary chondrosarcoma of long bones. Excellent oncological and functional results can be obtained.

  17. Osteoclastic differentiation and resorption is modulated by bioactive metal ions Co2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ incorporated into calcium phosphate bone cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anne; Schamel, Martha; Gbureck, Uwe; Gelinsky, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Biologically active metal ions in low doses have the potential to accelerate bone defect healing. For successful remodelling the interaction of bone graft materials with both bone-forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts is crucial. In the present study brushite forming calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were doped with Co2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ and the influence of these materials on osteoclast differentiation and activity was examined. Human osteoclasts were differentiated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) both on the surface and in indirect contact to the materials on dentin discs. Release of calcium, phosphate and bioactive metal ions was determined using ICP-MS both in the presence and absence of the cells. While Co2+ and Cu2+ showed a burst release, Cr3+ was released steadily at very low concentrations (below 1 μM) and both calcium and phosphate release of the cements was considerably changed in the Cr3+ modified samples. Direct cultivation of PBMC/osteoclasts on Co2+ cements showed lower attached cell number compared to the reference but high activity of osteoclast specific enzymes tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and cathepsin K (CTSK) and significantly increased gene expression of vitronectin receptor. Indirect cultivation with diluted Co2+ cement extracts revealed highest resorbed area compared to all other modifications and the reference. Cu2+ cements had cytotoxic effect on PBMC/osteoclasts during direct cultivation, while indirect cultivation with diluted extracts from Cu2+ cements did not provoke cytotoxic effects but a strictly inhibited resorption. Cr3+ doped cements did not show cytotoxic effects at all. Gene expression and enzyme activity of CTSK was significantly increased in direct culture. Indirect cultivation with Cr3+ doped cements revealed significantly higher resorbed area compared to the reference. In conclusion Cr3+ doped calcium phosphate cements are an innovative cement

  18. Fatigue crack propagation of acrylic bone cements. Influence of the radio-opaque agents; Propagacion de grietas por fatiga de cementos oseos acrilicos. Influencia de los agentes radiopacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginebra, M. P.; Albuixech, L.; Fernandez-Barragan, E.; Gil, F. J.; Planell, J. A.; San Roman, J.; Vazquez, B.

    2001-07-01

    In this work the 2,5-diiodo-8-quinolyl methacrylate (IHQM), is proposed as a new radiopaque agent. The addition of the iodine containing methacrylate provided a statistically significant increase in the tensile strength, fracture toughness and ductility, with respect to the barium sulphate containing cement. This effect was attributed to the fact that the use of a radiopaque monomer eliminated the porosity associated to the barium sulphate particles. However, since fatigue resistance is one of the main properties required to ensure a good long-term performance of permanent pros these, as is the case of acrylic bone cements, it is important to compare the fatigue properties of this new bone cement formulation with the radiolucent and the BaSO{sub 4} containing bone cements. The results show that the absence of inorganic particles with no matrix adhesion plays a negative role when the fatigue crack propagation is considered. (Author) 26 refs.

  19. Bone regeneration in experimental animals using calcium phosphate cement combined with platelet growth factors and human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilov-Velev, K; Clemente-de-Arriba, C; Alobera-García, M Á; Moreno-Sansalvador, E M; Campo-Loarte, J

    2015-01-01

    Many substances (growth factors and hormones) have osteoinduction properties and when added to some osteoconduction biomaterial they accelerate bone neoformation properties. The materials included 15 New Zealand rabbits, calcium phosphate cement (Calcibon(®)), human growth hormone (GH), and plasma rich in platelets (PRP). Each animal was operated on in both proximal tibias and a critical size bone defect of 6mm of diameter was made. The animals were separated into the following study groups: Control (regeneration only by Calcibon®), PRP (regeneration by Calcibon® and PRP), GH (regeneration by Calcibon® and GH). All the animals were sacrificed at 28 days. An evaluation was made of the appearance of the proximal extreme of rabbit tibiae in all the animals, and to check the filling of the critical size defect. A histological assessment was made of the tissue response, the presence of new bone formation, and the appearance of the biomaterial. Morphometry was performed using the MIP 45 image analyser. ANOVA statistical analysis was performed using the Statgraphics software application. The macroscopic appearance of the critical defect was better in the PRP and the GH group than in the control group. Histologically greater new bone formation was found in the PRP and GH groups. No statistically significant differences were detected in the morphometric study between bone formation observed in the PRP group and the control group. Significant differences in increased bone formation were found in the GH group (p=0.03) compared to the other two groups. GH facilitates bone regeneration in critical defects filled with calcium phosphate cement in the time period studied in New Zealand rabbits. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Particle size of bone graft and method of impaction affect initial stability of cemented cups: human cadaveric and synthetic pelvic specimen studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.B.T.; Schreurs, B.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Unen, J. van; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    We determined the effect of bone graft particle size and impaction technique on the initial stability of cemented acetabular cups. First, acetabular reconstructions were performed in human cadaveric pelvic bones in which type 2 AAOS cavitary defects were created. Reconstructions were made with small

  1. Effect of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Addition on the Properties of Hydrothermal Derived Calcium Phosphate Cement for Bone Filling Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) on hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement has been studied. The precursors used to prepare the cement were calcium oxide (CaO) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4); the reaction was conducted in water at 80-100°C. To improve properties of CPC, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) of 1wt% and 2wt% was added to the liquid phase of CPC and the results were compared to CPC without PVA addition. The addition of PVA was proved to bring remarkable effects on cohesion, setting time and mechanical strength of CPC which make it suitable physically for injectable bone filler applications.

  2. Clinical efficacy of bone cement injectable pedicle screw system combined with intervertebral fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolysis and osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-yi DAI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the therapeutic effect of bone cement injectable pedicle screw system combined with intervertebral fusion for lumbar spondylolysis and osteoporosis. Methods  The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively of 21 patients with lumbar spondylolysis and osteoporosis who received treatment of bone cement injectable pedicle screw system and intervertebral fusion from Aug. 2013 to Nov. 2015. The 21 patients (9 males and 12 females aged from 60 to 80 years (mean 64 years old; 6 of them presented degenerative spondylolysis, 15 with isthmic spondylolisthesis; 2 cases had I degree slippage, 13 had Ⅱdegree slippage, 6 had Ⅲdegree slippage, and all the cases were unisegmental slippage including 9 cases in L4 and 12 cases in L5. Bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L5 was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and T values conforming to the diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis were less than or equal to -2.5; All patients were operated with whole lamina resection for decompression, bone cement injectable pedicle screws system implantation, propped open reduction and fixation intervertebral fusion. The clinical outcomes were determined by the radiographic evaluation including intervertebral height, height of intervertebral foramen, slip distance, slip rate and slip angle, and Oswestry disability index (ODI on preoperative, 3 months after operation and the end of the time, and the interbody fusion were followed up. Results  Cerebrospinal fluid leakage of incision was observed in two cases after operation, compression and dressing to incision, Trendelenburg position, dehydration and other treatments were taken, and the stitches of incisions were taken out on schedule. Slips in the 21 patients were reset to different extent, and lumbar physiological curvatures were recovered. The intervertebral height and height of intervertebral foramen were obviously higher 3 months after operation than that before operation (P0

  3. Bariatric Surgery: Bad to the Bone, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is now a global epidemic affecting a significant and rapidly increasing number of adults, adolescents, and children. As the incidence of obesity has increased, so has the use of bariatric surgery as a medical solution. A growing number of studies now report that, despite calcium and vitamin D supplementation, the most frequently performed types of bariatric surgery, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy, cause significant ongoing bone loss. In resources available to the general public and to physicians, this adverse outcome is rarely mentioned or is attributed solely to reduced calcium absorption. Recent studies investigating micronutrient malabsorption and changes in a wide range of hormones induced by bariatric surgery now indicate that calcium malabsorption is the tip of a formidable iceberg. The current article, part 1 of a 2-part series, reviews the latest research findings confirming that obesity prevalence is skyrocketing and that bariatric surgery causes ongoing, accelerated bone loss. Part 1 also discusses the mechanisms through which the bariatric surgery-induced malabsorption of key nutrients adversely affects bone homeostasis. Part 2 discusses the specific changes seen in bone metabolism after bariatric surgery and reviews current data on the underlying mechanisms, in addition to nutrient malabsorption, which are thought to contribute to bariatric surgery-induced ongoing accelerated bone loss. These processes include mechanical unloading and changes in a wide variety of hormones (eg, leptin, adiponectin, testosterone, estradiol, serotonin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and gastric inhibitory peptide). Also, part 2 covers interventions that may help lessen bariatric surgery-induced bone loss, which are now beginning to appear in the medical literature. Bariatric surgery's adverse effects on bone must be widely recognized and protocols developed to prevent early onset osteoporosis in the recipients of an increasingly utilized

  4. Modification of Baksi sloppy hinge elbow to minimize the stresses at the humeral bone cement interface- An early experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baksi D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Baksi sloppy hinge elbow is an all metal prosthesis having 7 0 - 10 0 varus - valgus inherent laxity at the hinge section with minimal motion bearing contact area. Due to the presence of laxity at it′s hinge section, any strain on the prosthesis dissipates primarily to the surrounding soft tissues thus protecting the cement bone interfaces. However, from our long term clinical experiences on the use of our sloppy hinge design since 1984 and the knowledge of literature review of the results of using other semi-constrained (sloppy or unconstrained designs, it was observed that radiolucency or loosening at the bone-cement interface occurred mainly around the humeral stem in the long run due to the continued effect of rotational torque of forearm and hand. Hence, an attempt in the improvement of the design concept is being made. Methods : In this respect one flange each of one cm height and breadth and three mm thickness has been incorporated on either sides of the shank of humeral stem of the sloppy hinge at medio-lateral (coronal plane which will be seated in the corresponding longitudinal groove cut on either side of humeral shaft extending from its transverse cut end to become single assembly during the rotation of humerus. Results : The preliminary results of clinical application of the modified sloppy hinge elbow in ten cases are found satisfactory. Conclusion : The cyclical compression and distraction forces during flexion and extension of the elbow will be distributed over the larger bony area of lower end of humerus where flanges of the humeral shank being seated. The rotational torque effect of forearm and hand particularly with the arm in abduction will be minimised at the humeral bone cement interface as the humerus and the prosthetic stem act as a single assembly by the snugly fitting of the prosthetic flange in the humural shaft

  5. The maximum percentage of fly ash to replace part of original Portland cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallisa, Harun; Turuallo, Gidion

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the maximum percent of fly ash to replace part of Orginal Portland Cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete. Many researchers have found that the incorporation of industrial by-products such as fly ash as in producing concrete can improve properties in both fresh and hardened state of concrete. The water-binder ratio was used 0.30. The used sand was medium sand with the maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. The cement was Type I, which was Bosowa Cement produced by PT Bosowa. The percentages of fly ash to the total of a binder, which were used in this research, were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%; while the super platicizer used was typed Naptha 511P. The results showed that the replacement cement up to 25 % of the total weight of binder resulted compressive strength higher than the minimum strength at one day of high-strength concrete.

  6. The hydration of slag, part 2: reaction models for blended cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos

    2007-01-01

    The hydration of slag-blended cement is studied by considering the interaction between the hydrations of slag and Portland cement clinker. Three reaction models for the slag-blended cement are developed based on stoichiometric calculations. These models correlate the compositions of the unhydrated

  7. Wood ash used as partly sand and/or cement replacement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Wood ash (WA) is the residue generated during incineration of wood and wood products. The WAs in focus of this work are from incineration of virgin wood. Physical and chemical properties of WA vary significantly depending on many factors related to the wood species and the incineration process, a...... to use WA as partly cement replacement (percentages the workability was so low that extra water needed to be added and the results depended on the water:cement ratio rather than the ash mass.......Wood ash (WA) is the residue generated during incineration of wood and wood products. The WAs in focus of this work are from incineration of virgin wood. Physical and chemical properties of WA vary significantly depending on many factors related to the wood species and the incineration process...... from the differences in ash characteristics to the properties of the mortar samples. The characteristics of the ashes did vary considerably. For example, one ash had very high loss on ignition (LoI) of 14% compared to 3% for the other ashes. Ash solubility in water ranged from 18% to 28%. Two...

  8. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Lin, Chi-Chang; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-10-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  10. Blooming gelatin: an individual additive for enhancing nanoapatite precipitation, physical properties, and osteoblastic responses of nanostructured macroporous calcium phosphate bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshesh, Ziba; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khanlarkhani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in using natural polymers in the composition of calcium phosphate bone cements to enhance their physical, mechanical, and biological performance. Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed form of collagen, a natural component of bone matrix. In this study, the effect of blooming gelatin on the nanohydroxyapatite precipitation, physical and mechanical properties, and cellular responses of a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) was investigated. Various concentrations of blooming gelatin (2, 5, and 8 wt.%) were used as the cement liquid and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate was used as solid phase. The CPC without any gelatin additive was also evaluated as a control group. The results showed that gelatin accelerated hydraulic reactions of the cement paste, in which the reactants were immediately converted into nanostructured apatite precipitates after hardening. Gelatin molecules induced 4%-10% macropores (10-300 μm) into the cement structure, decreased initial setting time by ~190%, and improved mechanical strength of the as-set cement. Variation in the above-mentioned properties was influenced by the gelatin concentration and progressed with increasing the gelatin content. The numbers of the G-292 osteoblastic cells on gelatin-containing CPCs were higher than the control group at entire culture times (1-14 days), meanwhile better alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using blooming gelatin additive. The observation of cell morphologies on the cement surfaces revealed an appropriate cell attachment with extended cell membranes on the cements. Overall, adding gelatin to the composition of CPC improved the handling characteristics such as setting time and mechanical properties, enhanced nanoapatite precipitation, and augmented the early cell proliferation rate and ALP activity.

  11. The effect of phosphoric and phosphonic acid primers on bone cement bond strength to total hip stem alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowitz, Eike; Liehn, Louisa; Jahnke, Alexander; Wöstmann, Bernd; Rickert, Markus; Niem, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Aseptic loosening at alloy-cement interfaces constitutes a main failure mechanism of cemented total hip replacements (THR). As a potential solution we investigated the effect of metal primers containing phosphoric and phosphonic acid on shear bond strength (SBS) of bone cement to THR alloys (CoCrMo, TiAlNb) and pure tin (Sn) substrates (20×8×3 mm). Metal surfaces were modified by polishing or Al 2 O 3 blasting and primer application. Substrates without primer treatment served as references. Cylindrical cement pins (Ø 5mm) were polymerised onto substrate surfaces and aging (1, 5, 14 and 150 days) was simulated in aqueous NaCl solution (0.9%) before SBS determination and failure mode evaluation. Regardless of surface roughness and aging time, SBS for THR alloys and Sn was always significantly higher with primer treatment. Compared to untreated reference specimens (≤0.2MPa) SBS values increased even up to 350 fold (TiAlNb, 14 days) or 400 fold (CoCrMo, 5 days). In general, the phosphoric acid containing primer revealed significant higher SBS values on THR alloys compared to the phosphonic acid containing one. Al 2 O 3 blasted specimens showed generally higher SBS values than polished ones with the exception of Sn which showed high SBS values in general. With primer treatment on polished Sn a significant reduction of SBS could not be detected even up to 150 days, whereas THR alloys showed only an SBS improvement in the short term (≤14 days). A NaCl-pitting corrosion probably led to an increasing and durable SBS on polished Sn surfaces over time. Compared to modern THR in clinical practice that shows survival rates of 10, 15, 20 or more years, the receivable bond strength enhancements described in this study appeared to be very short. The improved SBS on THR alloys lasted only a few days before it was lost again. In contrast, the phosphoric acid primer treatment of polished Sn appeared to be very promising and may play a key role in further investigations dealing

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of bone cement with different concentrations of brushite; Sintese e avaliacao de cimento osseo com diferentes concentracoes de brushita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morua, O.C.; Cardoso, M.J.B.; Farias, K.A.S.; Barbero, M.A.R.; Carrodeguas, R.G.; Fook, M.V.L., E-mail: cumberbatch.otto@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais; Laboratorio de Desenvolvimento e Avaliacao de Biomateriais (CERTBIO/UFCG), PB (Brazil); Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); AzureBio SL, Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to chemically synthesize brushite bone cement in different compositions and to evaluate the microstructural formation, crystalline phases present and the influence of the compositions and amount of water on the mechanical property of compression resistance. Characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical properties. The XRD results confirmed the presence of the brushite and wollastonite phases. In the SEM it was verified the presence of particle agglomerates of each phase and a reduction of the particle sizes. In mechanical properties, it was observed that the amount of water influenced both the porosity and the compressive strength of the compositions. It was concluded that the synthesized brushite bone cement presented the expected crystalline phases and morphology, both the compositions and the amount of water influenced the mechanical properties of the developed cement. (author)

  13. Mechanical and biological properties of two types of bioactive bone cements containing MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass and glass-ceramic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, J; Kawanabe, K; Kobayashi, M; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T; Yoshihara, S; Shibuya, T

    1996-01-01

    In this study two types of bioactive bone cement containing either MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass (type A) or glass-ceramic powder (type B) were made to evaluate the effect of the crystalline phases on their mechanical and biological properties. Type A bone cement was produced from glass powder and bisphenol-a-glycidyl methacrylate (BIS-GMA) resin, and type B from glass-ceramic powder containing apatite and wollastonite crystals and BIS-GMA resin. Glass or glass-ceramic powder (30, 50, 70, and 80 by wt %) was added to the cement. The compressive strength of type A (153-180 MPa) and B (167-194 MPa) cement were more than twice that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement (68 MPa). Histological examination of rat tibiae showed that all the bioactive cements formed direct contact with the bone. A reactive layer was seen at the bone-cement interface. In specimens with type A cement the reactive layer consisted of two layers, a radiopaque outer layer (Ca-P-rich layer) and a relatively radiolucent inner layer (low-calcium-level layer). With type B cement, although the Ca-P-rich layer was seen, the radiolucent inner layer was absent. Up to 26 weeks there was progressive bone formation around each cement (70 wt %) and no evidence of biodegradation. The mechanical and biological properties of the cements were compared with those of a previously reported bone cement containing MgO-free CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass powder (designated type C).

  14. Effect of cement production on vegetation in a part of southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of cement dust emissions from the factory of West African Portland Cement at Ewekoro in Southwestern Nigeria on the surrounding vegetation was investigated. Sample plots of 20 m x 20 m were established at 1 km intervals from the factory site up to a distance of 10 km intervals from the factory site up to a ...

  15. Simulation of the mechanical behavior of a HIP implant. Implant fixed to bone by cementation under arbitrary load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, C. R.; Dominguez, A. A.

    2007-11-01

    In a previous work a finite elements model was constructed to simulate a fatigue assay according to the norm IRAM 9422-3. Three materials were studied, two of them are the most used in this type of implant (Stainless steel 3161 and alloy T16A14V) and the third was a new developed titanium alloy (Ti35Nb7Zr5Ta). Static loads were applied to the model according to the highest requirements of the norm and the stress - strain distribution were determined. In this study a simplified analysis of the material's fatigue was done according to the previous work. The best behavior of the titanium alloys vs. the stainless steel was evident. With the objective of studying the behavior of both: the implant and the femur bone, new finite elements models were realized, in which the presence of the bone was considered. Inside the bone, the femoral component of the implant was placed in a similar way of a cemented prosthesis in a total hip arthroplasty. The advantage of the titanium implant related to the stainless steel one, was very clear.

  16. Simulation of the mechanical behavior of a HIP implant. Implant fixed to bone by cementation under arbitrary load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldani, C R [Materials Department - FCEFyN - Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av.Velez Sarsfield 1611 (5016) Cordoba (Argentina); Dominguez, A A [INTI Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1561 (5016) Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In a previous work a finite elements model was constructed to simulate a fatigue assay according to the norm IRAM 9422-3. Three materials were studied, two of them are the most used in this type of implant (Stainless steel 3161 and alloy T16A14V) and the third was a new developed titanium alloy (Ti35Nb7Zr5Ta). Static loads were applied to the model according to the highest requirements of the norm and the stress - strain distribution were determined. In this study a simplified analysis of the material's fatigue was done according to the previous work. The best behavior of the titanium alloys vs. the stainless steel was evident. With the objective of studying the behavior of both: the implant and the femur bone, new finite elements models were realized, in which the presence of the bone was considered. Inside the bone, the femoral component of the implant was placed in a similar way of a cemented prosthesis in a total hip arthroplasty. The advantage of the titanium implant related to the stainless steel one, was very clear.

  17. [Influence of the physiological medium on the mechanical properties of bone cement: can current studies be extrapolated?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ruiz, P; Paz, E; Abenojar, J; Del Real, J C; Forriol, F; Vaquero, J

    2014-01-01

    The use of bone cement is widespread in orthopaedic surgery. Most of the mechanical tests are performed in dry medium, making it difficult to extrapolate the results. The objective of this study is to assess if the mechanical properties of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), obtained in previous reports, are still present in a liquid medium. An experimental study was designed with antibiotic (vancomycin) loaded PMMA. Four groups were defined according to the medium (dry or liquid) and the pre-conditioning in liquid medium (one week or one month). Wear and flexural strength tests were performed according to ASTM and ISO standards. Volumetric wear, friction coefficient, tensile strength, and Young's modulus were analyzed. All samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The samples tested in liquid medium showed lower wear and flexural strength values (P<.05). The kind of wear was modified from abrasive to adhesive in those samples studied in liquid medium. The samples with a pre-conditioning time showed lower values of wear (P<.05). Caution is recommended when extrapolating the results of previous PMMA results. The different mechanical strength of the cement in a liquid medium, observed in saline medium, is much closer to the clinical situation. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. A Novel Injectable Magnesium/Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Composite Cement for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanchuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A novel injectable magnesium/calcium sulfate hemihydrate (Mg/CSH composite with improved properties was reported here. Methods. Composition, setting time, injectability, compressive strength, and bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF of the Mg/CSH composite were evaluated. Furthermore, the cellular responses of canine bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs and bone formation capacity after the implantation of Mg/CSH in tibia defects of canine were investigated. Results. Mg/CSH possessed a prolonged setting time and markedly improved injectability and mechanical property p<0.05. Mg/CSH samples showed better degradability than CSH in SBF after 21 days of soaking p<0.05. Moreover, the degrees of cell attachment, proliferation, and capability of osteogenic differentiation on the Mg/CSH specimens were higher than those on CSH, without significant cytotoxicity and with the increased proliferation index, ALP activity, and expression levels of integrin β1 and Coll I in cBMSCs p<0.05. Mg/CSH enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation at the tibia defect area, including the significantly elevated bone mineral density, bone area fraction, and Coll I expression level p<0.05. Conclusions. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold exhibited promising prospects for bone repair and had a great potential in bone tissue engineering.

  19. Impacted bone and calcium phosphate cement for repair of femoral head defects: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, W.H.C.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Schreurs, B.W.; Buma, P.

    2007-01-01

    Bone impaction grafting has been advocated for reconstruction of femoral head osteonecrosis. However, bone grafts do not prevent the progression of collapse and subsequent disabling osteoarthritis in late-stage osteonecrosis. We hypothesized reconstruction of large subchondral defects with a mix of

  20. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Lin, Chi-Chang; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved the physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • Higher CS in the composite, the shorter setting time and the higher DTS was found. • With a CS more than 40%, the osteogenesis and angiogenesis proteins were promoted by

  1. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Jyun [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Dental Department, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chi-Jr [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved the physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • Higher CS in the composite, the shorter setting time and the higher DTS was found. • With a CS more than 40%, the osteogenesis and angiogenesis proteins were promoted by

  2. Umbilical cord stem cells released from alginate-fibrin microbeads inside macroporous and biofunctionalized calcium phosphate cement for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenchuan; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Bao, Chongyun; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2012-01-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a novel biofunctionalized and macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing alginate-fibrin microbeads encapsulating human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs); and (2) investigate hUCMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation inside CPC for the first time. Macroporous CPC was developed using calcium phosphate powders, chitosan, and gas-foaming porogen. Five types of CPCs were fabricated: CPC control, CPC + 0.05% fibronectin (Fn), CPC + 0.1% Fn, CPC + 0.1% Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), and CPC + 0.1% Fn + 0.1% RGD. Alginate-fibrin microbeads containing 106 hUCMSCs/mL were encapsulated in the CPC paste. After CPC had set, the degradable microbeads released hUCMSCs inside CPC. hUCMScs proliferated inside CPC, with cell density at 21 d being 4-fold that at 1 d. CPC + 0.1% RGD had the highest cell density, which was 4-fold that of CPC control. The released cells differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and synthesized bone minerals. hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct had gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen I, which were twice those of CPC control. Mineral synthesis by hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct was 2-fold that in CPC control. RGD and Fn incorporation in CPC did not compromise the strength of CPC, which matched the reported strength of cancellous bone. In conclusion, degradable microbeads released the hUCMSCs which proliferated, differentiated and synthesized minerals inside the macroporous CPC for the first time. CPC with RGD greatly enhanced cell functions. The novel biofunctionalized and macroporous CPC-microbead-hUCMSC construct is promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22391411

  3. Recycled Portland cement concrete pavements : Part II, state-of-the art summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This report constitutes a review of the literature concerning recycling of portland cement concrete pavements by crushing the old pavement and reusing the crushed material as aggregate in a number of applications. A summary of the major projects cond...

  4. Subsidence of titanium straight stems in combination with highly viscous bone cement

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrich, Christian; Sauer, Ulf; Albrecht, Tobias; Rader, Christof P.

    2005-01-01

    Varying results and a high rate of subsidence have been reported for the straight femoral stem (M.E. Müller) made of titanium alloy. We examined subsidence in 135 titanium-alloy straight stems implanted with high viscosity cement after 68.8±11.5 months using a digital high-precision method (EBRA-FCA). One revised implant showed a subsidence of 14.6 mm and another 2.5 mm over 5 years. A third implant without migration was found to be loose. The 122 implants without loosening showed a mean subs...

  5. Evaluation of energy efficiency opportunities of a typical Moroccan cement plant: Part I. Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellaou, S.; Bounahmidi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analyzed the degree of freedom of the overall system. • We validated the redundant measurements by the Lagrange multipliers technique. • We have analyzed the mass and the energy balances by two approaches. • We identified the factors that penalize the energetic performance of the whole plant. • We assessed options to improve energy efficiency of the entire cement plant. - Abstract: The cement industry is one of Morocco’s most highly energy intensive economic sectors. It suffers from abnormally high cost of energy supplies, representing more than two thirds of the cost of cement; the first item of expenditure is electricity and fuel with 40% and 30% respectively. Herefor, much more effort is needed to make the cement sector reach energy saving targets set by the Moroccan energy efficiency strategy. The present work aims to evaluate energy performance of an existing Moroccan cement plant based on a detailed mass and energy balances analysis. Redundant measurements were validated by the Lagrange multipliers technique before being used for the calculation of unmeasured variables. The values for energy consumption and related losses through the whole production line are reported, and the results obtained have been used to assess the energy performance of the process. The evaluation was completed by both an analysis of possible energy loss sources and important solutions described in the international literature to improve the energy efficiency of the entire cement plant.

  6. Soft-tissue Necrosis Complicating Bone-cement Filling in a Patient with Proximal Tibia Giant cell Tumour and Co-morbid Depressive Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Narang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant-cell tumors are common around the knee. Proximal tibia is a challenging location for limb-salvage due to paucity of soft-tissue cover. Bone cement has been used in treatment of giant-cell tumors after curettage. Tissue irritant properties of its monomer and exothermic reaction involved in polymerization may compromise surgical outcome to varying degrees. Preoperative planning and intra-operative positioning during cementing process are of importance to avoid complications. Co-occurrence of psychiatric illness in tumor patients should be managed by psychiatric counselling and drug therapy. This case has been presented to suggest measures for preventing soft-tissue complications during cement filling in proximal tibia, and for dealing with concomitant psychiatric problems for a holistic improvement in tumor patients.

  7. Effect of Self-Adhesive and Separate Etch Adhesive Dual Cure Resin Cements on the Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Dentin at Different Parts of the Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohamadian Amiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bonding of fiber posts to intracanal dentin is challenging in the clinical setting. This study aimed to compare the effect of self-adhesive and separate etch adhesive dual cure resin cements on the bond strength of fiber post to dentin at different parts of the root.Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 20 single-rooted premolars. The teeth were decoronated at 1mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ, and the roots underwent root canal treatment. Post space was prepared in the roots. Afterwards, the samples were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the fiber posts were cemented using Rely X Unicem cement, while in group 2, the fiber posts were cemented using Duo-Link cement, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The intracanal post in each root was sectioned into three segments of coronal, middle, and apical, and each cross-section was subjected to push-out bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 1mm/minute until failure. Push-out bond strength data were analyzed using independent t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.Results: The bond strength at the middle and coronal segments in separate etch adhesive cement group was higher than that in self-adhesive cement group. However, the bond strength at the apical segment was higher in self-adhesive cement group compared to that in the other group. Overall, the bond strength in separate etch adhesive cement group was significantly higher than that in self-adhesive cement group (P<0.001.Conclusions: Bond strength of fiber post to intracanal dentin is higher after the use of separate etch adhesive cement compared to self-adhesive cement.

