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Sample records for bone cancer risks

  1. Unexplained Bone Pain Is an Independent Risk Factor for Bone Metastases in Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle D; Mørch, Carsten D; Barsi, Tamás;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between bone pain and bone metastases in newly diagnosed prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study of bone scintigraphy enrolled 567 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. The presence of all-cause bone pain, known b......: Unexplained bone pain was a strong independent risk factor for bone metastasis. Guidelines should recommend staging bone scintigraphy in patients with unexplained bone pain, regardless of other risk factors....

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, bladder, kidney, and several other organs. But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. Most people with bone cancers do not have any apparent risk factors. Genetic ...

  3. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  4. Denosumab Reduces Risk of Bone Side Effects in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological agent denosumab (Xgeva) is more effective than zoledronic acid at decreasing the risk of bone fractures and other skeletal-related events (SRE) in men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, according to results from a randomi

  5. Risk of second bone sarcoma following childhood cancer: role of radiation therapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Boris; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Cléro, Enora; Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Munzer, Martine; N'guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Hawkins, Mike; Winter, David; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Bénichou, Jacques; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-05-01

    Bone sarcoma as a second malignancy is rare but highly fatal. The present knowledge about radiation-absorbed organ dose-response is insufficient to predict the risks induced by radiation therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to assess the treatment-induced risk for bone sarcoma following a childhood cancer and particularly the related risk of radiotherapy. Therefore, a retrospective cohort of 4,171 survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated between 1942 and 1986 in France and Britain has been followed prospectively. We collected detailed information on treatments received during childhood cancer. Additionally, an innovative methodology has been developed to evaluate the dose-response relationship between bone sarcoma and radiation dose throughout this cohort. The median follow-up was 26 years, and 39 patients had developed bone sarcoma. It was found that the overall incidence was 45-fold higher [standardized incidence ratio 44.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 31.0-59.8] than expected from the general population, and the absolute excess risk was 35.1 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 24.0-47.1). The risk of bone sarcoma increased slowly up to a cumulative radiation organ absorbed dose of 15 Gy [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.2, 95 % CI 1.6-42.9] and then strongly increased for higher radiation doses (HR for 30 Gy or more 117.9, 95 % CI 36.5-380.6), compared with patients not treated with radiotherapy. A linear model with an excess relative risk per Gy of 1.77 (95 % CI 0.6213-5.935) provided a close fit to the data. These findings have important therapeutic implications: Lowering the radiation dose to the bones should reduce the incidence of secondary bone sarcomas. Other therapeutic solutions should be preferred to radiotherapy in bone sarcoma-sensitive areas.

  6. Basic science and spine literature document bone morphogenetic protein increases cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, clinical articles document that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/INFUSE: Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA and its derivatives utilized in spinal surgery increase the risk of developing cancer. However, there is also a large body of basic science articles that also document that various types of BMP and other members of the TGF-Beta (transforming growth factor beta family promote the growth of different types of cancers. Methods: This review looks at many clinical articles citing BMP/INFUSE′s role, largely "off-label", in contributing to complications encountered during spinal surgery. Next, however, specific attention is given to the clinical and basic science literature regarding how BMP and its derivatives (e.g. members of the TGF-beta family may also impact the development of breast and other cancers. Results: Utilizing BMP/INFUSE in spine surgery increased the risk of cancers/new malignancy as documented in several studies. For example, Carragee et al. found that for single-level instrumented posterolateral fusions (PLF using high-dose rhBMP-2 (239 patients vs. autograft (control group; n = 224, the risks of new cancers at 2 and 5 years postoperatively were increased. In laboratory studies, BMP′s along with other members of the TGF-Beta family also modulated/contributed to the proliferation/differentiation of breast cancer (e.g. bone formation/turnover, breast cancer-related solid tumors, and metastases, lung, adrenal, and colon cancer. Conclusions: BMP/INFUSE when utilized clinically in spinal fusion surgery appears to promote cancer at higher rates than observed in the overall population. Furthermore, BMP and TGF-beta are correlated with increased cancer growth both in the clinic and the laboratory.

  7. Alpha radiation risk coefficients for liver cancer, bone sarcomas, and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, M.M.; Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Richland WA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This study compares published risk coefficients with those determined from dose rates established by postmortem radiochemical analysis of tissues from two whole body donors to the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries, both of whom had been injected with Thorotrast approximately four decades prior to death. The dose data from these cases were used in combination with published latent periods and epidemiologic study results to calculate the following risk coefficients: 0.020 liver cancers Gy{sup -1}, 0.002 bone sarcomas Gy{sup -1}, and 0.032 leukemias Gy{sup -1}. These compare with the ranges of 0.60 to 0.074 liver cancers Gy{sup -1}, 0.0016 to 0.0120 bone sarcomas Gy{sup -1}, and 0.005 to 0.060 leukemias Gy{sup -1} reported in the literature. The results of this study are generally consistent with previously reported values with two exceptions: the values for bone sarcomas fall below the range given by BEIR IV and the values for leukemia are a factor of 6 greater than those reported by BEIR IV. This suggests that the BEIR IV risk coefficient for bone sarcomas may be too high, and that for leukemia may be too low. 46 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  9. Bone mineral density and the subsequent risk of cancer in the NHANES I follow-up cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jane

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Bone mineral density (BMD is a marker of long-term estrogen exposure. BMD measurement has been used in this context to investigate the association of estrogen with breast cancer risk in three cohorts. In order to assess further BMD as a predictor of estrogen related cancer risk, the association of BMD with colorectal and corpus uteri cancer was investigated in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS cohort along with breast cancer and prostate cancer. Methods Participants were members of the NHEFS cohort who had BMD measurement in 1974–1975. Age, race, and BMI adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence of cancers of the corpus uterus, breast, colorectum, prostate, and of osteoporosis and hip fracture related to baseline BMD. Results Data were available for 6046 individuals. One hundred cases of breast cancer, 94 prostate cancers, 115 colorectal cancers, 29 uterine cancers, 110 cases of hip fracture and 103 cases of osteoporosis were reported between 1974 and 1993. Hip fracture and osteoporosis were both significantly inversely associated with BMD. Uterine cancer was positively associated (p = 0.005, test for linear trend and colorectal cancer negatively associated (p = 0.03 with BMD. No association was found between elevated BMD and incidence of breast cancer (p = 0.74 or prostate cancer (p = 0.37 in the overall cohort, although a weak association was seen between BMD and subsequent breast cancer incidence when BMD was measured in post-menopausal women (p = 0.04. Conclusion The findings related to cancers of the uterus and colorectum as well as the weak association of BMD with breast cancer strengthen the use of BMD as a marker of estrogen exposure and cancer risk.

  10. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  11. Predictors of Fracture Risk and Bone Mineral Density in Men with Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neubecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of bone mineral density (BMD and fracture risk is increased in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. We looked at possible predictors of decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in men with prostate cancer; most of whom were on ADT. In a retrospective study, we analyzed serum, BMD, and clinical risk factors used in the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX tool and others in 78 men with prostate cancer with reported height loss. The subjects were divided in two groups: 22 men with and 56 without vertebral fractures. 17 of the 22 men with vertebral fractures on spine X-rays did not know they had a vertebral fracture. Of those 17 men, 9 had not previously qualified for treatment based on preradiograph FRAX score calculated with BMD, and 6 based on FRAX calculated without BMD. Performing spine films increased the predictive ability of FRAX for vertebral fracture. Vertebral fracture was better predicted by FRAX for other osteoporotic fractures than FRAX for hip fractures. The inclusion of BMD in FRAX calculations did not affect the predictive ability of FRAX. The PSA level showed a positive correlation with lumbar spine BMD and accounted for about 9% of spine BMD.

  12. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic proteins and breast cancer risk in hispanic and non-hispanic white women: The breast cancer health disparities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Herrick, Jennifer S; Giuliano, Anna R; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger K

    2013-06-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are thought to be important in breast cancer promotion and progression. We evaluated genetic variation in BMP-related genes and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) (1,481 cases, 1,586 controls) women who participated in the 4-Corner's Breast Cancer Study, the Mexico Breast Cancer Study and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. BMP genes and their receptors evaluated include ACVR1, AVCR2A, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, BMP1, BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, BMP7, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, MSTN and GDF10. Additionally, 104 ancestral informative markers were assessed to discriminate between European and native American ancestry. The importance of estrogen on BMP-related associations was suggested through unique associations by menopausal status and estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status of tumors. After adjustment for multiple comparisons ACVR1 (8 SNPs) was modestly associated with ER+PR+ tumors [odds ratios (ORs) between 1.18 and 1.39 padj breast cancer in this admixed population.

  15. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  16. Bone density in survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Jean E; Bilezikian, John P

    2004-01-01

    Advances in combination chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and bone marrow transplantation have resulted in markedly improved survival rates for many children with cancer. Advancements in therapy, however, have led to new concerns, namely long-term consequences of effective treatments. Young adult and adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for a number of disorders related to therapy. Specifically, the young adult who has survived cancer, attendant treatments, and their complications is at risk for factors that can lead to suboptimal acquisition of peak bone mass. These factors include chronic illness, nutritional deficiencies, limited physical activity, and treatment with glucocorticoids, multiagent chemotherapy, and radiation. The long-term adverse effects of these therapies on endocrine systems, especially sex steroid and growth hormone deficiencies, are additional risk factors for some patients. After a brief review of the processes associated with acquisition of peak bone mass in the young adult, this article examines the impact of cancer and cancer therapy on bone mineral density in survivors of childhood cancer.

  17. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body. There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on ...

  18. NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health In Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralow, Julie R; Biermann, J Sybil; Farooki, Azeez; Fornier, Monica N; Gagel, Robert F; Kumar, Rashmi; Litsas, Georgia; McKay, Rana; Podoloff, Donald A; Srinivas, Sandy; Van Poznak, Catherine H

    2013-08-01

    Bone health and maintenance of bone integrity are important components of comprehensive cancer care. Many patients with cancer are at risk for therapy-induced bone loss, with resultant osteoporotic fractures, or skeletal metastases, which may result in pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, bone pain, and decline in motility and performance status. Effective screening and timely interventions are essential for reducing bone-related morbidity. Management of long-term bone health requires a broad knowledge base. A multidisciplinary health care team may be needed for optimal assessment and treatment of bone-related issues in patients with cancer. Since publication of the previous NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health in Cancer Care in 2009, new data have emerged on bone health and treatment, prompting NCCN to convene this multidisciplinary task force to discuss the progress made in optimizing bone health in patients with cancer. In December 2012, the panel members provided didactic presentations on various topics, integrating expert judgment with a review of the key literature. This report summarizes issues surrounding bone health in cancer care presented and discussed during this NCCN Bone Health in Cancer Care Task Force meeting.

  19. Mechanisms of cancer metastasis to the bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Juan YIN; Claire B. POLLOCK; Kathleen KELLY

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most common human cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer, metastasize with avidity to bone. What is the basis for their preferential growth within the bone microenvironment? Bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and cells that make up bone result in a selective advantage for tumor growth and can lead to bone destruction or new bone matrix deposition. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular components and mechanisms that are responsible for those interactions.

  20. 乳腺癌骨转移的高危因素分析%Analysis of high risk factors of bone metastases in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    藕院林; 王本忠; 颜蕴文

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨可能影响因素与乳腺癌骨转移发生的相关性.方法回顾分析2007年1月至2010年9月间172例乳腺癌患者中76例骨转移患者,对年龄、病理类型、腋窝淋巴结有无转移及数目、HER-2状况、原发肿块大小、激素受体状况、Ki-67等因素进行分析,了解其与骨转移发生是否有相关性.结果乳腺癌发生骨转移与腋窝淋巴结有无转移、HER-2状况、激素受体情况、Ki-67有相关性,与年龄无相关性.结论乳腺癌患者腋窝淋巴结转移4个及以上、HER-2高表达、激素受体阳性、Ki-67高表达患者,骨转移发生率相对较高,应加强术后定期随访,对同时具备多项骨转移高危因素的乳腺癌患者,术后化疗后可预防性应用骨保护药物.%Objective To investigate the correlation between the following related factors and bone metastases in breast cancer. Methods A total of 76 patients with bone metastases in breast cancer among 172 breast cancer patients during 2007 to 2010 were retrospectively analysed. Factors such as age, pathological types, axillary lymph node metastases and their number, HER-2, estrogen and progesteron receptor, tumor size, Ki-67 were analysed to clarify whether there was any correlation with bone metastases in breast cancer. Results Bone metastases in breast cancer were associated with axillary lymph node metastases and their number, HER-2, estrogen and progesteron receptor, Ki-67,but there was no correlation with age. Conclusion Breast cancers patients with more than 4 axillary lymph node metastases, positive HER-2, positive estrogen and progesteron receptor and high expression of Ki-67 are more likely to undergo bone metastases. These patients should strengthen the regular follow-up after operation. Patients who have several risk factors should use bone protection drugs after operation and adjuvant chemotherapy as preventive measures.

  1. Retrospective Audit: Does Prior Assessment by Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Reduce the Risk of Osteonecrosis of The Jaw in Patients Receiving Bone-Targeted Therapies for Metastatic Cancers to the Skeleton?--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Ali, Sacha; Pati, Jhumur; Nargund, Vinod; Ali, Enamul; Cheng, Leo; Wells, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Men who receive bone-targeted therapy for metastatic prostate cancer are at increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Development of ONJ has been associated with the administration of bone-targeted therapies in association with other risk factors. ONJ can be distressing for a patient because it can cause pain, risk of jaw fracture, body image disturbance, difficultly eating, and difficulty maintaining good oral hygiene. The aim of this article is to report results of an audit of prior assessment by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) before initiation of bone-targeted therapies and whether it may reduce the risk of ONJ in patients receiving bone-targeted therapies for advanced cancers.

  2. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  3. Understanding and optimizing bone health in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Theresa A; Brufsky, Adam; Coleman, Robert E

    2010-12-01

    Bone is the preferred site of metastasis for breast cancer, and presence of skeletal lesions is associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. Skeletal-related effects such as pain, pathologic fractures, spinal compression, and hypercalcemia are frequent consequences of skeletal lesions of breast cancer that have debilitating effects on the patients' quality of life. In addition to direct cancer effects on the skeleton, therapies commonly used to treat patients with breast cancer such as chemotherapy and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in cancer therapy-induced bone loss (CTIBL) which is associated with increased risk of skeletal complications such as fractures. Bisphosphonates are a class of antiresorptive drugs that are now firmly established as the cornerstone of the management of skeletal-related events due to breast cancer. Other novel bone-targeting agents such as the anti-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) monoclonal antibody denosumab are also showing promising activity in the treatment of bone metastasis secondary to breast cancer. Moreover, recent provocative evidence suggests that bisphosphonates might also exhibit antitumor activity via direct and indirect mechanisms. The goal of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology of osteolytic bone lesions secondary to breast cancer, provide clinical evidence of currently available bone-targeted drugs in the treatment of bone metastasis and CTIBL, and explore the antitumor activity of current bone-targeted agents in patients with breast cancer.

  4. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be amputated mid-thigh, the lower leg and foot can be rotated and attached to the thigh bone. The old ankle joint becomes the new knee joint. This surgery is called rotationplasty (roh-TAY-shun-PLAS-tee). A prosthesis is used to make the new leg the ...

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of other cancers (or other health problems). Examples of genetic syndromes that can cause exocrine pancreatic cancer include: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome , caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes Familial atypical ...

  6. How I do it: managing bone health in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Jack

    2014-08-01

    Urologists have two scenarios where they have to address bone loss or increased risk of fractures in men with prostate cancer. In the first setting, a patient who has been started on androgen deprivation therapy may develop cancer-treatment-induced bone loss. In the second setting, a patient's prostate cancer may have metastasized to the bone. This article describes six steps to manage bone health in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in a community practice.

  7. Treatment and prevention of bone complications from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard J; Saylor, Philip J; Smith, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases and skeletal complications are major causes of morbidity in prostate cancer patients. Despite the osteoblastic appearance of bone metastases on imaging studies, patients have elevated serum and urinary markers of bone resorption, indicative of high osteoclast activity. Increased osteoclast activity is independently associated with higher risk of subsequent skeletal complications, disease progression, and death. Osteoclast-targeted therapies are therefore a rational approach to reduction of risk for disease-related skeletal complications, bone metastases, and treatment-related fractures. This review focuses on recent advances in osteoclast-targeted therapy in prostate cancer. Bisphosphonates have been extensively studied in men with prostate cancer. Zoledronic acid significantly decreased the risk of skeletal complications in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases, and it is FDA-approved for this indication. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds and inactivates RANKL, a critical mediator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Recent global phase 3 clinic trials demonstrated an emerging role for denosumab in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases and prevention of fractures associated with androgen deprivation therapy.

  8. Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160652.html Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment Extra chemo drugs failed to change course of ... t benefit patients with a rare type of bone cancer, according to a new ... teenagers. With current treatments, only 65 to 70 percent of patients live ...

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  10. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Asbestos and Cancer Risk What is asbestos? Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur ... in some countries. How are people exposed to asbestos? People can be exposed to asbestos in different ...

  11. Evaluation and correlation of risk recurrence in early breast cancer assessed by Oncotype DX(®), clinicopathological markers and tumor cell dissemination in the blood and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Bahriye; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Heubner, Martin; Kimmig, Rainer; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine

    2013-11-01

    The Oncotype DX(®) assay is a validated genomic test that predicts the likelihood of breast cancer recurrence, patient survival within ten years of diagnosis and the benefit of chemotherapy in early-stage, node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Further markers of recurrence include disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood, particularly stemness-like tumor cells (slCTCs). In this study, Oncotype DX, DTCs, CTCs and slCTCs were used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in 68 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, early-stage breast cancer. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were analyzed for the expression of 16 cancer genes and 5 reference genes by Oncotype DX, yielding a recurrence score (RS). G2 tumors were evaluated for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) and Ki-67. Two BM aspirates were analyzed by immunocytochemistry for DTCs using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. CTCs and slCTCs in the blood were detected using the AdnaTest BreastCancer, AdnaTest EMT and the AdnaTest TumorStemCell. Oncotype DX was performed in 68 cases, yielding a low RS in 30/68 patients (44%), an intermediate RS in 29/68 patients (43%) and a high RS in 9/68 patients (13%). DTCs were detected in 19/68 patients (28%), CTCs in 13/68 patients (19%) and slCTCs in 26/68 (38%) patients. Moreover, 8/68 patients (12%) with G2 tumors were positive for uPA, 6/68 (9%) for PAI1 and 21/68 (31%) for Ki-67. Ki-67, progesterone receptor (PR) and G3 tumors were significantly correlated with RS (P<0.001; P=0.006; and P=0,002, respectively), whereas no correlation was identified between DTCs, CTCs, slCTCs and RS. Ki-67 may support therapeutic decisions in cases where Oncotype DX is not feasible. Larger patient cohorts are required to estimate the additional detection of DTCs and CTCs for the determination of risk recurrence.