  8. Human embryonic stem cell-encapsulation in alginate microbeads in macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghui; Chen, Wenchuan; Weir, Michael D.; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine applications because of their strong proliferative ability and multilineage differentiation capability. To date there has been no report on hESC seeding with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The objective of this study was to investigate hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hESCd-MSC) encapsulation in hydrogel microbeads in macroporous CPC for bone tissue engineering. hESCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the MSCs were then migrated out of the EBs. hESCd-MSCs had surface markers characteristic of MSCs, with positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining when cultured in osteogenic medium. hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate at a density of 1 million cells/mL, with an average microbead size of 207 µm. CPC contained mannitol porogen to create a porosity of 64% and macropores with size of 218 µm, with 20% absorbable fibers for additional porosity when the fibers degrade. hESCd-MSCs encapsulated in microbeads in CPC had good viability from 1 to 21 d. ALP gene expression at 21 d was 25-fold that at 1 d. Osteocalcin (OC) at 21 d was two orders of magnitude of that at 1 d. ALP activity in colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay at 21 d was 5-fold that at 1 d. Mineral synthesis by the encapsulated hESCd-MSCs at 21 d was 7-fold that at 1 d. Potential benefits of the CPC-stem cell paste include injectability, intimate adaptation to complex-shaped bone defects, ease in contouring to achieve esthetics in maxillofacial repairs, and in situ setting ability. In conclusion, hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads in macroporous CPC showing good cell viability, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis for the first time. The hESCd-MSC-encapsulating macroporous CPC construct is promising for bone regeneration in a wide range of orthopedic and maxillofacial applications. PMID:22633970

  9. The use of bone age in clinical practice - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D.D.; Caliebe, J.; Binder, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    addressed in part 2). Various manual and automatic methods of BA assessment have been developed. Healthy tall children tend to have advanced BA and healthy short children tend to have delayed BA in comparison to chronological age. Growth hormone (GH) treatment of children with GH deficiency leads to a catch......This review examines the role of skeletal maturity ('bone age', BA) assessment in clinical practice. BA is mainly used in children with the following conditions: short stature (addressed in part 1 of this review), tall stature, early or late puberty, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (all...... of the growth plate to sex steroids, thus further impairing adult height. The assessment of BA provides an important contribution to the diagnostic workup and management of children with short stature....

  10. Effects of loading concentration, blood and synovial fluid on antibiotic release and anti-biofilm activity of bone cement beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusane, Devendra H; Diamond, Scott M; Knecht, Cory S; Farrar, Nicholas R; Peters, Casey W; Howlin, Robert P; Swearingen, Matthew C; Calhoun, Jason H; Plaut, Roger D; Nocera, Tanya M; Granger, Jeffrey F; Stoodley, Paul

    2017-02-28

    Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria. Short-term release into an agar gel was evaluated using a fluorescent tracer (fluorescein) incorporated in the carrier materials calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). Different fluorescein concentrations in CaSO 4 beads were evaluated. Mechanical properties of fluorescein-incorporated beads were analyzed. Efficacy of the antibiotics vancomycin (VAN) or tobramycin (TOB) alone and in combination was evaluated against lawn biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zones of inhibition of cultures (ZOI) were measured visually and using an in-vivo imaging system (IVIS). The influence of body fluids on release was assessed using CaSO 4 beads that contained fluorescein or antibiotics and were pre-coated with human blood or synovial fluid. The spread from the beads followed a square root of time relationship in all cases. The loading concentration had no influence on short-term fluorescein release and pre-coating of beads with body fluids did not affect short-term release or antibacterial activity. Compared to PMMA, CaSO 4 had a more rapid short term rate of elution and activity against planktonic and lawn biofilms. This study highlights the importance of considering antibiotic loading and packing density when investigating the clinical application of bone cements for infection management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF CaO AND P2O5 OF BONE ASH UPON THE REACTIVITY AND THE BURNABILITY OF CEMENT RAW MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMÁŠ IFKA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of CaO and P2O5 upon the reactivity of cement raw meal was investigated in this paper. Ash of bone meal containing Ca3(PO42 - 3CaO·P2O5 was used as the source of P2O5. Two series of samples with different content of the ash of bone meal were prepared. In the first series, the ash of bone was added into cement raw meal. The second series of samples were prepared by considering ash as one of CaO sources. Therefore, the total content of CaO in cement raw meal was kept constant, while the amount of P2O5 increased. These different series of samples were investigated by analyzing free lime content in the clinkers. The XRD analysis and Electron Micro Probe Analyzer analysis of the clinkers were also carried out. Two parameters were used to characterize the reactivity of cement raw meal: content of free lime and Burnability Index (BI calculated from free lime content in both series of samples burnt at 1350 ºC, 1400 ºC, 1450 ºC and 1500 ºC. According to the first parameter, P2O5 content that drastically makes worse the reactivity of cement raw meal was found at 1.11 wt.% in the first series, while this limit has reached 1.52 wt.% in the second one. According to the BI, the limit of P2O5 was found at 1.42 wt. % in the first series and 1, 61 wt.% in the second one. Furthermore, EPMA has demonstrated the presence of P2O5 in both calcium silicate phases forming thus solid solutions.

  12. Evaluation of an accelerated aging medium for acrylic bone cement based on analysis of nanoindentation measurements on laboratory-prepared and retrieved specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gladius; Xu, Jie; Dunne, Nicholas; Daly, Catherine; Orr, John

    2007-05-01

    The thrust of the study was a critical evaluation of the efficacy of a medium (30% v/v H(2)O(2), at 60 degrees C) that has been suggested in a literature report as being suitable for simulating the oxidative aging process, seen in vivo, in the acrylic bone cement mantles of total hip and knee joint replacements. For this purpose, quasi-static and dynamic nanoindentation measurements were used to obtain material properties--elastic modulus, E; hardness, H; and the variation of the storage and loss moduli with the frequency of the applied indenting force--of PalacosR acrylic bone cement specimens after various periods of immersion (7, 14, 21, and 28 days) in the aging solution, and of specimens prepared from cement mantles retrieved from cemented total hip joint replacements after various times in vivo (0.92-21 years). Also, best-fit relationships were obtained between E and time in the H(2)O(2) solution (t), H and t, E and in vivo time (T), and H and T. This body of results points to the possibility that the aging solution is effective, although the evidence is not conclusive.

  13. Real-time synchronous measurement of curing characteristics and polymerization stress in bone cements with a cantilever-beam based instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagummi, Sri Vikram; Landis, Forrest A.; Chiang, Martin Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    An instrumentation capable of simultaneously determining degree of conversion (DC), polymerization stress (PS), and polymerization exotherm (PE) in real time was introduced to self-curing bone cements. This comprises the combination of an in situ high-speed near-infrared spectrometer, a cantilever-beam instrument with compliance-variable feature, and a microprobe thermocouple. Two polymethylmethacrylate-based commercial bone cements, containing essentially the same raw materials but differ in their viscosity for orthopedic applications, were used to demonstrate the applicability of the instrumentation. The results show that for both the cements studied the final DC was marginally different, the final PS was different at the low compliance, the peak of the PE was similar, and their polymerization rates were significantly different. Systematic variation of instrumental compliance for testing reveals differences in the characteristics of PS profiles of both the cements. This emphasizes the importance of instrumental compliance in obtaining an accurate understanding of PS evaluation. Finally, the key advantage for the simultaneous measurements is that these polymerization properties can be correlated directly, thus providing higher measurement confidence and enables a more in-depth understanding of the network formation process.

  14. Periodontal regeneration using an injectable bone cement combined with BMP-2 or FGF-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Meijer, G.J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a frequently diagnosed oral disease characterized by bone resorption and soft tissue loss around teeth. Unfortunately, currently available therapies only slow or arrest progress of the disease. Ideally, treatment of periodontal defects should be focused on complete regeneration of

  15. [The relationship between angle of puncture and distribution of bone cement of unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty for the treatment of thoracolumbar compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-fu; Fan, You-fu; Shi, Rui-fang; Deng, Qiang; Li, Zhong-feng

    2015-08-01

    To explore the relationship of bone cement distribution and the puncture angle in the treatment of thoracolumbar compression fractures with unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). The clinical data of 37 patients with thoracolumbar osteoporotic compression fractures underwent PKP between January 2013 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed, all punctures were performed unilaterally. There were 6 males, aged from 65 to 78 years old with an average of (71.83 ± 6.15) years; and 31 females, aged from 57 to 89 years old with an average of (71.06 ± 7.89) years. Imaging data were analyzed and puncture angle and puncture point were measured before operation. According to the measured data, the puncture were performeds during the operation. Distribution area of bone cement were calculated by X-rays data after operation. The effect of bone cement distribution on suitable puncture angle was analyzed; VAS score was used to evaluate the clinical effects. The puncture angle of thoracic vertebrae in T8-T12 was from 28° to 33° with an average 30.4°; and the puncture angle of lumbar vertebrae in L1-L5 was from 28° to 35° with an average of 31.3°. Postoperative X-rays showed the area ratios of bilateral bone cement was 0.97 ± 0.15. Bilateral diffuse area were basic equal. Postoperative VAS score decreased significantly (1.89 ± 1.29 vs 7.03 ± 1.42). Through measure imaging data before operation with PKP,the puncture point and entry point can be confirmed. According the measured data to puncture during operation, unilateral puncture can reach the distribution effect of the bilateral puncture in the treatment of thoracolumbar compression fractures.

  16. Radon exhalation of cementitious materials made with coal fly ash: Part 1 - scientific background and testing of the cement and fly ash emanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovler, K.; Perevalov, A.; Steiner, V.; Metzger, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in measuring radionuclides and radon concentrations in fly ash, cement and other components of building products is due to the concern of health hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The current work focuses on studying the influence of fly ash (FA) on radon-exhalation rate (radon flux) from cementitious materials. The tests were carried out on cement paste specimens with different FA contents. The first part of the paper presents the scientific background and describes the experiments, which we designed for testing the radon emanation of the raw materials used in the preparation of the cement-FA pastes. It is found that despite the higher 226 Ra content in FA (more than 3 times, compared with Portland cement) the radon emanation is significantly lower in FA (7.65% for cement vs. 0.52% only for FA)

  17. Mineral trioxide aggregate and other bioactive endodontic cements: an updated overview - part I: vital pulp therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, M; Torabinejad, M; Dummer, P M H

    2018-02-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a bioactive endodontic cement (BEC) mainly comprised of calcium and silicate elements. The cement was introduced by Torabinejad in the 1990s and has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to be used in the United States in 1997. A number of new BECs have also been introduced to the market, including BioAggregate, Biodentine, BioRoot RCS, calcium-enriched mixture cement, Endo-CPM, Endocem, EndoSequence, EndoBinder, EndoSeal MTA, iRoot, MicroMega MTA, MTA Bio, MTA Fillapex, MTA Plus, NeoMTA Plus, OrthoMTA, Quick-Set, RetroMTA, Tech Biosealer and TheraCal LC. It has been claimed that these materials have properties similar to those of MTA without its drawbacks. In this article, the chemical composition and the application of MTA and other BECs for vital pulp therapy (VPT), including indirect pulp cap, direct pulp cap, partial pulpotomy, pulpotomy and partial pulpectomy, have been reviewed and compared. Based on selected keywords, all papers regarding chemical composition and VPT applications of BECs had been reviewed. Most of the materials had calcium and silicate in their composition. Instead of referring to the cements based on their chemical compositions, we suggest the term 'bioactive endodontic cements (BECs)', which seems more appropriate for these materials because, in spite of differences in their chemical compositions, bioactivity is a common property for all of them. Numerous articles were found regarding use of BECs as VPT agents for indirect and direct pulp capping, partial pulpotomy and cervical pulpotomy. Most of these investigations used MTA for VPT. In most studies, newly introduced materials have been compared to MTA. Some of the BECs have shown promising results; however, the number of their studies compared to investigations on MTA is limited. Most studies had several methodological shortcomings. Future investigations with rigorous methods and materials are needed. © 2017 International Endodontic

  18. The effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sukardi, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for bone filling applications. Hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized via hydrothermal method using calcium oxide, CaO and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4 as the calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The effects of calcium excess were evaluated by varying the CaO content at 0, 5 and 15 mole %. The precursors were then refluxed in distilled water at 90-100°C and dried overnight until the calcium phosphate powder was formed. CPC was then produced by mixing the synthesized powder with distilled water at the powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratio of 1.5. The result from the morphological properties of CPC shows the increase in agglomeration and particles size with 5 mole % of calcium excess but decreased with 15 mole % of calcium excess in CPC. This result was in agreement with the compressive strength result where the CPC increased its strength with 5 mole % of calcium excess but reduced with 15 mole % of calcium excess. The excess in calcium precursor also significantly improved the setting time but reduced the injectability of CPC.

  19. Comparison of Cemented and Bone Ingrowth Fixation Methods in Hip Resurfacing for Osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ryan J; Gaillard, Melissa D; Gross, Thomas P

    2017-02-01

    The optimal surgical treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head has yet to be elucidated. To evaluate the role of femoral fixation techniques in hip resurfacing, we present a comparison of the results for 2 consecutive groups: group 1 (75 hips) received hybrid hip resurfacing implants with a cemented femoral component; group 2 (103 hips) received uncemented femoral components. Both groups received uncemented acetabular components. We retrospectively analyzed our clinical database to compare failures, reoperations, complications, clinical results, metal ion test results, and X-ray measurements. Using consecutive groups caused time interval bias, so we required all group 2 patients to be at least 2 years out from surgery; we compared results from 2 years and final follow-up. Patient groups matched similarly in age, body mass index, and percent female. Despite similar demographics, the uncemented, group 2 cases showed a lower raw failure rate (0% vs 16%; P < .0001), a lower 2-year failure rate (0% vs 7%; P = .04), and a superior 8-year implant survivorship (100% vs 91%; log-rank P = .0028; Wilcoxon P = .0026). In cases that did not fail, patient clinical (P = .05), activity (P = .02), and pain scores (P = .03), as well as acetabular component position (P < .0001), all improved in group 2, suggesting advancements in surgical management. There were no cases of adverse wear-related failure in either group. This study demonstrates a superior outcome for cases of osteonecrosis with uncemented hip resurfacings compared to cases employing hybrid devices. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Potential of Tricalcium Silicate-based Cements Using Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Neha; Singh, Manisha; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Chaudhry, Sarika; Yadav, Seema; Mohanty, Sujata; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2018-03-01

    The success of endodontic regeneration lies in the appropriate combination of stem cells and bioactive materials. Several novel dental materials are available on the market in this regard. Hence, the current study aimed to evaluate the proliferation, differentiation, and osteogenic potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) onto biomaterials like ProRoot MTA (MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), Biodentine (BD; Septodont, Saint Maur de Fosses, France), and EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA). Dental cements were formulated into discs and assessed for their biocompatibility. hBMSCs were used to study biocompatitibility and the proliferative and osteogenic potential of these dental cements. A live dead assay was performed using confocal microscopy to study the biocompatibility, proliferation, and cell attachment property of the cements. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was also performed on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 to study growth kinetics. The osteogenic potential of these cements was studied by inducing hBMSCs over them using osteogenic differentiation medium (assessed by alkaline phosphatase assay). ERRM and MTA have shown the best biocompatibility among the tricalcium silicate materials used with no significant difference between them. Both have shown significantly higher osteogenic bioactivity than BD. All 3 tricalcium silicate cements support good adherence of hBMSCs. All of the dental cements used in this study are biocompatible with the potential to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Therefore, the newly introduced ERRM can be the material of choice in various endodontic applications. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Current status of implant-abutment--part 1: abutments for cemented versus screw retained restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, N; Livne, S; Piek, D; Marku-Cohen, S; Ormianer, Z

    2012-01-01

    Fixed implant supported single crowns and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) have become an accepted treatment option for replacing and restoring missing teeth. Recent systematic reviews summarized excellent 5- and 10-year survival rates for both reconstruction types. In screw-retained restorations, the fastening screw provides a solid joint between the restoration and the implant abutment or between the restoration and the implant itself. With cement-retained prostheses, this restorative screw is eliminated for many reasons: esthetics, occlusal stability, and fabrication of passively fitting restorations. The purpose of this article is to review the variety of implant-abutments available for fabrication of fixed implant-supported restoration and compare between the various abutment forms (screw vs. cement retained).

  2. Nano‑calcium phosphate bone cement based on Si-stabilized α-tricalcium phosphate with improved mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbahani, M; Alehosseini, M; Kharaziha, M; Emadi, R

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to develop nano‑calcium phosphate cement (nCPC) and evaluate the effect of nanosized precursors on mechanical, physical and handling properties (injectability and setting time) as well as conversion rate of nano-reactants into nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). In this study, while alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP, 98wt%) and HA (2wt%) were applied as the powder phase, 2.5wt% NaH 2 PO 4 solution was used as liquid phase of cement. Before nano-CPC preparation, Si-stabilized α-TCP nanopowder with particle size of 10±3.6nm was firstly synthesized in a two-step process of sol-gel followed by mechanical alloying. Moreover, HA nanopowder with particle size of 32±3.6nm was synthesized using sol-gel process. Our results revealed that after 3days of immersion in ringer's solution, reactants almost completely converted to nHA. Moreover, the initial and final setting time of nano-CPC was obtained 6.3±2.1min and 14.3±4.0min, respectively. Furthermore, injectability of this formulation was reached 87.90±2.60%. In addition, our results confirmed that the compressive strength and modulus of nano-CPC enhanced with increasing immersion time in ringer's solution from 9.50±1.27MPa and 0.38±0.07GPa (at 1day) to 18.70±2.23MPa and 0.57±0.15GPa (at 5days), respectively. Finally, in order to evaluate cellular responses to nano-CPC, MG63 cells were cultured on it and cell morphology and cytotoxicity were evaluated. Results revealed that nano-CPC enhanced proliferation and spreading of osteoblast like cells compared to control (tissue culture plate) which could be due to both appropriate physical and chemical properties of nano-CPC which stimulate cell proliferation. Our findings suggest the formation of an injectable nano-CPC with appropriate mechanical, physical and degradation rate which can potentially utilized for filling bone defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Outcome of long-axis percutaneous sacroplasty for the treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures with a radiofrequency-induced, high-viscosity bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, Katrin [University of Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); J. W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan; Vogl, Thomas J. [University of Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Mack, Martin G. [Radiology Munich, Munich (Germany); Marzi, Ingo [University of Frankfurt, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Our goal was to assess the technical results in patients who underwent long-axis sacroplasty for the treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures (SIF) by radiofrequency-induced high-viscosity bone cement augmentation. Twelve patients with bilateral sacral fractures were treated by augmentation with radiofrequency-activated, high-viscosity polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement under local anesthesia. CT-guided sacroplasty was performed by using a long-axis approach through a single entry point. Thirty-six vertebrae were treated in 12 sessions under a combination of CT and fluoroscopic guidance using a bilateral access and a cavity-creating osteotome prior to remote-controlled, hydraulically driven cement injection. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score before sacroplasty and at 1 and 3 months after the treatment was obtained. PMMA leaks were evaluated retrospectively using the post-interventional CT. The mean amount of high-viscosity PMMA injected per patient was 7.8 ml. No major adverse events were observed. In the first 4 days after the procedure, the mean VAS score decreased from 8.1 ± 1.9 to mean 3.1 ± 1.2 and was followed by a gradual but continuous decrease throughout the rest of the follow-up period at 24 weeks (mean 2.2 ± 1.1) and 48 weeks (mean 2.1 ± 1.4). CT fluoroscopy-guided sacral augmentation was safe and effective in all 12 patients with osteoporotic SIF. (orig.)

  4. Characteristics of Bone Tissue and Composite Materials on the Basis of Natural Hydroxyapatite and Endodontic Cement for Replacement of the Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipenkov, V. V.; Rupeks, L. E.; Vitins, V. M.; Knets, I. V.; Kasyanov, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    New biocomposites and the cattle bone tissue were investigated. The composites were made from an endodontic cement (EC) and natural hydroxyapatite (NHAp.) The results of experiments performed by the method of infrared spectroscopy showed that protein was removed from the heat-treated specimens of bone tissue practically completely. The structure of bone tissue before and after deproteinization and the structure of the composite materials based on NHAp and EC (with different percentage) were investigated by the method of optical microscopy. The characteristics of mechanical properties (the initial elastic modulus, breaking tensile and compressive stresses, and breaking strain) and the density and porosity of these materials were determined. The new composite materials were implanted in the live tissue of rat. Biocompatibility between the live tissue and the new biocomposites was estimated.

  5. Cement composite delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, F R; Devine, S D; Hollis, J M; Woo, S L

    1986-09-01

    Several new and innovative techniques have recently been introduced that purport to increase the strength of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement. One of these concepts is the use of carbon and polymer fibers to form a cement composite. Bone cement composites usually 1% fiber, are very difficult to use clinically. The composite is very sticky and viscous, which precludes effective hand packing or the use of conventional delivery systems. A new delivery system for very viscous materials is presented and examples of in vitro application are shown.

  6. Bone morphometry and mineral contents of the distal part of the fractured third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Oikawa, M.; Wada, R.; Hasegawa, M.; Kaneko, M.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the bone fractures in racehorses occur in the fore limb, especially in the metacarpal joint during the racing and training. The longitudinal fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc III) often occurs in the osteosclerotic and/or necrotic lesions in the distal part of the bone. To elucidate the endogenous factors of its fracture, soft radiograms of 4 fractured and 4 non-fractured control cases have been investigated morphometrically by a image analyzer. In addition, to analyze the quality of these bones, 20 elements of mineral contents in the crashed bones have been measured using a fluorescent X-ray analyzer. As the results, the osteosclerotic change was observed in both groups in the plantar side of the distal part of Mc III, however, no significant differences were found in the bone morphometry. No significant differences in the 19 elements of bone mineral were found except Fe. From these findings, the mechanism of the occurrence of the longitudinal fracture in the Mc III remains to be elucidated. In future, further work needs to be done with regard to the mechanical intensity and collagen disposition of the distal part of the Mc III

  7. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027) into...

  8. Ternary blended cement concrete. Part I: early age properties and mechanical strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is ample information in the literature on the mechanical performance and durability of concrete made with either limestone or granulated blast furnace slag,very little is known about the effect of the combined action of these two additions on concrete properties. The present paper evaluates the early stage properties and mechanical strength of binary and ternary cement concrete containing up to 18% limestone and 20% granulated blast furnace slag. The results show that the use of ternary cements has no substantial effect on concrete setting time, although it does reduce bleeding and enhance mechanical strength with respect to unadditioned Portland and/or binary cement concrete.En la bibliografía existe abundante información acerca del comportamiento mecánico y durable de hormigones elaborados con la incorporación individual de caliza y de escoria granulada de alto horno. Sin embargo, la modificación de las propiedades por la acción conjunta de las mismas es prácticamente desconocida. En este trabajo se evalúan las propiedades en estado fresco y el comportamiento mecánico de hormigones elaborados con cementos compuestos binarios y ternarios conteniendo hasta 18% de caliza y 20% de escoria granulada de alto horno. Los resultados indican que la utilización de cementos ternarios en hormigones no modifican sustancialmente el tiempo de fraguado, disminuyen la exudación y presentan un mejor comportamiento mecánico que los hormigones elaborados con cemento Portland sin adición y/o binarios.

  9. Histological Analysis of the Effect of Accelerated Portland Cement as a Bone Graft Substitute on Experimentally-Created Three-Walled Intrabony Defects in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Javad Ashraf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Recent literature shows that accelerated Portland cement (APC is a non-toxic material that may have potential to promote bone healing. The objective of this study was to histologically evaluate periodontal healing focusing on new bone regeneration following implantation of APC into intra-bony defects in dogs.

    Materials and methods. Three-wall intra-bony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mesial aspect of the first molar in both sides of mandible in six dogs. One side was randomly filled with the material and other received a flap operation only. The animals were euthanized eight weeks post-surgery when block sections of the defect sites were collected and prepared for qualitative histological analysis.

    Results. Compared to control group, stimulation of growth of new bone tissue in the cavity containing APC was significantly prominent in three of six cases, showing osteoid formation with osteoblastic rimming and new bone trabeculla. New bone formation was observed just close to cavity containing APC. Connective tissue proliferation and downgrowth of epithelium were significantly less than those of control group.

    Conclusion. Our results are encouraging for the use of APC as a bone substitute, but more comprehensive study are necessary before warranting clinical use.

  10. [Preparation and ectopic osteoinduction study of macroporous bone substitute with calcium phosphate cements and rhBMP-2 loaded gelatin microspheres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Liu, Xu-dong; Liu, Xing-yan; Ge, Bao-feng

    2011-05-01

    To prepare macroporous bone substitute composed of calcium phosphate cements and rhBMP-2 loaded gelatin microspheres, and to investigate ectopic osteoinduction of the composite. After being prepared by improved emulsified cold-condensation method and crosslinked by 5% genipin solution,gelatin microspheres (GMs) were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and loaded with rhBMP-2 by adsorption. Macroporous bone substitute was developed by mixing calcium phosphate cement (CPC) with 2.5% GMs, being as the experimental group,and CPC with rhBMP-2 was the control group. After the both composites had been soaked in the sodium chloride for 1 week or 3 weeks, compressive strength of the composites were tested, and the cross-sections were observed by SEM. Concentrations of rhBMP-2 in the solutions at different time by ELISA method and the cumulative drug release amount was calculated. The composites had been implanted in the muscle bags of the mouses for 3 weeks. Then the tissues around the materials were collected, stained by hematoxylin and eosin, and Ca and ALP in the tissues were also measured. Gelatin microspheres were spherical with diameters of (62 +/- 18) microm. Macropores appeared in the experimental materials 1 week and 3 weeks after being soaked,and total porosity, macroporosity, cumulative release amount of rhBMP-2 in the experimental group were higher than that in the control. But compressive strength of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group 3 weeks after being soaked. Results of HE stain showed chondral formation in both groups, but there were more chondral tissues in the experiment group, and so were the concentrations of Ca and ALP. Macroporous calcium phosphate cement can be prepared by using rhBMP-2 loaded gelatin microspheres, and it is an excellent bone substitute due to it's proterty of promoting rhBMP release and powerful ectopic osteoinduction.

  11. Cimento ósseo com gentamicina no tratamento da infecção óssea: estudo da eluição in vitro Bone cement and gentamIcin in the treatment of bone infection: background and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Lemos Azi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as características de eluição da gentamicina. MÉTODO: 480mg de gentamicina foram adicionadas a 40g de cimento ósseo. Dez corpos de teste semelhantes foram produzidos e imersos individualmente em solução salina tamponada por 28 dias. Amostras dos dias 1, 2, 7, 14, 21 e 28 foram analisadas pelo método de imunofluorescência polarizada. RESULTADO: A maior parte da gentamicina foi liberada do cimento nas primeiras 24 horas. Uma queda gradual se deu do 2° ao 14° dia. No 28° dia, a maior parte das amostras não apresentava mais níveis detectáveis do antibiótico. CONCLUSÃO: A mistura liberou quantidades elevadas e em doses terapêuticas do antibiótico de forma previsível ate o décimo quarto dia.OBJECTIVE: To determine the elution characteristics of the antibiotic (gentamicin mixed with bone cement. METHODS: 480mg of gentamicin was added to 40g of bone cement. Ten specimens were immersed in buffered saline solution for 28 days. Samples of days 1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were analyzed by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. RESULTS: Most of the gentamicin was eluted from the cement in the first 24 hours. A gradual downslide occurred between days 2 and 14. By the 28th day, there was no trace of the antibiotic. CONCLUSION: The mixture released high amounts of the antibiotic in a predictable (therapeutic manner during at least fourteen days.

  12. Self-setting properties and in vitro bioactivity of Ca2SiO4/CaSO4.1/2H2O composite bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhiguang; Chang, Jiang; Huang, Xiang-Hui

    2008-11-01

    In this study, a biphasic injectable bone substitute based on beta-dicalcium silicate (Ca(2)SiO(4)) and plaster of Paris (CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O) is presented, and its behavior as cement was studied and compared to that of pure Ca(2)SiO(4) paste. The results demonstrated that the setting time of the workable Ca(2)SiO(4)/CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O pastes was only 15 min, which was significantly reduced as compared to that of the Ca(2)SiO(4) paste (100 min), and the composite showed higher short- and long-term mechanical strength (3.25 and 37.2 MPa, respectively) than those of the Ca(2)SiO(4) paste (0.2 and 24.6 MPa). Similar to the pure Ca(2)SiO(4) paste, the composite paste could induce apatite formation in simulated body fluid within a short period and degrade in Ringer's solution. Moreover, the degradation rate could be adjusted by modifying the content of the plaster within the composite cement. These results suggested that the addition of the plaster significantly improved the self-setting properties of the Ca(2)SiO(4) paste, and the bioactive composite cement could be a prospective candidate for further investigation as self-setting tissue-repairing substitute.

  13. Four-year follow-up of a polymethyl methacrylate-based bone cement graft for optimizing esthetics in maxillary anterior implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Érica Miranda De; Naldi, Luis Fernando; Bernades, Karina Oliveira; Carvalho, Alexandre Leite

    2017-01-01

    Tooth loss promotes bone and gingival tissue remodeling, thus breaking the harmony between the residual ridge and natural teeth. This is critical in the anterior region of the mouth, and the integration of several dental specialties is often essential to successful rehabilitation with implants. This article describes a multidisciplinary approach to implant-supported oral rehabilitation in the maxillary anterior region, presenting a new technique for optimizing esthetics in implants. A 19-year-old woman was missing her central and lateral incisors and had 2 dental implants in the lateral incisor sites. The patient exhibited deficient thickness of the alveolar edge, loss of lip support, and absence of gingival architecture, and the implants were improperly placed. A multidisciplinary team created a correct emergence profile through a polymethyl methacrylate-based bone cement graft along with connective tissue grafts. This technique may be a useful therapeutic adjunct in dental implantology, showing good predictability and regular healing procedures.

  14. Regulation of physicochemical properties, osteogenesis activity, and fibroblast growth factor-2 release ability of β-tricalcium phosphate for bone cement by calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Tze; Hung, Chi-Jr; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-04-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPC) and studied its behavior. The results showed that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites was enhanced as the CS content was increased. For composites with more than 50% CS contents, the samples were completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 19%, 24%, 33%, 42%, and 51% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 70%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by FGF-2 released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of FGF-2 in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives a strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Preparation, characterization and investigation of in vitro and in vivo biological properties of strontium-modified calcium phosphate cement for bone defect repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Masaeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the invitro and invivo performance of a 3 wt% of strontium additive hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cements (CPC. Materials and Methods: The prepared calcium phosphate cement was characterized with XRD, FTIR, setting time, STA and in vitro and in vivo biological analyses. The MTT assay ALP activities as in vitro study and radiological and histological examinations as in vivo study between the three groups of 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and control were performed and compared. Data were analyzed using T-test and One-way ANOVA. Results: XRD analysis demonstrated that by increasing the ratio of Powder/Liquid (P/L, the crystallinity of the prepared cement increased. The substitution of strontium instead of calcium in CPC could also alter the crystal structure, including some structural disorder. However, in the CPC with no strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA, no significant increase in the crystallinity was observed. SEM observations revealed CPC with increasing P/L ratio, the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals arising from the interaction of solid and liquid phase of cement was decreased. Also, the addition of Sr within Ca site culminated in a dramatic increase in crystallinity of hydroxyapatite. In vitro biological properties ascertained that addition of 3 wt. % Sr-HA into CPC enhanced MTT assay and ALP activity, which could be due to the presence of strontium ions. The histological study showed that greater remodeling was seen at 4 weeks after implantation when the 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC was used. Conclusion: The obtained results cleared that CPC can be a potential candidate as a carrier with strontium additives for bone remodeling and regeneration.