  12. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casina Kan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow.

  13. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  14. Bone mineral density deficits and fractures in survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carmen L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Although substantial increases in survival rates among children diagnosed with cancer have been observed in recent decades, survivors are at risk of developing therapy-related chronic health conditions. Among children and adolescents treated for cancer, acquisition of peak bone mass may be compromised by cancer therapies, nutritional deficiencies, and reduced physical activity. Accordingly, failure to accrue optimal bone mass during childhood may place survivors at increased risk for deficits in bone density and fracture in later life. Current recommendations for the treatment of bone density decrements among cancer survivors include dietary counseling and supplementation to ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Few strategies exist to prevent or treat bone loss. Moving forward, studies characterizing the trajectory of changes in bone density over time will facilitate the development of interventions and novel therapies aimed at minimizing bone loss among survivors of childhood cancer.

  15. Metastatic bone cancer as a recurrence of early gastric cancer - characteristics and possible mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michiya Kobayashi; Takehiro Okabayashi; Takeshi Sano; Keijiro Araki

    2005-01-01

    The surgical outcome of most early gastric cancer (EGC)is usually satisfactory. Some cases show bone metastasis even though the depth of cancer invasion is confined to the mucosa. The most frequent site for recurrence of EGC is the liver. Cases of EGC with bone metastasis are reviewed to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of EGC giving rise to bone metastasis. Possible mechanisms and risk factors underlying this rare condition are proposed.Forty-six cases of bone metastasis from EGC are reviewed from published reports and meeting proceedings in Japan.This investigation suggests that risk factors for bone metastasis from EGC include depressed-type signet-ring cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and/or the likely involvement of lymph node metastasis, even though the cancer is confined to the gastric mucosa. The risk factors do not include recurrence of EGC in the liver. We speculate that the mechanism of bone metastasis from EGC is via lymphatic channels and systemic circulation. Postoperative follow-up of cases should consider the development of bone metastasis from EGC. We propose the use of elevated alkaline phosphatase levels for the detection of bone metastasis and recommend bone scintigraphy in positive cases.

  16. Therapy for bone metastasis from different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Baoguo Mi; Chao Song; Yi Deng; Hanfeng Guan

    2016-01-01

    The bone is the most common target organ of cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis leads to considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events (SREs). These include bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic frac-tures, and compression of the spinal cord. Cancers such as those of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney are more likely to cause SREs than other cancer types. Additionaly, some blood cancers, including multiple myeloma and lymphoma, frequently cause SREs. In this article, we review the conventional therapies for metastatic bone disease, including drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Among osteoclast-targeting agents, bisphosphonates and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitors are the most widely used agents to prevent cancer-related bone loss. Unsealed radioisotopes are also considered promising in cancer therapy. Currently, iodine-131, strontium-89, and radium-223 are available for the treatment of bone metastasis. However, the treatments for blood cancers with SREs are diferent from those of other cancers. In those cases, new classes of agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal anti-bodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown remarkable eficacy. We also discuss the potential development of new therapies for these diseases.

  17. Enhancing Quality of Life for Breast Cancer Patients with Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Sellinger, D. S., McBeath, A. A., and Engber, W. D. Metastatic breast cancer in the femur . A search for the lesion at risk of fracture . Clin Orthop...cancer, bone metastasis , animal model, radiation therapy, anabolic agents, bisphosphonates, biomechanical testing, histology 16. SECURITY...Current treatment for osteolytic breast cancer bone metastasis typically involves radiation therapy (RTX) to palliate bone pain and a

  18. Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in bone metastasis of osteotropic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Thomas E; Miller, Andrew H; Godwin, Andrew K; Wang, Jinxi

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the "osteomimicry" of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the "switch" in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases.

  19. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annual Review of Immunology 2011; 29:415-445. [PubMed Abstract] Randi G, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. International Journal ...

  20. Use of Bone Scan During Initial Prostate Cancer Workup, Downstream Procedures, and Associated Medicare Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Salloum, Ramzi G. [Department of Health Services Policy and Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with a high likelihood of having metastatic disease (high-risk prostate cancer), bone scan is the standard, guideline-recommended test to look for bony metastasis. We quantified the use of bone scans and downstream procedures, along with associated costs, in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, and their use in low- and intermediate-risk patients for whom these tests are not recommended. Methods and Materials: Patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2007 were included. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical T stage were used to define D'Amico risk categories. We report use of bone scans from the date of diagnosis to the earlier of treatment or 6 months. In patients who underwent bone scans, we report use of bone-specific x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and bone biopsy within 3 months after bone scan. Costs were estimated using 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. Results: In all, 31% and 48% of patients with apparent low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer underwent a bone scan; of these patients, 21% underwent subsequent x-rays, 7% CT, and 3% MRI scans. Bone biopsies were uncommon. Overall, <1% of low- and intermediate-risk patients were found to have metastatic disease. The annual estimated Medicare cost for bone scans and downstream procedures was $11,300,000 for low- and intermediate-risk patients. For patients with apparent high-risk disease, only 62% received a bone scan, of whom 14% were found to have metastasis. Conclusions: There is overuse of bone scans in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, which is unlikely to yield clinically actionable information and results in a potential Medicare waste. However, there is underuse of bone scans in high-risk patients for whom metastasis is likely.

  1. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...

  2. Analysis of risk factors for bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer%前列腺癌患者骨转移相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高乃芳; 宋立敏; 庞敏; 宿超

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and investigate risk factors associated with prostate cancer with bone metastasis by gathering general information of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Methods:120 cases with prostate cancer were selected and divided into observation group ( with bone metastases) and control group ( without bone metastases) according to bone me-tastases or not, 60 cases in each group. The Logistic regression univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Results:The capsule infiltration, pelvic lymph node hyperplasia, age, PSA value and Gleason score of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group. The age (OR=1. 301), PSA value (OR=1. 218), Gleason score (OR=7. 026), capsular infiltration (OR=333. 987) were the main risk factor for bone metastasis of the patients with prostate cancer. Conclusions: The high-risk factors for bone metastasis of prostate cancer are age, PSA, Gleason score and capsule infiltration.%目的::搜集初诊前列腺癌骨转移患者的一般资料,分析研究前列腺癌骨转移的相关危险因素。方法:选取前列腺癌患者120例,按照是否骨转移分为观察组和对照组,每组各60例。观察组患者为骨转移者;对照组患者为无骨转移者。采用Logistic回归方法对两组患者进行单因素和多因素分析。结果:观察组患者包膜浸润、盆腔淋巴结增生、年龄、PSA 值、Gleason 评分均显著高于对照组。年龄( OR=1.301)、PSA 值(OR=1.218)、Gleason 评分(OR=7.026)、有无包膜浸润(OR=333.987)为前列腺癌患者发生骨转移的主要危险因素。结论:前列腺癌患者骨转移的高危因素为年龄、PSA、Gleason 评分和包膜浸润。

  3. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0408 TITLE: Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jacqueline D. Jones...0408 Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...efferocytosis. The translation of this functional role during pathophysiological states such as tumor metastasis to the skeleton is unknown. The purpose of this

  4. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  5. Comparison of bone cancer risks in beagle dogs for inhaled plutonium-238 dioxide, inhaled strontium-90 chloride, and injected strontium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    There is a continuing need to understand dose-response relationships for ionizing radiation in order to protect the health of the public and nuclear workers from undue exposures. However, relatively few human populations have been exposed to doses of radiation high enough to cause observable, long-term health effects from which to derive dose-response relationships. This is particularly true for internally deposited radionuclides, although much effort has been devoted to epidemiological studies of the few types of exposures available, including lung cancers in uranium miners form the inhalation of the radioactive decay products of Ra, liver cancers in patients injected with Thorotrast X-ray contrast medium containing Th, bone cancers in radium dial painters who ingested Ra, and bone cancers in patients who received therapeutic doses of Ra. These four types of exposures to internally deposited radionuclides provide a basis for understanding the health effects of many other radionuclides for which a potential for exposure exists. However, potential exposures to internally deposited radionuclides may differ in many modifying factors, such as route of exposure, population differences, and physical, chemical, and elemental forms of radionuclides. The only means available to study many of these modifying factors has been in laboratory animals, and to then extrapolate the results to humans. Three conclusions can be drawn from this example.

  6. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  7. Bone health in adults treated with endocrine therapy for early breast or prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poznak, Catherine H

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a hormonally responsive organ. Sex hormones and calcium regulating hormones, including parathyroid hormone, 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D, and calcitonin, have effects on bone resorption and bone deposition. These hormones affect both bone quality and bone quantity. The sex hormone estrogen inhibits bone resorption, and estrogen therapy has been developed to prevent and treat osteoporosis. Androgens are an important source of estrogen through the action of the enzyme aromatase and may themselves stimulate bone formation. Hence, the sex steroids play a role in bone metabolism. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are frequently hormonally responsive and may be treated with antiestrogens or antiandrogens respectfully. In addition, chemotherapy and supportive medications may alter the patient's endocrine system. In general, the suppression of sex hormones has a predictable affect on bone health, as seen by loss of bone mineral density and increased risk of fragility fractures. The bone toxicity of cancer-directed endocrine therapy can be mitigated through screening, counseling on optimization of calcium and vitamin D intake, exercise, and other lifestyle/behavioral actions, as well as the use of medications when the fracture risk is high. Maintaining bone health in patients who are treated with endocrine therapy for breast and prostate cancer is the focus of this review.

  8. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... implants may pose a problem when going through security screening, such as at the airport. It is good idea to carry a medical letter indicating that you ... Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics Overview Number of Diagnoses Incidence ...

  9. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the x-ray, but only a biopsy can absolutely determine that. A chest x-ray is often ... may find disturbing. Some places provide headphones with music to block this out. Radionuclide bone scans This ...

  10. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  11. [Encounter of cancer cells with bone. Therapy for bone metastasis from lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hideshi

    2011-03-01

    Bone metastasis from lung cancer requires a thorough examination of bones, including axial bones (e.g., spine, pelvis, and proximal femur) . Most patients have multiple bone metastases by the time they are initially diagnosed. In such patients, radiation therapy is often the first choice of treatment. Surgical treatment is indicated for pathological fracture and impending fracture associated with cortical bone invasion in long bone metastasis. Spinal metastasis requires accurate imaging to evaluate the extent of bone metastasis ; surgical treatment is indicated when the spinal cord is compressed. Given reports that bisphosphonates decrease the incidence of pathological fractures, prescribing bisphosphonates at an early stage is likely to be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone metastasis.

  12. Bone-mineral density deficits from childhood cancer and its therapy. A review of at-risk patient cohorts and available imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Radiological Sciences, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 800 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The growing population of childhood cancer survivors - currently estimated at 1 in 900 young adults aged 15-45 years - underscores the importance of studying long-term complications of oncotherapy. While these patients are returning to the mainstream of life, they carry with them toxicities from prior therapy that may compound or potentiate changes typically seen with the normal aging process. Skeletal toxicities such as scoliosis, craniofacial dysplasia, and limb-length discrepancy are readily apparent. However, others such as osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are silent until they reach advanced stages when attempts at amelioration may be unsuccessful. This review addresses bone-mineral density deficits that may predispose childhood cancer survivors to earlier onset and more severe osteopenia and osteoporosis than the normal population. (orig.)

  13. Cellular Plasticity in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Y. Jadaan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Experimental data suggest that tumour cells can reversibly transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states (EMT and MET, a phenomenon known as cellular plasticity. The aim of this review was to appraise the clinical evidence for the role of cellular plasticity in prostate cancer (PC bone metastasis. Methods. An electronic search was performed using PubMed for studies that have examined the differential expression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and stem cell markers in human PC bone metastasis tissues. Results. The review included nineteen studies. More than 60% of the studies used ≤20 bone metastasis samples, and there were several sources of heterogeneity between studies. Overall, most stem cell markers analysed, except for CXCR4, were positively expressed in bone metastasis tissues, while the expression of EMT and MET markers was heterogeneous between and within samples. Several EMT and stemness markers that are involved in osteomimicry, such as Notch, Met receptor, and Wnt/β pathway, were highly expressed in bone metastases. Conclusions. Clinical findings support the role of cellular plasticity in PC bone metastasis and suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal states cannot be taken in isolation when targeting PC bone metastasis. The paper also highlights several challenges in the clinical detection of cellular plasticity.

  14. Acupuncture for Cancer-Induced Bone Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole A. Paley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone pain is the most common type of pain in cancer. Bony metastases are common in advanced cancers, particularly in multiple myeloma, breast, prostate or lung cancer. Current pain-relieving strategies include the use of opioid-based analgesia, bisphosphonates and radiotherapy. Although patients experience some pain relief, these interventions may produce unacceptable side-effects which inevitably affect the quality of life. Acupuncture may represent a potentially valuable adjunct to existing strategies for pain relief and it is known to be relatively free of harmful side-effects. Although acupuncture is used in palliative care settings for all types of cancer pain the evidence-base is sparse and inconclusive and there is very little evidence to show its effectiveness in relieving cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP. The aim of this critical review is to consider the known physiological effects of acupuncture and discuss these in the context of the pathophysiology of malignant bone pain. The aim of future research should be to produce an effective protocol for treating CIBP with acupuncture based on a sound, evidence-based rationale. The physiological mechanisms presented in this review suggest that this is a realistic objective.

  15. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a foc

  16. Prevention of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients. Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Beuzeboc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four breast cancer patients is at risk of developing bone metastases in her life time. The early prevention of bone metastases is a crucial challenge. It has been suggested that the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL in the adjuvant setting may reduce the persistence of disseminated tumor cells and thereby might improve outcome, specifically in a population of patients with a low estrogen microenvironment. More recently, the results of a large meta-analysis from 41 randomized trials comparing a bisphosphonate (BP to placebo or to an open control have been presented at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Meeting. Data on 17,016 patients confirm that adjuvant BPs, irrespective of the type of treatment or the treatment schedule and formulation (oral or intra-venously (IV, significantly reduced bone recurrences and improved breast cancer survival in postmenopausal women. No advantage was seen in premenopausal women. BPs are soon likely to become integrated into standard practice. Published data on the mechanisms involved in tumor cell seeding from the primary site, in homing to bone tissues and in the reactivation of dormant tumor cells will be reviewed; these might offer new ideas for innovative combination strategies.

  17. Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Catarina Marques,1 José MF Ferreira,1 Ecaterina Andronescu,2 Denisa Ficai,2 Maria Sonmez,3 Anton Ficai21Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 3National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest, RomaniaAbstract: The purpose of this review is to present the most recent findings in bone tissue engineering. Special attention is given to multifunctional materials based on collagen and collagen–hydroxyapatite composites used for skin and bone cancer treatments. The multifunctionality of these materials was obtained by adding to the base regenerative grafts proper components, such as ferrites (magnetite being the most important representative, cytostatics (cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, silver nanoparticles, antibiotics (anthracyclines, geldanamycin, and/or analgesics (ibuprofen, fentanyl. The suitability of complex systems for the intended applications was systematically analyzed. The developmental possibilities of multifunctional materials with regenerative and curative roles (antitumoral as well as pain management in the field of skin and bone cancer treatment are discussed. It is worth mentioning that better materials are likely to be developed by combining conventional and unconventional experimental strategies.Keywords: bone graft, cancer, collagen, magnetite, cytostatics, silver

  18. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  19. After Some Breast Cancer Treatments, Risk for Other Health Conditions May Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  20. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications.

  1. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss and its management with bisphosphonates in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available M Bauer,1 J Bryce,2 P Hadji11University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2National Cancer Institute, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis due to loss of the bone-protective effects of estrogen. Disease-related processes may also contribute to the risk of bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. One of the most common and severe safety issues associated with cancer therapy for patients with breast cancer is bone loss and the associated increase in risk of fractures. This paper reviews the recent literature pertaining to aromatase inhibitor (AI-associated bone loss, and discusses suggested management and preventative approaches that may help patients remain on therapy to derive maximum clinical benefit. A case study is presented to illustrate the discussion. We observed that AIs are in widespread use for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and are now recommended as adjuvant therapy, either as primary therapy or sequential to tamoxifen, for postmenopausal women. AIs target the estrogen biosynthetic pathway and deprive tumor cells of the growth-promoting effects of estrogen, and AI therapies provide benefits to patients in terms of improved disease-free survival. However, there is a concern regarding the increased risk of bone loss with prolonged AI therapy, which can be managed in many cases with the use of bisphosphonates and other interventions (eg, calcium, vitamin D supplementation, exercise.Keywords: aromatase inhibitors, bisphosphonates, bone loss, breast cancer, estrogen

  2. Bone-targeted agents: preventing skeletal complications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Alicia K; Smith, Matthew R

    2012-11-01

    In men, prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death. Skeletal complications occur at various points during the disease course, either due to bone metastases directly, or as an unintended consequence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Bone metastases are associated with pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, and bone pain and can require narcotics or palliative radiation for pain relief. ADT results in bone loss and fragility fractures. This review describes the biology of bone metastases, skeletal morbidity, and recent advances in bone-targeted therapies to prevent skeletal complications of prostate cancer.