  16. Acceleration of bone regeneration by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway via lithium released from lithium chloride/calcium phosphate cement in osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Peng, Xiaozhong; Qin, Yongbao; Wang, Renchong; Tang, Jingli; Cui, Xu; Wang, Ting; Liu, Wenlong; Pan, Haobo; Li, Bing

    2017-03-01

    By virtue of its excellent bioactivity and osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been applied extensively in bone engineering. Doping a trace element into CPC can change physical characteristics and enhance osteogenesis. The trace element lithium has been demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. We investigated the fracture-healing effect of osteoporotic defects with lithium-doped calcium phosphate cement (Li/CPC) and the underlying mechanism. Li/CPC bodies immersed in simulated body fluid converted gradually to hydroxyapatite. Li/CPC extracts stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts upon release of lithium ions (Li+) at 25.35 ± 0.12 to 50.74 ± 0.13 mg/l through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vitro. We also examined the effect of locally administered Li+ on defects in rat tibia between CPC and Li/CPC in vivo. Micro-computed tomography and histological staining showed that Li/CPC had better osteogenesis by increasing bone mass and promoting repair in defects compared with CPC (P osteoporosis.

  17. The use of bone age in clinical practice - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D.D.; Binder, Gitte Sommer; Ranke, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    and measures of bone lengths, width, thickness and cortical thickness should always be evaluated in relation to a child's height and BA, especially around puberty. The use of skeletal maturity, assessed on a radiograph alone to estimate chronological age for immigration authorities or criminal courts...

  18. Pedicle screw design and cement augmentation in osteoporotic vertebrae: effects of fenestrations and cement viscosity on fixation and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Theodore J; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Swope, Ryan W; Hirner, Jesse P

    2012-12-15

    Experimental, human cadaveric study. To assess the fixation effects of injecting cement augmentation before screw insertion or after insertion of fenestrated screws; the effect of modulating cement viscosity; and the effects of these techniques on screw removal. It seems clear that cement augmentation can enhance pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. What remains to be demonstrated is the aspects of optimal technique such that fixation is enhanced with the greatest safety profile. Part I: Human osteoporotic vertebrae were instrumented with solid (nonaugmented) screws, solid screws with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), partially cannulated fenestrated (Pfen) screws, or fully cannulated fenestrated (Ffen) screws through which PMMA was injected. Screw fixation was tested in pullout. Part II: Ffen screws were augmented with standard low-viscosity PMMA versus high-viscosity PMMA. Part III: Sample cohorts were extracted from vertebrae to assess required torque and characterize difficulty of extraction. Part I: Pfen screws demonstrated the greatest fixation with mean failure force of 690 ± 182 N. All methods of cement augmentation demonstrated significant increases in screw fixation. Part II: Ffen screws did not demonstrate a significant difference in pullout strength when high-viscosity PMMA was used as compared with low-viscosity PMMA. Part III: Mean extraction torque values for solid augmented screws, Ffen screws, and Pfen screws were 1.167, 1.764, and 1.794 Nm, respectively, but these differences did not reach significance. None of the osteoporotic vertebrae sustained catastrophic failure during augmented screw extraction. Polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation clearly enhances pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic vertebrae when tested in pure pullout. The technique used for cement injection and choice of specialty screws can have a significant impact on the magnitude of this effect. Fenestrated screws have the capacity to confine cement placement in the

  19. Mineral trioxide aggregate and other bioactive endodontic cements: an updated overview - part II: other clinical applications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, M; Parirokh, M; Dummer, P M H

    2018-03-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a dental material used extensively for vital pulp therapies (VPT), protecting scaffolds during regenerative endodontic procedures, apical barriers in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices, perforation repairs as well as root canal filling and root-end filling during surgical endodontics. A number of bioactive endodontic cements (BECs) have recently been introduced to the market. Most of these materials have calcium and silicate in their compositions; however, bioactivity is a common property of these cements. These materials include the following: BioAggregate, Biodentine, BioRoot RCS, calcium-enriched mixture cement, Endo-CPM, Endocem, EndoSequence, EndoBinder, EndoSeal MTA, iRoot, MicroMega MTA, MTA Bio, MTA Fillapex, MTA Plus, Neo MTA Plus, Ortho MTA, Quick-Set, Retro MTA, Tech Biosealer, and TheraCal LC. It has been claimed that these materials have properties similar to those of MTA but without the drawbacks. In Part I of this review, the available information on the chemical composition of the materials listed above was reviewed and their applications for VPT was discussed. In this article, the clinical applications of MTA and other BECs will be reviewed for apexification, regenerative endodontics, perforation repair, root canal filling, root-end filling, restorative procedures, periodontal defects and treatment of vertical and horizontal root fractures. In addition, the literature regarding the possible drawbacks of these materials following their clinical applications is reviewed. These drawbacks include their discolouration potential, systemic effects and retreatability following use as a root filling material. Based on selected keywords, all publications were searched regarding the use of MTA as well as BECs for the relevant clinical applications. Numerous publications were found regarding the use of BECs for various endodontic applications. The majority of these investigations compared BECs with MTA. Despite

  20. Regulation of physicochemical properties, osteogenesis activity, and fibroblast growth factor-2 release ability of β-tricalcium phosphate for bone cement by calcium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ching-Chuan [Antai Medical Care Cooperation Antai Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chia-Tze; Hung, Chi-Jr [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Jyun [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Dental Department, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tsui-Hsien, E-mail: thh@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPC) and studied its behavior. The results showed that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites was enhanced as the CS content was increased. For composites with more than 50% CS contents, the samples were completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 19%, 24%, 33%, 42%, and 51% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 70%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by FGF-2 released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of FGF-2 in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives a strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • The higher the CS in the cement, the shorter the setting time and the higher the DTS. • The cell behavior was stimulated by FGF-2 released from composite containing 50% CS. • β-TCP/CS composite with FGF-2 has optimal properties for

  1. Regulation of physicochemical properties, osteogenesis activity, and fibroblast growth factor-2 release ability of β-tricalcium phosphate for bone cement by calcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ching-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Tze; Hung, Chi-Jr; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPC) and studied its behavior. The results showed that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites was enhanced as the CS content was increased. For composites with more than 50% CS contents, the samples were completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 19%, 24%, 33%, 42%, and 51% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 70%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by FGF-2 released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of FGF-2 in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives a strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • The higher the CS in the cement, the shorter the setting time and the higher the DTS. • The cell behavior was stimulated by FGF-2 released from composite containing 50% CS. • β-TCP/CS composite with FGF-2 has optimal properties for

  2. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering, part III: allografts, bone grafting and bone banking in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    During the 20th century, allograft implantation waned in popularity as a clinical activity. Reports appeared in the literature describing several small series of patients in whom bone was obtained from amputation specimens or recently deceased individuals. The concept of bone banking became a reality during and after World War II when the National Naval Tissue Bank was established in Bethesda and a number of small banks sprang up in hospitals throughout the world. Small fragments, either of cortical or medullary bone, from these banks were used heterotopically to augment spinal fusions, to implant into cyst cavities, or to serve as a scaffolding for repair of non- or delayed union of fractures of the long bones.

  3. The effect of plaster (CaSO4 ·1/2H2O) on the compressive strength, self-setting property, and in vitro bioactivity of silicate-based bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Wu, Chengtie; Liu, Weining; Zhai, Wanyin; Chang, Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Bone cements have been widely used for orthopedic applications. Previous studies have shown that calcium silicon-based bone cements (CSC) were injectable, bioactive, biodegradable, and mechanically strong in the long term, while their short-term compressive strength was low and setting time was too long. On the other hand, plaster (CaSO(4)·1/2H(2)O, POP) sets quickly upon contact with water and has excellent short-term compressive strength. The aim of this study is to prepare CSC/POP composite cements and investigate the effect of POP on the compressive strength, setting time, injectability, degradation, and in vitro bioactivity of the composite cements. The results have shown that POP content plays an important role to modulate the physicochemical property of CSC. The addition of POP into CSC significantly decreased the initial and final setting time and enhanced the short-term compressive strength and degradation rate. The obtained composite cement with 30% POP has been found to possess optimal setting time and short-term compressive strength. In addition, the prepared composite cements still maintain apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids and their ionic extracts have no significant cytotoxicity to L929 cells. The results suggested that the addition of POP into CSC is a viable method to improve their setting properties and short-term compressive strength. The obtained composite cements with the optimized composition of 70% CSC and 30% POP could be potentially used for bone repair application. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Femoral Component Revision with Use of Impaction Bone-Grafting and a Cemented Polished Stem: A Concise Follow-up, at Fifteen to Twenty Years, of a Previous Report*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Stroet, M.A.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Rijnen, W.H.C.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported our results for thirty-three consecutive femoral component revisions with impaction bone-grafting, performed with the X-change femoral revision system and a cemented polished Exeter stem, at a minimum of eight years of follow-up. The present updated study shows the results

  5. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study of the early hydration of α-tricalcium phosphate/tricalcium silicate composite bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon-Alonso, Loreley; Correa, Jose Raul, E-mail: lmorejon@fq.uh.cu [Departamento de Quimica General, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, UH (Cuba); Motisuke, Mariana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carrodeguas, Raul Garcia [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Desenvolvimento de Biomateriais do Nordeste; Santos, Luis Alberto dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais

    2015-01-15

    Bioactivity, osteogenicity and mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) based phosphates cements can be improved by adding tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S); however, the addition of C{sub 3}S delays the precipitation and growth of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Thus, the aim of this work was the study of in situ setting reaction of α-TCP/C{sub 3}S composite bone cement under high energy X-ray generated by a synchrotron source within the first 72h. The results showed that the addition of C{sub 3}S induces the precipitation of nanosized CDHA at early times depending on the added content. Calculated crystallite sizes showed that the higher the content of C{sub 3}S, the smaller the crystal size at the beginning of the precipitation. These results are different from those obtained by conventional XRD method, suggesting that the proposed technique is a powerful tool in determining the composition and extent of reaction of CPCs surfaces in real time. (author)

  6. AICRG, Part II: Crestal bone loss associated with the Ankylos implant: loading to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cherng-Tzeh; Morris, Harold F; Ochi, Shigeru; Walker, Lori; DesRosiers, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The Ankylos endosseous dental implant is a new implant design that will be available in the United States in early 2004. It features an internal tapered abutment connection, a smooth polished collar without threads at the coronal part of the implant body, and a roughened surface with variable threads on the body of the implant fixture. A precise, tapered, conical abutment connection eliminates the microgap often found in 2-stage implant systems. This microgap may allow the accumulation of food debris and bacteria, as well as micromovement between the parts during clinical function, both of which can lead to a localized inflammation and crestal bone loss. The purpose of this section of the study was to assess any crestal bone loss associated with this new implant. The clinical performance of this new implant design was studied under well-controlled clinical conditions. Over 1500 implants were placed and restored. The vertical crestal bone loss was measured "directly" between the time of implant placement and uncovering, using a periodontal probe. Serial dental radiographs were taken between loading, and the 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up visits to determine "indirect" crestal bone loss within a specific period. Bone loss varied among the participating centers from less than 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm. The largest amount of bone loss occurred between the time of placement and uncovering. Following loading, the mean bone loss for all implants for a period of 3 years was about 0.2 mm/y. The extent of the crestal bone loss after loading was minimal for patients regardless of age, gender, prosthetic applications, bone density, and remote or crestal incisions, as well as for smokers or nonsmokers. Bone loss per year is well within the guidelines of 0.2 mm/y proposed by others.

  7. Effects of loading concentration, blood and synovial fluid on antibiotic release and anti-biofilm activity of bone cement beads

    OpenAIRE

    Dusane, Devendra H.; Diamond, Scott M.; Knecht, Cory S.; Farrar, Nicholas R.; Peters, Casey W.; Howlin, Robert P.; Swearingen, Matthew C.; Calhoun, Jason H.; Plaut, Roger D.; Nocera, Tanya M.; Granger, Jeffrey F.; Stoodley, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and l...

  8. The quantity of bone cement influences the anchorage of augmented pedicle screws in the osteoporotic spine: A biomechanical human cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishnamaz, Miguel; Lange, Henning; Herren, Christian; Na, Hong-Sik; Lichte, Philipp; Hildebrand, Frank; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Kobbe, Philipp

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this comparative biomechanical human cadaveric study was to investigate the anchorage of augmented screws with two different volumes of bone cement. For this purpose the effect of cranio-caudal loadings on pedicle screws was evaluated and axial pullout tests were performed. A total of 50 pedicle screws (25 augmented/25 non-augmented) were instrumented into osteoporotic vertebra of fresh human cadavers. The augmented screws were grounded by two different volumes of bone cement (1.5cm 3 vs 4cm 3 ). Biomechanical performance was assessed by performing a cyclic loading protocol (frequency: 3Hz, load range: 20-200N, number of cycles: 100,000), followed by axial pullout (13 augmented/11 non-augmented) or by either directly measuring axial pullout strength (12 augmented/12 non-augmented). The median T-score of the specimens was -4.25 (range: -6.38 to -2.4). Pullout tests with and without cyclic preloading showed significantly increased pullout strength in augmented screws (Fmax: augmented: 1159N (SD 395N); non-augmented: 532N (SD 297N); p0.05). The pullout strength significantly decreased in high-volume augmented screws after cyclic loading (Fmax (4.0cm 3 ): direct pullout 1463N (SD 307N); cyclic preload: 902N (SD 435N); p<0.05). Biomechanical advantages of augmented pedicle screws can also be found after cyclic preload. However, our results indicate that the anchoring stability of high-volume augmented pedicle screws after cyclic loading is disadvantageous compared to moderate augmented screws; thus high-volume augmentation should be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subsequent Vertebral Fractures Post Cement Augmentation of the Thoracolumbar Spine: Does it Correlate With Level-specific Bone Mineral Density Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Hwee Weng, Dennis Hey; Tan, Jun Hao; Jun, Hao Tan; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chuen, Seng Tan; Tan, Hsi Ming Bryan; Ming, Bryan Tan Hsi; Lau, Puang Huh Bernard; Huh, Bernard Lau Puang; Hee, Hwan Tak; Hwan, Tak Hee

    2015-12-01

    A case-control study. In this study, we investigated the correlation between level-specific preoperative bone mineral density and subsequent vertebral fractures. We also identified factors associated with subsequent vertebral fractures. Complications of cement augmentation of the spine include subsequent vertebral fractures, leading to unnecessary morbidity and more treatment. Ability to predict at-risk vertebra will help guide management. We studied all patients with osteoporotic compression fractures who underwent cement augmentation in a single institution from November 2001 to December 2010 by a single surgeon. Association between level-specific bone mineral density T-scores and subsequent fractures was assessed. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify significant factors associated with subsequent vertebral fractures. 93 patients followed up for a mean duration of 25.1 months (12-96) had a mean age of 76.8 years (47-99). Vertebroplasty was performed in 58 patients (62.4%) on 68 levels and kyphoplasty in 35 patients (37.6%) on 44 levels. Refracture was seen in 16 patients (17.2%). The time to subsequent fracture post cement augmentation was 20.5 months (2-90). For refracture cases, 43.8% (7/16) fractured in the adjacent vertebrae. Subsequently fractured vertebra had a mean T-score of -2.860 (95% confidence interval -3.268 to -2.452) and nonfractured vertebra had a mean T-score of -2.180 (95% confidence interval -2.373 to -1.986). A T-score of -2.2 or lower is predictive of refracture at that vertebra (P = 0.047). Odds ratio increases with decreasing T-scores from -2.2 or lower to -2.6 or lower. A T-score of -2.6 or lower gives no additional predictive advantage. After multivariable analysis, age (P = 0.049) and loss of preoperative anterior vertebral height (P = 0.017) are associated with refracture. Level-specific T-scores are predictive of subsequent fractures and the odds ratio increases with lower T-scores from -2.2 or less to -2.6 or less. They

  10. Physical and chemical characterization of pastes of bone cements with ZrO{sub 2}; Caracterizacion fisica y quimica de pastas de cementos oseos con ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto H, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Zacatepec, A.P. 45, 62900 Zacatepec, Morelos (Mexico); Pina B, M.C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Setting times and temperature of sixteen calcium phosphate cements added with ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated. Their behaviors were analysed to be used like injectable formulations in surgery of bone. Two cements of calcium phosphates enriched with ZrO{sub 2} with the best characteristics in setting times and temperature, were mechanically tested after 1 and 7 days of prepared. Density was determined using a pycnometer, chemical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and the molecular structure was determined by infrared spectroscopy. (Author)

  11. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in blended cement Part 1: Processing and characterization of MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J E; Husson, B; Sarramone, N

    2006-08-25

    This paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the processes applied to MSWI fly ash with a view to reusing it safely in cement-based materials. Part 1 presents two stabilization processes and Part 2 deals with the use of the two treated fly ashes (TFA) in mortars. Two types of binder were used: an Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) containing more than 95% clinker (CEM I 52.5R) and a binary blend cement composed of 70% ground granulated blast furnace slag and 30% clinker (CEM III-B 42.5N). In this first part, two stabilization processes are presented: the conventional process, called "A", based on the washing, phosphation and calcination of the ash, and a modified process, called "B", intended to eliminate metallic aluminum and sulfate contained in the ash. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the two TFA were comparable. The main differences observed were those expected, i.e. TFA-B was free of metallic aluminum and sulfate. The mineralogical characterization of the two TFAs highlighted the presence of large amounts of a calcium aluminosilicate phase taking two forms, a crystalline form (gehlenite) and an amorphous form. Hydration studies on pastes containing mixed TFA and calcium hydroxide showed that this phase reacted with calcium hydroxide to form calcium aluminate hydrates. This formation of hydrates was accompanied by a hardening of the pastes. These results are very encouraging for the reuse of such TFA in cement-based materials because they can be considered as pozzolanic additions and could advantageously replace a part of the cement in cement-based materials. Finally, leaching tests were carried out to evaluate the environmental impact of the two TFAs. The elements which were less efficiently stabilized by process A were zinc, cadmium and antimony but, when the results of the leaching tests were compared with the thresholds of the European landfill directive, TFA-A could nevertheless be accepted at landfills for non

  12. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium phosphate and polymethylmethacrylate bone cements on root ends prepared using an Erbium: Yttriumaluminium garnet laser and ultrasonics evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C Sabari; Ponnappa, KC; Girish, TN; Ponappa, MC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical endodontic therapy comprises of exposure of the involved root apex, resection of the apical end of the root, preparation of a class I cavity, and insertion of a root end filling material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is now the gold standard among all root end filling materials. MTA is however difficult to handle, expensive and has a very slow setting reaction. Aim: (1) To compare the sealing ability of MTA, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and CHITRA Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) when used as root end filling material using Rhodamine B dye evaluated under a confocal laser scanning microscope. (2) To compare the seal of root ends prepared using an ultrasonic retroprep tip and an Er: YAG laser using three different root end filling materials. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and Scheffe's post hoc test using SPSS Version 16 for Windows. Results: All the three materials, namely MTA, PMMA BONE CEMENT and CHITRA CPC, showed microleakage. Comparison of microleakage showed maximum peak value of 0.86 mm for MTA, 0.24 mm for PMMA bone cement and 1.37 mm for CHITRA CPC. The amount of dye penetration was found to be lesser in root ends prepared using Er: YAG laser when compared with ultrasonics, but the difference was found to be not statistically significant. Conclusion: PMMA bone cement is a better material as root end filling material to prevent apical microleakage. MTA still continues to be a gold standard root end filling material showing minimum microleakage. Er: YAG laser is a better alternative to ultrasonics for root end preparations. PMID:23956530

  13. A modelling approach demonstrating micromechanical changes in the tibial cemented interface due to in vivo service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, P.; Miller, M.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Mann, K.A.; Janssen, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Post-operative changes in trabecular bone morphology at the cement-bone interface can vary depending on time in service. This study aims to investigate how micromotion and bone strains change at the tibial bone-cement interface before and after cementation. This work discusses whether the morphology

  14. A modelling approach demonstrating micromechanical changes in the tibial cemented interface due to in vivo service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Priyanka; Miller, Mark A.; Verdonschot, Nico; Mann, Kenneth A.; Janssen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Post-operative changes in trabecular bone morphology at the cement-bone interface can vary depending on time in service. This study aims to investigate how micromotion and bone strains change at the tibial bone-cement interface before and after cementation. This work discusses whether the morphology

  15. Osteogenic capacity of nanocrystalline bone cement in a weight-bearing defect at the ovine tibial metaphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Christoph; Helms, Kai; Taschner, Tibor; Stratos, Ioannis; Ignatius, Anita; Gerber, Thomas; Lenz, Solvig; Rammelt, Stefan; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic material Nanobone(®) (hydroxyapatite nanocrystallines embedded in a porous silica gel matrix) was examined in vivo using a standardized bone defect model in the ovine tibial metaphysis. A standardized 6 × 12 × 24-mm bone defect was created below the articular surface of the medial tibia condyles on both hind legs of 18 adult sheep. The defect on the right side was filled with Nanobone(®), while the defect on the contralateral side was left empty. The tibial heads of six sheep were analyzed after 6, 12, and 26 weeks each. The histological and radiological analysis of the defect on the control side did not reveal any bone formation after the total of 26 weeks. In contrast, the microcomputed tomography analysis of the defect filled with Nanobone(®) showed a 55%, 72%, and 74% volume fraction of structures with bone density after 6, 12, and 26 weeks, respectively. Quantitative histomorphological analysis after 6, and 12 weeks revealed an osteoneogenesis of 22%, and 36%, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin sections demonstrated multinucleated giant cells on the surface of the biomaterial and resorption lacunae, indicating osteoclastic resorptive activity. Nanobone(®) appears to be a highly potent bone substitute material with osteoconductive properties in a loaded large animal defect model, supporting the potential use of Nanobone(®) also in humans.

  16. Osteogenic capacity of nanocrystalline bone cement in a weight-bearing defect at the ovine tibial metaphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittlmeier T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Harms,1 Kai Helms,1 Tibor Taschner,1 Ioannis Stratos,1 Anita Ignatius,5 Thomas Gerber,2 Solvig Lenz,3 Stefan Rammelt,6 Brigitte Vollmar,4 Thomas Mittlmeier11Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, 2Department for Materials Research and Nanostructures, Institute for Physics, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, 4Institute for Experimental Surgery, University of Rostock, Rostock, 5Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, University of Ulm, Ulm, 6Clinic of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital "Carl Gustav Carus", Dresden, GermanyAbstract: The synthetic material Nanobone® (hydroxyapatite nanocrystallines embedded in a porous silica gel matrix was examined in vivo using a standardized bone defect model in the ovine tibial metaphysis. A standardized 6 × 12 × 24-mm bone defect was created below the articular surface of the medial tibia condyles on both hind legs of 18 adult sheep. The defect on the right side was filled with Nanobone®, while the defect on the contralateral side was left empty. The tibial heads of six sheep were analyzed after 6, 12, and 26 weeks each. The histological and radiological analysis of the defect on the control side did not reveal any bone formation after the total of 26 weeks. In contrast, the microcomputed tomography analysis of the defect filled with Nanobone® showed a 55%, 72%, and 74% volume fraction of structures with bone density after 6, 12, and 26 weeks, respectively. Quantitative histomorphological analysis after 6, and 12 weeks revealed an osteoneogenesis of 22%, and 36%, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin sections demonstrated multinucleated giant cells on the surface of the biomaterial and resorption lacunae, indicating osteoclastic resorptive activity. Nanobone® appears to be a highly potent bone substitute material with osteoconductive properties in a loaded large animal defect model, supporting the potential use of Nanobone® also in

  17. Using Cementitious Materials Such as Fly Ash to Replace a Part of Cement in Producing High Strength Concrete in Hot Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuallo, Gidion; Mallisa, Harun

    2018-03-01

    The use of waste materials in concrete gave many advantages to prove the properties of concrete such as its workability, strength and durability; as well to support sustaianable development programs. Fly ash was a waste material produced from coal combustion. This research was conducted to find out the effect of fly ash as a part replacement of cement to produce high strength concrete. The fly ash, which was used in this research, was taken from PLTU Mpanau Palu, Central Sulawesi. The water-binder ratio used in this research was 0.3 selected from trial mixes done before. The results of this research showed that the strength of fly ash concretes were higher than concrete with PCC only. The replacement of cement with fly ash concrete could be up to 20% to produce high strength concrete.

  18. What is the risk of death or severe harm due to bone cement implantation syndrome among patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur? A patient safety surveillance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Paul D; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Darzi, Ara; Donaldson, Liam J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of death or severe harm due to bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) among patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur. Setting Hospitals providing secondary and tertiary care throughout the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants Cases reported to the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) in which the reporter clearly describes severe acute patient deterioration associated with cement use in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur (assessed independently by two reviewers). Outcome measures Primary—number of reported deaths, cardiac arrests and periarrests per year. Secondary—timing of deterioration and outcome in relation to cement insertion. Results Between 2005 and 2012, the NRLS received 62 reports that clearly describe death or severe harm associated with the use of cement in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur. There was one such incident for every 2900 hemiarthroplasties for fractured neck of femur during the period. Of the 62 reports, 41 patients died, 14 were resuscitated from cardiac arrest and 7 from periarrest. Most reports (55/62, 89%) describe acute deterioration occurring during or within a few minutes of cement insertion. The vast majority of deaths (33/41, 80%) occurred on the operating table. Conclusions These reports provide narrative evidence from England and Wales that cement use in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur is associated with instances of perioperative death or severe harm consistent with BCIS. In 2009, the National Patient Safety Agency publicised this issue and encouraged the use of mitigation measures. Three-quarters of the deaths in this study have occurred since that alert, suggesting incomplete implementation or effectiveness of those mitigation measures. There is a need for stronger evidence that weighs the risks and benefits of cement in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur. PMID

  19. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patients Receiving Bone-Targeted Therapies: An Overview--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Ali, Sacha; Pati, Jhumur; Nargund, Vinod; Ali, Enamul; Cheng, Leo; Wells, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Urologic patients receiving bone-targeted therapies are at risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). ONJ has historically been associated with bisphosphonate therapy. More recently, RANK-Ligand inhibitors (denosumab) have also been used to reduce the risk of skeletal-related events in patients who have advanced cancers with bone metastases. More than 65% of men with metastatic prostate cancer and nearly 75% of women with metastatic breast cancer are affected by bone metastases. The literature has described ONJ associated with bisphosphonate therapy as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). However, with evidence also linking the use of RANK-Ligand inhibitors with osteonecrosis of the jaw, we advocate use of the term "anti-bone resorption therapy-related osteonecrosis of the jaw" (ABRT-ONJ). The term "medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw" (MRONJ) is now becoming more widespread. There is not a universally accepted definition of ABRT-ONJ, which may have hindered recognition and reporting of the condition. In Part I of this article, a review of current knowledge around the etiology of ABRT-ONJ and incidence data are provided. In Part II, we provide an audit of ONJ in a nurse consultant-led bone support clinic. In the article, we refer to zoledronic acid because this is the bisphosphonate of choice for use in men with prostate cancer in the United Kingdom.

  20. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  1. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto

    2013-04-01

    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Superficial Vancomycin Coating of Bone Cement in Orthopedic Revision Surgery: A Safe Technique to Enhance Local Antibiotic Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerstorfer, Florian; Fischerauer, Stefan; Sadoghi, Patrick; Schwantzer, Gerold; Kuehn, Klaus Dieter; Leithner, Andreas; Glehr, Mathias

    2017-05-01

    The use of antibiotic-loaded cement has become a well-accepted method to develop high local antibiotic concentrations in revision surgery of infected arthroplasty. A new surgical technique has been established to further increase the local antibiotic concentration and thereby minimizes the risk of reinfection. Our study aim was to investigate the safety of additional superficial vancomycin coating (SVC) by analyzing postoperative joint and serum vancomycin concentrations, as well as the creatinine levels of patients with orthopedic revision surgery. A longitudinal case series was performed by reviewing collected data of patients who were treated by SVC during revision surgery (1- or 2-stage exchange) because of prosthetic joint infections. Vancomycin levels were obtained, local from drains and systemic from blood samples, on postoperative days 1 to 5. Furthermore, preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels were analyzed. Highest median local vancomycin levels were documented on postoperative day 1 with 546.8 μg/mL (range, 44.4-1485 μg/mL) in the reimplantation group and 408.7 μg/mL (range, 24.7-1650 μg/mL) in the spacer group. Median serum vancomycin level was 4.4 μg/mL (range, vancomycin without leading to systemic side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delivering MC3T3-E1 cells into injectable calcium phosphate cement through alginate-chitosan microcapsules for bone tissue engineering*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peng-yan; Li, Fang-fang; Dong, Li-min; Xu, Tao; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To deliver cells deep into injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) through alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules and investigate the biological behavior of the cells released from microcapsules into the CPC. Methods: Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in alginate and AC microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. The two types of cell-encapsulating microcapsules were then mixed with a CPC paste. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was investigated using a Wst-8 kit, and osteogenic differentiation was demonstrated by an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell attachment in CPC was observed by an environment scanning electron microscopy. Results: Both alginate and AC microcapsules were able to release the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells when mixed with CPC paste. The released cells attached to the setting CPC scaffolds, survived, differentiated, and formed mineralized nodules. Cells grew in the pores concomitantly created by the AC microcapsules in situ within the CPC. At Day 21, cellular ALP activity in the AC group was approximately four times that at Day 7 and exceeded that of the alginate microcapsule group (Pmicrocapsules had a diameter of several hundred microns and were spherical compared with those formed by alginate microcapsules. Conclusions: AC microcapsule is a promising carrier to release seeding cells deep into an injectable CPC scaffold for bone engineering. PMID:24711359

  4. Delivering MC3T3-E1 cells into injectable calcium phosphate cement through alginate-chitosan microcapsules for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peng-yan; Li, Fang-fang; Dong, Li-min; Xu, Tao; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2014-04-01

    To deliver cells deep into injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) through alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules and investigate the biological behavior of the cells released from microcapsules into the CPC. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in alginate and AC microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. The two types of cell-encapsulating microcapsules were then mixed with a CPC paste. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was investigated using a Wst-8 kit, and osteogenic differentiation was demonstrated by an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell attachment in CPC was observed by an environment scanning electron microscopy. Both alginate and AC microcapsules were able to release the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells when mixed with CPC paste. The released cells attached to the setting CPC scaffolds, survived, differentiated, and formed mineralized nodules. Cells grew in the pores concomitantly created by the AC microcapsules in situ within the CPC. At Day 21, cellular ALP activity in the AC group was approximately four times that at Day 7 and exceeded that of the alginate microcapsule group (Pmicrocapsules had a diameter of several hundred microns and were spherical compared with those formed by alginate microcapsules. AC microcapsule is a promising carrier to release seeding cells deep into an injectable CPC scaffold for bone engineering.