  3. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  4. Bioceramics: from bone regeneration to cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet-Regí, María; Ruiz-Hernández, Eduardo

    2011-11-23

    Research on biomaterials has been growing in the last few years due to the clinical needs in organs and tissues replacement and regeneration. In addition, cancer nanomedicine has recently appeared as an effective means to combine nanotechnology developments towards a clinical application. Ceramic materials are suitable candidates to be used in the manufacturing of bone-like scaffolds. Bioceramic materials may also be designed to deliver biologically active substances aimed at repairing, maintaining, restoring or improving the function of organs and tissues in the organism. Several materials such as calcium phosphates, glasses and glass ceramics able to load and subsequently release in a controlled fashion drugs, hormones, growth factors, peptides or nucleic acids have been developed. In particular, to prevent post surgical infections bioceramics may be surface modified and loaded with certain antibiotics, thus preventing the formation of bacterial biofilms. Remarkably, mesoporous bioactive glasses have shown excellent characteristics as drug carrying bone regeneration materials. These bioceramics are not only osteoconductive and osteoproductive, but also osteoinductive, and have therefore been proposed as ideal components for the fabrication of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. A recent promising development of bioceramic materials is related to the design of magnetic mediators against tumors. Magnetic composites are suitable thermoseeds for cancer treatment by hyperthermia. Moreover, magnetic nanomaterials offer a wide range of possibilities for diagnosis and therapy. These nanoparticles may be conjugated with therapeutic agents and heat the surrounding tissue under the action of alternating magnetic fields, enabling hyperthermia of cancer as an effective adjunct to chemotherapy regimens.

  5. Antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ashwani; Leitzel, Kim; Ali, Suhail; Lipton, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Cancer treatment-induced bone loss treatment has an important role to prevent bone loss-related events like fracture, significant morbidity, mortality, disfigurement and loss of self-esteem, and health-care expenditure. Numerous factors, including treatment regimens and bone metastasis, increase the risk of osteoporosis or local bone destruction in most breast and prostate cancer patients. Cytotoxic chemotherapies, radiation, and hormonal therapies can lead to premature menopause and decrease bone mineral density. Over 60 % of breast cancer patients within 1 year of beginning postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy experience ovarian failure. Also, ovarian ablation and aromatase inhibitors used to treat breast cancer and orchiectomy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; to treat prostate cancer) cause substantial bone loss. In this article, we will focus mainly on antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). An understanding of CTIBL is critical for determining how to assess the risk and identify which patients may benefit from preventive therapy.

  6. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  7. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Heart Risks May Boost Women's Colon Cancer Risk, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wasn't involved in the research. Excluding skin cancers, colon cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in ... Cancer Society says. The "absolute" risk of developing colon cancer over a specified period of time varies by ...

  19. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  20. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  1. Analysis of clinicopathological factors associated with bone metastasis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhu, Shu; Xie, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Shan-feng; Tong, Liang-qian; Zhou, Sheng; Zhao, Ming; Xianyu, Zhi-qun; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Xiong, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women today. Once breast cancer metastasizes to bone, mortality increases. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify patients with high risk of bone metastasis, and to find predictive factors for the occurrence of bone metastasis at an earlier stage of breast cancer. Three hundred and sixty patients with pathologically proved breast cancer visiting the Department of Nuclear Medicine for whole body bone scan from January 2006 and January 2009 were investigated in this study. Clinicopathological information was obtained, which consisted of age, menopausal status, clinical staging, lymph node stage, histological grade, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Correlation between bone metastasis and the associated factors was tested by using the Chi-square test. A Cox multivariate analysis was used to assess the factors which independently contributed to survival after bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Survival curves were drawn for metastasis-free interval and the independent factors which contributed to survival, using the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-four patients were excluded from subsequent analysis. Three hundred and thirty-six enrolled patients ranged in age from 22 to 77 years (mean, 47.8 years). ER/PR status [ER(+) vs. ER(-), χ (2)=4.328, P=0.037; ER(+)PR(+) vs. ER(+)PR(-), χ (2)=4.425, P=0.035] and histological grade (χ (2)=7.131, P=0.028) were significantly associated with bone metastasis. ER status (x (2)=8.315, P=0.004) and metastasis-free interval (χ (2)=6.863, P=0.009) were independent prognostic factors for survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. Our study suggested that ER/PR status and histological grade are risk factors for the development of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. However, ER status and metastasis-free interval are independent prognostic factors for survival in

  2. Targeting Bone Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Current Options and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Todenhöfer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL, antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs in the castration resistant stage of disease. Novel agents targeting the Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 and sclerostin are currently under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. New antineoplastic drugs such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223 are capable of further delaying SREs in patients with advanced PC. The benefit of antiresorptive treatment for patients with castration sensitive PC appears to be limited. Recent trials on the use of zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone metastases failed to be successful, whereas denosumab delayed the occurrence of bone metastases by a median of 4.1 months. Currently, the use of antiresorptive drugs to prevent bone metastases still remains a field of controversies and further trials are needed to identify patient subgroups that may profit from early therapy.

  3. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, K A; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2012-12-01

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided.

  4. Methotrexate Toxicity in Growing Long Bones of Young Rats: A Model for Studying Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Growth Defects in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaming Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement and intensive use of chemotherapy in treating childhood cancers has led to a growing population of young cancer survivors who face increased bone health risks. However, the underlying mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced skeletal defects remain largely unclear. Methotrexate (MTX, the most commonly used antimetabolite in paediatric cancer treatment, is known to cause bone growth defects in children undergoing chemotherapy. Animal studies not only have confirmed the clinical observations but also have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy-induced skeletal damage. These models revealed that high-dose MTX can cause growth plate dysfunction, damage osteoprogenitor cells, suppress bone formation, and increase bone resorption and marrow adipogenesis, resulting in overall bone loss. While recent rat studies have shown that antidote folinic acid can reduce MTX damage in the growth plate and bone, future studies should investigate potential adjuvant treatments to reduce chemotherapy-induced skeletal toxicities.

  5. Characterization of bone quality in prostate cancer bone metastases using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Patil, Chetan; Morrissey, Colm; Roudier, Martine P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common primary tumor in men, with a high propensity to metastasize to bone. Bone metastases in prostate cancer are associated with active pathologic bone remodeling, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Detailed characterization of bone metastases is important in the management of prostate cancer. Raman spectroscopy was applied in this study to investigate the structure and composition of metastatic bone in prostate cancer with the ultimate goal of identifying spectral features that are related to the alterations in bone quality as the bone metastases develop. Osteoblastic-, osteolytic- and tumor-absent bone specimens from prostate cancer patients were investigated using bench-top Raman microspectroscopy. Raman derived measurements of collagen mineralization, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution were calculated. The osteolytic lesions demonstrated significantly lower collagen mineralization, determined by phosphate ν1/proline, and higher carbonate substitution than normal and osteoblastic bones. Mineral crystallinity was significantly lower in both blastic and lytic specimens. In addition, a significant increase in the ratio of hydroxyproine: proline was observed in the osteoblastic specimen, indicating an increase in the content of hydroxyproline at the blastic lesions. This study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy shows promise in determining alterations in osteoblastic and osteolytic bone metastases as well as assessing the response of metastatic bone to therapies.

  6. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  7. Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides for painful bone metastases in patients with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle D; Karthigaseu, Nita Nishanthiny; Fuglsang, Randi

    2017-01-01

    Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides may provide palliation from pain originating from bone metastases. However, most studies have been conducted in patients with prostate cancer and patients with breast cancer. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the use of radionuclide treatment...

  8. Management of bone metastases in refractory prostate cancer – role of denosumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paller CJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Channing J Paller,1 Michael A Carducci,1 George K Philips21Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington DC, USAAbstract: This article reviews the problem of bone disease in prostate cancer and the evolving role of the novel agent denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand, in suppressing bone resorption and offering bone protection in this disease. Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, and additionally its treatment with androgen deprivation leads to accelerated bone loss resulting in clinically relevant skeletal complications associated with disabling symptoms. Among the bone-targeting therapeutic strategies investigated for the prevention of bone complications, the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid has been the most widely used agent for bone protection in the past decade. Denosumab is the first among a new class of osteoclast-targeting agents to show superior efficacy in several clinical scenarios in both prostate and breast cancer, as well as in osteoporosis, but the focus of this review will be on its role in prostate cancer. The safety and efficacy of denosumab versus zoledronic acid was established in a randomized trial, demonstrating a delay in skeletal-related events in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. This study led to the approval of denosumab in the US. The chief risks of denosumab were hypocalcemia and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Denosumab was also approved for fracture risk reduction in patients on androgen-deprivation therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Although denosumab extended bone metastasis-free survival in a Phase III trial in men with castration-resistant nonmetastatic prostate cancer to a statistically significant degree, a Food and Drug Administration committee found that the effect was not sufficiently clinically

  9. Targeting bone physiology for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Karen A; Morris, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer has a unique predilection for bone that can lead to significant clinical sequelae, such as fracture and cord compression. This tropism for bone yields not only clinical challenges, but also opportunities to understand the tumor biology in bone and to develop relevant therapeutic strategies. The process by which tumor cells migrate to bone, remain dormant, and then colonize and expand is based on complex interactions between prostate cancer tumor cells and the host microenvironment. This review will provide an overview of these interactions as well as therapies targeting osseous metastases in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  10. Crosstalk between Metastatic Cancer Cells and Bone Microenvironments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiyuki YONEDA

    2009-01-01

    @@ Bone is one of the most preferential target sites for cancers such as breast, prostate and lung cancers to metastasize. Although the mechanism under-lying this organ preference still needs to be elucidated, observations that specific inhibitors of osteoclasts such as bisphosphonates inhibit bone metastases suggest a critical role of osteoclasts.

  11. Development of Raman spectral markers to assess metastatic bone in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Sterling, Julie A.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Bi, Xiaohong

    2014-11-01

    Bone is the most common site for breast cancer metastases. One of the major complications of bone metastasis is pathological bone fracture caused by chronic bone loss and degeneration. Current guidelines for the prediction of pathological fracture mainly rely on radiographs or computed tomography, which are limited in their ability to predict fracture risk. The present study explored the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy to estimate pathological fracture risk by characterizing the alterations in the compositional properties of metastatic bones. Tibiae with evident bone destruction were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The carbonation level calculated by the ratio of carbonate/phosphate ν1 significantly increased in the tumor-bearing bone at all the sampling regions at the proximal metaphysis and diaphysis, while tumor-induced elevation in mineralization and crystallinity was more pronounced in the metaphysis. Furthermore, the increased carbonation level is positively correlated to bone lesion size, indicating that this parameter could serve as a unique spectral marker for tumor progression and bone loss. With the promising advances in the development of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for deep tissue measurement, this spectral marker can potentially be used for future noninvasive evaluation of metastatic bone and prediction of pathological fracture risk.

  12. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  13. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000931.htm Understanding your prostate cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  14. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D

    2007-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  15. Bone health history in breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn L Kwan

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI users before breast cancer (BC diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC. Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001. Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures.

  16. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  17. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30 c...

  18. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a met...

  19. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  20. Advancing Treatment for Metastatic Bone Cancer: Consensus Recommendations from the Second Cambridge Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E.; Guise, Theresa A.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Berenson, James R.; Body, Jean-Jacques; Boyce, Brendan F.; Calvi, Laura M.; Hadji, Peyman; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Saad, Fred; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.; Taichman, Russell S.; Vessella, Robert L.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Summarize current knowledge, critical gaps in knowledge, and recommendations to advance the field of metastatic bone cancer. Experimental Design A multidisciplinary consensus conference was convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess critical gaps in current knowledge, and prioritize recommendations to advance research in the next 5 years. The program addressed three principal topics: biology of metastasis, preserving normal bone health, and optimizing bone-targeted therapies. Results A variety of specific recommendations were identified as important to advance research and clinical care over the next 5 years. Conclusions Priorities for research in bone biology include characterizing components of the stem cell niche in bone, developing oncogenic immunocompetent animal models of bone metastasis, and investigating the unique contribution of the bone microenvironment to tumor growth and dormancy. Priorities for research in preserving normal bone health include developing methods to measure and characterize disseminating tumor cells, assessing outcomes from the major prevention trials currently in progress, and improving methodologies to assess risks and benefits of treatment. Priorities for optimizing bone-targeted therapies include advancing studies of serum proteomics and genomics to reliably identify patients who will develop bone metastases, enhancing imaging for early detection of bone metastases and early response evaluation, and developing new tests to evaluate response to bone-directed treatments. PMID:18927277

  1. Dissecting Tumor-Stromal Interactions in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in breast cancer, affecting more than 70% of late stage cancer patients with severe complications such as fracture, bone pain, and hypercalcemia. The pathogenesis of osteolytic bone metastasis depends on cross-communications between tumor cells and various stromal cells residing in the bone microenvironment. Several growth factor signaling pathways, secreted micro RNAs (miRNAs and exosomes are functional mediators of tumor-stromal interactions in bone metastasis. We developed a functional genomic approach to systemically identified molecular pathways utilized by breast cancer cells to engage the bone stroma in order to generate osteolytic bone metastasis. We showed that elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1 in disseminated breast tumor cells mediates the recruitment of pre-osteoclasts and promotes their differentiation to mature osteoclasts during the bone metastasis formation. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β is released from bone matrix upon bone destruction, and signals to breast cancer to further enhance their malignancy in developing bone metastasis. We furthered identified Jagged1 as a TGF-β target genes in tumor cells that engaged bone stromal cells through the activation of Notch signaling to provide a positive feedback to promote tumor growth and to activate osteoclast differentiation. Substantially change in miRNA expression was observed in osteoclasts during their differentiation and maturation, which can be exploited as circulating biomarkers of emerging bone metastasis and therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone metastasis. Further research in this direction may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment strategies for bone metastasis.

  2. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening tests have different risks or harms. Screening tests may cause anxiety when you are thinking about or getting ready ... is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy ), which also have risks. The ...

  3. Bone Health in Patients with Breast Cancer: Recommendations from an Evidence-Based Canadian Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. G. Paterson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss is common in patients with breast cancer. Bone modifying agents (BMAs, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, have been shown to reverse or stabilize bone loss and may be useful in the primary and metastatic settings. The purpose of this review is to provide clear evidence-based strategies for the management of bone loss and its symptoms in breast cancer. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 1996 and 2012 was conducted of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Reference lists were hand-searched for additional publications. Recommendations were developed based on the best available evidence. Zoledronate, pamidronate, clodronate, and denosumab are recommended for metastatic breast cancer patients; however, no one agent can be recommended over another. Zoledronate or any oral bisphosphonate and denosumab should be considered in primary breast cancer patients who are postmenopausal on aromatase inhibitor therapy and have a high risk of fracture and/or a low bone mineral density and in premenopausal primary breast cancer patients who become amenorrheic after therapy. No one agent can be recommended over another. BMAs are not currently recommended as adjuvant therapy in primary breast cancer for the purpose of improving survival, although a major Early Breast Cancer Cooperative Trialists’ Group meta-analysis is underway which may impact future practice. Adverse events can be managed with appropriate supportive care.

  4. Esophageal Cancer with Bone Marrow Hyperplasia Mimicking Bone Metastasis: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yasuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease. From the cervical, thoracic and abdominal computed tomography images, there were no metastatic lesions except for the bone lesions. To confirm whether the bone lesions were metastatic, we performed bone biopsy. The histopathological diagnosis was bone marrow hyperplasia. It was crucial for treatment planning to establish whether the lesions were distant metastases. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with bone marrow hyperplasia mimicking bone metastasis.

  5. Current role of bone scan with phosphonates in the follow-up of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffioli, Lorenzo; Florimonte, Luigia; Pagani, Luca; Butti, Ivana [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale ' ' A. Manzoni' ' , Via dell' Eremo 9/11, 23900, Lecco (Italy); Roca, Isabel [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitari Vall Hebron, 08035, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that bone scintigraphy has high sensitivity and efficacy in the early detection of bone metastases from several tumours, including breast cancer. Bone scintigraphy is the most definitive tool for diagnosing and monitoring metastatic spread of breast cancer. However, in the past decade there has been a wide debate on its impact on survival time, morbidity and quality of life. Worldwide economic restrictions and these studies have led to the adoption of an almost minimalist policy for breast cancer follow-up using evidence-based guidelines. The recommended breast cancer surveillance testing includes only a few procedures (history, physical and breast self-examination, patient education on symptoms, pelvic examination). The routine use of additional tests, such as blood cell count, tumour markers, liver ultrasonography, bone scan and chest X-rays, is not recommended. Accordingly, scintigraphy should be reserved for a limited number of patients. On the other hand, early diagnosis of bone involvement may reduce the risk of skeletal related events, thus leading to a significant improvement in quality of life. Furthermore, new drugs (e.g. bisphosphonates) can now delay the onset of bone metastasis and reduce the number of patients who experience skeletal complications. In conclusion, the evidence of the clinical usefulness of bone scintigraphy (to allow early planning of new treatments in advanced disease) has to be re-evaluated, possibly by large randomised prospective trials. (orig.)

  6. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  7. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  8. Differential Bone Loss in Mouse Models of Colon Cancer Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Andrea; Kays, Joshua K.; Parker, Valorie A.; Matthews, Ryan R.; Barreto, Rafael; Puppa, Melissa J.; Kang, Kyung S.; Carson, James A.; Guise, Theresa A.; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Robling, Alexander G.; Couch, Marion E.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Cachexia is a distinctive feature of colorectal cancer associated with body weight loss and progressive muscle wasting. Several mechanisms responsible for muscle and fat wasting have been identified, however it is not known whether the physiologic and molecular crosstalk between muscle and bone tissue may also contribute to the cachectic phenotype in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether tumor growth associates with bone loss using several experimental models of colorectal cancer cachexia, namely C26, HT-29, and ApcMin/+. The effects of cachexia on bone structure and strength were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro computed tomography (μCT), and three-point bending test. We found that all models showed tumor growth consistent with severe cachexia. While muscle wasting in C26 hosts was accompanied by moderate bone depletion, no loss of bone strength was observed. However, HT-29 tumor bearing mice showed bone abnormalities including significant reductions in whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but no declines in strength. Similarly, cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mice was associated with significant decreases in BMD, BMC, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th as well as decreased strength. Our data suggest that colorectal cancer is associated with muscle wasting and may be accompanied by bone loss dependent upon tumor type, burden, stage and duration of the disease. It is clear that preserving muscle mass promotes survival in cancer cachexia. Future studies will determine whether strategies aimed at preventing bone loss can also improve outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer cachexia. PMID:28123369

  9. Numerical analysis of an osseointegrated prosthesis fixation with reduced bone failure risk and periprosthetic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, P K; van Diest, M; Bulstra, S K; Verdonschot, N; Verkerke, G J

    2012-07-26

    Currently available implants for direct attachment of prosthesis to the skeletal system after transfemoral amputation (OPRA system, Integrum AB, Sweden and ISP Endo/Exo prosthesis, ESKA Implants AG, Germany) show many advantages over the conventional socket fixation. However, restraining biomechanical issues such as considerable bone loss around the stem and peri-prosthetic bone fractures are present. To overcome these limiting issues a new concept of the direct intramedullary fixation was developed. We hypothesize that the new design will reduce the peri-prosthetic bone failure risk and adverse bone remodeling by restoring the natural load transfer in the femur. Generic CT-based finite element models of an intact femur and amputated bones implanted with 3 analyzed implants were created and loaded with a normal walking and a forward fall load. The strain adaptive bone remodeling theory was used to predict long-term bone changes around the implants and the periprosthetic bone failure risk was evaluated by the von Mises stress criterion. The results show that the new design provides close to physiological distribution of stresses in the bone and lower bone failure risk for the normal walking as compared to the OPRA and the ISP implants. The bone remodeling simulations did not reveal any overall bone loss around the new design, as opposed to the OPRA and the ISP implants, which induce considerable bone loss in the distal end of the femur. This positive outcome shows that the presented concept has a potential to considerably improve safety of the rehabilitation with the direct fixation implants.