  5. Peri-implant conditions and marginal bone loss around cemented and screw-retained single implant crowns in posterior regions: A retrospective cohort study with up to 4 years follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yu Shi

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the peri-implant conditions (bleeding on probing (BOP, pocket probing depth (PPD, modified plaque index (mPI and marginal bone loss (MBL, marginal bone level change between follow-up and occlusal loading around cemented and screw-retained posterior single crowns on tissue-level implants. The study was a retrospective cohort study with up to 4 years (mean 2.5 years follow-up. Patients with either cemented or screw-retained crowns in posterior regions were included. Implant survival, technical complications, BOP, PPD, mPI, MBL, biologic complications (peri-implant mocositis and peri-implantitis were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the difference between the screw-retained group (SG and cemented group (CG. 176 patients (SG: 94, CG: 82 were included. The implant survival rates were 100% in SG and 98.8% in CG. Prosthetic screw loosening was found in 8 restorations (8.7% at follow-up visit. Peri-implant mucositis rate was significantly higher in the SG group (42.1% than that in the CG group (32.2% (P = 0.04. Six patients (6.38% in the screw-retained group and 5 patients (6.10% in the cemented group were diagnosed with peri-implantitis, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05. No significant difference of PPD, mPI and MBL were found between two groups (P = 0.11, 0.13 and 0.08, respectively. High implant survival rates were achieved in both groups. Cemented single crowns on tissue-level implants showed comparable peri-implant conditions in comparison with two-piece screw-retained crowns. Well-designed prospective cohort or randomized controlled clinical trials with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the result.

  6. Peri-implant conditions and marginal bone loss around cemented and screw-retained single implant crowns in posterior regions: A retrospective cohort study with up to 4 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun-Yu; Jie-Ni; Zhuang, Long-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Fan, Lin-Feng; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the peri-implant conditions (bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD), modified plaque index (mPI)) and marginal bone loss (MBL, marginal bone level change between follow-up and occlusal loading) around cemented and screw-retained posterior single crowns on tissue-level implants. The study was a retrospective cohort study with up to 4 years (mean 2.5 years) follow-up. Patients with either cemented or screw-retained crowns in posterior regions were included. Implant survival, technical complications, BOP, PPD, mPI, MBL, biologic complications (peri-implant mocositis and peri-implantitis) were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the difference between the screw-retained group (SG) and cemented group (CG). 176 patients (SG: 94, CG: 82) were included. The implant survival rates were 100% in SG and 98.8% in CG. Prosthetic screw loosening was found in 8 restorations (8.7%) at follow-up visit. Peri-implant mucositis rate was significantly higher in the SG group (42.1%) than that in the CG group (32.2%) (P = 0.04). Six patients (6.38%) in the screw-retained group and 5 patients (6.10%) in the cemented group were diagnosed with peri-implantitis, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). No significant difference of PPD, mPI and MBL were found between two groups (P = 0.11, 0.13 and 0.08, respectively). High implant survival rates were achieved in both groups. Cemented single crowns on tissue-level implants showed comparable peri-implant conditions in comparison with two-piece screw-retained crowns. Well-designed prospective cohort or randomized controlled clinical trials with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the result.

  7. The GDF5 mutant BB-1 enhances the bone formation induced by an injectable, poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) fiber-reinforced, brushite-forming cement in a sheep defect model of lumbar osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnella, Francesca; Kunisch, Elke; Maenz, Stefan; Horbert, Victoria; Xin, Long; Mika, Joerg; Borowski, Juliane; Bischoff, Sabine; Schubert, Harald; Sachse, Andre; Illerhaus, Bernhard; Günster, Jens; Bossert, Jörg; Jandt, Klaus D; Plöger, Frank; Kinne, Raimund W; Brinkmann, Olaf; Bungartz, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    Targeted delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins (eg, GDF5) in bioresorbable calcium phosphate cement (CPC), potentially suitable for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures, may be required to counteract augmented local bone catabolism and to support complete bone regeneration. The biologically optimized GDF5 mutant BB-1 may represent an attractive drug candidate for this purpose. The aim of the current study was to test an injectable, poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) fiber-reinforced, brushite-forming CPC containing low-dose BB-1 in a sheep lumbar osteopenia model. This is a prospective experimental animal study. Bone defects (diameter 5 mm) were generated in aged, osteopenic female sheep and were filled with fiber-reinforced CPC alone (L4; CPC+fibers) or with CPC containing different dosages of BB-1 (L5; CPC+fibers+BB-1; 5, 100, and 500 µg BB-1; n=6 each). The results were compared with those of untouched controls (L1). Three and 9 months after the operation, structural and functional effects of the CPC (±BB-1) were analyzed ex vivo by measuring (1) bone mineral density (BMD); (2) bone structure, that is, bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (assessed by micro-CT and histomorphometry), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular number (Tb.N); (3) bone formation, that is, osteoid volume/bone volume (OV/BV), osteoid surface/bone surface (OS/BS), osteoid thickness, mineralizing surface/bone surface (MS/BS), mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate/bone surface; (4) bone resorption, that is, eroded surface/bone surface; and (5) compressive strength. Compared with untouched controls (L1), CPC+fibers (L4) and/or CPC+fibers+BB-1 (L5) significantly improved all parameters of bone formation, bone resorption, and bone structure. These effects were observed at 3 and 9 months, but were less pronounced for some parameters at 9 months. Compared with CPC without BB-1, additional significant effects of BB-1 were

  8. Design and manufacture of Portland cement - application of sensitivity analysis in exploration and optimisation Part II. Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2006-01-01

    A program for a model-based optimisation has been developed. The program contains two subprograms. The first one does minimising or maximising constrained by one original PLS-component or one equal to a combination of several. The second one does searching for the optimal combination of PLS-compo......-components, which gives max or min y. The program has proved to be applicable for achieving realistic results for implementation in the design of Portland cement with respect to performance and in the quality control during production....

  9. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  10. Effect of silane treatment and different resin compositions on biological properties of bioactive bone cement containing apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, W F; Kobayashi, M; Kitamura, Y; Zeineldin, I A; Nakamura, T

    1999-12-05

    In methylmethacrylate (MMA)-based cements containing bioactive particles, polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) is known to suppress the bioactivity of Bioglass(R) and apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC). Little is known about the effect of different silane treatment methods on the bioactivity of AW-GC. MMA-based cement plates containing dry silanated AW-GC particles and PMMA particles of different molecular weights (12,000-900,000) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cements containing PMMA particles of high molecular weight formed an apatite layer on the surface after 24 h. Using PMMA particles with a molecular weight of 60,000 and AW-GC particles silanated with different methods (dry method vs. slurry method), cement plates were made and immersed in SBF. Only cement plates containing dry silanated AW-GC particles showed apatite formation in SBF after 3 days. In vivo implantation in rat tibias of MMA-based cement containing dry silanated AW-GC particles and PMMA particles (molecular weight 900,000) demonstrated an affinity index of 32.1 +/- 15.8% after 8 weeks of implantation compared to 89.4 +/- 10.7% achieved by bisphenol-A-glycidyl methacrylate based cement containing the same bioactive powder. By using a dry method of silane treatment and high molecular weight PMMA particles, the bioactivity of cement based on MMA monomer was achieved; but further effort is needed to improve the mechanical properties of the composite. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Management of cesium loaded AMP- Part I preparation of 137Cesium concentrate and cementation of secondary wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.; Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-11-01

    Separation of 137 cesium from High Level Waste can be achieved by use of composite-AMP, an engineered form of Ammonium Molybdo-Phosphate(AMP). Direct vitrification of cesium loaded composite AMP in borosilicate glass matrix leads to separation of water soluble molybdate phase. A proposed process describes two different routes of selective separation of molybdates and phosphate to obtain solutions of cesium concentrates. Elution of 137 Cesium from composite-AMP by decomposing it under flow conditions using saturated barium hydroxide was investigated. This method leaves molybdate and phosphate embedded in the column but only 70% of total cesium loaded on column could be eluted. Alternatively composite-AMP was dissolved in sodium hydroxide and precipitation of barium molybdate-phosphate from the resultant solution, using barium nitrate was investigated by batch methods. The precipitation technique gave over 99.9% of 137 Cesium activity in solutions, free of molybdates and phosphates, which is ideally suited for immobilization in borosilicate glass matrix. Detailed studies were carried out to immobilize secondary waste of 137 Cesium contaminated barium molybdate-phosphate precipitates in the slag cement matrix using vermiculite and bentonite as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from the cement matrix blocks was 0.05 in 140 days while the 137 Cs leach rate was 0.001 gm/cm 2 /d. (author)

  12. In vitro and in vivo study of commercial calcium phosphate cement HydroSet™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Niall W; Blunn, Gordon; Karpukhina, Natalia; Davis, Graham; de Godoy, Roberta Ferro; Wilson, Rory M; Coathup, Melanie; Onwordi, Lyris; Quak, Wen Yu; Hill, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The commercial calcium phosphate cement, HydroSet™, was investigated in vitro, studying phase formation, compressive strength and setting time, followed by an ovine in vivo study to measure osseointegration, bone apposition and bone-to-graft contact. The X-ray diffraction and 31 P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) results showed the initial formation of octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite at one hour. Over 7 days the octacalcium phosphate transformed to apatite, which was the only crystalline phase of the cement at 28 days. This apatite phase is thought to be a calcium deficient apatite. In the scanning electron microscopy, histological images of 12-week ovine in vivo results showed a high degree of osseointegration, 92.5%. Compressive strength comparisons between in vitro and in vivo measurements showed a dramatic difference between the in vitro measurements (highest 25.4 MPa) and in vivo (95 MPa), attributed to bone ingrowth into the cement in vivo. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time phase evolution of HydroSet™ and the properties studied in vitro complement the in vivo evaluation of the cement in a publication. The significance of the new finding of initial formation of octacalcium phosphate in this cement is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 21-30, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  14. Use of a strontium-enriched calcium phosphate cement in accelerating the healing of soft-tissue tendon graft within the bone tunnel in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, G M; Yau, W P; Lu, W W; Chiu, K Y

    2013-07-01

    We investigated whether strontium-enriched calcium phosphate cement (Sr-CPC)-treated soft-tissue tendon graft results in accelerated healing within the bone tunnel in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A total of 30 single-bundle ACL reconstructions using tendo Achillis allograft were performed in 15 rabbits. The graft on the tested limb was treated with Sr-CPC, whereas that on the contralateral limb was untreated and served as a control. At timepoints three, six, nine, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery, three animals were killed for histological examination. At six weeks, the graft-bone interface in the control group was filled in with fibrovascular tissue. However, the gap in the Sr-CPC group had already been completely filled in with new bone, and there was evidence of the early formation of Sharpey fibres. At 24 weeks, remodelling into a normal ACL-bone-like insertion was found in the Sr-CPC group. Coating of Sr-CPC on soft tissue tendon allograft leads to accelerated graft healing within the bone tunnel in a rabbit model of ACL reconstruction using Achilles tendon allograft.

  15. Better primary stability with porous titanium particles than with bone particles in cemented impaction grafting: An in vitro study in synthetic acetabula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walschot, L.H.B.; Aquarius, R.; Schreurs, B.W.; Buma, P.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Aims Impaction bone grafting creates new bone stock after hip joint replacement. Utilizing a synthetic bone substitute instead of bone might increase primary stability and is not associated with graft shortage and pathogen transmission. This study compares the initial stability of a graft layer of

  16. Cemented or cementless total knee arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudhon Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since 1996 we have been using cementless fixation with hydroxyapatite (HA coating. The purpose of this paper is to compare survivorship of a series of 100 cemented Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA to a similar series of 100 cementless with a follow up of 11–16 years. Material methods: Both TKA are mobile bearing total knee postero-stabilized. They can be used with cement or without cement. Among 1030 New Wave TKATM implanted from 2002 to 2015 we have identified 100 cemented TKAs and 100 cementless TKAs. All these cases were primary replacement. Differences in survival probability were determined using log-rank test. Results: Survival probabilities at 11 years of follow-up were: Cemented group: 90.2% CI95% [81.9–94.8]; Cementless group: 95.4% CI95% [88.1–98.2]. Comparison between both group showed significant difference, p = 0.32. Discussion: The advantages of cementless TKA are bone stock preservation, cement debris protection and the potential to achieve biologic fixation. Cementless implants rely on a porous or roughened surface to facilitate bone formation. HA has been shown to accelerate bone integration and to decrease micro motion of the components and to increase fixation. With a survival probability of 90.2% (cemented version and 95.4% (cementless version, this total knee prosthesis performs as intended in primary total knee arthroplasty. No statistical differences could be found between cemented and cementless implants.

  17. 21 CFR 888.3790 - Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis... constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis is a... as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, and is limited to those prostheses intended for use with bone cement...

  18. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 2: respiratory, cardiac, bone health, and orthopaedic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnkrant, David J; Bushby, Katharine; Bann, Carla M; Alman, Benjamin A; Apkon, Susan D; Blackwell, Angela; Case, Laura E; Cripe, Linda; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Olson, Aaron K; Sheehan, Daniel W; Bolen, Julie; Weber, David R; Ward, Leanne M

    2018-01-01

    A coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to care is essential for optimum management of the primary manifestations and secondary complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Contemporary care has been shaped by the availability of more sensitive diagnostic techniques and the earlier use of therapeutic interventions, which have the potential to improve patients’ duration and quality of life. In part 2 of this update of the DMD care considerations, we present the latest recommendations for respiratory, cardiac, bone health and osteoporosis, and orthopaedic and surgical management for boys and men with DMD. Additionally, we provide guidance on cardiac management for female carriers of a disease-causing mutation. The new care considerations acknowledge the effects of long-term glucocorticoid use on the natural history of DMD, and the need for care guidance across the lifespan as patients live longer. The management of DMD looks set to change substantially as new genetic and molecular therapies become available. PMID:29395990

  19. Acetabular defect reconstruction with impacted morsellized bone grafts or TCP/HA particles. A study on the mechanical stability of cemented cups in an artificial acetabulum model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.B.T.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Schreurs, B.W.; Buma, P.

    2002-01-01

    In revision surgery of the acetabulum bone defects can be filled with impacted human morsellized bone grafts. Because of a worldwide limited availability of human bone, alternatives are being considered. In this study we compared the initial stability of acetabular cups after reconstructing a

  20. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  1. Calcium phosphate cements properties with polymers addition; Propriedades do cimento de fosfato de calcio com adicao de polimeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.M.; Trajano, W.T.; Escobar, C.F.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: julianafernandes2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have attracted great interest to use in orthopedics and dentistry as replacements for damaged parts of the skeletal system, showing good biocompatibility and osseointegration, allowing its use as bone graft. Several studies have shown that the addition of polymer additives have a strong influence on the cement properties. The low mechanical strength is the main obstacle to greater use of CPC as an implant material. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of a cement based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), added polymers. PVA (10%, 8%, 6%), sodium alginate (2%) and polyacrylate ammonia (3%), all in weight, were added to the synthesized α-TCP powder. The samples were molded and evaluated for density, porosity in vitro test (Simulated Body Fluid), crystalline phases and mechanical strength. The results show increased the mechanical properties of the cement when added these polymers.

  2. Metals for bone implants. Part 1. Powder metallurgy and implant rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andani, Mohsen Taheri; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael J; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    New metal alloys and metal fabrication strategies are likely to benefit future skeletal implant strategies. These metals and fabrication strategies were looked at from the point of view of standard-of-care implants for the mandible. These implants are used as part of the treatment for segmental resection due to oropharyngeal cancer, injury or correction of deformity due to pathology or congenital defect. The focus of this two-part review is the issues associated with the failure of existing mandibular implants that are due to mismatched material properties. Potential directions for future research are also studied. To mitigate these issues, the use of low-stiffness metallic alloys has been highlighted. To this end, the development, processing and biocompatibility of superelastic NiTi as well as resorbable magnesium-based alloys are discussed. Additionally, engineered porosity is reviewed as it can be an effective way of matching the stiffness of an implant with the surrounding tissue. These porosities and the overall geometry of the implant can be optimized for strain transduction and with a tailored stiffness profile. Rendering patient-specific, site-specific, morphology-specific and function-specific implants can now be achieved using these and other metals with bone-like material properties by additive manufacturing. The biocompatibility of implants prepared from superelastic and resorbable alloys is also reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone tissue in different parts of the edentulous maxilla and mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Jan; Bressan, Eriberto; Cecchinato, Denis; Corrá, Enrico; Toia, Marco; Liljenberg, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    The composition of the fully healed edentulous ridge of the posterior maxilla was recently examined and was found to contain about 50% mineralized bone and 16% bone marrow. The objective was to examine the composition of the tissue of the fully healed ridge in different portions of the maxilla and the mandible in partially dentate subjects. Eighty-seven healthy subjects were included. A trephine drill was used to harvest hard tissue specimens. The biopsies were decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, stained, and examined using a point-counting procedure. The marginal portion of the jaws almost consistently contained a cortical cap that was significantly wider in the mandible than in the maxilla and twice as wide in the anterior as in the posterior segments of the mandible. Lamellar bone and bone marrow were the dominating tissue elements. Lamellar bone occupied about 63% of the tissue in the mandible and 46% in the maxilla. The maxilla contained about 23% bone marrow as compared to 16% in the mandible. In the mandible, 70% (anterior) and 57% (posterior) were made up of lamellar bone. In the maxilla, the proportion of lamellar bone in the anterior and posterior segments was similar (about 45%). Bone marrow occupied close to 40% of the anterior maxilla, while in the posterior maxilla and the anterior and posterior mandible marrow comprised between 13 and 18%. Marked differences existed with respect to tissue composition of the edentulous ridge between the maxilla and the mandible. The cortical crest was wider in the mandible than in the maxilla, and widest in the symphysis region of the mandible. The proportion of bone marrow was greater in the maxilla than in the mandible. The maxillary front tooth region was poor in lamellar bone but rich in bone marrow, while the anterior mandible contained large amounts of mineralized bone but small amounts of bone marrow. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  5. Variations in the squamous part of the occipital bone in medieval and contemporary cranial series from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, S; Toneva, D; Yordanov, Y; Lazarov, N

    2014-11-01

    The squamous part of the occipital bone is a place of many different variations. They are a result of faulty ossification in the occipital squama or due to the presence of sutural bones in the lambda region. As their differentiation is intricate because of the various criteria used, the issue of their recognition in the adult skull still remains difficult even though they can be clearly distinguished at a younger age. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of interparietal, preinterparietal and sutural bones in the lambda region in medieval male and female cranial series as well as between medieval and contemporary male series from Bulgaria. We also discuss the development of the occipital squama in order to set clearer criteria for further differentiation of such variations in the adult skull. In the reviewed 3 cranial series, the variations in the squamous portion of the occipital bone were observed with a low frequency. The incidence of preinterparietal bones was more common than the interparietal ones. The sutural bones in the lambda region were numerous in the series. No statistically significant sex or intergroup differences were established. So even if these anatomical variations are relatively rare, the understanding of them is of significance for many disciplines like anthropology, comparative and developmental anatomy, clinical and forensic medicine.

  6. MRI of spinal bone marrow: part I, techniques and normal age-related appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lubdha M; Hanrahan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews MRI protocols, including routine and nonroutine pulse sequences as well as the normal MRI appearance of spinal marrow and expected age-related changes. Routine MRI of the spine provides useful evaluation of the spinal bone marrow, but nonroutine MRI pulse sequences are increasingly being used to evaluate bone marrow pathology. An understanding of MRI pulse sequences and the normal and age-related appearances of bone marrow is important for the practicing radiologist.

  7. THE GLASS IONOMER CEMENT IN DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Matos Vieira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The glass ionomer cement was developed in the past century 70s, after continuous researches about silicate cement. Over the years, glass ionomers have been playing an important role on restorative dentistry. Initially, the material was used for restoration of small cavities, however, its usage has been increased. The main indications at present are: as core buildup restorative, luting cement, liner and base and as a sealant. Recently, glass ionomer cement has been used for ART restorations and in some medicine fields because of the positive biointeraction with bone cells. Although glass ionomer cements exhibit an initial critical solubility and poor aesthetics, great biological properties like fluoride release to oral environment, chemical bonding to tooth tissues and biocompatibility leads this material elective for many purposes. Finally, their inherent antimicrobial properties contributes to the treatment of many situations in dentistry.

  8. Cementing the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty: which technique is the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaninbroukx, Michaël; Labey, Luc; Innocenti, Bernardo; Bellemans, Johan

    2009-08-01

    Although several techniques exist for cementing the femoral component in TKA, no data are available on which is the best one to use. We therefore compared four cementing techniques in an anatomical open pore sawbone model (n=20), in order to investigate the influence of cementation technique on overall cement penetration as well as length of the cement mantle over the different cuts. The technique which included cement application onto the anterior and distal bone surfaces, as well as the posterior flanges of the prosthesis, was statistically superior to the other techniques. We therefore advocate this technique as the standard for cementing the femoral component.

  9. Ensaio mecânico da resistência ao impacto do cimento ósseo puro e associado a duas drogas anestésicas locais Mechanical essay of impact resistance of acrylic bone cement used singly or the cement in combination with two local anesthetic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Giordano

    2007-07-01

    resistência entre os cimentos Simplex® e Biomecânica® para as medicações lidocaína (p = 0,13 e bupivacaína (p = 0,63. No cimento Simplex®, a associação com a bupivacaína apresentou resistência significativamente maior do que com a lidocaína e o polímero puro (p = 0,001 e p = 0,012, respectivamente. Não existe diferença significativa na resistência entre a lidocaína e o polímero puro para o cimento Simplex® (p = 0,39. No cimento Biomecânica®, a associação com a bupivacaína apresentou resistência significativamente maior do que com a lidocaína e o polímero puro (p = 0,0001 e p = 0,0001, respectivamente. Não existe diferença significativa na resistência entre a lidocaína e o polímero puro para o cimento Biomecânica® (p = 0,37. CONCLUSÃO: Nas condições estudadas, não há redução significativa da resistência ao impacto na combinação de cimento ortopédico com anestésicos locais.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanical behavior of cement-local anesthetic combinations in vitro. METHODS: Two bone cements were tested (Simplex® and Biomecânica® with two anesthetic drugs (lidocaine and bupivacaine. Anesthetic drugs were added in powder form. The authors compared six groups based on the association between the cement and the drugs. Two grams of anesthetic were mixed with 40 g of acrylic cement powder. 60 prismatic molds were made, measuring 5 x 120 x 30 mm (n = 30 and 5 x 60 x 30 mm (n = 30. The molds were tested on a pendulum impact resistance apparatus. Statistical analysis was performed to verify the effect of bone cement (Simplex® and Biomecânica® and the medication (lidocaine, bupivacaine, and no combination on the strength of the molds, with a level of significance alpha = 5%. RESULTS: Statistical comparison showed a significant influence of the medication on bone strength (p = 0.0001. Tukey multiple comparison test demonstrated better strength with bupivacaine. CONCLUSION: Cement-bone combination does not harm the strength

  10. The influence of cement thickness on stem subsidence and cement creep in a collarless polished tapered stem: When are thick cement mantles detrimental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, E; Kaneuji, A; Tsuda, R; Numata, Y; Ichiseki, T; Fukui, K; Kawahara, N

    2017-05-01

    Favourable results for collarless polished tapered stems have been reported, and cement creep due to taper slip may be a contributing factor. However, the ideal cement thickness around polished stems remains unknown. We investigated the influence of cement thickness on stem subsidence and cement creep. We cemented six collarless polished tapered (CPT) stems (two stems each of small, medium and large sizes) into composite femurs that had been reamed with a large CPT rasp to achieve various thicknesses of the cement mantle. Two or three tantalum balls were implanted in the proximal cement in each femur. A cyclic loading test was then performed for each stem. The migration of the balls was measured three-dimensionally, using a micro-computed tomography (CT) scanner, before and after loading. A digital displacement gauge was positioned at the stem shoulder, and stem subsidence was measured continuously by the gauge. Final stem subsidence was measured at the balls at the end of each stem. A strong positive correlation was observed between mean cement thickness and stem subsidence in the CT slices on the balls. In the small stems, the balls moved downward to almost the same extent as the stem. There was a significant negative correlation between cement thickness and the horizontal:downward ratio of ball movement. Collarless polished tapered stems with thicker cement mantles resulted in greater subsidence of both stem and cement. This suggests that excessive thickness of the cement mantle may interfere with effective radial cement creep. Cite this article: E. Takahashi, A. Kaneuji, R. Tsuda, Y. Numata, T. Ichiseki, K. Fukui, N. Kawahara. The influence of cement thickness on stem subsidence and cement creep in a collarless polished tapered stem: When are thick cement mantles detrimental? Bone Joint Res 2017;6:-357. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.65.BJR-2017-0028.R1. © 2017 Kaneuji et al.

  11. Kinetic and morphological differentiation of ettringites in plain and blended Portland cements with metakaolin and the ASTM C 452-68 test. Part II: Morphological differentiation by SEM and XRD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero, R.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The same cementitious materials (OPCs, SRPCs and matekaolin, MK, the same blended cements and the same ASTM C 452-68 test than in Part I, were used. Other complementary determinations were: chemical analysis of cementing materials, SEM and XRD analysis of ettringites and specific properties of some cement tested and of their pastes.The experimental results have also demonstrated that when 7.0% SO3, equivalent to 15.05% of gypsum, was added to the M pozzolan-containing Portland cement and tested with the ASTM C 452-68 method, it was not found to behave aggressively but rather as “setting regulator ”, because the increase in mechanical strengths over time and setting times in these mixes were, therefore, similar to the pattern observed in any PC. However, when the gypsum content was raised to triple than that amount (21.0% SO3, it behaved aggressively. In both cases, logically, ettringite from both origins were involved in the resulting beneficial or adverse behavior.En esta Parte II se utilizaron los mismos materiales cementíceos (CPO, CPRS, y metakaolín, MK, los mismos cementos de mezcla y el mismo método de ensayo ASTM C 452-68 que en la Parte I. Otras determinaciones complementarias fueron: análisis químico de los materiales cementíceos, análisis por DRX y SEM de ettringitas y propiedades específicas de algunos cementos ensayados y de sus pastas.Los resultados experimentales obtenidos han demostrado también que, el 7.0% de SO3 presente en los 30 cementos de mezcla con MK, ensayados conforme el método ASTM C 452-68, no se comporta como agresivo sino como ”regulador de fraguado”, porque los tiempos de fraguado y el aumento de resistencias mecánicas fueron como los de cualquier CP. De aquí que algunos de esos cementos de mezcla puedan ser considerados “cementos hidráulicos expansivos”, el resto, no. Sin embargo, cuando la cantidad de yeso aportada fue el triple (21,0% SO3, se comportó como agresivo, motivo por el cual

  12. Kinetic and morphological differentiation of Ettringites in plain and blended Portland cements using Metakaolin and the ASTM C 452-68 test. Part I: kinetic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this first part of the study, the results obtained in prior research with XRD and SEM, as well as the Le Chatelier-Ansttet test were confirmed with the ASTM C 452-68 test. To this end, 20%, 30% and 40% metakaolin (MK was added to ten Portland cements, six OPCs and four SRPCs. Both the ten plain PCs and the 30 metakaolin (MK blends were tested for two years under ASTM C 452-68 specifications, determining not only the percentage increase in length, ΔL(%, of the specimens, but also the sulphate content in the curing water. Other parameters studied included: chemical analysis of the cementitious materials used and specific properties of some of the cements tested.The experimental results, ΔL(% versus time, re-confirmed that the formation rate of ettringite from the reactive alumina, Al2O3r-, present in the pozzolan must be substantially higher than the formation rate of ettringite from the C3A present in the PC. This was verified by the variation of the sulphate content in the specimen curing water throughout the test. In light of those findings, in this article these two types of ettringite are denominated rapid forming ettringite or ett-rf, and slow forming ettringite or ett-lf.En esta Parte I de la investigación, se han logrado verificar mediante el ensayo ASTM C 452-68, los resultados obtenidos en anteriores investigaciones realizadas con DRX y SEM y el ensayo Le Chatelier-Ansttet. Para ello, a 10 cementos Portland –6 CPO y 4 CPRS– se les añadió 20%, 30% y 40% de metakaolín (MK. Tanto los 10 CP como los 30 de sus mezclas con metakaolín (MK, se ensayaron durante 2 años, mediante dicho método ASTM C 452-68, y a sus probetas no sólo se les determinó su incremento porcentual de longitud, ΔL(%, sino además, el contenido de sulfatos de sus aguas de conservación. Otras determinaciones complementarias fueron: análisis químico de los materiales cementiceos utilizados y propiedades específicas de algunos cementos ensayados

  13. Systematic review on highly viscous glass-ionomer cement/resin coating restorations (Part II): 
Do they merge Minamata Convention and minimum intervention dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbassa, Andrej M; Glockner, Georg; Wolgin, Michael; Glockner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    With the Minamata Convention the use of mercury will be phased down, and this undoubtedly will have an effect on dental treatment regimens and economic resources. Composite resin restorations are considered viable alternatives to amalgam fillings; however, these will not be covered completely by health insurance systems in many countries. Recently, a high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (hvGIC) processed with a resinous coating (RC) has been introduced, and has been marketed as a restorative material in load-bearing Class I cavities (and in Class II cavities with limited size), thus serving as a possible alternative to amalgam fillings. To discuss the outcome based on the evaluation presented in Part I of this paper, and to critically appraise the methodologies of the various studies. Two of the included studies were industry-funded, and status of the other clinical trials remained unclear. Quality of study reporting was considered perfectible. The use of a light-cured nanofilled resin coating material would seem advantageous, at least when regarding short- and medium term outcomes. Within the respective indications and cavity geometries, the hvGIC/RC approach would seem promising, could merge the phase-down of mercury and the objectives of minimally invasive treatment to some extent, and might be a restorative alternative for patients suffering from allergies or not willing to afford other sophisticated or expensive techniques. These recommendations are based on studies evaluating EQUIA Fil (GC), but are not transferable to clinical perspectives of the glass hybrid successor product (EQUIA Forte; GC).