  10. Cancer risk assessment of toxaphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose is to do cancer risk assessment of toxaphene by using four steps of risk assessment proposed by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Four steps of risk assessment including hazard identification, dose-response relationship, exposure assessment, and risk characterization were used to evaluate cancer risk of toxaphene. Toxaphene was the most heavily used insecticide in many parts of the world before it was banned in 1982. It increased incidence of neoplasms of liver and uterus in mice and increased incidence of neoplasms of endocrine organs, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, mammary glands, and reproductive systems in rats. From mice's and rats' study, slope factor for toxaphene is 0.8557 (mg/ kg/day)(-1). Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) of toxaphene from ambient air, surface water, soil, and fish were 1.08 x 10(-6), 5.71 x 10(-6), 3.43 x 10(-7), and 7.96 x 10(-5) mg/kg/day, respectively. Cancer risk of toxaphene for average exposure is 7.42 x 10(-5). From this study, toxaphene might have carcinogenic risk among humans.

  11. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  12. Detection of bone metastases in thyroid cancer patients : Bone scintigraphy or F-18-DG PET?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Links, Thera P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Similar to the situation in other tumour types, it is currently unclear whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is adequate in the detection of bone metastases of thyroid cancer. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the performance of bone sc

  13. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Publication ... Line For Your Information The Impact of Bed Rest and Inactivity Some people can’t perform weight- ...

  14. Optimal management of bone metastases in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong MH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available MH Wong, N PavlakisDepartment of Medical Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Bone metastasis in breast cancer is a significant clinical problem. It not only indicates incurable disease with a guarded prognosis, but is also associated with skeletal-related morbidities including bone pain, pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, and hypercalcemia. In recent years, the mechanism of bone metastasis has been further elucidated. Bone metastasis involves a vicious cycle of close interaction between the tumor and the bone microenvironment. In patients with bone metastases, the goal of management is to prevent further skeletal-related events, manage complications, reduce bone pain, and improve quality of life. Bisphosphonates are a proven therapy for the above indications. Recently, a drug of a different class, the RANK ligand antibody, denosumab, has been shown to reduce skeletal-related events more than the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid. Other strategies of clinical value may include surgery, radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, and, of course, effective systemic therapy. In early breast cancer, bisphosphonates may have an antitumor effect and prevent both bone and non-bone metastases. Whilst two important Phase III trials with conflicting results have led to controversy in this topic, final results from these and other key Phase III trials must still be awaited before a firm conclusion can be drawn about the use of bisphosphonates in this setting. Advances in bone markers, predictive biomarkers, multi-imaging modalities, and the introduction of novel agents have ushered in a new era of proactive management for bone metastases in breast cancer.Keywords: breast cancer, bone metastases, bisphosphonates, denosumab, biomarkers, optimal management

  15. Chronological study for solitary bone metastasis in the sternum from breast cancer with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Hidenao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Sone, Teruki; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Tamada, Tsutomu; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Since breast cancer is frequently associated with bone metastasis, bone scintigraphies have been performed to determine pre-operative staging and to survey postoperative bone metastasis. The sternum, in particular, is a site at which is difficult to differentiate between benign bone disease and bone metastasis, because of varied uptake and wide individual variations. In this study, chronological bone images were scintigraphied in six cases with solitary sternal metastasis and three cases with benign bone disease including two fracture cases and one arthritis case. On bone scintigrams in which solitary sternal metastasis appeared, increased uptake was found in five cases, and photon deficiency was observed in one case. During follow-up scintigraphies, abnormal accumulations, such as hot spots and cold lesions, increased in the bone metastasis while abnormal uptake disappeared or was unchanged in the benign bone disease cases. On CT, four cases showed osteolytic change, and one exhibited osteosclerotic change. These findings indicate that sternal metastasis usually shows osteolytic change, even if a hot lesion is recognized on bone scintigraphy. In solitary sternal metastasis, for which early diagnosis is difficult, both an integrated diagnosis using other imaging techniques and chronological bone scintigraphy are important. (author)

  16. Prevention and treatment of bone loss in patients with nonmetastatic breast or prostate cancer who receive hormonal ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Connie; Maxwell, Cathy; Mautner, Beatrice

    2014-04-01

    Hormone ablation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. However, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used in postmenopausal women with breast cancer and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) used in men with prostate cancer contribute to substantial bone loss, thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Evidence-based guidelines, therefore, urge oncology practices to screen these patients for bone loss and, if needed, provide treatment to maintain bone health. In addition to lifestyle modification and calcium or vitamin D supplementation, bone protection strategies include treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against RANK ligand. Identification of patients at greater risk for bone loss and fracture and proper interventions can reduce fracture rates. Oncology nurses can play an important role in screening these patients. The purpose of this article is to inform oncology nurses about the effects of cancer treatment on bone health, review current prevention and treatment options for cancer treatment-induced bone loss, and discuss recommendations for identifying high-risk individuals.

  17. [Risk factors of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, L P; Liou, S H; Shen, C Y; Kao, S J; Chen, K T

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between various risk factors and lung cancer was evaluated in a case-control study. One hundred and forty-one cancer patients newly cytologically or pathologically diagnosed from May 1990 to July 1991 at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) were recruited as cases. Two control groups were also studied: 282 hospital controls two-to-one matched with cases on sex, age, hospital of admission and insurance status were selected from the TSGH Ophthalmologic Department, and 282 neighborhood controls two-to-one matched on sex, age, and residence were randomly selected from eligible neighbors. A comparison of interview data between cases and hospital controls based on multiple conditional logistic regression revealed that cigarette smoking, keeping doves as pet, occupational exposure to cotton dust and working as a cook were risk factors for lung cancer. An inverse association between incense burning and lung cancer was noted. The comparison between cases and neighborhood controls showed lung cancer was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, keeping doves, prior chronic bronchitis, occupational exposure to cotton dust, asbestos and radiation, low frequency of burning incense, and low intake of vitamin A derived from vegetables and fruits. There was no association between lung cancer and working as a cook when cases were compared with neighborhood controls.

  18. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Arnspang; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first time...... diagnosis of cancer during 2000-2009. Each case was matched by birth year and gender with eight population controls using risk set sampling. Subjects with myasthenia were identified through a validated register-based algorithm. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds...... ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for cancer associated with a prior diagnosis of myasthenia. RESULTS: In all, 233 437 cases and 1 867 009 controls were identified. A total of 80 cases and 518 controls had a prior diagnosis of myasthenia. Myasthenia was not associated with an increased...

  19. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk...... in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  20. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  1. Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162033.html Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk The more men ... and Australian scientists found a significant association between alcohol and prostate cancer risk, though they did not ...

  2. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  3. Bone marrow micrometastasis detected by flow cytometry is associated bone, bone marrow, lung macrometastasis in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Salih Akin

    2014-04-01

    Material and Methods: Bone marrow samples were obtained from 52 breast cancer patients and 16 control patients via aspiration from the iliac spine at the time of first diagnosis after the surgery. Epithelial cells were identified with anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody, and double-staining with propidium iodide and CD45using flow cytometry. Results: In all, 2 (12.5% of the 16 control patients and 11 (21% of the 52 breast cancer patients had cytokeratin-18 positive cells in their bone marrow. A relationship between the presence of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow, and the presence/absence of lymph node metastases, tumor size, stage, menopausal status, hormone receptor status, histological grade, c-erb-B2 expression, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion, Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS component, and gender was not observed. Significant positive relationships were observed between bone marrow micrometastasis, and age, and bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases. Conclusion: Bone marrow micrometastasis was associated with age, bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases at the time of diagnosis.. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 305-314

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  6. Trafficking of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    visualized in the intact bone (i.e., the bone is not cut, but has been stripped of surrounding muscle ) 1 hour following intracardiac injection using...bone deposition and resorption could be altered as well by reducing osteoblast number or differentiation and/or activity (33). In vitro coculture of...Direct resorption of bone by human monocytes . Sci- ence1977;196:1109^11. 49.Hall CL,BaficoA,DaiJ,AaronsonSA,Keller ET.Pros- tate cancer cells promote

  7. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şahin Onat; Sibel Ünsal Delialioğlu; Sumru Özel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T s...

  8. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA; CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001 and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001. Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP, in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

  9. Survival in patients with breast cancer with bone metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Karynsa; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Sværke, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since population-based data on prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with breast cancer with bone metastasis (BM) are currently limited, we conducted this nationwide retrospective cohort study to examine the prognostic role of disease stage at breast cancer diagnosis...

  10. Pain and nociception: mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sarah; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2014-06-01

    Cancer pain, especially pain caused by metastasis to bone, is a severe type of pain, and unless the cause and consequences can be resolved, the pain will become chronic. As detection and survival among patients with cancer have improved, pain has become an increasing challenge, because traditional therapies are often only partially effective. Until recently, knowledge of cancer pain mechanisms was poor compared with understanding of neuropathic and inflammatory pain states. We now view cancer-induced bone pain as a complex pain state involving components of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain but also exhibiting elements that seem unique to cancer pain. In addition, the pain state is often unpredictable, and the intensity of the pain is highly variable, making it difficult to manage. The establishment of translational animal models has started to reveal some of the molecular components involved in cancer pain. We present the essential pharmacologic and neurobiologic mechanisms involved in the generation and continuance of cancer-induced bone pain and discuss these in the context of understanding and treating patients. We discuss changes in peripheral signaling in the area of tumor growth, examine spinal cord mechanisms of sensitization, and finally address central processing. Our aim is to provide a mechanistic background for the sensory characteristics of cancer-induced bone pain as a basis for better understanding and treating this condition.

  11. Characterizing the inorganic/organic interface in cancer bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    Bone metastasis frequently occurs in patients with advanced breast cancer and remains a major source of mortality. At the molecular level, bone is a nanocomposite composed of inorganic bone mineral deposited within an organic extracellular matrix (ECM). Although the exact mechanisms of bone metastasis remain unclear, the nanoscale materials properties of bone mineral have been implicated in this process. Bone apatite is closely related to synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) in terms of structural and mechanical properties. Additionally, although the primary protein content of bone is collagen I, the glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) is essential in maintaining the overall integrity of the bone matrix. Importantly, in vivo, neither breast cancer cells nor normal bone cells interact directly with the bone mineral but rather with the protein film adsorbed onto the mineral surface. Therefore, we hypothesized that breast cancer cell functions were regulated by differential fibronectin adsorption onto hydroxyapatite, which led to pathological remodeling of the bone matrix and sustained bone metastasis. Three model systems containing HAP and Fn were developed for this thesis. In model system I, a library of synthetic HAP nanoparticles were utilized to investigate the effect of mineral size, shape, and crystallinity on Fn conformation, using Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy. In model system II, Fn-functionalized large geologic HAP crystals were used instead of HAP nanoparticles to avoid cellular uptake when investigating subsequent cell functions. Overall our FRET analysis (models I and II) revealed that Fn conformation depended on size, surface chemistry, and roughness of underlying HAP. When breast cancer cells were seeded on the Fn-coated HAP crystal facets (model II), our data indicated high secretion levels of proangiogenic and proinflammatory factors associated with the presence of unfolded Fn conformations, likely caused by differential

  12. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  13. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the Netherla

  14. Doxorubicin-mediated bone loss in breast cancer bone metastases is driven by an interplay between oxidative stress and induction of TGFβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapasi Rana

    Full Text Available Breast cancer patients, who are already at increased risk of developing bone metastases and osteolytic bone damage, are often treated with doxorubicin. Unfortunately, doxorubicin has been reported to induce damage to bone. Moreover, we have previously reported that doxorubicin treatment increases circulating levels of TGFβ in murine pre-clinical models. TGFβ has been implicated in promoting osteolytic bone damage, a consequence of increased osteoclast-mediated resorption and suppression of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that in a preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis model, administration of doxorubicin would accelerate bone loss in a TGFβ-mediated manner. Administration of doxorubicin to 4T1 tumor-bearing mice produced an eightfold increase in osteolytic lesion areas compared untreated tumor-bearing mice (P = 0.002 and an almost 50% decrease in trabecular bone volume expressed in BV/TV (P = 0.0005, both of which were rescued by anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11. Doxorubicin, which is a known inducer of oxidative stress, decreased osteoblast survival and differentiation, which was rescued by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Furthermore, doxorubicin treatment decreased Cu-ZnSOD (SOD1 expression and enzyme activity in vitro, and treatment with anti-TGFβ antibody was able to rescue both. In conclusion, a combination therapy using doxorubicin and anti-TGFβ antibody might be beneficial for preventing therapy-related bone loss in cancer patients.

  15. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  16. Definition of molecular determinants of prostate cancer cell bone extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Steven R; Hays, Danielle L; Yazawa, Erika M; Opperman, Matthew; Walley, Kempland C; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Burdick, Monica M; Gillard, Bryan M; Moser, Michael T; Pantel, Klaus; Foster, Barbara A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2013-01-15

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Here, we describe how metastatic prostate cancer cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. Prostate cancer cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic prostate cancer tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. Prostate cancer cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1, and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, prostate cancer cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin, and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate mice dramatically reduced prostate cancer incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins, and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating prostate cancer cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight into the role of α1,3 fucosylation in prostate cancer development.

  17. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  18. Inflammation, bone loss and fracture risk in spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Karine; Roux, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis (ie, low bone mineral density) is common in ankylosing spondylitis, related to both systemic inflammation and decreased mobility. Vertebral fracture risk is increased; acute back pain in these patients is not always a flare-up of the disease, as it can be related to bone complications. Intervertebral disc fractures in the ankylosed spine are associated with severe neurological complications. As expected from pathophysiology, treatments effective against inflammation have a positive effect on bone, and prospective open studies have shown that tumour-necrosis-factor blockers can improve bone mineral density at the spine and the hip. There is so far no evidence of a decreased risk of fractures with such treatment. PMID:26509065

  19. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in breast cancer patients is distinct from postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, Peyman

    2009-01-01

    Women with breast cancer are increasingly being diagnosed and treated earlier in the disease process, resulting in significantly improved clinical outcomes. Aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy has shown superior efficacy compared with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women and is quickly becoming the therapy of choice in this setting. However, adjuvant AI therapy depletes residual estrogen and is associated with rapid bone loss and increased fracture risk distinctly different from those observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) occurs at a rate at least 2-fold higher than bone loss seen in healthy, age-matched postmenopausal women, resulting in a significantly higher fracture incidence regardless of the AI administered. Thus, antiresorptive treatments designed to address postmenopausal osteoporosis may not be sufficient in this unique population. Furthermore, current guidelines for the management of bone health in women with breast cancer may not correctly identify patients who may benefit from therapy. Consequently, breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant AI therapy will require specialized management strategies to identify and treat patients at high risk for fracture. Recently, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates have emerged as the treatment of choice for the prevention of AIBL and the reduction of fracture risk in this setting.

  20. TGFβ and Hypoxia Drive Breast Cancer Bone Metastases through Parallel Signaling Pathways in Tumor Cells and the Bone Microenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lauren K. DUNN; Pierrick G.J. FOURNIE; Khalid S. MOHAMMAD; C. Ryan MCKENNA; Holly W. DAVIS; Maria NIEWOLNA; Xianghong PENG; John M. CHIRGWIN; Theresa A.GUISE

    2009-01-01

    @@ Breast cancers frequently metastasize to bone, a site of hypoxia and high concentrations of active TGFβ. Skeletal metastases involve interactions between tumor and bone cells driven by locally secreted proteins, many of which are increased by hypoxia and TGFβ.

  1. Reducing bone cancer cell functions using selenium nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzoff, Michelle; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Cancer recurrence at the site of tumor resection remains a major threat to patient survival despite modern cancer therapeutic advances. Osteosarcoma, in particular, is a very aggressive primary bone cancer that commonly recurs after surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapeutic treatment. The objective of the present in vitro study was to develop a material that could decrease bone cancer cell recurrence while promoting healthy bone cell functions. Selenium is a natural part of our diet which has shown promise for reducing cancer cell functions, inhibiting bacteria, and promoting healthy cells functions, yet, it has not been widely explored for osteosarcoma applications. For this purpose, due to their increased surface area, selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) were precipitated on a very common orthopedic tissue engineering material, poly-l-lactic acid (or PLLA). Selenium-coated PLLA materials were shown to selectively decrease long-term osteosarcoma cell density while promoting healthy, noncancerous, osteoblast functions (for example, up to two times more alkaline phosphatase activity on selenium coated compared to osteoblasts grown on typical tissue culture plates), suggesting they should be further studied for replacing tumorous bone tissue with healthy bone tissue. Importantly, results of this study were achieved without the use of chemotherapeutics or pharmaceutical agents, which have negative side effects.

  2. Gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Thompson, T C

    2008-05-01

    There is a critical need to develop new and effective cancer therapies that target bone, the primary metastatic site for prostate cancer and other malignancies. Among the various therapeutic approaches being considered for this application, gene-modified cell-based therapies may have specific advantages. Gene-modified cell therapy uses gene transfer and cell-based technologies in a complementary fashion to chaperone appropriate gene expression cassettes to active sites of tumor growth. In this paper, we briefly review potential cell vehicles for this approach and discuss relevant gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer. We further discuss selected studies that led to the conceptual development and preclinical testing of IL-12 gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of gene-modified cell therapy for metastatic prostate cancer, including the need to identify and test novel therapeutic genes such as GLIPR1.

  3. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  4. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process.