  14. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 2: Effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Asuka; Matsumoto, Mariko; Higashi, Mami; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning on resin cement bonding to CAD/CAM resin blocks. One of two resin cements, PANAVIA V5 (PV5) or PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX (PSA), were bonded to one of 24 CAD/CAM blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK). Each cement group was divided into four subgroups: no cleaning (Ctl), ultrasonic cleaning (Uc), acid cleaning (Ac) and Uc+Ac. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBSs) were measured immediately and 1, 3, and 6 months after water storage. Block surfaces after each treatment were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (p<0.001, F=40), 'resin cement' (p<0.001, F=696) and 'water aging' (p<0.001, F=71). The PV5 group exhibited higher µTBS values than the PSA group. Although cleaning after sandblasting was effective in removing residual alumina particles, it did not affect the long-term bonding durability with non-contaminated CAD/CAM resin blocks.

  15. MRI of spinal bone marrow: part 2, T1-weighted imaging-based differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Christopher J; Shah, Lubdha M

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the structure of bone marrow and the differential diagnosis of bone marrow pathology on the basis of T1-weighted MRI patterns. Bone marrow is an organ that is evaluated routinely during MRI of the spine, particularly lumbar spine evaluation. Thus, it is one of the most commonly performed MRI examinations. T1-weighted MRI is a fundamental sequence in evaluating spinal marrow, and an understanding of T1-weighted MR signal abnormalities is important for the practicing radiologist.

  16. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 2.: pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Selected cases of the temporal bone pathology on high resolution CT were demonstrated. Transverse and coronal sections of the cases were selected from 68 patients with various otological diseases. (author)

  17. Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering: the road from laboratory to clinic, part II (BMP delivery).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, P C; Casal, M; Reis, R L

    2008-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are cytokines with a strong effect on bone and cartilage growth and with important roles during embryonic patterning and early skeletal formation. BMPs have promising potential for clinical bone and cartilage repair, working as powerful bone-inducing components in diverse tissue-engineering products. Synthetic polymers, natural origin polymers, inorganic materials and composites may be used as carriers for the delivery of BMPs. Carriers range from nanoparticles to complex three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, membranes for tissue-guided regeneration, biomimetic surfaces and smart thermosensitive hydrogels. Current clinical uses include spinal fusion, healing of long bone defects and craniofacial and periodontal applications, amongst others. BMP-2 and BMP-7 have recently received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific clinical cases, delivered in absorbable collagen sponges. Considering the expanding number of publications in the field of BMPs, there are prospects of a brilliant future in the field of regenerative medicine of bone and cartilage with the use of BMPs.

  18. A 3- to 18-Year Follow-Up of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty With Impacted Bone Allografts and Cemented Lubinus SP II Stem. Clinical, Radiographic, and Survivorship Analysis With Comparison to the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigbrand, Hampus; Ullmark, Gösta

    2017-09-01

    We present the first medium- to long-term follow-up of revision total hip arthroplasty using impaction bone grafting (IBG) combined with the matte and collared Lubinus SP II stem for cases of severe osteolysis and stem loosening. Sixty-nine femoral revisions were identified for 67 patients consecutively operated with revision femoral arthroplasty using IBG and a cemented Lubinus SP II stem. The mean age was 69 years (standard deviation, 9.9). We retrospectively analyzed 68 cases (1 was lost to follow-up). At the time of the revision surgery, all had substantial femoral bone loss. Fifteen of the revisions were performed due to deep infection. The patients were analyzed by clinical score and radiography. At follow-up, 4 femoral components (6%) had been rerevised or assessed as failure. Of these 4, 3 were assessed as mechanical failure, and 1 for dislocation; none was for infection. Three cups (4%) had been revised for dislocation; 1 of these also had a stem exchange. Three cases (4%) had been reoperated for a periprosthetic fracture in distal femur without stem exchange. Radiologic results were excellent and the clinical Merle d'Aubignè-Postel score had improved from a mean of 12.2 preoperatively to 17.5 at follow-up. IBG combined with the Lubinus SP II stem is safe and results in a low rate of periprosthetic fractures and dislocations. The medium- to long-term clinical result was excellent, with regeneration of living bone in the femur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-11-01

    We model and assess the possibility of shear failure, using the Mohr-Coulomb model ? along the vertical well by employing a rigorous coupled flow-geomechanic analysis. To this end, we vary the values of cohesion between the well casing and the surrounding cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low cohesion corresponds to low-quality cement and/or incomplete cementing). The simulation results show that there is very little fracturing when the cement is of high quality.. Conversely, incomplete cementing and/or weak cement can causes significant shear failure and the evolution of long fractures/cracks along the vertical well. Specifically, low cohesion between the well and cemented areas can cause significant shear failure along the well, but the same cohesion as the cemented zone does not cause shear failure. When the hydraulic fracturing pressure is high, low cohesion of the cement can causes fast propagation of shear failure and of the resulting fracture/crack, but a high-quality cement with no weak zones exhibits limited shear failure that is concentrated near the bottom of the vertical part of the well. Thus, high-quality cement and complete cementing along the vertical well appears to be the strongest protection against shear failure of the wellbore cement and, consequently, against contamination hazards to drinking water aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  20. Influence of surgical and prosthetic techniques on marginal bone loss around titanium implants. Part I: immediate loading in fresh extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Antoine N; Tehini, Georges E; Noujeim, Ziad F; Khairallah, Alexandre A; Abousehlib, Moustafa N; Salameh, Ziad A

    2014-10-01

    Delayed placement of implant abutments has been associated with peri-implant marginal bone loss; however, long-term results obtained by modifying surgical and prosthetic techniques after implant placement are still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the marginal bone loss around titanium implants placed in fresh extraction sockets using two loading protocols after a 5-year follow-up period. A total of 36 patients received 40 titanium implants (Astra Tech) intended for single-tooth replacement. Implants were immediately placed into fresh extraction sockets using either a one-stage (immediate loading by placing an interim prosthesis into functional occlusion) or a two-stage prosthetic loading protocol (insertion of abutments after 8 weeks of healing time). Marginal bone levels relative to the implant reference point were evaluated at four time intervals using intraoral radiographs: at time of implant placement, and 1, 3, and 5 years after implant placement. Measurements were obtained from mesial and distal surfaces of each implant (α = 0.05). One-stage immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets resulted in a significant reduction in marginal bone loss (p implants after cementation of interim prostheses (p immediate loading of implants placed into fresh extraction sockets reduced marginal bone loss and did not compromise the success rate of the restorations. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. A new approach to quantify trabecular resorption adjacent to cemented knee arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, K.A.; Miller, M.A.; Pray, C.L.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Janssen, D.

    2012-01-01

    A new micro-computed tomography (muCT) image processing approach to estimate the loss of cement-bone interlock was developed using the concept that PMMA cement flows and cures around trabeculae during the total knee arthroplasty procedure. The initial mold shape of PMMA cement was used to estimate

  2. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 1: Effects of sandblasting and silanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Mami; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawaguchi, Asuka; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of sandblasting and silanization on resin cement bond strengths to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Twenty four blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK) were divided into two resin cement groups (PANAVIA V5 [PV5] and PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX [PSA]), and further divided into four subgroups representing different surface treatment methods: no treatment (Ctl), silanization (Si), sandblasting (Sb), and Sb+Si. After resin application, microtensile bond strengths (μTBSs) were measured immediately, 1, 3 and 6 months after water storage. In addition, surfaces resulting from each of the treatment methods were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three-way analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (p<0.001, F=370), 'resin cement' (p<0.001, F=103, PSA

  3. Severe Bone Loss as Part of the Life History Strategy of Bowhead Whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C George

    Full Text Available The evolution of baleen constituted a major evolutionary change that made it possible for baleen whales to reach enormous body sizes while filter feeding on tiny organisms and migrating over tremendous distances. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus live in the Arctic where the annual cycle of increasing and decreasing ice cover affects their habitat, prey, and migration. During the nursing period, bowheads grow rapidly; but between weaning and approximately year 5, bowhead whales display sustained baleen and head growth while limiting growth in the rest of their bodies. During this period, they withdraw resources from the skeleton, in particular the ribs, which may lose 40% of bone mass. Such dramatic changes in bones of immature mammals are rare, although fossil cetaceans between 40 and 50 million years ago show an array of rib specializations that include bone loss and are usually interpreted as related to buoyancy control.

  4. An anatomical study of wormian bones from the eastern part of India: is genetic influence a primary determinant of their morphogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar; Biswas, Sudipa; Sharma, Suranjali; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2017-06-01

    Over the years a number of investigators have analysed the morphology of wormian bones in different population groups across the world. There have been significant variations between findings reported in these studies, and this has prompted researchers to focus on the influence of genetic factors on the morphology of these bones. In the light of the above observation, we considered it justified to conduct anatomical studies on wormian bones in different population groups; hence, we undertook the present study to look into the morphological details of these bones among a population in the eastern part of India. We observed a total of 120 adult dry human skulls of unknown age and sex, and noted the anatomical details of wormian bones when present. It was observed that wormian bones were present in 45 % of skulls, and that 30 % of skulls had more than one wormian bone. We also found that 2.5 % of the skulls had ten or more wormian bones, which is considered as pathognomonic. Maximum incidence (53.33 %) was observed at the lambdoid suture and minimum incidence at the bregma and metopic suture (0.61 % in each case). We noted a high incidence (21.21 %) of Inca bone/lambdoid ossicle, and bilaterally symmetrical wormian bones were present in 12.5 % study skulls. There were statistically significant (P bones.

  5. Increased antibiotic release and equivalent biomechanics of a spacer cement without hard radio contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, R G; Kretzer, J P; Vogt, S; Büchner, H; Thomsen, M N; Lehner, B

    2015-10-01

    We compared a novel calcium carbonate spacer cement (Copal® spacem) to well-established bone cements. Electron microscopic structure and elution properties of the antibiotics ofloxacin, vancomycin, clindamycin, and gentamicin were examined. A knee wear simulator model for articulating cement spacers was established. Mechanical tests for bending strength, flexural modulus, and compressive and fatigue strength were performed. The electron microscopic analysis showed a microporous structure of the spacer cement, and this promoted a significantly higher and longer antibiotic elution. All spacer cement specimens released the antibiotics for a period of up to 50days with the exception of the vancomycin loading. The spacer cement showed significantly less wear scars and fulfilled the ISO 5833 requirements. The newly developed spacer cement is a hydrophilic antibiotic carrier with an increased release. Cement without hard radio contrast agents can improve tribological behaviour of spacers, and this may reduce reactive wear particles and abrasive bone defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Planning for corrective osteotomy of the femoral bone using 3D-modeling. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey G Baindurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In standard planning for corrective hip osteotomy, a surgical intervention scheme is created on a uniplanar paper medium on the basis of X-ray images. However, uniplanar skiagrams are unable to render real spatial configuration of the femoral bone. When combining three-dimensional and uniplanar models of bone, human errors inevitably occur, causing the distortion of preset parameters, which may lead to glaring errors and, as a result, to repeated operations. Aims. To develop a new three-dimensional method for planning and performing corrective osteotomy of the femoral bone, using visualizing computer technologies. Materials and methods. A new method of planning for corrective hip osteotomy in children with various hip joint pathologies was developed. We examined the method using 27 patients [aged 5–18 years (32 hip joints] with congenital and acquired femoral bone deformation. The efficiency of the proposed method was assessed in comparison with uniplanar planning using roentgenograms. Conclusions. Computerized operation planning using three-dimensional modeling improves treatment results by minimizing the likelihood of human errors and increasing planning and surgical intervention  accuracy.

  7. Regenerating Mandibular Bone Using rhBMP-2: Part 1-Immediate Reconstruction of Segmental Mandibulectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, Boaz; Verstraete, Frank J M; Huey, Daniel J; Cissell, Derek D; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-05-01

    To describe a surgical technique using a regenerative approach and internal fixation for immediate reconstruction of critical size bone defects after segmental mandibulectomy in dogs. Prospective case series. Dogs (n = 4) that had reconstruction after segmental mandibulectomy for treatment of malignant or benign tumors. Using a combination of extraoral and intraoral approaches, a locking titanium plate was contoured to match the native mandible. After segmental mandibulectomy, the plate was secured and a compression resistant matrix (CRM) infused with rhBMP-2, implanted in the defect. The implant was then covered with a soft tissue envelope followed by intraoral and extraoral closure. All dogs that had mandibular reconstruction healed with intact gingival covering over the mandibular defect and had immediate return to normal function and occlusion. Mineralized tissue formation was observed clinically within 2 weeks and solid cortical bone formation within 3 months. CT findings at 3 months showed that the newly regenerated mandibular bone had ∼50% of the bone density and porosity compared to the contralateral side. No significant complications occurred. Mandibular reconstruction using internal fixation and CRM infused with rhBMP-2 is an excellent solution for immediate reconstruction of segmental mandibulectomy defects in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Geological study of the gas-main excavations, Part VI. - Bivalves Anomia Linnaeus and Plicatula Lamarck cemented on lydite boulders (Kojetice, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záruba, B.; Žítt, Jiří; Nekovařík, Č.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1-4 (2002), s. 15-24 ISSN 0139-9543 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/1315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Cementing bivalves * palaeoenvironment * Upper Cenomanian (?) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/publikace-download.php?name=File1&dir=archiv&table=tabPublikaceArchiv&id=221

  9. Functional interface micromechanics of 11 en-bloc retrieved cemented femoral hip replacements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, K.A.; Miller, M.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Izant, T.H.; Race, A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the longstanding use of micromotion as a measure of implant stability, direct measurement of the micromechanics of implant/bone interfaces from en bloc human retrievals has not been performed. The purpose of this study was to determine the stem-cement and cement-bone

  10. Design and Fabrication of Complex Scaffolds for Bone Defect Healing: Combined 3D Plotting of a Calcium Phosphate Cement and a Growth Factor-Loaded Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, Tilman; Akkineni, Ashwini Rahul; Förster, Yvonne; Köhler, Tino; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Lode, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing enables the fabrication of scaffolds with defined architecture. Versatile printing technologies such as extrusion-based 3D plotting allow in addition the incorporation of biological components increasing the capability to restore functional tissues. We have recently described the fabrication of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds by 3D plotting of an oil-based CPC paste under mild conditions. In the present study, we have developed a strategy for growth factor loading based on multichannel plotting: a biphasic scaffold design was realised combining CPC with VEGF-laden, highly concentrated hydrogel strands. As hydrogel component, alginate and an alginate-gellan gum blend were evaluated; the blend exhibited a more favourable VEGF release profile and was chosen for biphasic scaffold fabrication. After plotting, two-step post-processing was performed for both, hydrogel crosslinking and CPC setting, which was shown to be compatible with both materials. Finally, a scaffold was designed and fabricated which can be applied for testing in a rat critical size femur defect. Optimization of CPC plotting enabled the fabrication of highly resolved structures with strand diameters of only 200 µm. Micro-computed tomography revealed a precise strand arrangement and an interconnected pore space within the biphasic scaffold even in swollen state of the hydrogel strands.

  11. Regenerating mandibular bone using rhBMP-2: part 1 - immediate reconstruction of segmental mandibulectomies

    OpenAIRE

    Arzi, Boaz; Verstraete, Frank J.M.; Huey, Daniel J.; Cissell, Derek D.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons. Objective: To describe a surgical technique using a regenerative approach and internal fixation for immediate reconstruction of critical size bone defects after segmental mandibulectomy in dogs. Study Design: Prospective case series. Animals: Dogs (n=4) that had reconstruction after segmental mandibulectomy for treatment of malignant or benign tumors. Methods: Using a combination of extraoral and intraoral approaches, a locking titanium p...

  12. [Epidemiology of bone and soft-part tumors of the foot and knee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Cedillo, Ernesto Andrés; Rico Martínez, Genaro; Linares González, Luis Miguel; Estrada Villaseñor, Eréndira; León Hernández, Saúl Renán; Ble Campos, Raul

    2007-01-01

    Report of cases. Review of the cases in a period of 10 years with bone and soft tumors in foot and ankle, to knowing epidemilogical, clinic and patologic anatomy parameters to describe the behavior. Review of 166 cases from 1991 to 2000 and been analyze with descriptive statistic, association measurment for inside stratum, with odds ratio, hipótesis test with chi square for qualitative date and t to Student for quantitative date. 166 patients within 2 years to 78 years old, 81 with bone tumors and 79 with soft tumors, mostly benign, the most frequent was in the soft tissue ganglion and oseal benign exostosis in bone, 6 different malignant tumors, the principal affected zone were the toes, as a difference to literature, the most affected age group was 10 to 20 years followed to the 30 to 40 years old, we report 42 different patological diagnostics results to soft tissue and osseous tissue. clinical features is not a useful parameter to differentiate between malign or benign tumors and does not allow to establish the biological behavior, we propose the diagnostic algorithm that includes the intentional clinical probe, comparative X-ray in three projections with soft technique, in suspicion to malignant lesion may require CT scan, MRI, osseous scan and finally biopsy which will improve the final outcome.

  13. Preparation, physical-chemical characterisation and cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, C; Miao, Baoji; Bareille, Reine; Rey, Christian

    2006-03-01

    The feasibility of calcium carbonate cements involving the recrystallisation of metastable calcium carbonate varieties has been demonstrated. Calcium carbonate cement compositions presented in this paper can be prepared straightforwardly by simply mixing water (liquid phase) with two calcium carbonate phases (solid phase) which can be easily obtained by precipitation. An original cement composition was obtained by mixing amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite with an aqueous medium. The cement set and hardened within 2h at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere saturated with water and the final composition of the cement consisted mostly of aragonite. The hardened cement was microporous and showed poor mechanical properties. Cytotoxicity tests revealed excellent cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cement compositions. Calcium carbonates with a higher solubility than the apatite formed for most of the marketed calcium phosphate cements might be of interest to increase biomedical cement resorption rates and to favour its replacement by bone tissue.

  14. Revision of hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty using the cement-in-cement technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, E J; Williams, D H; Howell, J R; Hubble, M J

    2015-12-01

    Revision of a cemented hemiarthroplasty of the hip may be a hazardous procedure with high rates of intra-operative complications. Removing well-fixed cement is time consuming and risks damaging already weak bone or perforating the femoral shaft. The cement-in-cement method avoids removal of intact cement and has shown good results when used for revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). The use of this technique for the revision of a hemiarthroplasty to THA has not been previously reported. A total of 28 consecutive hemiarthroplasties (in 28 patients) were revised to a THA using an Exeter stem and the cement-in-cement technique. There were four men and 24 women; their mean age was 80 years (35 to 93). Clinical and radiographic data, as well as operative notes, were collected prospectively and no patient was lost to follow-up. Four patients died within two years of surgery. The mean follow up of the remainder was 70 months (25 to 124). Intra-operatively there was one proximal perforation, one crack of the femoral calcar and one acetabular fracture. No femoral components have required subsequent revision for aseptic loosening or are radiologically loose. Four patients with late complications (14%) have since undergone surgery (two for a peri-prosthetic fracture, and one each for deep infection and recurrent dislocation) resulting in an overall major rate of complication of 35.7%. The cement-in-cement technique provides reliable femoral fixation in this elderly population and may reduce operating time and rates of complication. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  15. Combined delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 from nano-poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate-based calcium phosphate cement and its effect on bone regeneration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiulin; Feng, Jin; Feng, Jing; Huang, Xiaomo; Li, Liangqiu; Shi, Qingshan

    2017-11-01

    In this study, nano-doped calcium phosphate cement delivery systems (poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramics and nano (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramic) were fabricated, and low doses (10 µg/g) of two growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2, were encapsulated then sequentially released. We characterized the delivery systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and measured washout resistance and compressive strength, and thus optimized the most appropriate proportioning of delivery systems for the two growth factors. One of the growth factors was absorbed by the nano-poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate, which was then mixed into the calcium phosphate ceramic solid phase to create a new solid phase calcium phosphate ceramic. Nano-poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramic carriers were then prepared by blending the new calcium phosphate ceramic solid phase powder with a solution of the remaining growth factor. The effects of different release patterns (studying sequential behavior) of insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteogenic proliferation and differentiation of the MC3t3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell were investigated. This combinational delivery system provided a controlled release of the two growth factors, in which nano-doping significantly affected their release kinetics. The incorporation of dual growth factors could potentially stimulate bone healing and promoting bone ingrowth processes at a low dose.

  16. Cements research progress. 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews a survey of the literature on the science of cements published during 1988. The book focuses on an aspect of cement utilization of increasing importance, the immobilization of nuclear wastes

  17. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  18. USE OF ANTIBIOTIC CEMENT SPACERS/BEADS IN TREATMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic musculoskeletal infection involving bone present a big challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. These include chronic osteomyelitis, septic non union and open fractures of long bones. Objective: The study was done to determine ... 'External fixators were applied after which antibiotic impregnated cement ...

  19. CHH Cement Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwirzen, A.; Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.; Nasibulina, L. I.; Shandakov, S. D.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Kauppinen, E. I.; Mudimela, P. R.; Penttala, V.

    The compressive strength and electrical resistivity for hardened pastes produced from nanomodified Portland SR cement (CHH- Carbon Hedge Hog cement) were studied. The nanomodification included growing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the cement particles. Pastes having water to binder ratio of 0.5 were produced. The obtained hardened material was characterized by increased compressive strength in comparison with the reference specimens made from pristine SR cement, which was attributed to reinforcing action of the CNTs and CNFs. The electrical resistivity of CHH composite was lower by one order of magnitude in comparison with reference Portland cement paste.

  20. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-04-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

  1. Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    performance of three locally manufactured cement samples and imported class G cement sample for oil and gas well ... cement. 2 Materials and Methods. 2.1 Materials. Three brands of cement available on the Ghanaian market and commonly used by Ghanaians for construction ..... Cement Slurry using Factorial Design”,.

  2. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  3. [Association between allergy to benzoyl peroxide, vitiligo and implantation of a cemented total knee joint prosthesis: Is there a connection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothner, M; Ozokyay, L; Godau, P; Kälicke, T; Muhr, G; Schildhauer, T A; Dudda, M

    2011-09-01

    Allergies against bone cement or bone cement components have been well-described. We report on a 63-year-old patient who presented with progressive vitiligo all over the body after implantation of a cemented total knee replacement. A dermatological examination was performed and an allergy to benzoyl peroxide was found. A low-grade infection was diagnosed 5 months after implantation of the total knee replacement and the prosthesis was replaced with a cement spacer. After treating the infection of the knee replacement non-cemented arthrodesis of the knee was performed. In cases of new, unknown skin efflorescence, urticaria and periprosthetic loosening of cemented joint replacement, the differential diagnosis should include not only infections but also possible allergies against bone-cement and components such as benzoyl peroxide or metal components.

  4. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  5. Amino acid-assisted synthesis of strontium hydroxyapatite bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strontium hydroxyapatite, a bioac- tive bone cement, is used in spinal and bone fracture surgery and it is also used in bone replacement, bone fillings, bone adhesives and for treatment of osteoporosis (Ni et al 2006). The synthesis of strontium hydroxyapatite can be accom- plished by using various methods of synthesis like ...

  6. Novel Osteointegrative Sr-Substituted Apatitic Cements Enriched with Alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sprio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the synthesis of novel injectable, self-setting bone cements made of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA, obtained by single-phase calcium phosphate precursors doped with different amounts of strontium and enriched with alginate. The addition of alginate improved the injectability, cohesion, and compression strength of the cements, without affecting the hardening process. A Sr-HA cement exhibiting adequate hardening times and mechanical strength for clinical applications was further tested in vivo in a rabbit model, in comparison with a commercial calcium phosphate cement, revealing the maintenance of biomimetic composition and porous microstructure even after one month in vivo, as well as enhanced ability to induce new bone formation and penetration.

  7. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs

  8. Vertebroplasty: Magnetic Resonance Findings Related to Cement Leakage Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Y.H.; Han, D.; Cha, J.H.; Seong, C.K.; Kim, J.; Choi, Y.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Municipal Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: To find magnetic resonance (MR) findings predicting cement leakage in patients receiving percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) due to osteoporotic compression fractures. Material and Methods: MR was done in 43 patients (age 52-89 years) before PVP (56 vertebrae), which was done via a bipedicular approach with fluoroscopic monitoring. Shortly after the procedure, a non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan was done at the vertebroplasty sites for evaluation of bone cement leakage. The following MR findings of fractured vertebral bodies were retrospectively reviewed for correlation with leakage risk: severity of bone-marrow edema, presence of a T2-weighted low-signal-intensity line, percentage residual vertebral body height, presence of either a vacuum or cystic change within the vertebral body, and presence of a cortical disruption. Results: After PVP, cement leakage was detected in 35 vertebrae (62.5%). Leakage was most frequently observed in the anterior external vertebral venous plexus (46%). Cement leakage rate increased when there was a cortical disruption (P = 0.037), especially at the endplates, while it decreased when there was a vacuum or a cystic change within the fractured vertebra (P 0.019). Other MR findings were not related to the risk of cement leakage. Conclusion: The risk of cement leakage in PVP increases when MR shows cortical disruption in a fractured vertebral body, especially at the endplates. It decreases when MR shows a vacuum or cystic change within the body. Keywords Cement leakage, MR imaging, spine, vertebroplasty.