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  6. Prostate cancer cells metastasize to the hematopoietic stem cell niche in bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan T Keller

    2011-01-01

    @@ The majority of men with advanced prostate cancer develop bone metastases as opposed to metastases at other sites.1 It has been unclear why prostate cancer selectively metastasizes to and proliferates in bone.Recently, Shiozawa et al.Delineated a mechanism that may account for the establishment of prostate cancer in bone.2 Specifically, they identified that prostate cancer cells compete with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for the osteoblast in the HSC niche of the bone.Defining the mechanisms through which prostate cancer cells establish themselves in bone is critical towards developing effective therapeutic strategies to prevent or target bone metastases.

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... taking both estrogen and progesterone. Family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer Ovarian cancer can ...

  8. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  10. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...... human papillomavirus infections would help individualize screening guidelines and target immune-associated factors in the cervical cancer etiology....

  11. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  12. The genetics of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Mark M; Freedman, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades before the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, R. A. Fisher published his landmark article, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance," bridging this divide and demonstrating that multiple alleles, all individually obeying Mendel's laws, account for the phenotypic variation observed in nature.Since that time, geneticists have sought to identify the link between genotype and phenotype. Trait-associated alleles vary in their frequency and degree of penetrance. Some minor alleles may approach a frequency of 50% in the human population, whereas others are present within only a few individuals. The spectrum for penetrance is similarly wide. These characteristics jointly determine the segregation pattern of a given trait, which, in turn, determine the method used to map the trait. Until recently, identification of rare, highly penetrant alleles was most practical. Revolutionary studies in genomics reported over the past decade have made interrogation of most of the spectrum of genetic variation feasible.The following article reviews recent discoveries in the genetic basis of inherited cancer risk and how these discoveries inform cancer biology and patient management. Although this article focuses on prostate cancer, the principles are generic for any cancer and, indeed, for any trait.

  13. Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, Tacrolimus, Mycophenolate Mofetil, Total-Body Irradiation, and Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma

  14. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy R Rees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. METHODS: Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. RESULTS: Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71] than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46] compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking. After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]. An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11 and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51 was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  15. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  16. Tumor-Host Interaction in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    immortalized osteoblasts. REPORTABLE OUTCOMES • Thesis , entitled “PDGF expression by breast cancer cells, and its role in regulating osteolytic...investigation of microenvironmental regulation of genes, including (MMP-11 and cathepsin K) in breast cancer that may impact the progression of bone...C, Fan D, O’Brian CA, et al. Modulation of doxorubicin sensitivity and level of p-glycoprotein expression in human colon carcinoma cells by ectopic

  17. How MMPs Impact Bone Responses to Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    metastatic bone cancer: consensus recommendations from the Second Cambridge Conference. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 6387-95. 10. Cackowski FC, Roodman GD...2005;184:1266–73. 20. Cackowski FC, Roodman GD. Perspective on the osteoclast: an an- giogenic cell? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007;1117:12–25. 21. Bergers G...We are grateful to Kevin P. Weller and David K. Flaherty for their assistance with flow cytometry. Flow cytometry experiments were performed in the

  18. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... of Kaposi sarcoma and NHL also during early HIV infection before overt immunosuppression occurs. Long-term effects of cART exposure on cancer risk are not well defined; according to basic and epidemiological research, there might be specific associations of each cART class with distinct patterns of cancer...

  19. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  20. Managing the risk of invasive breast cancer in women at risk for breast cancer and osteoporosis: the role of raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor G Vogel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Victor G VogelThe University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM that has antiestrogenic effects on breast and endometrial tissue and estrogenic effects on bone, lipid metabolism, and blood clotting. Raloxifene significantly improves serum lipids and serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk, but it has no significant effect on the risk of primary coronary events. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of raloxifene for osteoporosis showed the odds of fracture risk were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49–0.74 for raloxifene 60 mg/day compared with placebo. During 8 years of follow-up in an osteoporosis trial, the raloxifene group had a 76% reduction in the incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer compared with the placebo group. In the STAR trial, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was 4.30 per 1000 women-years with raloxifene and 4.41 per 1000 with tamoxifen; RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82–1.28. The effect of raloxifene on invasive breast cancer was, therefore, equivalent to that of tamoxifen with more favorable rates of adverse effects including uterine malignancy and clotting events. Millions of postmenopausal women could derive net benefit from raloxifene through reduced rates of fracture and invasive breast cancer.Keywords: raloxifene, osteoporosis, breast cancer risk reduction

  1. Establishment of Animal Model for Bone Metastasis of Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG; Fang-fang; SHEN; Hong-tao; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; WU; Shao-yong; DOU; Liang; SHI; Yan-jun; ZHANG; Shuang; WANG; Xiao-ming; ZHAO; Qin-zhang; YANG; Xu-ran; XU; Yong-ning; LAN; Xiao-xi; CAI; Li; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common complication of cancer.It often occurs in lung,breast and prostate cancer,and may cause osteolytic lesions,or cause few osteoblastic lesions.It has already advanced cancer When cancer metastasis to bone,which usually cannot be cured.It is one of the important factors leading to the death of cancer patients.Studying animal model of bone

  2. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression...... was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  3. Bone Marrow Microenvironmental Control of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    1 Jinhui Liao,1 Janice E. Berry,1 Xin Li,1 Amy J. Koh,1 Megan N. Michalski,1 Matthew R. Eber,1 Fabiana N. Soki,1 W. David Sadler,1 Sudha Sud,2 Sandra...cancer metastases. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2009; 310: 71-81. 5. Roodman GD. Mechanisms of bone metastasis. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1655-64. 6. Shiozawa

  4. The association between metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, hip bone geometry and fracture risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); L. Oei (Ling); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone health remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between MS and hip bone geometry (HBG), femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD), and the risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Data of 2040 women and 1510 men part

  5. When to perform positron emission tomography/computed tomography or radionuclide bone scan in patients with recently diagnosed prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldarella C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmelo Caldarella,1 Giorgio Treglia,2 Alessandro Giordano,1 Luca Giovanella2 1Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland Abstract: Skeletal metastases are very common in prostate cancer and represent the main metastatic site in about 80% of prostate cancer patients, with a significant impact in patients' prognosis. Early detection of bone metastases is critical in the management of patients with recently diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer: radical treatment is recommended in case of localized disease; systemic therapy should be preferred in patients with distant secondary disease. Bone scintigraphy using radiolabeled bisphosphonates is of great importance in the management of these patients; however, its main drawback is its low overall accuracy, due to the nonspecific uptake in sites of increased bone turnover. Positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, choline-derived drugs (fluorine-18-fluorocholine and carbon-11-choline and sodium fluorine-18-fluoride, are increasingly used in clinical practice to detect metastatic spread, and particularly bone involvement, in patients with prostate cancer, to reinforce or substitute information provided by bone scan. Each radiopharmaceutical has a specific mechanism of uptake; therefore, diagnostic performances may differ from one radiopharmaceutical to another on the same lesions, as demonstrated in the literature, with variable sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy values in the same patients. Whether bone scintigraphy can be substituted by these new methods is a matter of debate. However, greater radiobiological burden, higher costs, and the necessity of an in-site cyclotron limit the use of these positron emission tomography methods as first-line investigations in patients with prostate cancer

  6. Occupational factors and risk of adult bone sarcomas: a multicentric case-control study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bertoni, Franco; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Buemi, Antoine; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Kaerlev, Linda; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Merler, Enzo; Miranda, Ana; Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsson, Håkan; Fletcher, Tony; Olsen, Jorn

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the association between occupational factors and risk of bone sarcoma, a rare tumor with a largely unknown aetiology. A multicentric case-control study was conducted in 7 European countries in 1995-97. Ninety-six cases aged 35-69 years with a centrally reviewed diagnosis of bone sarcoma (68 chondrosarcomas and 28 osteosarcomas) were compared to 2,632 population (68%) or colon cancer (32%) controls. Subjects were interviewed to obtain information on occupational, medical and reproductive history, smoking and alcohol consumption and selected exposures including use of pesticides. Response proportions were 90% among cases and 66% among controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for selected categories of job titles and branches of industry and for use of pesticides. We found an increased OR for bone sarcoma among blacksmiths, toolmakers, machine-tool operators (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.08-4.26), woodworkers (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.36-5.29) and construction workers (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 0.92-2.87). Ever users of pesticide had an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.31-4.13), with similar risks for exposure to insecticides and exposure to herbicides. Neither duration of employment in any of the analyzed occupational categories nor duration of use of pesticides showed an increasing trend in the risk of bone sarcoma. ORs of bone sarcoma were 1.03 (95% CI 0.23-4.57), 3.13 (95% CI 1.26-7.76) and 1.44 (95% CI 0.43-4.85) for the first, second and third tertile of days of use of pesticides. Our study suggests that novel and previously reported (woodworking) occupational factors play a role in the aetiology of bone sarcomas.

  7. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  8. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  9. Analysis of risk factors of bone metastases from prostate cancer-single center 235 case control study%前列腺癌骨转移危险因素分析-单中心235例病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安恒庆; 郑路; 李佳; 王峰; 张立东; 王玉杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of bone metastasis of prostate cancer.Methods On SPECT bone scan is the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma with bone metastasis.By u-sing the method of comparative study of single center we analyzed 235 prostate cancer patients Age, Gleson score,Serum prostate specific antigen,Serumfree prostate specific antigen and Serum F/T level which is correlation with bone metastasis of prostate cancer.Results 235 cases of prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis occurred in 101 cases and 134 cases did not have bone metastasis.By univariate analy-sis,bone metastasis of prostate cancer was correlated with age,Gleason score,TPSA,FPSA,F/T (P 20 ng/mL group of bone metastasis in patients with significantly more than the other groups,there were significant differences (P 20 ng/mL will increase the risk of patients with bone metastasis.%目的:初步探讨前列腺癌骨转移的危险因素。方法以 SPECT 全身骨显像为诊断前列腺癌骨转移的金标准,采用单中心对照研究的方法分析235例前列腺癌患者的年龄、Gleson 评分、血清前列腺特异性抗原(TP-SA)、血清游离前列腺特异性抗原(FPSA)及血清 F/T 值与前列腺癌骨转移的相关性。结果235例前列腺癌患者中101例发生骨转移,134例未发生骨转移,单因素分析显示年龄、Gleason 评分、TPSA、FPSA、F/T 值与前列腺癌骨转移密切相关(P <0.05),多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示:年龄(OR =1.08,P <0.05)、Gleason 评分(OR =2.90,P <0.05)、TPSA 值(OR =1.05,P <0.05)是其主要的独立危险因素。分层研究显示;在年龄≥70岁、Gleason 评分≥7分、TPSA>20ng/ml 组中骨转移的患者明显多于其他组,差异均具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论年龄、Gleason 评分及 TPSA 是前列腺癌骨转移的主要危险因素,年龄≥70岁、Gleason 评分≥7

  10. Bone targeted therapies for the prevention of skeletal morbidity in men with prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip J Saylor

    2014-01-01

    Men with prostate cancer suffer substantially from bone-related complications. Androgen deprivation therapy itself is a cause of loss of bone mineral density and is associated with an increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. In advanced disease, bone is by far the most common site of metastasis. Complications of bone metastases prominently include pain and the potential for skeletal events such as spinal cord compression and pathologic fractures. Elevated osteoclast activity is an important aspect of the pathophysiology of both treatment-related osteoporosis and skeletal complications due to metastases. The osteoclast is therefore a therapeutic target. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor-k-B ligand that was designed to potently inhibit osteoclast activity and is the central focus of this review. Bisphosphonates, radiopharmaceuticals and systemically-active hormonal agents such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide have each been shown to improve skeletal morbidity in speciifc clinical situations. Denosumab is the only agent that has been shown to prevent osteoporotic fractures in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy and at elevated risk for fracture. It has also demonstrated superiority to the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal-related events in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Efifcacy and toxicity data will be discussed.

  11. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D.; Gompel, A.; Mueck, A.O.;

    2011-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  12. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O;

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  13. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  14. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  15. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1094-101. 52. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62...Biomarkers Prey 2002;11: J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1094-101. 32. He Q Karlbergj. BMI in childhood and 207-10. 28. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and its...breast cancer among young U.S. women. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5):559-565. (76) Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62(8

  16. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  17. [Cancer screening and risk communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, Odette

    2013-04-01

    In most psychological and medical research, patients are assumed to have difficulties with health statistics but clinicians not. However, studies indicate that most doctors have problems in understanding health statistics, including those of their own speciality. For example, only two out of 20 urologists knew the information relevant for a patient to make an informed decision about whether to take PSA screening for prostate cancer, just 14 out of 65 physicians in internal medicine understood that 5-year survival rates do not tell anything about screening's benefit, and merely 34 out of 160 gynecologists were able to interpret the meaning of a positive test result. This statistical illiteracy has a direct effect on patients understanding and interpretation of medical issues. Not rarely their own limited health literacy and their doctors' misinformation make them suffer through a time of emotional distress and unnecessary anxiety. The main reasons for doctors' statistical illiteracy are medical schools that ignore the importance of teaching risk communication. With little effort doctors could taught the simple techniques of risk communication, which would make most of their statistical confusion disappear.

  18. Lactose intolerance: an unnecessary risk for low bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The potential for lactose intolerance causes 25-50 million Americans and an unknown number of people around the world to avoid milk. Milk avoidance is a significant risk factor for low bone density. Individuals who avoid milk, due to intolerance or learned aversion, consume significantly less calcium and have poorer bone health and probable higher risk of osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance is easily managed by: (1) regular consumption of milk that adapts the colon bacteria and facilitates digestion of lactose; (2) consumption of yogurts and cheeses and other dairy foods low in lactose; consumption of dairy foods with meals to slow transit and maximize digestion, and use of lactose-digestive aids. As dairying spreads around the world to new markets and dairy foods become the dominant source of calcium in these markets, the potential for lactose intolerance will grow. Management of lactose intolerance globally will require both education and product development.

  19. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover...... in breast and prostate cancer patients is associated with an increase in cartilage degradation and to test in vitro whether osteoclasts or cathepsin K alone generate CTXII from human bone. METHODS: The study included 132 breast and prostate cancer patient, where presence of bone metastases was graded...... according to the Soloway score. Total bone resorption (CTXItotal) and cartilage degradation (CTXII) were determined. RESULTS: Breast and prostate cancer patients with bone metastases revealed significant increased levels of CTXItotal at Soloway scores 1 and higher compared to patients without bone...

  20. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  1. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  2. Possible risk and probability of causation of bone and liver cancer due to the occupational alpha-ray exposure of workers at the previous WISMUT Uranium Mining Company; Moegliches Risiko und Verursachungs-Wahrscheinlichkeit von Knochen-und Leberkrebs durch die berufliche Alphastrahlen-Exposition von Beschaeftigten der ehemaligen WISMUT-AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, W.; Roth, P. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Nosske, D. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

    1998-03-01

    For the calculation of the excess relative risk and the corresponding probability of causation the incidence data on bone and liver cancer from the DDR Cancer Registry are used as normal background rate. The application of these risk models to the exposure conditions of WISMUT workers takes into regard the inhalation of radon-222 and its progeny (including lead-210), the inhalation of U-containing or dust with large particle sizes and the external gamma radiation at the workplace. In addition, the possible risk contribution by drinking radioactive spring waters in these mines is discussed. In an annex the resulting risk values for bone and liver cancer per unit of exposure are tabulated as function of the time since exposure. As examples the resulting values of the excess absolute and relative risk and of the corresponding probability of causation as function of age at exposure and age at incidence are given for reference values of the annual radiation exposure of these miners. With respect to the time response the results indicate that a persistent relative risk model, like it has been derived by UNSCEAR for solid cancers on the basis of the LSS data from the atomic bomb survivors, seems to be not appropriate for bone and liver cancer induced by alpha radiation. - Finally it is recommended to apply the risk models for bone and liver cancer which are outlined in this report, for the decision-making on the compensation of WISMUT workers. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Zur Berechnung des relativen Risikos und der daraus folgenden Verursachungs-Wahrscheinlichkeit werden als Normalwerte die Inzidenzdaten fuer Knochen- und Leberkrebs im DDR-Krebsregister herangezogen. Bei der Anwendung dieser Risikomodelle auf die Exposition von WISMUT-Beschaeftigten werden die Inhalation von Radon-222 und seinen Zerfallsprodukten (einschliesslich Blei-210), die Inhalation von grobdispersem Uran-haltigen Gesteinsstaub sowie die externe Gamma-Strahlung beruecksichtigt. Zusaetzlich wird auch der

  3. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI, an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002. For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%. However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78. Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06, and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58. In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5. Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  4. SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR KIDNEY CANCER METASTASES TO THE LONG TUBULAR BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostritsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of 35 kidney cancer patients with metastases in long bones, who had been operated, were retrospectively analyzed. The role of surgery in patients with long bones metastases of kidney cancer was assessed and application of surgical treatment was ascertained to yield satisfactory results in improving the quality of life and duration of life in patients with solitary bone metastases.

  5. SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR KIDNEY CANCER METASTASES TO THE LONG TUBULAR BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostritsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The data of 35 kidney cancer patients with metastases in long bones, who had been operated, were retrospectively analyzed. The role of surgery in patients with long bones metastases of kidney cancer was assessed and application of surgical treatment was ascertained to yield satisfactory results in improving the quality of life and duration of life in patients with solitary bone metastases.

  6. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  7. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  8. Increased risk of cancer among azoospermic men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L.; Betts, Paul; Herder, Danielle; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if men with azoospermia are at an elevated risk of developing cancer in the years following an infertility evaluation. Design Cohort Study Setting United States andrology clinic Patients 2,238 men with complete records were evaluated for infertility at a single andrology clinic in Texas from 1989 to 2009. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to the Texas Cancer Registry. Results In all, 451 men had azoospermia and 1,787 were not azoospermic with a mean age at infertility evaluation of 35.7 years. Compared to the general population, infertile men had a higher risk of cancer with 29 cases observed compared with 16.7 expected (SIR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5). When stratifying by azoospermia status, azoospermic men had an elevated risk of cancer (SIR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.4). Infertile men without azoospermia had a trend towards a higher rate of cancer (SIR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9–2.2). The Cox regression model revealed that azoospermic men had 2.2-fold higher cancer risk compared to not azoospermic men (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.8). Conclusions Men with azoospermia have an increased risk of subsequently developing cancer, suggesting a possible common etiology between azoospermia and cancer development. Additional follow-up of azoospermic men after reproductive efforts end may be warranted. PMID:23790640

  9. Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Wagner, S; Chokkalingam, A P; Malker, H S; Stone, B J; McLaughlin, J K; Hsing, A W

    2000-05-01

    To provide new leads regarding occupational prostate cancer risk factors, we linked 36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer, within major (1-digit), general (2-digit), and specific (3-digit) industries and occupations, were calculated. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers, and white-collar occupations. Our results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify specific exposures related to excess risk in these occupations and industries.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...... to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study...

  11. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  12. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings.

  13. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J

    2015-01-01

    -years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited......BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial mutations are commonly reported in tumours, but it is unclear whether impaired mitochondrial function per se is a cause or consequence of cancer. To elucidate this, we examined the risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort of patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS...... matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer. RESULTS: During 7334 person...

  15. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  16. Wnt Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Ace-1-Dkk-1, a canine prostate cancer overexpressing Dkk-1 is used in this study to investigate how...Dirksen, Thomas Rosol. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Washington, DC Marriott Wardman Park Hotel June 22–26, 2014 33rd

  17. Comparison of FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for detection of bone metastases in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Steffen; Heusner, Till; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)), email: steffen.hahn@uk-essen.de; Kuemmel, Sherko; Koeninger, Angelika (Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)); Nagarajah, James; Mueller, Stefan; Boy, Christian; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany))

    2011-11-15

    Background Bone scintigraphy is the standard procedure for the detection of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. FDG-PET/CT has been reported to be a sensitive tool for tumor staging in different malignant diseases. However, its accuracy for the detection of bone metastases has not been compared to bone scintigraphy. Purpose To compare whole-body FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases on a lesion basis in breast cancer patients. Material and Methods Twenty-nine consecutive women (mean age 58 years, range 35-78 years) with histologically proven breast cancer were assessed with bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET/CT. Twenty-one patients (72%) were suffering from primary breast cancer and eight patients (28%) were in aftercare with a history of advanced breast cancer. Both imaging procedures were assessed for bone metastases by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Concordant readings between bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT were taken as true. Discordant readings were verified with additional MRI imaging in all patients and follow-up studies in most patients. Results A total of 132 lesions were detected on bone scintigraphy, FDG-PET/CT or both. According to the reference standard, 70/132 lesions (53%) were bone metastases, 59/132 lesions (45%) were benign, and three lesions (2%) remained unclear. The sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 76% (53/70) compared to 96% (67/70) for FDG-PET/CT. The specificity of bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT was 95% (56/59) and 92% (54/59), respectively. According to the reference standard bone metastases were present in eight out of the 29 patients (28%), whereas 20 patients (69%) were free of bone metastases. One (3%) patient had inconclusive readings on both modalities as well as on MRI and follow-up studies. Bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT correctly identified seven out of eight patients with bone metastases and 20 out of 20 patients free of metastases. Conclusion On a lesion

  18. Communicating cancer risk in print journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, J E

    1999-01-01

    The current barrage of information about real and potential cancer risks has created undue fears and misplaced concerns about cancer hazards faced by Americans. Most members of the general public are far more worried about minuscule, hypothetical risks presented by environmental contaminants than about the far greater well-established hazards that they inflict on themselves, for example, through smoking, dietary imbalance, and inactivity. It is the job of the print media to help set the record straight and to help place in perspective the myriad cancer risks that are aired almost weekly in 30-second radio and television broadcasts.

  19. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  20. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  1. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... of the World Trade Center disaster. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004; 112(6):731–739. [PubMed Abstract] Herbert ...

  2. Breast cancer susceptibility variants alter risk in familial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A; McBurney, H J; Roberts, S A; Lalloo, F; Howell, A; Evans, D G; Newman, W G

    2010-12-01

    Recent candidate gene and genome wide association studies have revealed novel loci associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We evaluated the effect of these breast cancer associated variants on ovarian cancer risk in individuals with familial ovarian cancer both with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. A total of 158 unrelated white British women (54 BRCA1/2 mutation positive and 104 BRCA1/2 mutation negative) with familial ovarian cancer were genotyped for FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3 and CASP8 variants. The p.Asp302His CASP8 variant was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in the familial BRCA1/2 mutation negative ovarian cancer cases (P = 0.016). The synonymous TNRC9/TOX3 (Ser51) variant was present at a significantly lower frequency than in patients with familial BRCA1/2 positive breast cancer (P = 0.0002). Our results indicate that variants in CASP8 and TNRC9/TOX3 alter the risk of disease in individuals affected with familial ovarian cancer.

  3. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  4. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, G.; Friis, S.; Hallas, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within...... ever-users (>= one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first...... disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis...

  5. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  6. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  7. Bone Sialoproteins and Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    osteocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 17:36172– 36180. [7] Kiefer, M.C., Bauer , D.M., and Barr, P.J. (1989). The cDNA and derived amino acid sequence for human...sialopro- tein. Deduced protein sequence and chromosomal localization. J Biol Chem 1990;265:2347–51. (32) Kiefer MC, Bauer DM, Barr PJ. The cDNA and...2003;1:665–73. 24. Iavarone C, Wolfgang C, Kumar V, et al. PAGE4 is a cytoplasmic protein that is expressed in normal prostate and in prostate cancers

  8. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  9. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat;

    2011-01-01

    with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  10. Diazepam and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D W; Shapiro, S; Slone, D; Rosenberg, L; Helmrich, S P; Miettinen, O S; Stolley, P D; Levy, M; Schottenfeld, D

    1982-03-06

    The relation of breast cancer to diazepam use was evaluated in a case-control study of 1236 women with breast cancer and 728 control subjects with other malignancies. Compared to women who never used diazepam, the relative risk for women who used the drug at least 4 days per week for at least 6 months was estimated to be 0.9, with 95% confidence limits of 0.5 and 1.6. There was no apparent association for recent use, or for use in the distant past, although confidence intervals were fairly wide in these categories. The results were not explained by various potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer. The findings suggest that regular diazepam use does not increase the risk of breast cancer relative to other cancers.

  11. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...... of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. RESULTS: Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer...

  12. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  13. Establishment of a biomarker model for predicting bone metastasis in resected stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to establish a biomarker risk model for predicting bone metastasis in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods The model consists of 105 cases of stage III NSCLC, who were treated and followed up. The patients were divided into bone metastasis group (n = 45 and non-bone metastasis group (other visceral metastasis and those without recurrence (n = 60. Tissue microarrays were constructed for immunohistochemical study of 10 molecular markers associated with bone metastasis, based on which a model was established via logistic regression analysis for predicting the risk of bone metastases. The model was prospectively validated in another 40 patients with stage III NSCLC. Results The molecular model for predicting bone metastasis was logit (P = − 2.538 + 2.808 CXCR4 +1.629 BSP +0.846 OPN-2.939 BMP4. ROC test showed that when P ≥ 0.408, the sensitivity was up to 71% and specificity of 70%. Model validation in the 40 cases in clinical trial (NCT 01124253 demonstrated that the prediction sensitivity of the model was 85.7%, specificity 66.7%, Kappa: 0.618, with a high degree of consistency. Conclusion The molecular model combining CXCR4, BSP, OPN and BMP4 could help predict the risk of bone metastasis in stage IIIa and IIIb resected NSCLC.

  14. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie D.; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Søren

    2017-01-01

    (HRT), obesity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and education. We evaluated whether the association between statin use and endometrial cancer varied with duration and intensity of statin use, type of endometrial cancer or patient characteristics. RESULTS: The study population comprised......INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions...

  15. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  16. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures.

  17. The Oviduct and Serous Cancer Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    all the pathological and immunological hallmarks of human high-grade serous cancer , such as gain of p53, EZH2 and MUC4 expression (Figure 2a) 15 26...59 60 For Peer Review Figure 3. . Molecular correlates of progression from STIC to invasive cancer . a. Left, Histology of the sections used...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0504 TITLE: The Oviduct and Serous Cancer Risk Assessment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher P. Crum, MD

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Colao, Annamaria; Lenzi, Andrea; Giugliano, Dario

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Available evidence supports the emerging hypothesis that metabolic syndrome may be associated with the risk of some common cancers. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between metabolic syndrome and risk of cancer at different sites. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted an electronic search for articles published through October 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles. Every included study was to repor...

  19. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    fat and low vegetables , in particular low in cruciferous , and obesity may increase estrogen metabolism towards 16a hydroxylation. This preferential...and Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paola C. Muti, M.D., M.S. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: State University of New York Amherst, New York...DATES COVERED October 1999 Annual (I Oct 98 - 30 Sep 99) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk DAMD17-98-l

  20. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  1. Diet and colorectal cancer risk and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary and other lifestyle factors account for 20–45% of all colorectal cancer cases. Being overweight or obese, having a high intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer, while a high intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables, foods containin

  2. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  3. The Role of Osteoblast-Derived Cytokines in Bone Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    metastasize to bone include prostate, lung, thyroid, and kidney [47]. In contrast, cancers of the gastrointestinal tract seldom do [47]. There are many...or prostate cancer have bone metastases [1]. The incidences from thyroid, kidney , and lung cancer also are high (about 40%). In contrast, it has been...factor- alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and leptin , which stimulate bone resorption and inhibit osteoblast proliferation [18, 19]. Factors secreted by adipocytes

  4. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use.

  5. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  6. Cost of palliative radiation to the bone for patients with bone metastases secondary to breast or prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Gregory

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the costs (paid amounts of palliative radiation episodes of care (REOCs to the bone for patients with bone metastases secondary to breast or prostate cancer. Methods Claims-linked medical records from patients at 98 cancer treatment centers in 16 US states were analyzed. Inclusion criteria included a primary neoplasm of breast or prostate cancer with a secondary neoplasm of bone metastases; ≥2 visits to ≥1 radiation center during the study period (1 July 2008 through 31 December 2009 on or after the metastatic cancer diagnosis date; radiation therapy to ≥1 bone site; and ≥1 complete REOC as evidenced by a >30-day gap pre- and post-radiation therapy. Results The total number of REOCs was 220 for 207 breast cancer patients and 233 for 213 prostate cancer patients. In the main analysis (which excluded records with unpopulated costs the median number of fractions per a REOC for treatment of metastases was 10. Mean total radiation costs (i.e., radiation direct cost + cost of radiation-related procedures and visits per REOC were $7457 for patients with breast cancer and $7553 for patients with prostate cancer. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses excluding patients with unpopulated costs. Conclusions In the US, current use of radiation therapy for bone metastases is relatively costly and the use of multi-fraction schedules remains prevalent.

  7. RISK FACTORS INVOLVED IN BIPHOSPHONATE-RELATED OSTEONECROSIS OF MAXILLARY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Geletu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biphosphonates are used in the treatment of bone metastases of some cancer forms, such as multiple myeloma, Paget disease, osteoporosis, fibrous displasia, etc. A significant consequence of the utilization of such drugs is osteonecrosis of the maxillary bones. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors provoking osteonecrosis of the maxillary bones after the treatment with biphosphonates, in the patients who addressed the Clinics of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery between 2006-2011. Materials and method: 33 patients suffering from this pathology were registered, their files including information on age, sex, social background, the disease for which the drug had been recommended and the prescribed dose, the manner of its administration and the duration, the cause of the maxillary lesion, the symptomatology demonstrated during the first consultation, additional examinations, treatment and evolution. Results: most cases of osteo-necrosis had been caused by dental extractions, especially at the mandible. The higher risk was faced by women who were administered the drug intravenously. Conclusions: Post-surgical evolution was favourably influenced when the surgery had in view the value of the carboxy-terminal group from the structure of serum colagen.

  8. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  9. Topical Treatment with Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP Alleviates Bone Destruction and Bone Cancer Pain in a Rat Model of Prostate Cancer-Induced Bone Pain by Modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects and mechanisms of Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP on bone cancer pain, Wistar rats were inoculated with vehicle or prostate cancer PC-3 into the tibia bone and treated topically with inert paste, XZP at 15.75, 31.5, or 63 g/kg twice per day for 21 days. Their bone structural damage, nociceptive behaviors, bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity, and the levels of OPG, RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were examined. In comparison with that in the placebo group, significantly reduced numbers of invaded cancer cells, decreased levels of bone damage and mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency, lower levels of serum TRACP5b, ICTP, PINP, and BAP, and less levels of bone osteoblast and osteoclast activity were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05. Moreover, significantly increased levels of bone OPG but significantly decreased levels of RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05 for all. Together, XZP treatment significantly mitigated the cancer-induced bone damage and bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity and alleviated prostate cancer-induced bone pain by modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway and bone cancer-related inflammation in rats.

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  11. A multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic at Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre - A review of the experience from 1999 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kathy K; Sinclair, Emily; Pope, Joan; Farhadian, Macey; Harris, Kristin; Napolskikh, Julie; Yee, Albert; Librach, Lawrence; Wynnychuk, Lesia; Danjoux, Cyril; Chow, Edward; Bone, On Behalf Of The; Team, Metastases

    2008-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to review the experience of a one-stop multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic (BMC) that offers a coordinated multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer patients with bone metastases in a tertiary cancer centre. Patients with symptomatic bone metastases were referred to BMC and assessed by a team of specialists in various disciplines - interventional radiology, orthopedic surgery, palliative medicine, and radiation oncology. At initial consultation, patient demographics, reasons for referral, and case disposition were recorded. From January 1999 to February 2005, a total of 272 patients with bone metastases were referred to the BMC. The median age was 65 years (range 28-95) and median KPS score at consultation was 60 (range 30-90). The majority of patients came from home (74%), while others came from a nursing home or the hospital (9%). Almost a third (28%) of patients had 2 or more reasons of referral, yielding a total of 354 reasons. The most common reason for referral was bone pain (42%), bone metastases (21%), high risk for pathological fracture (12%), and pathological fracture (10%). Of the 272 patients who received consultation, 40% received palliative radiotherapy, 19% received interventional surgery, 7% were referred to other support services such as palliative care, physiotherapy, and 7% had further investigation or imaging. A multidisciplinary clinic is useful for co-coordinating the management of bone metastatic disease in symptomatic patients.

  12. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for women was 1.19 (0.84–1.69 and was 0.96 (0.65–1.42 for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.

  13. Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda C; Sibonga, Jean D; Spatz, Jordan; Pietrzyk, Robert A; Hudson, Edgar K; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss and renal stone risk are longstanding concerns for astronauts. Bone resorption brought on by spaceflight elevates urinary calcium and the risk of renal stone formation. Loss of bone calcium leads to concerns about fracture risk and increased long-term risk of osteoporosis. Bone metabolism involves many factors and is interconnected with muscle metabolism and diet. We report here bone biochemistry and renal stone risk data from astronauts on 4- to 6-month International Space Station missions. All had access to a type of resistive exercise countermeasure hardware, either the Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED) or the Interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED). A subset of the ARED group also tested the bisphosphonate alendronate as a potential anti-resorptive countermeasure (Bis+ARED). While some of the basic bone marker data have been published, we provide here a more comprehensive evaluation of bone biochemistry with a larger group of astronauts. Regardless of exercise, the risk of renal stone formation increased during spaceflight. A key factor in this increase was urine volume, which was lower during flight in all groups at all time points. Thus, the easiest way to mitigate renal stone risk is to increase fluid consumption. ARED use increased bone formation without changing bone resorption, and mitigated a drop in parathyroid hormone in iRED astronauts. Sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived negative regulator of bone formation, increased 10-15% in both groups of astronauts who used the ARED (p<0.06). IGF-1, which regulates bone growth and formation, increased during flight in all 3 groups (p<0.001). Our results are consistent with the growing body of literature showing that the hyper-resorptive state of bone that is brought on by spaceflight can be countered pharmacologically or mitigated through an exercise-induced increase in bone formation, with nutritional support. Key questions remain about the effect of exercise-induced alterations in bone

  14. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... associated with use of antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Women with breast cancer are at long-term increased risk for first depression, including both severe episodes leading to hospital contact and use of antidepressants. Clinicians should be aware that the risk is highest in women with comorbid conditions, node...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...

  15. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Annals of Epidemiology 2014; 24(2),151–159. [PubMed ... in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. Cancer Science 2009; 100(6):1088-1091. [PubMed Abstract] Related ...

  16. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  17. Toxicogenetic profile and cancer risk in Lebanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Kobeissi, Loulou

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) were identified among different ethnic groups. Some of these polymorphisms are associated with an increased cancer risk, while others remain equivocal. However, there is sufficient evidence that these associations become significant in populations overexposed to environmental carcinogens. Hence, genetic differences in expression activity of both Phase I and Phase II enzymes may affect cancer risk in exposed populations. In Lebanon, there has been a marked rise in reported cancer incidence since the 1990s. There are also indicators of exposure to unusually high levels of environmental pollutants and carcinogens in the country. This review considers this high cancer incidence by exploring a potential gene-environment model based on available DME polymorphism prevalence, and their impact on bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast, and lung cancer in the Lebanese population. The examined DME include glutathione S-transferases (GST), N-acetyltransferases (NAT), and cytochromes P-450 (CYP). Data suggest that these DME influence bladder cancer risk in the Lebanese population. Evidence indicates that identification of a gene-environment interaction model may help in defining future research priorities and preventive cancer control strategies in this country, particularly for breast and lung cancer.

  18. Bioinformatics analysis of breast cancer bone metastasis related gene-CXCR4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Wei Zhang; Xian-Fu Sun; Ya-Ning He; Jun-Tao Li; Xu-Hui Guo; Hui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze breast cancer bone metastasis related gene-CXCR4. Methods: This research screened breast cancer bone metastasis related genes by high-flux gene chip. Results:It was found that the expressions of 396 genes were different including 165 up-regulations and 231 down-regulations. The expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 was obviously up-regulated in the tissue with breast cancer bone metastasis. Compared with the tissue without bone metastasis, there was significant difference, which indicated that CXCR4 played a vital role in breast cancer bone metastasis. Conclusions: The bioinformatics analysis of CXCR4 can provide a certain basis for the occurrence and diagnosis of breast cancer bone metastasis, target gene therapy and evaluation of prognosis.