  9. Cemental tear: To know what we have neglected in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Jeng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cemental tear is a special kind of root surface fracture, contributing to periodontal and periapical breakdown. However, it is a challenge for doctors to diagnose, resulting in delayed or improper treatment. We reviewed the predisposing factors, location, radiographic/clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatments of cemental tears. From the literature, patients with cemental tear were mainly males, over 60 year-old. Possible predisposing factors include gender, age, tooth type, traumatic occlusal force and vital teeth. Cemental tears were common in upper and lower anterior teeth, single or multiple, and can be present in cervical, middle and apical third of roots. Morphology of cemental tears can be either piece-shaped or U-shaped. Clinically, cemental tear shows a unitary periodontal pocket and signs/symptoms mimicking localized periodontitis, apical periodontitis and vertical root fractures. Treatment of cemental tears include scaling, root planning, root canal treatment, periodontal/periapical surgery, guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting, and intentional replantation. Recurrence of cemental tear is possible especially when the fracture involves root apex. Extraction is recommended for teeth with poor prognosis. In conclusion, cemental tears can involve both periodontal and periapical area. Dentists should understand the predisposing factors and clinical features of cemental tears for early diagnosis/treatment to prevent bone loss/tooth extraction. Keywords: Cemental tear, Clinical characteristics, Surface root fracture, Periodontal/periapical breakdown, Recurrence, Predisposing factors

  10. Mitogen-inducible gene-6 partly mediates the inhibitory effects of prenatal dexamethasone exposure on endochondral ossification in long bones of fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianrong; Shang-Guan, Yangfan; Ma, Jing; Hu, Hang; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone slows down fetal linear growth and bone mineralization but the regulatory mechanism remains unknown. Here we assessed how dexamethasone regulates bone development in the fetus. Dexamethasone (1 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ) was injected subcutaneously every morning in pregnant rats from gestational day (GD)9 to GD20. Fetal femurs and tibias were harvested at GD20 for histological and gene expression analysis. Femurs of 12-week-old female offspring were harvested for microCT (μCT) measurement. Primary chondrocytes were treated with dexamethasone (10, 50, 250 and 1000 nM). Prenatal dexamethasone exposure resulted in accumulation of hypertrophic chondrocytes and delayed formation of the primary ossification centre in fetal long bone. The retardation was accompanied by reduced maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, decreased osteoclast number and down-regulated expression of osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein in long bone. In addition, the mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig6) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression were stimulated, and the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression was repressed. Moreover, dexamethasone activated OPG and repressed RANKL expression in both primary chondrocytes and primary osteoblasts, and the knockdown of Mig6 abolished the effect of dexamethasone on OPG expression. Further, μCT measurement showed loss of bone mass in femur of 12-week-old offspring with prenatal dexamethasone exposure. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure delays endochondral ossification by suppressing chondrocyte maturation and osteoclast differentiation, which may be partly mediated by Mig6 activation in bone. Bone development retardation in the fetus may be associated with reduced bone mass in later life. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. The Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Bones of Domestic Animals from three Cities of the European Part of Russia: First Results and Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskaya Liliya Vyacheslavovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the results of first purposeful research on isotopic composition (carbon 13С and nitrogen 15N in the bones collagen of domestic and wild animals from medieval towns at the European part of Russia. The published information about δ 13С и δ 15N was obtained from 61 samples of osteological collections of Yaroslavl, Rostov and Bolgar. The average values of carbon isotope in cattle bones are almost the same in all three cities. By contrast, these values for horses and pigs from Rostov and Bolgar are higher than for Yaroslavl animals. Unusual similarity for δ13С in the bones of sheep, camels and dogs among themselves from the Bolgar collection were fixed. The comparative analysis of the values δ13С in bones of domestic and wild animals allowed us to propose the hypothesis that sheep, camels and dogs appeared in Bolgar from the southern arid areas. The data on δ15N showed the inexplicably high accumulation of the nitrogen stable isotope in sheep and camel bones from the collection of Bolgar and in beaver bones from Rostov samples. This is probably due to the peculiarities of the diet of these dogs, enriched by the entrails of domestic ungulates or fish. The minimum values of δ15N in the bones of dogs from Bolgar reflect the specific diet of herding dogs with a minimal volume of meat. Simultaneously the data of 15N in sheep and camel bones from Bolgar collection and in beaver bones from Rostov samples howed the inexplicably high level of nitrogen stable isotope accumulation.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the implantation in the lateral part of the mandible between short tissue level (TE) and bone level (BL) implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzik, Jakub; Botzenhart, Ute; Krawiec, Maciej; Gedrange, Tomasz; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Vegh, Andras; Dominiak, Marzena

    2017-09-01

    Short dental implants can be an alternative method of treatment to a vertical bone augmentation procedure at sites of reduced alveolar height. However, for successful treatment, an implant system that causes a minimal marginal bone loss (MBL) should be taken into consideration. The aim of the study has been to evaluate implantation effectiveness for bone level and tissue level short implants provided in lateral aspects of partially edentulous mandible and limited alveolar ridge height. The MBL and primary as well as secondary implant stability were determined in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the method of treatment provided. Sixteen short Bone Level Implants (OsseoSpeed TX, Astra tech) and 16 short Tissue Level Implants (RN SLActive ® , Straumann) were successfully placed in the edentulous part of the mandible. The determination of the marginal bone level was based on radiographic evaluation after 12 and 36 weeks. Implant stability was measured immediately after insertion and after 12 weeks. The marginal bone level of Bone Level Implants was significantly lower compared to Tissue Level Implants. Furthermore, the Bone Level Implants had greater primary and secondary stability in comparison with Tissue Level Implants (Primary: 77.8 ISQ versus 66.5 ISQ; Secondary: 78.9 ISQ versus 73.9 ISQ, respectively). Since short Bone Level Implants showed a significantly decreased MBL 12 and 36 weeks after implantation as well as better results for the primary stability compared to Tissue Level Implants, they should preferentially be used for this mentioned indication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Peri-Implantitis Associated with Type of Cement: A Retrospective Analysis of Different Types of Cement and Their Clinical Correlation to the Peri-Implant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Michael; Walther, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    The cementation of fixed implant-supported dental restorations involves the risk of leaving excess cement in the mouth which can promote biofilm formation in the peri-implant sulcus. As a result, an inflammation may develop. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effect of two different luting cements on the peri-implant tissue. Within the scope of a retrospective clinical follow-up study, the prosthetic structures of 22 patients with 45 implants were revised. In all cases, a methacrylate cement (Premier Implant Cement [PIC], Premier® Dental Products Company, Plymouth Meeting, PA, USA) had been used for cementation. In 16 additional patients with 28 implants, the suprastructures were retained with a zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Temp Bond [TB], Kerr Sybron Dental Specialities, Glendora, CA, USA). These patients were evaluated in the course of routine treatment. In both populations, the retention time of the suprastructures was similar (TB 3.77 years, PIC 4.07 years). In the PIC cases, 62% of all implants had excess cement. In the TB cases, excess cement was not detectable on any of the implants. Bleeding on probing was significantly more frequent on implants cemented with PIC (100% with and 94% without excess cement) than on implants cemented with TB (46%). Pocket suppuration was observed on 89% of the PIC-cemented implants with excess cement (PIC without excess cement 24%), whereas implants with TB were not affected by it at all. The peri-implant bone loss was significantly greater in the PIC patients (with excess cement 1.37 mm, without excess cement 0.41 mm) than it was in the TB patients (0.07 mm). The frequency of undetected excess cement depends essentially on the type of cement used. Cements that tend to leave more undetected excess have a higher prevalence for peri-implant inflammation and cause a more severe peri-implant bone loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Does Vertebroplasty Affect Radiation Dose Distribution?: Comparison of Spatial Dose Distributions in a Cement-Injected Vertebra as Calculated by Treatment Planning System and Actual Spatial Dose Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, A.; Tanigawa, N.; Kariya, Sh.; Yagi, R.; Nakatani, M.; Suzuki, S.; Sano, A.; Ikeda, K.; Utsunomiya, K.; Harima, Y.; Sawada, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess differences in dose distribution of a vertebral body injected with bone cement as calculated by radiation treatment planning system (RTPS) and actual dose distribution. Methods. We prepared two water-equivalent phantoms with cement, and the other two phantoms without cement. The bulk density of the bone cement was imported into RTPS to reduce error from high CT values. A dose distribution map for the phantoms with and without cement was calculated using RTPS with clinical setting and with the bulk density importing. Actual dose distribution was measured by the film density. Dose distribution as calculated by RTPS was compared to the dose distribution measured by the film dosimetry. Results. For the phantom with cement, dose distribution was distorted for the areas corresponding to inside the cement and on the ventral side of the cement. However, dose distribution based on film dosimetry was undistorted behind the cement and dose increases were seen inside cement and around the cement. With the equivalent phantom with bone cement, differences were seen between dose distribution calculated by RTPS and that measured by the film dosimetry. Conclusion. The dose distribution of an area containing bone cement calculated using RTPS differs from actual dose distribution

  15. Retention of crowns cemented on implant abutments with temporary cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yuko; Hibino, Yasushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the retentive force of crowns to implant abutments with commercial temporary cements. Six different temporary cements were investigated. Cast crowns were cemented to the abutments using each cement and their retentive forces to abutments were determined 7 or 28 days after cementing (n=10). The retentive force of the cements to abutments varied widely among the products [27-109 N (7-day), 18-80 N (28-days)]. The retentive force of all the cements was not reduced as the time elapsed, except for two products tested. The polycarboxylate cements and paste-mixing type eugenol-free cements revealed comparable retentive force after 28 days of storage. The powder-liquid type cements showed a positive correlation (pcement between the retentive force and compressive strength. Mechanical strength of temporary cements could not be a prominent predicting factor for retention of the crowns on the abutments.

  16. Microstructural and mechanical development and characterization of glass ionomer cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, W.P.; Barbosa, R.C.; Castanha, E.M.M.; Barbosa, E. F.; Fook, M.V.L.

    2013-01-01

    Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are widely used in dentistry, indicated as a restorative material, cement for orthopedic and dental prostheses. However, there is need for development of new bone cements as alternative or replacement to current polymethylmethacrylate cements. Thus the aim of this research was develop of an experimental GIC and the mechanical and microstructural characterization of this composite; as a control group it was used a commercial GIC called Vidrion R (SS WHITE). These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties of the composites were measured by Vickers microhardness testing, flexural strength and compression. These cements were characterized as a semicrystalline; in FTIR spectra observed characteristic bands of these materials and microstructural studies of experimental GIC revealed that there was no proper interaction of the inorganic particles in the polymer matrix, whereas in the control group this interaction was effective resulting in greater homogeneity among its constituent phases. Experimental cement showed a higher value of microhardness in the control group, however, flexural strength of cement experimental cement was lower than the control group, and this behavior can possibly be attributed to inadequate interaction particle / matrix. In tests of compressive strength, experimental GIC showed resistance similar to that shown for control group after variation in the processing conditions of the material. (author)

  17. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    are available all over the world. The cement is affected by excessive exposure to moisture, particularly at high temperatures. Use of various additives has been suggested to enhance the durability of this cement. (Bludnov et al 1974; Paul 1975; Mingfen and Wei 1989;. Misra and Mathur 1993; Chandrawat and Yadav 2000).

  18. Advanced cementation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this programme of work was to investigate whether improvements could be made to existing formulations for cement suitable for the immobilization of intermediate level radioactive waste. Two additives were selected, microsilica and limestone flour. Improvements to the cement were only slight. (author)

  19. Was He Murdered or Was He Not?Part II: Multi-Elemental Analyses of Hair and Bone Samples from Tycho Brahe and Histopathology of His Bones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Rasmussen, K. L.; Kameník, Jan; Kubešová, Marie; Skytte, L.; Povýšil, C.; Karpenko, V.; Havránek, Vladimír; Velemínský, P.; Lynnerup, N.; Brůžek, J.; Smolík, Jiří; Vellev, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2017), s. 918-933 ISSN 0003-813X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Tycho Brahe * hair * bones * trace elemental analysis * time trends * bone histopathology Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Physical chemistry (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 1.470, year: 2016

  20. Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhu

    Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product

  1. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented. The paper describes its characteristic properties including results of bio- compatibility studies. A conventional two-component calcium phosphate cement formulation (having a powder part ...

  2. Modified femoral pressuriser generates a longer lasting high pressure during cement pressurisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjellson Fred

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of the cement-bone interface in hip arthroplasty is strongly related to cement penetration into the bone. A modified femoral pressuriser has been investigated, designed for closer fitting into the femoral opening to generate higher and more constant cement pressure compared to a commercial (conventional design. Methods Femoral cementation was performed in 10 Sawbones® models, five using the modified pressuriser and five using a current commercial pressuriser as a control. Pressure during the cementation was recorded at the proximal and distal regions of the femoral implant. The peak pressure and the pressure-time curves were analysed by student's t-test and Two way ANOVA. Results The modified pressuriser showed significantly and substantially longer durations at higher cementation pressures and slightly, although not statistically, higher peak pressures compared to the conventional pressuriser. The modified pressuriser also produced more controlled cement leakage. Conclusion The modified pressuriser generates longer higher pressure durations in the femoral model. This design modification may enhance cement penetration into cancellous bone and could improve femoral cementation.

  3. Introduction of enzymatically degradable poly(trimethylene carbonate) microspheres into an injectable calcium phosphate cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, Wouter J. E. M.; Zhang, Zheng; Wolke, Joop G. C.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Feijen, Jan; Jansen, John A.

    Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) is an enzymatically degradable polyester with rubber-like properties. Introduction of this polymer into an injectable calcium phosphate bone cement can therefore be used to introduce macroporosity into the cement for tissue engineering purposes as well as to

  4. A new approach to quantify trabecular resorption adjacent to cemented knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, K.A.; Miller, M.A.; Pray, C.L.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Janssen, D.

    2012-01-01

    A new micro-computed tomography (μCT) image processing approach to estimate the loss of cement–bone interlock was developed using the concept that PMMA cement flows and cures around trabeculae during the total knee arthroplasty procedure. The initial mold shape of PMMA cement was used to estimate

  5. Cementos óseos acrílicos modificados con hidroxiapatita/acetato de vinilo: caracterización mecánica, termoanálitica y bioactividad in vitro Acrylic bone cement modified whit hydroxiapatyte/vinyl acetate: mechanical, thermoanalytical characterization and in vitro bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayrim B. Guerra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cementos óseos se han convertido en los últimos años en biomateriales de gran utilidad en la fijación de prótesis y en la reconstrucción del hueso. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las propiedades termoanalíticas tales como temperatura máxima de polimerización y tiempo de fraguado en cementos óseos acrílicos modificados con hidroxiapatita/acetato de vinilo, determinar la resistencia a la compresión axial y realizar ensayos de bioactividad in vitro. Diferentes contenidos de acetato de vinilo fueron incorporados en cementos óseos acrílicos cargados todos con un 30 % de hidroxiapatita CORALINA® HAP-200. Las propiedades mecánicas y los parámetros de curado fueron evaluados cumpliendo lo establecido en la Norma ISO 5833 descrita para cementos óseos acrílicos. Se determinaron los parámetros termoanalíticos, obteniéndose tiempos de fraguados entre 3 y 6 minutos y los valores de temperaturas máximas de polimerización oscilan entre 66 y 88 °C. Se obtuvo formulaciones con valores de resistencia a la compresión superiores a lo establecido en la Norma ISO 5833. Se demostró la bioactividad de las formulaciones mediante la inmersión de las muestras en fluido biológico simulado, observándose en la superficie de las mismas la nucleación y el crecimiento de cristales con morfología similar a las apatitas biológicas.Bone cements have become biomaterials of great utility in the prosthesis fixation and as substitutes to the bone. The objective of this study is to evaluate the thermo analytical properties such as setting time and peak temperature of polymerization of acrylic bone cement modified with hydroxyapatite/vinyl acetate, to determine the compression strengths and perform in vitro bioactivity tests. Amounts of vinyl acetate component were incorporated in different percentages in acrylic bone cements, all loaded with 30 % of hydroxyapatite CORALINA® HAP-200. Curing parameters and mechanical properties were

  6. development and characterization of new bone cements

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, Arsénio César Amoreira

    2010-01-01

    A prática comum dos profissionais da saúde em situações de regeneração de defeitos ósseos contidas ou fixação de próteses, consistem em recorrer aos cimentos designados por acrílicos. Os referidos cimentos possuem inúmeras limitações, para o doente e para a equipa médica, porém não existem cimentos alternativos com capacidades de preenchimento e de fixação simultânea. O objectivo deste trabalho consistiu no desenvolvimento de cimentos ósseos com propriedades semelhantes aos cimentos acrílicos...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3340 - Hip joint metal/composite semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cemented prosthesis. 888.3340 Section 888.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Hip joint metal/composite semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/composite semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a two-part device intended to be implanted to replace a...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3500 - Knee joint femorotibial metal/composite semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-constrained cemented prosthesis. 888.3500 Section 888.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3500 Knee joint femorotibial metal/composite semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint femorotibial metal/composite semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a two-part...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3510 - Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cemented prosthesis. 888.3510 Section 888.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace part...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3480 - Knee joint femorotibial metallic constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cemented prosthesis. 888.3480 Section 888.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint femorotibial metallic constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint femorotibial metallic constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace part of a...

  11. Bone Repair and Military Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation...osseointegration/osseoinduction, this material has potential to be used for screw augmentation, total hip/knee joint replacement, and other orthopedic and dental ...silorane bone cement with commercial cement in a swine femoral implant model Kathleen V Kilway, Donna Pacicca, Rachel A Weiler, Elizabeth M. Menuey

  12. An Ice Block: A Novel Technique of Successful Prevention of Cement Leakage Using an Ice Ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uri, Ishaq Fahmi, E-mail: uri.isaac@gmail.com [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (United Kingdom); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpital Universitaire de Strasbourg, Service d’Imagerie Interventionnelle (France)

    2015-04-15

    We report three cases of painful bone metastases with extraosseous invasion treated with cementoplasty and cryoablation. Due to significant cortical loss in all cases, the ice ball was used simultaneously during cementoplasty to deter potential cement leakage. This was achieved by direct application of the ice ball against the cortical surface, resulting in adequate consolidation and successful containment of the cement within the treated bones. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report to describe such a combined technique.

  13. Bio-activated titanium surface utilizable for mimetic bone implantation in dentistry—Part III: Surface characteristics and bone implant contact formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Jakub; Strnad, Zdeněk; Šesták, Jaroslav; Urban, Karel; Povýšil, Ctibor

    2007-05-01

    This study was carried out to quantify the effect of an alkali-modified surface on the bone implant interface formation during healing using an animal model. A total of 24 screw-shaped, self-tapping, (c.p.) titanium dental implants, divided into test group B—implants with alkali-modified surface (Bio surface) and control group M—implants with turned, machined surface, were inserted without pre-tapping in the tibiae of three beagle dogs. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 5 and 12 weeks and the bone implant contact (BIC%) was evaluated histometrically. The surface characteristics that differed between the implant surfaces, i.e. specific surface area, contact angle, may represent factors that influence the rate of osseointegration and the secondary implant stability. The alkali-treated surface enhances the BIC formation during the first 2 5 weeks of healing compared to the turned, machined surface.

  14. Retention of metal-ceramic crowns with contemporary dental cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Zhang, Hai; Wataha, John C

    2009-09-01

    New types of crown and bridge cement are in use by practitioners, and independent studies are needed to assess their effectiveness. The authors conducted a study in three parts (study A, study B, and study C) and to determine how well these new cements retain metal-ceramic crowns. The authors prepared teeth with a 20-degree taper and a 4-millimeter length. They cast high-noble metal-ceramic copings, then fitted and cemented them with a force of 196 newtons. The types of cements they used were zinc phosphate, resin-modified glass ionomer, conventional resin and self-adhesive modified resin. They thermally cycled the cemented copings, then removed them. They recorded the removal force and calculated the stress of dislodgment by using the surface area of each preparation. They used a single-factor analysis of variance to analyze the data (alpha = .05). The mean stresses necessary to remove crowns, in megapascals, were 8.0 for RelyX Luting (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.), 7.3 for RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE), 5.7 for Panavia F (Kuraray America, New York) and 4.0 for Fuji Plus (GC America, Alsip, Ill.) in study A; 8.1 for RelyX Luting, 2.6 for RelyX Luting Plus (3M ESPE) and 2.8 for Fuji CEM (GC America) in study B; and 4.9 for Maxcem (Kerr, Orange, Calif.), 4.0 for BisCem (Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill.), 3.7 for RelyX Unicem Clicker (3M ESPE), 2.9 for iCEM (Heraeus Kulzer, Armonk, N.Y.) and 2.3 for Fleck's Zinc Cement (Keystone Industries, Cherry Hill, N.J.) in study C. Powder-liquid versions of new cements were significantly more retentive than were paste-paste versions of the same cements. The mean value of crown removal stress for the new self-adhesive modified-resin cements varied appreciably among the four cements tested. All cements retained castings as well as or better than did zinc phosphate cement. Powder-liquid versions of cements, although less convenient to mix, may be a better clinical choice when crown retention is an issue. All cements tested will retain castings

  15. Calcium phosphate cements with strontium halides as radiopacifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Engqvist, Håkan; Ott, Marjam Karlsson; Persson, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    High radiopacity is required to monitor the delivery and positioning of injectable implants. Inorganic nonsoluble radiopacifiers are typically used in nondegradable bone cements; however, their usefulness in resorbable cements is limited due to their low solubility. Strontium halides, except strontium fluoride, are ionic water-soluble compounds that possess potential as radiopacifiers. In this study, we compare the radiopacity, mechanical properties, composition, and cytotoxicity of radiopaque brushite cements prepared with strontium fluoride (SrF2 ), strontium chloride (SrCl2 ·6H2 O), strontium bromide (SrBr2 ), or strontium iodide (SrI2 ). Brushite cements containing 10 wt % SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , or SrI2 exhibited equal to or higher radiopacity than commercial radiopaque cements. Furthermore, the brushite crystal lattice in cements that contained the ionic radiopacifiers was larger than in unmodified cements and in cements that contained SrF2 , indicating strontium substitution. Despite the fact that the strontium halides increased the solubility of the cements and affected their mechanical properties, calcium phosphate cements containing SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 showed no significant differences in Saos-2 cell viability and proliferation with respect to the control. Strontium halides: SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 may be potential candidates as radiopacifiers in resorbable biomaterials although their in vivo biocompatibility, when incorporated into injectable implants, is yet to be assessed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering: the road from the laboratory to the clinic, part I (basic concepts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, P C; Casal, M; Reis, R L

    2008-01-01

    Discovered in 1965, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of cytokines from the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily with significant roles in bone and cartilage formation. BMPs are used as powerful osteoinductive components of diverse tissue-engineering products for the healing of bone. Several BMPs with different physiological roles have been identified in humans. The purpose of this review is to cover the biological function of the main members of BMP family, the latest research on BMPs signalling pathways and advances in the production of recombinant BMPs for tissue engineering purposes. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fixação de fraturas ilíacas em cães com parafusos, fios de aço e cimento ósseo de polimetilmetacrilato Canine iliac fracture fixation with screws, orthopedic wire and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roehsig

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a recuperação da locomoção e o tempo para cicatrização óssea de fraturas ilíacas fixadas com parafusos, fios de aço e cimento ósseo de polimetilmetacrilato. Dezesseis cães de ambos os sexos, com peso de 1,8 a 16kg e idade entre sete meses e 11 anos, foram submetidos à osteossíntese da fratura de ílio, provocadas por acidente automobilístico. Em dois animais, realizou-se osteossíntese bilateral, totalizando 18 ossos ilíacos operados. A abordagem ao ílio foi lateral e quando necessária estendida caudalmente através da osteotomia do trocanter maior. As fraturas foram reduzidas e, em cada segmento ósseo, foram implantados dois a três parafusos e banda de tensão com fio de aço entre os parafusos adjacentes à linha de fratura. Sobre esses implantes aplicou-se cimento ósseo misturado com cefazolina sódica e após o endurecimento prosseguiu-se com a síntese dos tecidos moles com suturas rotineiramente utilizadas na clinica cirúrgica. No período pós-operatório, foram realizadas avaliações até 90 dias após a osteossíntese e observou-se locomoção apropriada em 15 animais. Avaliações radiográficas demonstraram sinais de completa consolidação óssea entre 60 e 90 dias. Falha da estabilização ocorreu em dois casos, obrigando a reintervenção cirúrgica em um deles. A partir dos resultados obtidos, é possível concluir que, em cães com até 16kg de peso, a fixação de fraturas ilíacas utilizando parafusos cimentados com PMMA constitui uma eficiente técnica, que proporciona adequada estabilidade, precoce recuperação funcional e cicatrização óssea.The present study aimed to verify the time for locomotion recovery and bone healing in canine iliac fractures fixated with screws, orthopedic wires and methylmetacrylate bone cement. Sixteen dogs from both genders accidentally hit by a car and showing iliac fractures were included. Dogs aged from 7 months to 11

  18. Optimum feeding rate of solid hazardous waste in a cement kiln burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyaratne, W.K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten C.; Tokheim, Lars-Andre [Telemark University College, Faculty of Technology, Kjoelnes Ring 56, P.O. Box 203, N-3901, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    Solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) is a partly CO2 neutral fuel, and hence is a good candidate for substituting fossil fuels like pulverized coal in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. SHW is used in several cement plants, but the optimum substitution rate has apparently not yet been fully investigated. The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by SHW, without negatively affecting the product quality, emissions and overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement plant by varying the SHW substitution rate from 0 to 3 t/hr. Clinker quality, emissions and other relevant operational data from the experiment were analysed using fuel characteristics of coal and SHW. The results revealed that SHW could safely replace around 20% of the primary coal energy without giving negative effects. The limiting factor is the free lime content of the clinker. Results from the present study were also compared with results from a previous test using meat and bone meal.

  19. Propriedades mecânicas do cimento ósseo e da poliuretana de mamona com e sem catalisador Mechanical properties of bone cement and castor oil-based polyurethane with and without a catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.M. Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento mecânico do polímero de mamona, tendo por variáveis o tempo de produção e a presença de catalisador, e utilizando como padrão comparativo o cimento ósseo (polimetilmetacrilato. Foram estabelecidos três grupos experimentais, de acordo com o tipo de corpo de prova (cilindro ou barra e polímero utilizado, que foram posteriormente subdivididos em subgrupos conforme o tempo após produção, ou seja, 24, 48 e 72 horas. O ensaio de compressão analisou a carga máxima e a tensão e o ensaio de dobramento estudou o módulo de dobramento e a resistência. Estatisticamente não houve diferenças nos valores de resistência à compressão ou ao dobramento às 24, 48 e 72 horas após a produção do polimetilmetacrilato e da poliuretana, com ou sem catalisador. A poliuretana com catalisador foi a mais resistente nos ensaios de compressão, apresentando módulo de dobramento semelhante ao do polimetilmetacrilato e resistência ao dobramento superior à da poliuretana sem catalisador. Conclui-se que: o tempo não alterou as propriedades mecânicas dos compósitos avaliados; o catalisador melhorou o desempenho mecânico da poliuretana de mamona; na resistência mecânica à compressão, a poliuretana com catalisador suportou mais carga que o polimetilmetacrilato.The mechanical properties of castor oil-based polyurethane was evaluated considering post-production time and the presence of a catalyst as variables and using bone cement (polymethylmetacrylate as a comparative pattern. According to proof body type (cylinders or bars and the used polymer, three experimental groups were established. Such groups were later subdivided according to post-production time, namely, 24, 48, and 72 hours. A compression assay analyzed maximum load and tension, and a folding assay evaluated the folding module and resistance. There were no statistical differences in the values for resistance to compression or folding at 24, 48, and 72 hours

  20. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  1. Radiographic study of the sound navicular bone. Part 1: What about the canals on the distal border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, A.; Jolly, S.; Detilleux, J.; Snaps, F.; Serteyn, D.; Collin, B.

    1998-01-01

    The scoring system based on the different types of navicular distal border canals is a good method to quantify and relativise the anomalies in number, shape and localisation of the canals. The distal border score varies significantly with the limb (fore or rear), the morphological type, the gender and the age of the horse. These anatomical variations are of importance and must be taken into account when examining a suspect bone. The score is larger for the fore navicular bone than for the rear. It could be interesting to compare both scores: rear navicular bone score is generally equal to half (or slight less) that of the fore. The score is larger for heavy types of horses and ponies (drafthorse, heavy halfbreds and Fjords). This phenomenon could be related to a larger pressure within the distal interphalangeal joint. The score is lower for the athletic halfbred than for other half-breds. This could be the result of the changes in bone architecture induced by exercise and particularly bone densification. The score is lower for the female than for the male. We think that navicular bone quality is better for the female and this idea corroborates that of other authors that consider that the risk to develop navicular disease is smaller for the female than for the male. The score increases with age. It is particularly small in young horses less than two years old and then increases strongly. This phenomenon is to be related to the progressive development, in the first year of life, of the groove between articular cartilage and distal impar ligament, canals developping only later one. In athletic horses, the score is higher between 7 and 12 years of age. During this time, we also observe more degenerative changes within the navicular bone, which could mean that bone is of lesser quality

  2. A novel injectable borate bioactive glass cement as an antibiotic delivery vehicle for treating osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Zhao, Cun-Ju; Cui, Xu; Gu, Yi-Fei; Jia, Wei-Tao; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Wang, Yang; Huang, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A novel injectable cement composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass (BG) particles was evaluated as a carrier for local delivery of vancomycin in the treatment of osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. The setting time, injectability, and compressive strength of the borate BG cement, and the release profile of vancomycin from the cement were measured in vitro. The capacity of the vancomycin-loaded BG cement to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced osteomyelitis in rabbit tibiae in vivo was evaluated and compared with that for a vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate (CS) cement and for intravenous injection of vancomycin. The BG cement had an injectability of >90% during the first 3 minutes after mixing, hardened within 30 minutes and, after hardening, had a compressive strength of 18 ± 2 MPa. Vancomycin was released from the BG cement into phosphate-buffered saline for up to 36 days, and the cumulative amount of vancomycin released was 86% of the amount initially loaded into the cement. In comparison, vancomycin was released from the CS cement for up 28 days and the cumulative amount released was 89%. Two months post-surgery, radiography and microbiological tests showed that the BG and CS cements had a better ability to eradicate osteomyelitis when compared to intravenous injection of vancomycin, but there was no significant difference between the BG and CS cements in eradicating the infection. Histological examination showed that the BG cement was biocompatible and had a good capacity for regenerating bone in the tibial defects. These results indicate that borate BG cement is a promising material both as an injectable carrier for vancomycin in the eradication of osteomyelitis and as an osteoconductive matrix to regenerate bone after the infection is cured.

  3. A novel injectable borate bioactive glass cement as an antibiotic delivery vehicle for treating osteomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel injectable cement composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass (BG particles was evaluated as a carrier for local delivery of vancomycin in the treatment of osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The setting time, injectability, and compressive strength of the borate BG cement, and the release profile of vancomycin from the cement were measured in vitro. The capacity of the vancomycin-loaded BG cement to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-induced osteomyelitis in rabbit tibiae in vivo was evaluated and compared with that for a vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate (CS cement and for intravenous injection of vancomycin. RESULTS: The BG cement had an injectability of >90% during the first 3 minutes after mixing, hardened within 30 minutes and, after hardening, had a compressive strength of 18 ± 2 MPa. Vancomycin was released from the BG cement into phosphate-buffered saline for up to 36 days, and the cumulative amount of vancomycin released was 86% of the amount initially loaded into the cement. In comparison, vancomycin was released from the CS cement for up 28 days and the cumulative amount released was 89%. Two months post-surgery, radiography and microbiological tests showed that the BG and CS cements had a better ability to eradicate osteomyelitis when compared to intravenous injection of vancomycin, but there was no significant difference between the BG and CS cements in eradicating the infection. Histological examination showed that the BG cement was biocompatible and had a good capacity for regenerating bone in the tibial defects. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that borate BG cement is a promising material both as an injectable carrier for vancomycin in the eradication of osteomyelitis and as an osteoconductive matrix to regenerate bone after the infection is cured.

  4. Controls on Cementation in a Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meireles, Leonardo Teixeira Pinto; Hussein, A.; Welch, M.J.

    In this study, we identify different controls on cementation in a chalk reservoir. Biot’s coefficient, a measure of cementation, stiffness and strength in porous rocks, is calculated from logging data (bulk density and sonic Pwave velocity). We show that Biot’s coefficient is correlated...... to the water saturation of the Kraka reservoir and is partly controlled by its stratigraphic sub-units. While the direct causal relationship between Biot’s coefficient and water saturation cannot be extended for Biot’s coefficient and porosity, a correlation is also identified between the two, implying...

  5. Incorporation of bioactive glass in calcium phosphate cement: An evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renno, A.C.; Watering, F.C.J. van de; Nejadnik, M.R.; Crovace, M.C.; Zanotto, E.D.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known for their unique ability to bond to living bone. Consequently, the incorporation of BGs into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was hypothesized to be a feasible approach to improve the biological performance of CPC. Previously, it has been demonstrated that BGs can

  6. Effect of Cement Replacement with Carbide Waste on the Strength of Stabilized Clay Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cement is commonly used for soil stabilization and many other ground improvement techniques. Cement is believed to be very good to improve the compressive and split-tensile strength of clay subgrades. In some application cement could be partly or fully replaced with carbide waste. This research is to study the effectiveness of the cement replacement and to find the maximum carbide waste content to be allowed for a clay subgrade. The quantities of cement replaced with the carbide waste were 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% by its mass. The results show that replacing the cement with carbide waste decreased both the compressive and split tensile strength. Replacing cement content with carbide waste reduced its ability for stabilization. The carbide waste content should be less than 70% of the cement to provide a sufficient stabilizing effect on a clay subgrade.

  7. Study on evolution of disposal environment due to alteration of cement. Summary report. Commission work report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Kubo, H.; Kato, T.; Fujita, H.

    2001-02-01

    The study shows effects on performance of the engineered and geological barriers due to alteration of cement including low alkalinity cement. Alteration test of bentonite and crystalline rock was carried out by low alkalinity cement pore water. Leaching of super plasticizer was investigated modeled for the latest period of alteration of cement. Planning a experiment for corrosion of re-bar in low alkalinity cement was carried out. Application of the cement for shotcrete was investigated. The results described below are obtained. 1. Almost of montmorillonite was solved in Na-K-Ca mixed solution. No alteration was observed in low alkalinity cement. The similar results were obtained for crystalline rock. 2. It is noted that main part of super plasticizer wasn't leachated even in the latest period of leaching of cement. Increment of leaching of super plasticizer wasn't observed corresponding to leaching of cement hydrates. 3. Accelerating test for corrosion of re-bar in low alkalinity cement was proposed. 4. It was demonstrated that low alkalinity cement was applicable for shotcrete. 5. pH of pore water of cement with highly pozzolanic materials isn't significantly decreased in high temperature. 6. Predictable alteration of barriers due to alteration of cement were pointed out including interaction of bentonite and rock. (author)

  8. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction

  9. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 407, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Chih [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan [Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Tien, Yin-Chun [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 407, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction.

  10. Use of microhardness as a simple means of estimating relative wear resistance of carbide thermal spray coatings: Part 2. wear resistance of cemented carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Michael; Roman, Itzhak

    2002-12-01

    A selection of WC-Co and Cr3C2-25%NiCr coatings produced by plasma spray and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) deposition techniques were subjected to various wear tests designed to simulate abrasion, cavitation, sliding, and particle erosion type wear mechanisms. All of the coatings were at least 200 µm thick and were deposited onto stainless steel substrates. In Part 1 of this contribution, the microstructures of the coatings were characterized and their mechanical properties were assessed using microindentation procedures. In this second part of the article, the behavior of the coatings when subjected to the various wear tests is reported and the utility of microhardness testing as an indication of relative wear resistance is discussed. It is shown that correctly performed, appropriate microhardness measurements are a good indication of abrasion resistance and sliding wear resistance, and also correlate well with cavitation resistance in Cr3C2-NiCr. The measurements were less useful for predicting erosion resistance for both Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co, however, and for abrasion resistance when WC-Co was ground against SiC. Here the contribution of micromechanisms involving fracturing and brittle failure is greater than that indicated by the coating microhardness, which is essentially a measurement of resistance to plastic deformation under equilibrium conditions.

  11. Properties of pellet cement-glass package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, K.; Izumida, T.

    1989-01-01

    A new solidification technique using cement-glass, which is a mixture of sodium silicate, silicon phosphate and cement is presented. It was developed to solidify sodium sulfate or sodium borate pellets generated from nuclear power plants. The optimum composition of Na 2 O, SiO 2 and P 2 O 5 · 2SiO 2 , main components of cement-glass, was defined to be 1:2:1 by studying the solidification mechanism. Polymer impregnated concrete was selected as material of the container to increase the stability. Since the package consists of inorganic materials, it shows good fire resistance and radiation stability. Added cement absorbs free water which is generated by the solidification reaction of Na 2 O, SiO 2 and P 2 O 5 · 2SiO 2 . Then, soluble pellets can be solidified without dissolving some part of them. Since polymer impregnated concrete has little porosity, the pellet cement-glass package which uses a polymer impregnated concrete container shows very low leachability

  12. Fabrication of Novel Biodegradable α-Tricalcium Phosphate Cement Set by Chelating Capability of Inositol Phosphate and Its Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiisa Konishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP cement based on the chelate-setting mechanism of inositol phosphate (IP6 was developed. This paper examined the effect of the milling time of α-TCP powder on the material properties of the cement. In addition, biocompatibility of the result cement in vitro using osteoblasts and in vivo using rabbit models will be studied as well. The α-TCP powders were ballmilled using ZrO2 beads in pure water for various durations up to 270 minutes, with a single-phase α-TCP obtained at ballmilling for 120 minutes. The resulting cement was mostly composed of α-TCP phase, and the compressive strength of the cement was 8.5±1.1 MPa, which suggested that the cements set with keeping the crystallite phase of starting cement powder. The cell-culture test indicated that the resulting cements were biocompatible materials. In vivo studies showed that the newly formed bones increased with milling time at a slight distance from the cement specimens and grew mature at 24 weeks, and the surface of the cement was resorbed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-(TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells until 24 weeks of implantation. The present α-TCP cement is promising for application as a novel paste-like artificial bone with biodegradability and osteoconductivity.

  13. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated {sup 99m}Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, {sup 99m}Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  14. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu

    1996-01-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated 99m Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, 99m Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  15. Design and manufacture NCS instruments for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Nguyen Tien Dung; Dang Nguyet Anh; Nguyen Phuc; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Luong Duc Long; Pham Trong Quyen

    2003-01-01

    The ministry project 'Design and manufacture some of NCS instruments for cement factories' is a part of instrumentation for cement production in Vietnam. The objectives of the project include: 1/Design and manufacture the automatic control system for cement raw material mixing, connected to components X-ray analyzer through serial port of PC; 2/Design and manufacture the automatic discharge control system using gamma rays. The instruments, made by the project , for controlling the conveyor belt weighing machine can be easily improved for various types of conveyor belt weighing machines. Their mobility and software equipped can be adapted for requirement of modern cement production technology. The instruments are operating well in some cement factories and they are helping in quality control. (NHA)

  16. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  17. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  18. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  19. Influence of Bovine Dentin Site on the Bond Strength of Resin Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Tohru, HAYAKAWA; Hiroyuki, MISHIMA; Shuichi, YAMAKAWA; Mikiko, MASUDA; Masahiro, AIDA; Kimiya, NEMOTO; Yukishige, KOZAWA; Department of Dental Materials, Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon Univerity School of Dentistry at Matsudo; Department of Anatomy, Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo; Department of Crown and Bridge Prosthodontics, Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo; Department of Crown and Bridge Prosthodontics, Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo; Department of Crown and Bridge Prosthodontics, Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo; Department of Dental Materials, Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon Univerity School of Dentistry at Matsudo; Department of Anatomy, Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of types of resin cements and dentin site(crown and root part)on the adhesion of resin cement to dentin. Three types of resin cements; Super-Bond C&B, Bistite II and Scotchbond Resin Cement were used. The tensile bond strength of each resin cement to crown and root dentin of bovine incisors was measured after 24 hours immersion in water at 37℃. Super-Bond C&B showed no significant difference in bond strength between crown and root den...

  20. Zinc phosphate as a definitive cement for implant-supported crowns and fixed dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flanagan D

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dennis Flanagan Private Practice, Willimantic, CT, USA Abstract: Implant-supported dental prostheses can be retained by a screw or cement. Implant-supported fixed partial dentures have a passive fit. A passive fit means there is an internal gap between the abutment surface and the intaglio of the retainer to insure that there is no lateral pressure on the supporting implants or friction upon seating of the prosthesis. This gap is filled with cement for retention of the prosthesis. Any lateral pressure may cause marginal bone loss or periimplantitis. Also, there is usually a microscopic gap at the margin of a crown retainer that exposes the cement to oral fluids. The solubility of zinc phosphate (ZOP cement is a definite liability due to the risk for cement dissolution. In fixed prostheses, the dissolution of the cement of one or more retainers would cause a transfer of the occlusal load to the retained unit(s. The resulting rotation and lifting of the cement-retained implants from occlusal and parafunctional loads could cause loss of osseointegration of the abutment-retained implant(s. ZOP cement may not be indicated for implant-supported fixed partial dentures or splints. Cement dissolution in single unit probably only involves re-cementation, if the patient does not swallow or aspirate the crown. Keywords: passive fit, retention, film thickness, fixed, marginal gap 

  1. Vibrational investigation of calcium-silicate cements for endodontics in simulated body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Tinti, Anna; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2011-05-01

    Calcium-silicate MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) cements have been recently developed for oral and endodontic surgery. This study was aimed at investigating commercial (White ProRoot MTA, White and Grey MTA-Angelus) and experimental (wTC-Bi) accelerated calcium-silicate cements with regards to composition, hydration products and bioactivity upon incubation for 1-28 days at 37 °C, in Dulbecco's Phosphate Buffered Saline (DPBS). Deposits on the surface of the cements and the composition changes during incubation were investigated by micro-Raman and ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy, and pH measurements. Vibrational techniques disclosed significant differences in composition among the unhydrated cements, which significantly affected the bioactivity as well as pH, and hydration products of the cements. After one day in DPBS, all the cements were covered by a more or less homogeneous layer of B-type carbonated apatite. The experimental cement maintained a high bioactivity, only slightly lower than the other cements and appears a valid alternative to commercial cements, in view of its adequate setting time properties. The bioactivity represents an essential property to favour bone healing and makes the calcium-silicate cements the gold standard materials for root-apical endodontic surgery.

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  3. Cementation of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenkov, V.

    2004-01-01

    The cementation methods for immobilisation of radioactive wastes are discussed in terms of methodology, chemistry and properties of the different types of cements as well as the worldwide experience in this field. Two facilities for cementation - DEWA and MOWA - are described in details

  4. Center for Cement Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-31

    DSP cement pastes were prepared using white Portland cement (PC), amorphous silica fume, and a superplasticizer . The fume/cement ratios varied from... superplasticized PC pastes without silica fume. This is due to a reduction in the amount and size of porosity formed in DSP. Specific: surface areas measured

  5. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  6. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  7. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  8. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  9. Retention, marginal leakage, and cement solubility of provisional crowns cemented with temporary cement containing stannous fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinstein, Israel; Fuhrer, Nitzan; Gelfand, Katerina; Cardash, Harold; Pilo, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the (1) retention and microleakage of provisional crowns cemented with temporary cements to which stannous fluoride (SnF2) was added, and (2) solubility of these cements. Provisional crowns were constructed of acrylic resin with shoulder preparations for 12 molars. The crowns were luted with Tempbond, Tempbond NE, and Freegenol temporary cements, and also with SnF2 added to these cements. Specimens were thermocycled 100 times, stored for 6 days, and immersed in 0.5% basic fuschin. Seven days after cementation, crown removal (retention) tests were conducted. Marginal leakage was assessed using a five-level scale to score dye penetration. Solubility in water of the cements with and without SnF2 was assessed using cement disks. Freegenol was more retentive than the other cements. The incorporation of SnF2 significantly increased the retention capacity of Freegenol and Tempbond NE but had no effect on Tempbond. Tempbond showed significantly higher dye penetration than Freegenol. The addition of SnF2 did not alter the dye penetration of the cements. There were no significant differences in the solubility of the cements. However, the incorporation of SnF2 increased the solubility of Freegenol and Tempbond NE (P crowns cemented with Tempbond NE and Freegenol but did not affect the retention of those cemented with Tempbond. The marginal leakage of crowns cemented with the tested temporary cements with and without the incorporation of SnF2 was similar. However, the addition of SnF2 increased the solubility of the cements.

  10. Local induction of inflammation affects bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M.; Kruyt, M. C.; Loozen, L.; Kragten, A. H M; Yuan, H.; Dhert, W. J.; Öner, F. C.; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of inflammatory processes on bone formation, we applied a new in vivo screening model. Confined biological pockets were first created in rabbits as a response to implanted bone cement discs. These biomembrane pockets were subsequently used to study the effects of

  11. Optimization of a Functionally Graded Material Stem in the Femoral Component of a Cemented Hip Arthroplasty: Influence of Dimensionality of FGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of hip prostheses is contingent on the stability of the implant within the cavity of the femur bone. The cemented fixation was mostly adopted owing to offering the immediate stability from cement-stem and cement-bone bonding interfaces after implant surgery. Yet cement damage and stress shielding of the bone were proven to adversely affect the lifelong stability of the implant, especially among younger subjects who tend to have an active lifestyle. The geometry and material distribution of the implant can be optimized more efficiently with a three-dimensional realistic design of a functionally graded material (FGM. We report an efficient numerical technique for achieving this objective, for maximum performance stress shielding and the rate of early accumulation of cement damage were concurrently minimized. Results indicated less stress shielding and similar cement damage rates with a 2D-FGM implant compared to 1D-FGM and Titanium alloy implants.

  12. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    ting. It is used in industrial floorings, ship decks, railway passenger coach floorings, hospital floors, ammunition factory floors, missile silos and underground armament factories and bunkers. Recently, concrete of high compres- sive and tensile strength prepared with magnesium oxy- chloride cement and recycled rubber ...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3390 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cemented or uncemented prosthesis. 888.3390 Section 888.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3390 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis is a two-part...

  14. Mathematical modeling of bone marrow--peripheral blood dynamics in the disease state based on current emerging paradigms, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afenya, Evans K; Ouifki, Rachid; Camara, Baba I; Mundle, Suneel D

    2016-04-01

    Stemming from current emerging paradigms related to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, an existing mathematical model is expanded and used to study cell interaction dynamics in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The proposed mathematical model is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations with delay, to quantify the dynamics in abnormal hematopoiesis. The steady states of the model are analytically and numerically obtained. Some conditions for the local asymptotic stability of such states are investigated. Model analyses suggest that malignancy may be irreversible once it evolves from a nonmalignant state into a malignant one and no intervention takes place. This leads to the proposition that a great deal of emphasis be placed on cancer prevention. Nevertheless, should malignancy arise, treatment programs for its containment or curtailment may have to include a maximum and extensive level of effort to protect normal cells from eventual destruction. Further model analyses and simulations predict that in the untreated disease state, there is an evolution towards a situation in which malignant cells dominate the entire bone marrow - peripheral blood system. Arguments are then advanced regarding requirements for quantitatively understanding cancer stem cell behavior. Among the suggested requirements are, mathematical frameworks for describing the dynamics of cancer initiation and progression, the response to treatment, the evolution of resistance, and malignancy prevention dynamics within the bone marrow - peripheral blood architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  16. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  17. Cemented femoral stems in patients with DDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cimbrelo, E

    2007-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is the procedure of choice for most adult patients with symptomatic arthrosis secondary to developmental dysplasia (DDH), but it requires complex reconstructive techniques, is usually performed in young patients, and has an increased risk of complications. THA is indicated in presence of severe pain and when osteotomy is contraindicated. The complexity of surgery is related to the degree of dysplasia. Anatomic abnormalities in the acetabulum and femur are the cause of the complexity and complications of this procedure. Acetabular bone deficiency requires reconstructive techniques before implanting the cup at the anatomic acetabular location, such as bone autograft augmentation, implanting the cup at higher level of the hip center and cup medialization. Femoral shortening and special cemented or uncemented stems are currently used to avoid intraoperative complications. While a cemented stem needs metaphyseal femoral shortening, subtrochanteric shortening requires a cementless stem. Because of these patients' age, alternative bearing surfaces, such as alumina-on-alumina couples are recommended when possible. Although the long-term results of total hip arthroplasty in DDH are inferior to those in a general population, the results show a high level of pain relief and functional improvement.

  18. A sticky problem: the Xenopus cement gland as a paradigm for anteroposterior patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sive, H; Bradley, L

    1996-03-01

    The cement gland is a mucus-secreting organ found at the extreme anterior of frog embryos. It attaches the embryo to a solid support before swimming and feeding begin, and also serves a related sensory function that stops the embryo from moving once it is attached. Cement gland is an extremely useful anterior marker, whose study continues to yield fundamental information concerning vertebrate axial patterning. Cement gland arises from the outer layer of the embryonic ectoderm and, in Xenopus, forms a cone of columnar epithelium. It is the first ectodermal organ to differentiate, beginning to do so by late gastrula. A battery of genes expressed in the developing and mature cement gland serve as useful markers. Cement gland development can be influenced by both stimulatory and inhibitory cell interactions. Stimulatory signals arise from the anterior neural plate, head endoderm, and the dorsal mesoderm. Inhibitory signals are present in the posterior dorsal mesoderm and in ventral ectoderm and mesoderm. Further, signalling between the ectodermal layers may restrict cement gland differentiation to the outer ectodermal cells. Several secreted molecules are able to induce or repress cement gland formation: these include noggin, follistatin, hedgehog, chordin, retinoic acid, embryonic fibroblast growth factor (eFGF), Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 (BMP-4), and Xwnt-8. Several of these factors alter expression of the homeodomain gene Xotx2, which may be a transcriptional activator of cement gland differentiation genes. The significance of the cell interactions and factors described in positioning cement gland at the front of the embryo is explored.

  19. Geometry of calcite cemented zones in shallow marine sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walderhaug, O.; Prestholm, E.; Oexnevad, I.E.I.

    1995-12-31

    In offshore oil production, tightly cemented calcite zones often form impermeable barriers to fluid flow an so adversely affect reservoir performance. Based on recent breakthroughs in the theory of the formation of calcite cemented zones, the project discussed in this paper was concerned with (1) Performing outcrop studies in order to increase the existing database on the geometry of calcite cemented zones, (2) Extending and refining methods of predicting the geometry of cored calcite cemented zones, and (3) Applying and illustrating the use of these methods by studying calcite cementation in shallow marine reservoir sandstones on the Norwegian shelf. The paper presents results from field work and applies these results and the criteria for recognizing geometrical forms of calcite cementation in cores to the Ula Formation of the Ula Field and the Rannoch Formation of the Gullfax Field. The results from the core and outcrop studies are integrated in a tentative identification key for cored calcite cemented zones. The work is part of PROFIT (Program for Research On Field oriented Improved recovery Technology), a research project conducted by RF - Rogaland Research in 1991-1994. 32 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  1. Microstructure of hydrated cement pastes as determined by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabine, T.; Bertram, W.; Aldridge, L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Technologists have known how to make concrete for over 2000 years but despite painstaking research no one has been able to show how and why concrete sets. Part of the problem is that the calcium silicate hydrate (the gel produced by hydrating cement) is amorphous and cannot be characterised by x-ray crystallographic techniques. Small angle neutron scattering on instrument V12a at BENSC was used to characterise the hydration reactions and show the growth of the calcium silicate hydrates during initial hydration and the substantial differences in the rate of growth and structure as different additives are used. SANS spectra were measured as a function of the hydration from three different types of cement paste: 1) Ordinary Portland Cement made with a water to cement ratio of about 0.4; 2) A blend of Ordinary Portland Cement(25%) and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (75%) with a water to cement ration of about 0.4; 3) A dense paste made from silica fume(24%), Ordinary Portland Cement (76%) at a water to powder ratio of 0.18. The differences in the spectra are interpreted in terms of differences between the microstructure of the pastes

  2. Preparation and Fatigue Properties of Functionally Graded Cemented Carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Fengxiao; Liaw, Peter K.; He Yuehui

    2008-01-01

    Cemented carbides with a functionally graded structure have significantly improved mechanical properties and lifetimes in cutting, drilling and molding. In this work, WC-6 wt.% Co cemented carbides with three-layer graded structure (surface layer rich in WC, mid layer rich in Co and the inner part of the average composition) were prepared by carburizing pre-sintered η-phase-containing cemented carbides. The three-point bending fatigue tests based on the total-life approach were conducted on both WC-6wt%Co functionally graded cemented carbides (FGCC) and conventional WC-6wt%Co cemented carbides. The functionally graded cemented carbide shows a slightly higher fatigue limit (∼100 MPa) than the conventional ones under the present testing conditions. However, the fatigue crack nucleation behavior of FGCC is different from that of the conventional ones. The crack nucleates preferentially along the Co-gradient and perpendicular to the tension surface in FGCC, while parallel to the tension surface in conventional cemented carbides

  3. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius) pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Gupta, Anuj; Gaur, Suresh Chandra

    2014-09-01

    Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm) were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4%) patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years) with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ≥30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks). Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  4. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. Results: 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4% patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ≥30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks. Conclusion: Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  5. Cementing of low pressure formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownlie, D. [Trican Well Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Coupland, M. [Baytex Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposed a solution to the notorious problem of squeeze cementing low pressure formations. It is a well known fact within the petroleum industry that it is difficult to squeeze cement low pressure formations in certain areas. Short of fracturing, most geological formations will not allow cement to penetrate the actual rock. In standard cement squeezing, cement slurries are placed across perforations and then pressure is applied to force the cement into perforation tunnels against the formation causing partial dehydration of the slurry. The cement left in the perforation tunnels makes a seal between the formation and the wellbore that has high compressive strength and low permeability. However, experience has shown that some wells are not capable of holding the hydrostatic pressure of a water column. This paper presented case studies that examined formations with modified geology, a highly unconsolidated sandstone where large volumes of sand were extracted during the production process. In particular, the paper refers to a low pressure field in Western Canada, the remedial cementing in Lloydminster. Within a 3 year period 18 zones were cement squeezed and drilled out. Nine of the zones were cement squeezed using a retainer with thixotropic cement followed by a 0:1:0 Class G cement. Only 11 per cent of the 9 zones was successful on the first attempt. The other 9 zones were cement squeezed using the bullhead technique in which a fluid is shot into the well casing before the downhole equipment. This latter technique proved to be more successful on the first attempt. 2 refs.

  6. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  7. INORGANIC CEMENT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Clay Rios Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Geopolymeric Cement Concrete (GCC was developed through adequate portions of geopolymer components. Its characteristics were compared with Portland Cement Concrete (PCC, through of the establishment of some parameters of design, as consumption of binders, water/aggregates ratio and mortar content. The concrete mechanical performance was evaluated with emphasis to the fatigue behavior. Were tested the effects of different tensile strength maximum (increasing and decreasing. The results of fatigue tests had shown that GCC presents a better performance when compared to PCC. Its fatigue strength was 15% higher than that of PCC, when 70% of rupture tension of the concrete in static bending (SR, was applied. Tensions of about 80% SR resulted in 96% of increase, when compared to GCC. The SEM microstructural analysis showed that the GCC has a matrix/aggregate bonding very strong, when compared to PCC, probably due to the massive nature of the geopolymeric matrix.

  8. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  9. Alpha-tricalcium phosphate cement in the reconstruction of bone defects in rats Cimento de alfa-tricálcio-fosfato na reconstrução de defeitos ósseos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Souza Pinto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of a mixture of α-TCP and autogenous bone (AB vs. α-TCP alone and AB alone to promote new bone formation and tissue repair in bone defects. METHODS: Bone defects surgically created in 15 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I (AB, Group II (α-TCP, Group III (α-TCP+AB assessed by light microscopy, and Group IV (α-TCP+AB assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Bone repair findings were assessed at 30, 60, and 120 days postoperatively. RESULTS: The histological findings obtained in Groups I (p=0.459, II (p=0.368, and III (p=0.459 and at 30 days (p=0.717, 60 days (p=0.717, and 120 days (p=0.779 did not show statistically significant differences. Scanning electron microscopy revealed direct contact between the α-TCP+AB implant and the bone tissue at 120 days. CONCLUSION: The α-TCP implant is effective alternative bone substitutes for the treatment of critical size bone defects.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade da mistura de α-TCP e osso autógeno (OA Vs somente α-TCP e somente OA em promover a neoformação óssea e reparo tecidual em defeitos ósseos. MÉTODOS: Foram criados cirurgicamente defeitos ósseos em 15 ratos Wistar machos, distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo I (OA, Grupo II (α-TCP, Grupo III (α-TCP + OA avaliado por microscopia de luz e Grupo IV (α-TCP + OA avaliado por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados da reparação óssea foram avaliados em 30, 60 e 120 dias. RESULTADOS:os achados histológicos obtidos nos grupos I (p = 0,459, II (p = 0,368 e III (p = 0,459 e aos 30 dias (p = 0,717, 60 dias (p = 0,717, e 120 dias (p = 0,779 não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou contacto direto entre o implante de α-TCP + AO e o tecido ósseo aos 120 dias. CONCLUSÃO: O implante de α-TCP é alternativa eficaz como substitutos ósseos para o tratamento de defeitos ósseos de tamanho crítico.

  10. Evaluation of (241)Am deposited in different parts of the leg bones and skeleton to justify in vivo measurements of the knee for estimating total skeletal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Majid; Brey, Richard R; Derryberry, DeWayne

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of Am deposited in different parts of leg bones relative to the total leg activity was calculated from radiochemical analysis results from six whole body donors participating in the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In five of these six USTUR cases, the percentage of Am deposited in the knee region as well as in the entire leg was separately calculated relative to total skeletal activity. The purpose of this study is to find a region in the leg that is both suitable for in vivo measurement of Am deposited in the bones and has a good correlation with the total skeletal Am burden. In all analyzed cases, the femur was the bone with the highest percentage of Am deposited in the leg (48.8%). In the five cases that have complete whole skeletal analysis, the percentage of Am activity in the knee relative to entire skeletal activity was 4.8%, and the average value of its coefficient of variation was 10.6%. The percentage of Am in the leg relative to total skeletal activity was 20% with an average coefficient of variation of 13.63%. The Am activity in the knee as well as in the leg was strongly correlated (R = 99.5% and R = 99.1%, respectively) with the amount of Am activity in the entire skeleton using a simple linear relationship. The highest correlation was found between the amount of Am deposited in the knee and the amount of Am deposited in the entire skeleton. This correlation is important because it might enable an accurate assessment of the total skeletal Am burden to be performed from in vivo monitoring of the knee region. In all analyzed cases, an excellent correlation (R = 99.9%) was found between the amount of Am activity in the knee and the amount of Am activity in the entire leg. The results of this study suggest three simple models: two models to predict the total skeletal activity based on either leg or knee activity, and the third model to predict the total leg activity based on knee activity. The results also suggest that the

  11. Portland cement versus MTA as a root-end filling material. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Silva Neto, José Dias; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Schnaider, Taylor Brandão; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-02-01

    To assess periradicular lesions clinically and by computed tomography (CT) after endodontic surgery using either Portland cement or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root-end filling material. Three patients diagnosed with periradicular lesions by cone-beam CT underwent endodontic surgery with root-end filling. Patient A was treated with MTA as the root-end filling material, patient B was treated with Portland cement and patient C had two teeth treated, one with MTA and the other with Portland cement. Six months after surgery, the patients were assessed clinically and by CT scan and the obtained results were compared. Periradicular tissue regeneration was observed in all cases, with no significant differences in bone formation when comparing the use of MTA and Portland cement as root-end filling materials. Both mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement were successful in the treatment of periradicular lesions.

  12. Lignin-based cement fluid loss control additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, P.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a hydraulic cement slurry composition. It comprises: a hydraulic cement, and the following expressed as parts by weight per 100 parts of the hydraulic cement, water from about 25 to 105 parts, and from abut 0.5 to 2.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of a sulfonated lignin and a sulfomethylated lignin, wherein the lignin has been sequentially crosslinked by reacting the lignin with a member of the group consisting of formaldehyde and epichlorohydrin and alkoxylated with between about 2 to about 6 moles of a compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide and a combination thereof per 1000 g of the lignin.

  13. Heterogeneous rare earth element (REE) patterns and concentrations in a fossil bone: Implications for the use of REE in vertebrate taphonomy and fossilization history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Celina A.; Macpherson, G. L.; González, Luis A.; Grandstaff, David E.

    2010-05-01

    A bone fragment (CGDQ-3) of Falcariusutahensis, a therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, contained within a carbonate nodule, was analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in order to investigate REE variability within a thin-walled phalanx. Previous studies have found depth-related REE pattern variations; however, in CGDQ-3 variation occurs along the circumference of the bone. NASC-normalized REE patterns and concentrations vary between two apparent end members. A light-REE enriched (LREE) pattern, similar to solution ICP-MS analysis of this bone, characterizes approximately two-thirds of the bone fragment. Total REE concentrations are high and do not vary significantly from the periosteal surface to the medullar surface. Conversely, the remaining one-third of the bone has REE patterns that are MREE-depleted and low in total REE concentrations. REE concentrations in this part of the bone do not vary significantly from the periosteal to the medullar surface. A positive Ce anomaly is found throughout the entire bone, and is greatest within the LREE-enriched portion of the bone. This, in combination with the LREE-enrichment, suggests that the bone fossilized under reducing conditions. The distance between the LREE-enriched and MREE-depleted regions is less than 1 mm. Isotopic and petrographic analyses of the bone and surrounding carbonate matrix suggest the REE patterns in the bone were the result of partial fossilization/incomplete filling of micro-pore spaces around bone crystallites in an environment with changing redox conditions. The lower, MREE-depleted part of the bone fossilized contemporaneously with a pendant cement that formed on the underside of the bone in the vadose zone. Formation of the pendant cement restricted water flow through the bone, isolating the lower portion, which incorporated a MREE-depleted pattern. The upper part of the bone (LREE-enriched side) fossilized under

  14. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Srabani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is extensively used for treatment of malignancies, but angiosarcomas occurring in an irradiated area are uncommon. We report a rare case of high-grade epithelioid angiosarcoma of upper end of right humerus in a 67-year-old male occurring ten years following irradiation for giant cell tumor of the same anatomical site. The patient presented with progressive painful swelling over right shoulder and his X-ray showed erosion of medial cortex with lytic areas at upper end of humerus. He underwent excision of affected part of humerus followed by cemented hemiarthroplasty and bone grafting. After initial histopathological diagnostic dilemma the final report was given as post-radiation angiosarcoma. Disease recurred at the end of one-year follow-up period where upon he underwent wide resection with prosthesis replacement. He received four cycles of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide and currently is free of recurrence after six months follow -up.

  15. Study of mechanical and physicochemical properties of cementated spent ion-exchange-resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.

    1981-09-01

    As first part of a study on the possibilities, to immobilize spent ion exchange resins, for final disposal, the dependence of compressive strength from the composition of cement - resin mixtures was detected. Powdered resins, bead resins and ashes from the incinerator plant and several cement brands were examinated. As result an area was defined in the three-phase diagram of cement, resins and water, in which the following leach tests will be performed. (author)

  16. Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-02-04

    The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery.