  19. The critical role of bisphosphonates to target bone cancer metastasis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder; Kaur, Veerpal; Kumar, Manish; Kaur, Prabhjot; Murthy, R S R; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    Cancer becomes the leading cause of deaths worldwide, including breast cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer that preferentially metastasize to bone and bone marrow. Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been used successfully for many years to reduce the skeletal complications related with the benign and malignant bone diseases that are characterized by enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) have also been demonstrated to exhibit direct anti-tumour effects. BPs binds avidly to the bone matrix, and released from matrix during bone resorption process, BPs are internalized by the osteoclasts where they interfere with biochemical pathways and induce osteoclast apoptosis. BPs also antagonizes the production of osteoclast and promotes the osteoblasts proliferation. Currently, Zoledronic acid is widely used as one of the BP having high bone specificity and potential to inhibit the osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In addition to inhibition of cell multiplication and initiation of apoptosis in cultured cancer cells, they also interfere with adhesion of cancer cells to the bone matrix and inhibit cell migration and invasion. Pathophysiology and current target therapies like conjugate of BPs with liposomes, nanoparticle used for the treatment of bone cancer is reviewed in this article along with the use of different BPs.

  20. Identification of cancer risk lncRNAs and cancer risk pathways regulated by cancer risk lncRNAs based on genome sequencing data in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiran; Li, Wan; Liang, Binhua; Li, Liansheng; Wang, Li; Huang, Hao; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; He, Yuehan; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-12-19

    Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The complexity of cancer can be reduced to a small number of underlying principles like cancer hallmarks which could govern the transformation of normal cells to cancer. Besides, the growth and metastasis of cancer often relate to combined effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Here, we performed comprehensive analysis for lncRNA expression profiles and clinical data of six types of human cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified six risk pathways and twenty three lncRNAs. In addition, twenty three cancer risk lncRNAs which were closely related to the occurrence or development of cancer had a good classification performance for samples of testing datasets of six cancer datasets. More important, these lncRNAs were able to separate samples in the entire cancer dataset into high-risk group and low-risk group with significantly different overall survival (OS), which was further validated in ten validation datasets. In our study, the robust and effective cancer biomarkers were obtained from cancer datasets which had information of normal-tumor samples. Overall, our research can provide a new perspective for the further study of clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  1. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. METHODS: Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer...... patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated...... with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...

  2. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    -analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because...... it is the primary solvent used and it is the only chemical commonly used by dry cleaners that is currently identified as a potential bladder carcinogen. Relatively crude approaches in exposure assessment in the studies of "tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers" may have attenuated the relative risks....

  3. Natural History of Malignant Bone Disease in Renal Cancer: Final Results of an Italian Bone Metastasis Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Procopio, Giuseppe; Porta, Camillo; Ibrahim, Toni; Barni, Sandro; Mazzara, Calogero; Fontana, Andrea; Berruti, Alfredo; Berardi, Rossana; Vincenzi, Bruno; Ortega, Cinzia; Ottaviani, Davide; Carteni, Giacomo; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Virzì, Vladimir; Santoni, Matteo; Silvestris, Nicola; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Collovà, Elena; Russo, Antonio; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Stefano Luzi; Tanca, Francesca Maria; Adamo, Vincenzo; Maiello, Evaristo; Sabbatini, Roberto; Felici, Alessandra; Cinieri, Saverio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Bracarda, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone metastasis represents an increasing clinical problem in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as disease-related survival improves. There are few data on the natural history of bone disease in RCC. Patients and methods Data on clinicopathology, survival, skeletal-related events (SREs), and bone-directed therapies for 398 deceased RCC patients (286 male, 112 female) with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. Results Median time to bone metastasis was 25 months for patients without bone metastasis at diagnosis. Median time to diagnosis of bone metastasis by MSKCC risk was 24 months for good, 5 months for intermediate, and 0 months for poor risk. Median number of SREs/patient was one, and 71% of patients experienced at least one SRE. Median times to first, second, and third SRE were 2, 5, and 12 months, respectively. Median survival was 12 months after bone metastasis diagnosis and 10 months after first SRE. Among 181 patients who received zoledronic acid (ZOL), median time to first SRE was significantly prolonged versus control (n = 186) (3 months vs 1 month for control; P<0.05). Conclusions RCC patients with bone metastasis are at continuous risk of SREs, and in this survey ZOL effectively reduced this risk. PMID:24386138

  4. Natural history of malignant bone disease in renal cancer: final results of an Italian bone metastasis survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone metastasis represents an increasing clinical problem in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC as disease-related survival improves. There are few data on the natural history of bone disease in RCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on clinicopathology, survival, skeletal-related events (SREs, and bone-directed therapies for 398 deceased RCC patients (286 male, 112 female with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Median time to bone metastasis was 25 months for patients without bone metastasis at diagnosis. Median time to diagnosis of bone metastasis by MSKCC risk was 24 months for good, 5 months for intermediate, and 0 months for poor risk. Median number of SREs/patient was one, and 71% of patients experienced at least one SRE. Median times to first, second, and third SRE were 2, 5, and 12 months, respectively. Median survival was 12 months after bone metastasis diagnosis and 10 months after first SRE. Among 181 patients who received zoledronic acid (ZOL, median time to first SRE was significantly prolonged versus control (n = 186 (3 months vs 1 month for control; P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: RCC patients with bone metastasis are at continuous risk of SREs, and in this survey ZOL effectively reduced this risk.

  5. The Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cell- Induced Bone Pain Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Ashok Shenoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of patients with terminal breast cancer show signs of bone metastasis, the most common cause of pain in cancer. Clinically available drug treatment options for the relief of cancer-associated bone pain are limited due to either inadequate pain relief and/or dose-limiting side-effects. One of the major hurdles in understanding the mechanism by which breast cancer causes pain after metastasis to the bones is the lack of suitable preclinical models. Until the late twentieth century, all animal models of cancer induced bone pain involved systemic injection of cancer cells into animals, which caused severe deterioration of animal health due to widespread metastasis. In this mini-review we have discussed details of a recently developed and highly efficient preclinical model of breast cancer induced bone pain: Walker 256 cancer cell- induced bone pain in rats. The model involves direct localized injection of cancer cells into a single tibia in rats, which avoids widespread metastasis of cancer cells and hence animals maintain good health throughout the experimental period. This model closely mimics the human pathophysiology of breast cancer induced bone pain and has great potential to aid in the process of drug discovery for treating this intractable pain condition.

  6. The Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cell- Induced Bone Pain Model in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Priyank A; Kuo, Andy; Vetter, Irina; Smith, Maree T

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with terminal breast cancer show signs of bone metastasis, the most common cause of pain in cancer. Clinically available drug treatment options for the relief of cancer-associated bone pain are limited due to either inadequate pain relief and/or dose-limiting side-effects. One of the major hurdles in understanding the mechanism by which breast cancer causes pain after metastasis to the bones is the lack of suitable preclinical models. Until the late twentieth century, all animal models of cancer induced bone pain involved systemic injection of cancer cells into animals, which caused severe deterioration of animal health due to widespread metastasis. In this mini-review we have discussed details of a recently developed and highly efficient preclinical model of breast cancer induced bone pain: Walker 256 cancer cell- induced bone pain in rats. The model involves direct localized injection of cancer cells into a single tibia in rats, which avoids widespread metastasis of cancer cells and hence animals maintain good health throughout the experimental period. This model closely mimics the human pathophysiology of breast cancer induced bone pain and has great potential to aid in the process of drug discovery for treating this intractable pain condition.

  7. Anaemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with prostate cancer and bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawinski Adam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and prognostic impact of anaemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with bone metastases (BM from prostate cancer. Methods Retrospective cohort study including 51 consecutive patients treated at a community hospital. Twenty-nine patients (57% received taxotere after diagnosis of BM. Results Haemoglobin (Hb ≤ 12.0 g/dL at BM detection was associated with shorter overall survival. During follow-up, 25 patients (49% experienced episodes with Hb 9/L. All of these had previously received blood transfusion. Median interval from Hb 9/L was 2.5 months. Survival after thrombocytopenia was short (3 weeks to 4 months. Haematuria and subdural haematoma were among the causes of death. Conclusions We found high rates of significant bone marrow failure in treatment-refractory patients. Both Hb 9/L predict for unfavourable survival.

  8. Wnt signaling pathway: implications for therapy in lung cancer and bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yongming; Chen, Yan

    2014-10-10

    Lung cancer remains a major worldwide health problem and patients have high rate of metastasis including bone. Although pathologic characteristics of this disease are clear and well established, much remains to be understood about this tumor, particularly at the molecular signaling level. Secreted signaling molecules of the Wnt family have been widely investigated and found to play a prominent role to induce human malignant diseases, such as breast and prostate cancer. A variety of studies have also demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway is closely associated with bone malignancies including osteosarcoma, multiple myeloma, and breast or prostate cancer induced bone metastasis. The aim of this review is to provide a summary regarding the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in lung cancer and bone metastasis, highlighting the aberrant activation of Wnt in this malignancy. We also discuss the potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of lung cancer and cancer induced bone metastasis targeting the Wnt pathway.

  9. Oral contraception and risk of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueck AO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfred O Mueck1, Harald Seeger1, Xiangyan Ruan2 1Department of Endocrinology and Menopause, University Women's Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: No placebo-controlled studies concerning hormonal contraception in general have been published, and only investigations on biological mechanisms and observational clinical studies are available. Thus, associations can be described but not their causality. Experimental studies strongly suggest protective effects of the progestagen component of hormonal contraception against development of estrogen-related (type 1 endometrial cancer. In light of this research, it seems biologically plausible that, in more than 20 published studies, a reduction in endometrial cancer risk was achieved in up to 50% of users of combined oral contraceptives (COC, compared with nonusers. Few data exist for progestin-only oral preparations. However, in view of the mechanisms involved, a reduction in cancer risk should also be expected. Whereas hormonal dose-dependency has been investigated in only a few studies, which showed a stronger risk reduction with increasing progestagenic potency, a decreased risk dependent on duration of use has been clearly demonstrated, and after stopping COC this effect has persisted for up to 20 years. Possible confounders, including family history, parity, and smoking, have been investigated in a few studies, with only a minor impact on hormonal effect of endometrial cancer risk, with the exception of obesity, which was a strong risk factor in most but not all studies. There are obvious differences in the incidence of endometrial cancer in women using COC when evaluated in absolute numbers for Western and Asian countries, being about 3–5-fold higher in the US than in Asia. Further research should include the noncontraceptive benefit of COC

  10. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the potential of accumulating more years of cell phone exposure than adults do. Thus far, the data from studies in children with cancer do not support this theory. The first published analysis came from a large ...

  11. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  12. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  13. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  14. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-04

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  15. Colorectal cancer risk in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    There is recognized increased risk for colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis. There also appears to be an increased rate of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease, including both colon and small bowel sites. In Crohn's disease, evidence suggests that detection of colorectal cancer may be delayed with a worse progno sis. Some risk factors for cancer in Crohn's disease include the extent of inflammatory change within the colon and the presence of bypassed or excluded segments, inclu ding rectal "stump" cancer. In addition, the risk for other types of intestinal neoplasms may be increased in Crohn's disease, including lymphoma and carcinoid tumors. Earlier detection of colorectal cancer based on colonoscopy scre ening and surveillance may be achieved but, to date, this has not translated into a positive survival benefit. Moreo ver, newer staining methods and evolving micro-endos copic techniques show promise, but have not significantly altered management. Future research should focus on development of molecular or other bio-markers that might predict future dysplasia or cancer development in Crohn's disease.

  16. A rare presentation of locally re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrew; Babikir, Osman Mahdi; Abboud, Amer; Theodorakis, Spyridon

    2014-10-29

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the USA. While locally advanced rectal cancer involving bone has been described extensively, colon cancer locally involving bone has only been described, to our knowledge, in a single case report. In this case report, we describe the presentation and treatment of locally advanced re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone. We also discuss the available literature on treatment for recurrent and re-recurrent colorectal cancer.

  17. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  18. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  19. Assessment of uncertainties in radiation-induced cancer risk predictions at clinically relevant doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Moteabbed, M.; Paganetti, H., E-mail: hpaganetti@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Theoretical dose–response models offer the possibility to assess second cancer induction risks after external beam therapy. The parameters used in these models are determined with limited data from epidemiological studies. Risk estimations are thus associated with considerable uncertainties. This study aims at illustrating uncertainties when predicting the risk for organ-specific second cancers in the primary radiation field illustrated by choosing selected treatment plans for brain cancer patients. Methods: A widely used risk model was considered in this study. The uncertainties of the model parameters were estimated with reported data of second cancer incidences for various organs. Standard error propagation was then subsequently applied to assess the uncertainty in the risk model. Next, second cancer risks of five pediatric patients treated for cancer in the head and neck regions were calculated. For each case, treatment plans for proton and photon therapy were designed to estimate the uncertainties (a) in the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for a given treatment modality and (b) when comparing risks of two different treatment modalities. Results: Uncertainties in excess of 100% of the risk were found for almost all organs considered. When applied to treatment plans, the calculated LAR values have uncertainties of the same magnitude. A comparison between cancer risks of different treatment modalities, however, does allow statistically significant conclusions. In the studied cases, the patient averaged LAR ratio of proton and photon treatments was 0.35, 0.56, and 0.59 for brain carcinoma, brain sarcoma, and bone sarcoma, respectively. Their corresponding uncertainties were estimated to be potentially below 5%, depending on uncertainties in dosimetry. Conclusions: The uncertainty in the dose–response curve in cancer risk models makes it currently impractical to predict the risk for an individual external beam treatment. On the other hand, the ratio

  20. Improving radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, M.G.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals are indicated in cancer patients with multiple painful skeletal metastases. The majority of these patients are hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients in an advanced stage of their disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals relieve pain and improve the patients

  1. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  2. Epigenetic drift, epigenetic clocks and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shijie C; Widschwendter, Martin; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    It is well-established that the DNA methylation landscape of normal cells undergoes a gradual modification with age, termed as 'epigenetic drift'. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of epigenetic drift and its potential role in cancer etiology. We propose a new terminology to help distinguish the different components of epigenetic drift, with the aim of clarifying the role of the epigenetic clock, mitotic clocks and active changes, which accumulate in response to environmental disease risk factors. We further highlight the growing evidence that epigenetic changes associated with cancer risk factors may play an important causal role in cancer development, and that monitoring these molecular changes in normal cells may offer novel risk prediction and disease prevention strategies.

  3. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence.

  4. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined.

  5. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  6. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    -up of a large nationwide cohort of 420,095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995 and who were followed through 2002 for cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cancer cases in the cohort by the number....... The risk for smoking-related cancers was decreased among men (SIR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.91) but increased among women (SIR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.21). Additional data on income and smoking prevalence, primarily among men, indicated that cellular telephone users who started subscriptions in the mid...

  7. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer . Enlarge Normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A normal prostate does not block the flow of urine from the bladder. An enlarged prostate presses on the bladder and urethra and blocks the flow of urine. See the ...

  8. Inhibition of p38-MAPK signaling pathway attenuates breast cancer induced bone pain and disease progression in a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderah Todd W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms driving cancer-induced bone pain are poorly understood. A central factor implicated to be a key player in the process of tumorigenesis, osteoclastogenesis and nociception is p38 MAPK. We determined the role of p38 MAPK in a mouse model of breast cancer induced bone pain in which mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic remodeling occurs. Results In cancer-treated mice, acute as well as chronic inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 blocked flinching and guarding behaviors in a dose-dependent manner whereas no effect on thresholds to tactile stimuli was observed. Radiographic analyses of bones demonstrated that chronic inhibition of p38 MAPK reduced bone loss and incidence of spontaneous fracture in cancer-treated mice. Histological analysis of bones collected from mice treated with the p38 MAPK inhibitor showed complete absence of osteoblastic growth in the intramedullary space as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Conclusions Blockade of non-evoked pain behaviors but not hypersensitivity suggests differences in the underlying mechanisms of specific components of the pain syndrome and a possibility to individualize aspects of pain management. While it is not known whether the role of p38 MAPK signaling can be expanded to other cancers, the data suggest a need for understanding molecular mechanisms and cellular events that initiate and maintain cancer-induced bone pain for effective management for both ongoing pain as well as breakthrough pain.

  9. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  10. Radiation effects on mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone cancer in the Mayak worker cohort: 1948-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Sokolnikov

    Full Text Available Radiation effects on mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone cancer in the Mayak worker cohort: 1948-2008. The cohort of Mayak Production Association (PA workers in Russia offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of prolonged low dose rate external gamma exposures and exposure to plutonium in a working age population. We examined radiation effects on the risk of mortality from solid cancers excluding sites of primary plutonium deposition (lung, liver, and bone surface among 25,757 workers who were first employed in 1948-1982. During the period 1948-2008, there were 1,825 deaths from cancers other than lung, liver and bone. Using colon dose as a representative external dose, a linear dose response model described the data well. The excess relative risk per Gray for external gamma exposure was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.07 - 0.26 when unadjusted for plutonium exposure and 0.12 (95% CI 0.03 - 0.21 when adjusted for plutonium dose and monitoring status. There was no significant effect modification by sex or attained age. Plutonium exposure was not significantly associated with the group of cancers analyzed after adjusting for monitoring status. Site-specific risks were uncertainly estimated but positive for 13 of the 15 sites evaluated with a statistically significant estimate only for esophageal cancer. Comparison with estimates based on the acute exposures in atomic bomb survivors suggests that the excess relative risk per Gray for prolonged external exposure in Mayak workers may be lower than that for acute exposure but, given the uncertainties, the possibility of equal effects cannot be dismissed.

  11. The relationship between skeletal-related events and bone scan index for the treatment of bone metastasis with breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Naohito; Ichihara, Hironori; Togawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the automated bone scan index (aBSI) and skeletal-related events (SRE) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. A computer-aided software (BONENAVI™) that was developed using an Artificial Neural Network (Artificial Neural Network) was used for the present analysis. Forty-five patients diagnosed with bone metastasis due to breast cancer from April 2005 through March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Before and after the time of initial treatment, aBSI, Artificial Neural Network score, and hotspot number were calculated, and the relationships between these scores and SRE were analyzed. Twenty cases showed decreased (improved) aBSI values after initial treatment (Group A), and 25 cases showed unchanged/increased (worsened) aBSI values (Group B). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in incident numbers of SRE between the two groups--one case in Group A and 12 in Group B (Pbone metabolic or tumor markers, alkaline phosphatase was significantly correlated with aBSI at the time of initial treatment (R=0.69, Pcancer patients with bone metastasis at high risk of SRE.