  17. Modifications of a calcium phosphate cement with biomolecules--influence on nanostructure, material, and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Corina; Lode, Anja; Bernhardt, Anne; Reinstorf, Antje; Nies, Berthold; Gelinsky, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC), forming hydroxyapatite during the setting reaction, are characterized by good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, however, their remodeling into native bone tissue is slow. One strategy to improve remodeling and bone regeneration is the directed modification of their nanostructure. In this study, a CPC was set in the presence of cocarboxylase, glucuronic acid, tartaric acid, α-glucose-1-phosphate, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, and L-lysine, respectively, with the aim to influence formation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals through the functional groups of these biomolecules. Except for glucuronic acid, all these modifications resulted in the formation of smaller and more agglomerated hydroxyapatite particles which had a positive impact on the biological performance indicated by first experiments with the human osteoblast cell line hFOB 1.19. Moreover, adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) as well as binding of the growth factors BMP-2 and VEGF was investigated on CPC modified with cocarboxylase, arginine, and aspartic acid. Initial adhesion of hBMSC was improved on these three modifications and proliferation was enhanced on CPC modified with cocarboxylase and arginine whereas osteogenic differentiation remained unaffected. Modification of the CPC with arginine and aspartic acid, but not with cocarboxylase, led to a higher BMP-2 binding. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  18. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  19. Cement embolism into the venous system after pedicle screw fixation: case report, literature review, and prevention tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Kerry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The strength of pedicle screws attachment to the vertebrae is an important factor affecting their motion resistance and long term performance. Low bone quality, e.g. in osteopenic patients, keeps the screw bone interface at risk for subsidence and dislocation. In such cases, bone cement could be used to augment pedicle screw fixation. But its use is not free of risk. Therefore, clinicians, especially spine surgeons, radiologists, and internists should become increasingly aware of cement migration and embolism as possible complications. Here, we present an instructive case of cement embolism into the venous system after augmented screw fixation with fortunately asymptomatic clinical course. In addition we discuss pathophysiology and prevention methods as well as therapeutic management of this potentially life-threatening complication in a comprehensive review of the literature. However, only a few case reports of cement embolism into the venous system were published after augmented screw fixation.

  20. Comparison of blood loss between using non central part cutting knee prosthesis and distal central part cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairungsakul, Anan

    2014-12-01

    Patients who undergo knee replacement surgery may need to receive a blood transfusion due to blood loss during the operation. Therefore it was important to improve the design of knee implant operative procedures in an attempt to reduce the rate of blood loss. The present study aimed to compare the blood loss between two types of knee replacement surgery. This is a retrospective study in which 78 patients received cemented knee replacements in Phayao Hospital between October 2010 and March 2012. There were two types of surgical procedure: 1) using an implant position covering the end of the femoral bone without cutting into the central part of the distal femoral, 2) using an implant position covering the end of the femoral bone cutting the central part of the distal femoral. Blood loss, blood transfusion, hemoglobin and hematocrit were recorded preoperatively, immediately postsurgery and 48 hours after surgery. Findings revealed that the knee replacement surgery using the implant position covering the end of the femoral bone without cutting the central part of the distal femoral significantly lowered the rate of blood loss when compared to using the implant position covering the end of the femoral bone with central cutting of the distal femor. The average blood loss during the operation without cutting at the central part of distal femoral was 49.50 ± 11.11 mL; whereas the operation cutting the central part of the distal femoral was 58.50 ± 11.69 mL. As regards blood loss, the knee replacement surgery using the implant position covering the end ofthefemoral bone without cutting the central part of distal femor was better than using the implant position covering the end of the femoral bone cutting at the central part of the distal femor.

  1. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) improved functional recovery of spinal cord injury partly by promoting axonal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liya; Lin, Hefeng; Bai, Shi; Zheng, Lianshun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2018-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive therapeutic potential cell sources for SCI, and it could rebuild the injured spinal cord through neuroprotection, neural regeneration and remyelinating. Evidence has demonstrated that BMSCs play important roles in mediating axon regeneration, and glial scar formation after SCI in animal experiments and some clinical trials. We reviewed the role of BMSCs in regulating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after SCI. BMSCs based therapies may provide a therapeutic potential for the injured spinal cord by promoting axonal regeneration and repair. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyurethane/fluor-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Part I: morphological, physical, and mechanical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Asefnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Azadeh Asefnejad1, Aliasghar Behnamghader2, Mohammad Taghi Khorasani3, Babak Farsadzadeh11Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran, Iran; 3Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, new nano-fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA/polyurethane composite scaffolds were fabricated for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Polyester urethane samples were synthesized from polycaprolactone, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. Nano fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The solid–liquid phase separation and solvent sublimation methods were used for preparation of the porous composites. Mechanical properties, chemical structure, and morphological characteristics of the samples were investigated by compressive test, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques, respectively. The effect of nFHA powder content on porosity and pore morphology was investigated. SEM images demonstrated that the scaffolds were constituted of interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores. The pore size of the scaffolds was in the range 50–250 µm. The result obtained in this research revealed that the porosity and pore average size decreased and compressive modulus increased with nFHA percentage. Considering morphological, physical, and mechanical properties, the scaffold with a higher ratio of nFHA has suitable potential use in tissue regeneration.Keywords: polyester urethane, composite, fluor-hydroxyapatite, scaffold

  4. Polyurethane/fluor-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Part I: morphological, physical, and mechanical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefnejad, Azadeh; Behnamghader, Aliasghar; Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi; Farsadzadeh, Babak

    2011-01-06

    In this study, new nano-fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polyurethane composite scaffolds were fabricated for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Polyester urethane samples were synthesized from polycaprolactone, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. Nano fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA) was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The solid-liquid phase separation and solvent sublimation methods were used for preparation of the porous composites. Mechanical properties, chemical structure, and morphological characteristics of the samples were investigated by compressive test, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. The effect of nFHA powder content on porosity and pore morphology was investigated. SEM images demonstrated that the scaffolds were constituted of interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores. The pore size of the scaffolds was in the range 50-250 μm. The result obtained in this research revealed that the porosity and pore average size decreased and compressive modulus increased with nFHA percentage. Considering morphological, physical, and mechanical properties, the scaffold with a higher ratio of nFHA has suitable potential use in tissue regeneration.

  5. Stabilization of marly soils with portland cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Maksim; Karzin, Evgeny; Lukina, Valentina; Lukinov, Vitaly; Kholkin, Anatolii

    2017-10-01

    Stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement will increase the service life of motor roads in areas where marl is used as a local road construction material. The result of the conducted research is the conclusion about the principal possibility of stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement, and about the optimal percentage of the mineral part and the binding agent. When planning the experiment, a simplex-lattice plan was implemented, which makes it possible to obtain a mathematical model for changing the properties of a material in the form of polynomials of incomplete third order. Brands were determined for compressive strength according to GOST 23558-94 and variants of stabilized soils were proposed for road construction.

  6. Root perforations treatment using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, José Dias da; Brito, Rafael Horácio de; Schnaider, Taylor Brandão; Gragnani, Alfredo; Engelman, Mírian; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2010-12-01

    Clinical, radiological and histological evaluation of root perforations treated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Portland cements, and calcium sulfate barrier. One molar and 11 premolar teeth of a male mongrel dog received endodontic treatment and furcations were perforated with a high-speed round bur and treated with a calcium sulfate barrier. MTA, Portland cement type II (PCII) and type V (PCV), and white Portland cement (WPC) were used as obturation materials. The teeth were restored with composite resin and periapical radiographs were taken. The animal was euthanized 120 days post-surgery for treatment evaluation. Right lower first premolar (MTA), right lower third premolar (PCV), left lower second premolar (MTA), and right lower second premolar (WPC): clinically normal, slightly radio-transparent area on the furcation, little inflammatory infiltrate, and new-bone formation. Left lower third premolar (PCII), right upper first premolar (WPC), right upper third premolar (PCII), and left upper first molar (PCV): clinically normal, radiopaque area on the furcation, and new-bone formation. Right upper second premolar (MTA), left upper second premolar (WPC), left upper third premolar (PCII): presence of furcation lesion, large radiolucent area, and intense inflammatory infiltrate. All obturation materials used in this study induced new-bone formation.

  7. Cementation of kerogen-rich marls by alkaline fluids released during weathering of thermally metamorphosed marly sediments. Part I: Isotopic (C,O) study of the Khushaym Matruk natural analogue (central Jordan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourcade, Serge; Trotignon, Laurent; Boulvais, Philippe; Techer, Isabelle; Elie, Marcel; Vandamme, Didier; Salameh, Elias; Khoury, Hani

    2007-01-01

    The Khushaym Matruk site in central Jordan may represent a natural analogue depicting the interaction of alkaline solutions with a clayey sedimentary formation or with clay-rich confining barriers at the interface with concrete structures in waste disposal sites. In this locality, past spontaneous combustion of organic matter in a clayey biomicritic formation produced a ca. 60 m-thick layer of cement-marble containing some of the high-temperature phases usually found in industrial cements (e.g., spurrite, brucite, and Ca-aluminate). A vertical cross-section of the underlying sediments was used in order to study the interaction between cement-marbles and neighbouring clayey limestones under weathering conditions. A thermodynamic approach of the alteration parageneses (calcite-jennite-afwillite-brucite and CSH phases) in the cement-marbles constrains the interacting solutions to have had pH-values between 10.5 and 12. Over 3 m, the sediments located beneath the metamorphic unit were compacted and underwent carbonation. They display large C and O isotopic variations with respect to 'pristine' sediments from the bottom of the section. Low δ 13 C-values down to -31.4 per mille /PDB show the contribution of CO 2 derived from the oxidization of organic matter and from the atmosphere to the intense carbonation process affecting that particular sedimentary level. The size of the C isotopic anomalies, their geometrical extent and their coincidence with the variations of other markers like the Zn content, the structure of organic matter, the mineralogical composition, all argue that the carbonation process was induced by the percolation of high pH solutions which derived from the alteration of cement-marbles. The temperature of the carbonation process remains conjectural and some post-formation O isotopic reequilibration likely affected the newly-formed carbonate. Carbonation induced a considerable porosity reduction, both in fractures and matrixes. The Khushaym Matruk site

  8. Physicochemical properties of newly developed bioactive glass cement and its effects on various cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Ayako; Nakagawa, Aika; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Maeda, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2015-02-01

    Biomaterials used in dental treatments are expected to have favorable properties such as biocompatibility and an ability to induce tissue formation in dental pulp and periapical tissue, as well as sealing to block external stimuli. Bioactive glasses have been applied in bone engineering, but rarely applied in the field of dentistry. In the present study, bioactive glass cement for dental treatment was developed, and then its physicochemical properties and effects on cell responses were analyzed. To clarify the physicochemical attributes of the cement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and pH measurement were carried out. Cell attachment, morphology, and viability to the cement were also examined to clarify the effects of the cement on odontoblast-like cells (KN-3 cells), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells), human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells and neuro-differentiative cells (PC-12 cells). Hydroxyapatite-like precipitation was formed on the surface of the hardened cement and the pH level changed from pH10 to pH9, then stabilized in simulate body fluid. The cement had no cytotxic effects on these cells, and particulary induced process elongation of PC-12 cells. Our results suggest that the newly developed bioactive glass cement have capability of the application in dental procedures as bioactive cement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of chitosan oligosaccharide/gelatin/calcium phosphate hybrid cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Ting-Yi; Ho, Chia-Che; Chen, David Chan-Hen; Lai, Meng-Heng; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    A bone substitute material was developed consisting of a chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) solution in a liquid phase and gelatin (GLT) containing calcium phosphate powder in a solid phase. The physicochemical and biocompatible properties of the hybrid cements were evaluated. The addition of COS to cement did not affect the setting time or diametral tensile strength of the hybrid cements, whereas GLT significantly prolonged the setting time and decreased the strength slightly. The setting reaction was inhibited by the addition of GLT to the initial mixture, but not by COS. However, the presence of GLT appreciably improved the anti-washout properties of the hybrid cement compared with COS. COS may promote the cement's biocompatibility as an approximate twofold increase in cell proliferation for 10% COS-containing cements was observed on day 3 as compared with the controls. The combination of GLT and COS was chosen due to the benefits achieved from several synergistic effects and for their clinical applications. Cement with 5% GLT and 10% COS may be a better choice among cements in terms of anti-washout properties and biological activity.

  10. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of chitosan oligosaccharide/gelatin/calcium phosphate hybrid cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ting-Yi [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Ho, Chia-Che [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, David Chan-Hen [Institute of Veterinary Microbiology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lai, Meng-Heng [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ding, Shinn-Jyh, E-mail: sjding@csmu.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    A bone substitute material was developed consisting of a chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) solution in a liquid phase and gelatin (GLT) containing calcium phosphate powder in a solid phase. The physicochemical and biocompatible properties of the hybrid cements were evaluated. The addition of COS to cement did not affect the setting time or diametral tensile strength of the hybrid cements, whereas GLT significantly prolonged the setting time and decreased the strength slightly. The setting reaction was inhibited by the addition of GLT to the initial mixture, but not by COS. However, the presence of GLT appreciably improved the anti-washout properties of the hybrid cement compared with COS. COS may promote the cement's biocompatibility as an approximate twofold increase in cell proliferation for 10% COS-containing cements was observed on day 3 as compared with the controls. The combination of GLT and COS was chosen due to the benefits achieved from several synergistic effects and for their clinical applications. Cement with 5% GLT and 10% COS may be a better choice among cements in terms of anti-washout properties and biological activity.

  11. Custom-made antibiotic cement nails: a comparative study of different fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Wan; Cuellar, Derly O; Hao, Jiandong; Seligson, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2014-08-01

    The management of intramedullary long bone infections remains a challenge. Placement of antibiotic cement nails is a useful adjuvant to the antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis. However, fabrication of antibiotic cement nails can be arduous. The purpose of this article is to introduce an easy and reproducible technique for the fabrication of antibiotics cement nails. We compared the time required to peel the chest tube off the 6 antibiotic cement nail using 2 different cement-cooling techniques and the addition of mineral oil in the chest tube. Additionally, we evaluated the optimal time to cut the chest tube (before and after cement hardening), consistency of nail's diameter, and the roughness of its surface. Cooling and peeling times were measured and failure was defined as a working time (from cement mixing to have a usable antibiotic cement nail) that exceeded 1 h. When the antibiotic cement nail was left to cool by convection (i.e. air-cooling), we failed to peel the plastic off the cement nail. When the chest tube was cut after conductive cooling (i.e. cold water-cooled), the cooling time was 10 min and the peeling time was 30 min without the use of mineral oil; the addition of mineral oil reduced peeling time to 7.5 min. Following peeling, residual adherent plastic pieces were found along the entire surface of the nail when no mineral oil was used. This was rarely seen when mineral oil was utilized to coat the inner layer of the chest tube. Conductively cooling of the cement nail (in cold water) and pre-lubricating the chest tube with mineral oil are 2 tricks that render fabrication of antibiotic nail more efficient, reliable, and practical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Cement-free and cemented Excia hip shaft prosthesis: comparison of intermediate term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, C; Döring, M; Strecker, W

    2014-09-01

    For fixation of total hip prostheses, cemented and cement-free techniques are available. Normally, anchoring techniques and the definitive endoprosthesis model are determined preoperatively based on the available information, such as the quality of bone. Some newer endoprosthesis models utilize the same instruments for both implantation techniques. In this way it is possible to decide on the final anchoring technique intraoperatively. Because such a combined endoprosthesis system has been used in our clinic for 10 years, we were interested in the clinical results at the intermediate stage. In a prospective, non-randomized study 105 pairs from a continuing series were formed from 105 cases treated with cement-free prostheses and the latest cemented shaft implants from the same year. In this way a total of 210 hip shaft endoprostheses from the years 2002 to 2006 were included in the study. After an average time period of 6.3 years (range 4.5-8.2 years) the patients were recalled for a follow-up examination. The clinical results, early and late complications were analyzed. The immediately postoperative X-ray images and those from the follow-up examination were evaluated by an independent external expert with respect to primary positioning, migration and any signs of loosening. At the follow-up examination at an average of 6.3 years the quota was 73%. The indications for cement-free/cemented total hip endoprosthesis were: primary arthritis 87%/98%, secondary arthritis 10%/2% and others 3%/0%. At the time of the last follow-up examination 4 and 14 patients, respectively, had died. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain was given as 0.72/0.78. The Harris hip score improved from 54/48 to 93/90 points. The implant-related survival rate was 99.5%. Due to a periprosthetic fracture one of the cemented shafts had to be removed. Luxation occurred in 3/2 cases, respectively, of which 4 could be conservatively treated. In one cement-free case a head elongation and a change to an

  13. Preparation of an ultra fast binding cement from calcium silicate-based mixed oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, S C; Brunner, T J; Grass, R N; Bohner, M; Stark, W J

    2007-10-03

    Building construction takes time, in part because the binding process of cement is based on the slow re-crystallization and precipitation of calcium silicate species. Since the material's reactivity is surface area limited, a reduction in particle size of Portland cements has been used to prepare faster binding formulations. The present work investigates a new and direct, one-step preparation of calcium silicate-based nanoparticles of a typical Portland cement composition by flame spray synthesis. Isothermal calorimetry revealed that the hardening of this new nano-cement corroborated a more than tenfold increase of initial reactivity with different reaction kinetics if compared to conventionally prepared cements. At present, the unfavourably high porosity of nano-cements, however, underlines the need for additional improvements of chemical composition and formulation to make these highly reactive materials applicable to modern construction work, where load-bearing strength is of importance.

  14. Characterization of cements and fly ashes from India : phase 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, R.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete

    2004-03-15

    This paper provided details of fly ashes, cements, and admixtures received from India as part of a Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) project. The materials for the first phase of the project included 2 cements and 19 fly ash samples. Specific gravity, Blaine Fineness, and fineness by the 45 {mu}m sieve were determined. Compressive strength tests were conducted on the cements and a strength activity index for the fly ashes was presented. Materials for the second phase of the project included 2 cements; 2 fly ashes; a water-reducing admixture; and a superplasticizer. Data were presented in tabular format and included details of their assigned laboratory reference numbers, and the original weight of the materials as received, and the collection origin of the fly ashes. The results of chemical analyses and physical property tests on the fly ashes and cements were presented. A strength activity index with Portland cement was also included. 10 tabs.

  15. Properties of cement based composites modified using diatomaceous earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Záleská, Martina; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Diatomite belongs among natural materials rich on amorphous silica (a-SiO2). When finely milled, it can potentially substitute part of cement binder and positively support formation of more dense composite structure. In this connection, two types of diatomaceous earth applied as a partial substitution of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mass% of Portland cement in the composition of cement paste were studied. In the tested mixtures with cement blends, the amount of batch water remained same, with water/binder ratio 0.5. For fresh paste mixtures, initial and final setting times were measured. First, hardened pastes cured 28 days in water were characterized by their physical properties such as bulk density, matrix density and open porosity. Then, their mechanical and thermophysical parameters were assessed. Obtained results gave clear evidence of setting time shortening for pastes with diatomite what brought negative effect with respect to the impaired workability of fresh mixtures. On the other hand, there was observed strength improvement for mixtures containing diatomite with higher amount of SiO2. Here, the increase in mechanical resistivity was distinct up to 15 mass% of cement replacement. Higher cement substitution by diatomite resulted in an increase in porosity and thus improvement of thermal insulation properties.

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the elemental analysis of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrbish, Y.S.; Abugassa, I.O.; Benfaid, N.; Bashir, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Cement is widely used as a construction material in Libya. Production plants introduce certain contaminants to the environment. The dust from such plants is carried away to neighbouring areas. This dust contains a substantial amount of contaminants depending on the origin of clays used in the production. In this study, a survey of elemental concentration of clay and cement was carried out to assess the environmental impact of such plants, especially those that are situated near residential and agricultural areas. Cement and clay samples, imported and locally produced, were analyzed. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was utilized to determine the elemental concentration of As, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Elevated concentrations of U and Th were found in a number of cement samples. The two nuclides are part of an elaborate decay scheme producing a range of radioactive elements, which emit alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation. With 40 K, they could give elevated levels of background radiation in buildings resulting in higher exposure doses. This could pose a health hazard and a detrimental effect on the well being of residents, especially in poor ventillated buildings. Also, cement is the main component for constructing underground reservoirs for collecting rainwater for drinking in private residences, so some harmful elements could leach into water. This is the first comprehensive survey of commercial cement brands and clays used in Libya. These results are intended to build a database for trace element concentrations using INAA. (author)

  17. Identification of Nonlinear Predictor and Simulator Models of a Cement Rotary Kiln by Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Sadeghian; Alireza Fatehi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important parts of a cement factory is the cement rotary kiln which plays a key role in quality and quantity of produced cement. In this part, the physical exertion and bilateral movement of air and materials, together with chemical reactions take place. Thus, this system has immensely complex and nonlinear dynamic equations. These equations have not worked out yet. Only in exceptional case; however, a large number of the involved parameter were crossed out and an ...

  18. The fit of tapered posts in root canals luted with zinc phosphate cement : A histological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P; Ozcan, M; McMullan-Vogel, C; Nergiz, [No Value; Özcan, Mutlu; Nergiza, Ibrahim

    Objectives. Stress transmission to the root through passive fitting dental posts is partly influenced by the thickness of the cement layer between the post and the prepared root canal surface as well as the fit of the post in the root canal. The objective of this study was to compare the cement gap

  19. The fit of tapered posts in root canals luted with zinc phosphate cement: A histological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P.; Ozcan, M.; McMullan-Vogel, C.; Nergiz, I.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Stress transmission to the root through passive fitting dental posts is partly influenced by the thickness of the cement layer between the post and the prepared root canal surface as well as the fit of the post in the root canal. The objective of this study was to compare the cement gap

  20. [PVD-silicoating before cementation of zirconia-based knee prostheses effects better cement adhesion and lower aseptic loosening rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, R; Faramarzi, R; Oberbach, T; Begand, S; Grätz, N; Wirtz, D C

    2012-02-01

    CoCrMo alloys are contraindicated for allergy patients. For these patients, cemented or uncemented prostheses made of titanium alloy are indicated. Uncemented prostheses, however, have low primary retention, particularly the tibial components of knee joint prostheses because of the lack of a positive locking. Therefore, for knee replacement cemented CoCrMo prostheses may be suitable also for allergy sufferers if these are masked by ZrN or TiNbN layers. Alternatively the CoCrMo alloy may be replaced by high-strength oxide ceramics. For adhesion of bone cement to the ceramic surface, however, only inefficient mechanical retention spots are exposed as compared with a metal surface. Undercuts generated by corundum blasting, although highly efficient on a CoCrMo surface, are not such efficient centres on a ceramic surface due to its brittleness. Therefore, the mechanical component of retention is significantly reduced. When specific adhesion between bone cement and surface does not exist due to physical and chemical forces, the hydrolytic stability will be insufficient. Micromotions are promoted and early aseptic loosening is predictable. Silicoating of the ceramic surface will allow specific adhesion and can result in better hydrolytic stability of bonding. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of silicoating the bond strengths of blasted (mean size of corundum grains 50 µm) and silicate layered alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ) surfaces were compared with "as fired" surfaces by utilising TiAlV probes (diameter 6 mm) for traction-adhesive strength testing. Samples machined out of CoCrMo alloy were utilised for reference. After preparing the samples for traction-adhesive strength testing (sequence: substrate, silicate and silane, protective lacquer [PolyMA], bone cement, TiAlV probe) they were aged up to 360 days at 37 °C in Ringer's solution. The bond strengths observed for all ageing intervals were well above 20 MPa and much higher and more hydrolytically

  1. Effect of calcium carbonate on hardening, physicochemical properties, and in vitro degradation of injectable calcium phosphate cements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariibrahimoglu, K.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main disadvantage of apatitic calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is their slow degradation rate, which limits complete bone regeneration. Carbonate (CO(3)(2)(-)) is the common constituent of bone and it can be used to improve the degradability of the apatitic calcium phosphate ceramics. This study

  2. Biomechanical study of pedicle screw fixation in severely osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen D; Salkeld, Samantha L; Stanley, Tom; Faciane, Albert; Miller, Scot D

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining adequate purchase with standard pedicle screw techniques remains a challenge in poor quality bone. The development of alternate insertion techniques and screw designs was prompted by recognition of potential fixation complications. An expandable pedicle screw design has been shown to significantly improve fixation compared to a conventional screw in poor quality bone. The purpose of this study was to determine if polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement augmentation of an expandable pedicle screw can further improve fixation strength compared to the expandable screw alone in severely osteoporotic bone. A technique for cement insertion into the pedicle by means of the cannulated central portion of the expandable screw is also described. The axial pullout strength, stiffness and energy absorbed of cemented and noncemented expandable pedicle screws was determined in cadaveric vertebrae. Twenty-one fresh unembalmed vertebrae from the thoracolumbar spine were used. Radiographs and bone mineral density measurements (BMD) were used to characterize bone quality. Paired cemented and noncemented pedicle screw axial pullout strength was determined through mechanical testing. Mechanical pullout strength, stiffness and energy to failure was correlated with BMD. Overall, there was a 250% increase in mean pullout strength with the cemented expandable screw compared with a noncemented expandable screw including a greater than twofold increase in pullout strength in the most severely osteoporotic bone. The mean stiffness and energy absorbed to failure was also significantly increased. A cemented conventional screw achieved a pullout strength similar to the noncemented expandable screw. PMMA cement augmentation of the expandable pedicle screw may be a viable clinical option for achieving fixation in severely osteoporotic bone.

  3. Estudo comparativo do uso isolado de plasma rico em plaquetas e combinado com cimento de alfa-fosfato tricálcico no reparo ósseo em ratos Comparative study on use of platelet-rich plasma alone and in combination with alpha-tricalcium phosphate cement for bone repair in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Deise Sebben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito do cimento α-TCP combinado com PRP sobre a osteogênese, comparando os resultados com PRP utilizado isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi confeccionado defeito bilateral no fêmur de ratos e preenchido com um dos dois tipos de tratamentos (PRP ou α-TCP+PRP, sendo avaliado em quatro e oito semanas. As imagens radiográficas forneceram valores da área da lesão, e a histologia (coloração Picrosirius indicou a área de neoformação óssea. RESULTADOS: As médias referentes à área de lesão do grupo α-TCP+PRP (2,64mm² ± 2,07 e 1,91mm² ± 0,93; quatro e oito semanas, respectivamente demonstraram numericamente melhores resultados, porém não significativos (p > 0,05, em comparação com aqueles observados no grupo PRP (5,59mm² ± 2,69 e 3,23mm² ± 1,46; quatro e oito semanas, respectivamente. As médias de neoformação óssea foram de 62,7% ± 12,1% e 79,01% ± 6,25 no grupo PRP, e 73,3% ± 12,7 e 85,86% ± 10,45 no grupo α-TCP+PRP, em quatro e oito semanas, respectivamente (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados deste estudo sugerem que o tratamento com cimento α-TCP combinado com PRP não demonstra diferença significativa quando comparado ao PRP isolado. Entretanto, há um possível efeito precoce sobre a regeneração óssea quando os dois biomateriais são aplicados em conjunto.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP cement combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP on osteogenesis, and to compare the results with use of PRP alone. METHODS: A bilateral defect was produced in rat femurs and was filled with one of two types of treatments (PRP or α-TCP + PRP. The outcomes were evaluated after four and eight weeks. Radiographic images provided values for the lesion area, and histology (picrosirius staining indicated the area of ​​new bone formation. RESULTS: The means relating to the lesion area of the α-TCP + PRP group (2.64 ± 2.07 and 1.91 ± 0.93 mm², after four and eight weeks

  4. Crown and bridge cements: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunek, Sabiha S; Powers, John M

    2012-12-01

    Cement selection can be confusing because factors such as substrate, the type of restoration, and patient needs must be considered. Some substrates require additional treatment before cementation. This article describes the most commonly used traditional crown and bridge cements (GI and RMGI) used for metal and metal-ceramic restorations, and resin cements used for all-ceramic restorations. Advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications of cements have been reviewed. Recommended uses of cements for metal, ceramic, and laboratory composite restorations have been presented. General guidelines for surface treatment ot silica- and zirconia-based restorations when using resin cements have been discussed.

  5. The C-S-H gel of Portland cement mortars: Part I. The interpretation of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses from scanning electron microscopy, with some observations on C-S-H, AFm and AFt phase compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Famy, C.; Brough, A.R.; Taylor, H.F.W.

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microanalyses of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel in Portland cement pastes rarely represent single phases. Essential experimental requirements are summarised and new procedures for interpreting the data are described. These include, notably, plots of Si/Ca against other atom ratios, 3D plots to allow three such ratios to be correlated and solution of linear simultaneous equations to test and quantify hypotheses regarding the phases contributing to individual microanalyses. Application of these methods to the C-S-H gel of a 1-day-old mortar identified a phase with Al/Ca=0.67 and S/Ca=0.33, which we consider to be a highly substituted ettringite of probable composition C 6 A 2 S-bar 2 H 34 or {Ca 6 [Al(OH) 6 ] 2 ·24H 2 O}(SO 4 ) 2 [Al(OH) 4 ] 2 . If this is true for Portland cements in general, it might explain observed discrepancies between observed and calculated aluminate concentrations in the pore solution. The C-S-H gel of a similar mortar aged 600 days contained unsubstituted ettringite and an AFm phase with S/Ca=0.125

  6. Undetected residual cement on standard or individualized all-ceramic abutments with cemented zirconia single crowns - a prospective randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Eiffler, Constantin; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Stober, Thomas; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To assess the frequency and amount of residual cement after attachment of monolithic zirconia crowns to standard and individualized ceramic abutments. Twenty patients (mean age 58.9 years at inclusion in the study; 30% male) were randomized to receive either a standard or an individualized abutment on a bone-level implant. Monolithic zirconia single crowns were attached to abutments by use of permanent glass-ionomer cement. Crowns were fabricated with an occlusal hole to enable unscrewing of the abutment-crown complex. Immediately after cementation, superstructures were removed and both the peri-implant soft tissue and the abutment-crown complex were photographed in a standardized manner, to detect residual cement. Photographs were analyzed using Corel Photo Paint X7, and residual cement-to-total abutment and residual cement-to-peri-implant soft tissue area ratios were calculated. Residual cement was observed for 9 of 10 (90%) individualized abutments, compared with 4 of 10 (40%) standard abutments (OR = 13.5, P = 0.049). Twenty-seven of 40 (68%) individualized abutment surfaces were affected, compared with 12 of 40 (30%) standard abutment surfaces. The probability of observing residual cement was approximately five times higher for the surfaces of individualized abutments than for those of standard abutments (P = 0.005). The mean amount of sulcus surface covered by cement was 1.17% (SD 2.85) for the individualized abutments and 3.78% (SD 7.40) for the standard abutments. The position of the margin significantly affected the amount of residual cement. Both individualized and standard all-ceramic abutments result in small amounts of subgingival residual cement on abutment and sulcus surfaces. However, use of individualized abutments does not guarantee complete avoidance of undetected cement rests. Undetected residual cement might be avoided by use of all-ceramic abutments with visible abutment shoulders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  7. Cements in Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of