  12. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  13. Alteration of osteoblast arrangement via direct attack by cancer cells: New insights into bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yumi; Matsugaki, Aira; Sekita, Aiko; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Intact bone tissue exhibits a characteristic anisotropic microstructure derived from collagen fiber alignment and the related c-axis orientation of apatite crystals, which govern the mechanical properties of bone tissue. In contrast, tumor-invaded bone exhibits a disorganized, less-aligned microstructure that results in severely disrupted mechanical function. Despite its importance both in basic principle and in therapeutic applications, the classical understanding of bone metastasis is limited to alterations in bone mass regulated by metastatic cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying the disruption of bone tissue anisotropy in metastasized bone. We observed that direct attack by cancer cells on osteoblasts induces the less-organized osteoblast arrangement. Importantly, the crystallographic anisotropy of bone tissue is quantitatively determined by the level of osteoblast arrangement. Osteoblast arrangement was significantly disrupted by physical contact with cancer cells such as osteolytic melanoma B16F10, breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and osteoblastic prostate cancer MDA-PCa-2b cells. The present findings demonstrate that the abnormal arrangement of osteoblasts induced by physical contact with cancer cells facilitates the disorganized microstructure of metastasized bone. PMID:28303941

  14. Targeting a novel bone degradation pathway in primary bone cancer by inactivation of the collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, Lars H; Melander, Maria C; Hald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In osteosarcoma, a primary mesenchymal bone cancer occurring predominantly in younger patients, invasive tumour growth leads to extensive bone destruction. This process is insufficiently understood, cannot be efficiently counteracted and calls for novel means of treatment. The endocytic collagen...

  15. Skeletal Health Part 1: Overview Of Bone Health and Management In the Cancer Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Ali, Sacha; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Pati, Jhumur; Nargund, Vinod; Wells, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone disease and cancer therapy-induced bone loss are significant skeletal problems related to the treatment for urological and other cancers. Our team of specialists and nurse practitioners developed a nurse practitioner-led Bone Support Clinic for urologic cancer patients at a university hospital in London, England, United Kingdom, to address this issue. The clinic has been well-accepted, has made a positive impact on the patient journey, helps to ensure continuity of care, and highlights patients who require assessment or treatment for impending skeletal-related events in a timely fashion. This article has been divided into two parts for improved readability.

  16. The Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cell- Induced Bone Pain Model in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Priyank Ashok Shenoy; Andy Kuo; Irina Vetter; Maree Therese Smith

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with terminal breast cancer show signs of bone metastasis, the most common cause of pain in cancer. Clinically available drug treatment options for the relief of cancer-associated bone pain are limited due to either inadequate pain relief and/or dose-limiting side-effects. One of the major hurdles in understanding the mechanism by which breast cancer causes pain after metastasis to the bones is the lack of suitable preclinical models. Until the late twentieth century,...

  17. Pregnancy weight gain and breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Elina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. Methods Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy data were collected from patient records of maternity centers. 123 subsequent breast cancer cases were identified through a record linkage to the Finnish Cancer Registry, and the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years (range 35 – 74. A sample of 979 women (123 cases, 856 controls from the cohort was linked to the Hospital Inpatient Registry to obtain information on the women's stay in hospitals. Results Mothers in the upper tertile of pregnancy weight gain (>15 kg had a 1.62-fold (95% CI 1.03–2.53 higher breast cancer risk than mothers who gained the recommended amount (the middle tertile, mean: 12.9 kg, range 11–15 kg, after adjusting for mother's age at menarche, age at first birth, age at index pregnancy, parity at the index birth, and body mass index (BMI before the index pregnancy. In a separate nested case-control study (n = 65 cases and 431 controls, adjustment for BMI at the time of breast cancer diagnosis did not modify the findings. Conclusions Our study suggests that high pregnancy weight gain increases later breast cancer risk, independently from body weight at the time of diagnosis.

  18. Combining Computed Tomography-Based Bone Density Assessment with FRAX Screening in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew M; Jones, Joseph A; Cardan, Rex A; Saag, Kenneth S; Mayhew, David L; Fiveash, John B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the addition of a computed tomography (CT)-based method of osteoporosis screening to FRAX without bone mineral density (BMD) fracture risk assessment in men undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer, we reviewed the records of all patients with localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy at our institution between 2001 and 2012. The 10-yr probability of hip fracture was calculated using the FRAX algorithm without BMD. The CT attenuation of the L5 trabecular bone (L5CT) was assessed by contouring the trabecular bone on a single CT slice at the level of the midvertebral body and by averaging the Hounsfield units (HU) of all included voxels. L5CT values of 105 and 130 HU were used as screening thresholds. The clinical characteristics of additional patients identified by each L5CT screening threshold value were compared to patients whose estimated 10-yr risk of hip fracture was 3% or greater by FRAX without BMD. A total of 609 patients treated between 2001 and 2012 had CT scans available for review and complete clinical information allowing for FRAX without BMD risk calculation. Seventy-four (12.2%) patients had an estimated 10-yr risk of hip fracture of 3% or greater. An additional 22 (3.6%) and 71 (11.6%) patients were identified by CT screening when thresholds L5CT = 105 HU and L5CT = 130 HU were used, respectively. Compared to the group of patients identified by FRAX without BMD, the additional patients identified by CT screening at each L5CT threshold level tended to be younger and heavier, and were more likely to be African-American or treated without androgen deprivation therapy. These results suggest that the addition of CT-based screening to FRAX without BMD risk assessment identifies additional men with different underlying clinical characteristics who may be at risk for osteoporosis and may benefit from pharmacological therapy to increase BMD and reduce fracture risk.

  19. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  20. Zoledronic acid treatment for cancerous bone metastases: a phase IV study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hui Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To investigate the features, adverse effects, bone marker changes in patients with breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma with bone metastases under Zometa® therapy. Materials and Methods: This post-marketing study included 414 Taiwanese patients with bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, prostate cancer, or multiple myeloma who received Zometa® for 48 weeks. The patients′ characteristics, medication and adverse events were recorded, meanwhile changes in four serum bone metabolic markers and pain reduction were assessed every three months for one year. Results: A total of 3,711 doses of Zometa® were infused, accounting for 294.5 patient-years. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of patients, with bone pain, insomnia, constipation, and pyrexia as the most frequently reported. There was no osteonecrosis of the jaw. The incidence of skeletal-related events decreased significantly from 44.9% to 18.8%. Serum NTx, BAP, and TRACP5b steadily decreased to nadir at six months, but serum OPG was persistently elevated until the end of one year. The average decrease in pain score was 14.1, 14.3, and 16.7 for prostate cancer, breast cancer, and multiple myeloma patients, respectively. Conclusion: Zometa® can be safely administered in Taiwanese patients with bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. There are concomitant decreases in skeletal-related events and bone pain.

  1. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  2. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv...

  3. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  4. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort.

  5. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...

  6. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therap...

  7. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon acrylamid

  8. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    associated with male Tanner stage. A higher score indicated a later puberty onset. We examined the association of this score with prostate cancer risk, stage and grade in the UK-based ProtecT case-control study (n = 2,927), and used the PRACTICAL consortium (n = 43,737) as a replication sample. RESULTS...

  9. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  10. Comparison of bone scan with carbohydrate antigen 15-3 for evaluation of bone metastasis of brest cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, M; Alikhah, H; Zareh, A G A

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed at comparing the bone scan and CA15-3 titer in patients with breast cancer for evaluation of bone metastasis. Thirty five patients with definite diagnosis of breast cancer were evaluated in Tabriz Imam Khomeini Hospital from 2007 to 2008. Bone scan (99 mTc-MDP) performed in all patients. The serum CA15-3 was measured by ECLIA method. The increased level was considered as >30 U mL(-1). The serum level of CA15-3 was compared between the patients with and without bone metastasis, as well as its correlation with the extent of bone involvement. Thirty five patients with the mean age of 51.69 +/- 10.77 (34-81) years were enrolled in the study. According to bone scan results, 24 (68.8%) patients revealed bone metastasis. The mean level of serum CA15-3 was significantly higher in patents with bone metastasis than patients without metastasis (26.37 +/- 4.74 U mL(-1) vs. 19.09 +/- 1.99 U mL(-1); p 21.8 U mL(-1) for the serum level of CA15-3 in our patients, with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.7 and 91%, respectively. Serum level of CA15-3 is higher in the patients with bone metastatic breast cancer; however, the recommended cut-off point might not be suitable for Iranian patients. Further studies with large sample sizes are recommended.

  11. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  12. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  13. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberc

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome are at greatly increased risk of getting colorectal cancer and have a slightly increased risk of getting stomach cancer. It is caused by mutations in the APC gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 People who carry mutations of ...

  15. Know the Risks, Warning Signs of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163117.html Know the Risks, Warning Signs of Ovarian Cancer Older age, family history raise the odds for ... Women need to be aware their risk for ovarian cancer increases with age. Half of all cases affect ...

  16. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meats? What research is being conducted on the relationship between the consumption of HCAs and PAHs and cancer risk in ... 20 ). What research is being conducted on the relationship between the consumption of HCAs and PAHs and cancer risk in ...

  17. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  18. Mechanisms of PDGF siRNA-mediated inhibition of bone cancer pain in the spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Jia; He, Mu; Liu, Ran; Belegu, Visar; Dai, Ping; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Xia, Qing-Jie; Shang, Fei-Fei; Luo, Chao-Zhi; Zhou, Xue; Liu, Su; McDonald, JohnW.; Liu, Jin; Zuo, Yun-Xia; Liu, Fei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tumors that metastasize to bone frequently suffer from debilitating pain, and effective therapies for treating bone cancer are lacking. This study employed a novel strategy in which herpes simplex virus (HSV) carrying a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was used to alleviate bone cancer pain. HSV carrying PDGF siRNA was established and intrathecally injected into the cavum subarachnoidale of animals suffering from bone cancer pain and animals in the negative group. Sensory function was assessed by measuring thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. The mechanism by which PDGF regulates pain was also investigated by comparing the differential expression of pPDGFRα/β and phosphorylated ERK and AKT. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia developed in the rats with bone cancer pain, and these effects were accompanied by bone destruction in the tibia. Intrathecal injection of PDGF siRNA and morphine reversed thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with bone cancer pain. In addition, we observed attenuated astrocyte hypertrophy, down-regulated pPDGFRα/β levels, reduced levels of the neurochemical SP, a reduction in CGRP fibers and changes in pERK/ERK and pAKT/AKT ratios. These results demonstrate that PDGF siRNA can effectively treat pain induced by bone cancer by blocking the AKT-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27282805

  19. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ulrich Weiss

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic pancreatic inflammation with an early onset, mostly during childhood. Hereditary pancreatitis often starts with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and the clinical phenotype is not very much different from other etiologies of the disease. The long-lasting inflammation however generates a tumor promoting environment and represents a major risk factor for tumor development This review will reflect our knowledge concerning the specific risk of hereditary pancreatitis patients to develop pancreatic cancer.

  20. Risk factors for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Y E; Fagin, J A

    1997-01-01

    The potential risk factors for thyroid carcinoma development include genetic predisposition, exposure to therapeutic or environmental ionizing radiation, residence in areas of iodine deficiency or excess, history of preexisting benign thyroid disease, as well as hormonal and reproductive factors. In this review, we analyze some of the epidemiological data, as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which certain environmental and genetic factors might predispose to thyroid tumorigenesis. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:20-25).

  1. The Genetics of Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerantz, Mark M.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades prior to the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, RA Fisher published hi...

  2. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, E.; Boffetta, P.; Lagiou, P.; Ferrari, P.; Buckland, G.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V.; Trichopoulos, D.; Naska, A.; Benetou, V.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; von Ruesten, A.; Panico, S.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; May, A.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Buchner, F. L.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M-J; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Hallmans, G.; Johansson, I.; Manjer, J.; Wirfart, E.; Allen, N. E.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N.; Moskal, A.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk

  3. Influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Appel, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain. Materials and Methods: 4T1-luc2 mammary cancer cells were introduced into the femoral cavity of female and male BALB/cJ mice. Bioluminescence tumor signal, pain-related behavior and bone degradation were monitored for 14 days. Results: Female mice demonstrated...... a significantly greater bioluminescence signal on day 2 compared to male mice and, in addition, a significant earlier onset of pain-related behavior was observed in the females. No sex difference was observed for bone degradation. Finally, a strong correlation between pain-related behavior and bone degradation...

  4. Cancer surgery: risks and opportunities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    In the recent past, several papers have pointed to the possibility that tumour removal generates a permissive environment in which tumour growth is potentiated. This phenomenon has been coined "perioperative tumour growth" and whilst it represents a departure in terms of our attitude to the surgical process, this concept was first hinted at by Paget(1) himself. Despite this, the time interval immediately before and after cancer surgery (i.e. the perioperative period) remains an underutilised interval during which chemotherapeutic regimens are rarely implemented. Herein, we present a summarised review of the literature that supports the concept that tumour removal may potentiate the growth of residual neoplastic disease. We also outline current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms and in this manner highlight potential therapeutic entry points. Finally, we emphasise the urgent need for trials of agents that could protect patients against the harmful host-tumour interactions that may occur during the perioperative period.

  5. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M;

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10-1...

  6. Altering the Microenvironment to Promote Dormancy of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell in a 3D Bone Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    1138-1148. Carlsten, H. 2005. Immune responses and bone loss: the estrogen connection. Immunological reviews . 208:194- 206. 28 Gehler, S., S.M...factors to be considered in cancer recurrence ( reviewed by [6]). Das Roy et al. found an increase in lung and bone marrow metastasis using an...activation of COX-2, plays an important role in normal bone physiology as well as in cancer and bone metastasis ( review [43]). In the normal bone, PGE2 is the

  7. Theory of the induction of bone sarcoma by bone-seeking alpha emitters and its application to risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petojan, I.M.

    1992-06-01

    This work discusses the theory of bone sarcoma induction by bone seeking alpha emitters, which is based strictly on biological considerations relative to the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, identification of cells at risk and their location in bone, bone tissue renewal processes and bone cell kinetics with or without radiation exposure. The model is consistent with the data on bone sarcoma incidence human with incorporated long-lived isotopes Ra-226 + Ra-228. Extrapolation of these data to a low intake region of the basis of the developed theoretical approach suggests that the linear ICRP-UNSCEAR model overestimates carciogenic risk at low doses, possibly by a factor of 2-4. The model suggests a linear response of target cells to the initiation effects of alpha irradiation. The non-linear (linear-quadratic) initial part of dose-response curve for osteosarcoma induction is explained quantitatively by a model based on a promoter effect of regenerative hyperplasia resulting from invitation effects of alpha radiation. The maximum overestimation inherent to the model of the low-level risk due to the the dose-dependent promotion factor is estimated using bo{sup +1}/bo, where bo is a model parameter which is proportional to the normal division rate of osteogenic cells in vivo and which can be estimated within the framework of the model. The model provides confirming evidence that, for radiation protection purposes, endosteal cells may be considered the only group of cells at risk of sarcoma induction by low doses of bone-seeking alpha emitters, whereas the role of marrow stromal (osteogenic) cells as target cells is much more significant with increasing intakes, and can become dominating if intake is high enough.

  8. Differential secretome analysis reveals CST6 as a suppressor of breast cancer bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Yan Zhang; Hui Li; Ling Yao; Da Fu; Xuebiao Yao; Lisa X Xu; Xiaofang Hu; Guohong Hu

    2012-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of breast cancer and a common cause of morbidity and mortality from the disease.During metastasis secreted proteins play crucial roles in the interactions between cancer cells and host stroma.To characterize the secreted proteins that are associated with breast cancer bone metastasis,we preformed a label-free proteomic analysis to compare the secretomes of four MDA-MB-231 (MDA231) derivative cell lines with varied capacities of bone metastasis.A total of 128 proteins were found to be consistently up-/down-regulated in the conditioned medium of bone-tropic cancer cells.The enriched molecular functions of the altered proteins included receptor binding and peptidase inhibition.Through additional transcriptomic analyses of breast cancer cells,we selected cystatin E/M (CST6),a cysteine protease inhibitor down-regulated in bone-metastatic cells,for further functional studies.Our results showed that CST6 suppressed the proliferation,colony formation,migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.The suppressive function against cancer cell motility was carried out by cancer cell-derived soluble CST6.More importantly,ectopic expression of CST6 in cancer cells rescued mice from overt osteolytic metastasis and deaths in the animal study,while CST6 knockdown markedly enhanced cancer cell bone metastasis and shortened animal survival.Overall,our study provided a systemic secretome analysis of breast cancer bone tropism and established secreted CST6 as a bonafide suppressor of breast cancer osteolytic metastasis.

  9. Dietary transfatty acids and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; de Groh, Margaret; Negri, Eva; Morrison, Howard; Mery, Les

    2011-11-01

    This study assesses the association between dietary transfatty acid (TFA) intake and the risk of selected cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces by 1182 incident, histologically confirmed cases of the stomach, 1727 of the colon, 1447 of the rectum, 628 of the pancreas, 3341 of the lung, 2362 of the breast, 442 of the ovary, 1799 of the prostate, 686 of the testis, 1345 of the kidney, 1029 of the bladder, 1009 of the brain, 1666 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 1069 leukemias, and 5039 population controls. Information on dietary habits and nutrition intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire, which provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidenc530e intervals (CI) were derived by unconditional logistic regression to adjust for total energy intake and other potential confounding factors. Dietary TFA were positively associated with the risk of cancers of the colon (OR: 1.38 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile), breast in premenopause (OR: 1.60), and prostate (OR: 1.42). There were a borderline association for pancreas cancer (OR: 1.38; P=0.06). No significant association was observed for cancers of the stomach, rectum, lung, ovary, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and leukemia, although the ORs for the highest quartile were above unity for all neoplasms considered, except testis. Our findings add evidence that high TFA is associated with an increased risk of various cancers. Thus, a diet low in transfat may play a role in the prevention of several cancers.

  10. Aromatase inhibitors, efficacy and metabolic risk in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gonnelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Gonnelli1, Roberto Petrioli21Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Science and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. R. Nuti.; 2Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Medical Oncology Section, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. G. FranciniAbstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are becoming the first choice endocrine drugs for post-menopausal women with breast cancer, since they present greater efficacy when compared with tamoxifen in both adjuvant and metastatic setting. In particular, several large and well designed trials have suggested an important role for AIs in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer either in the upfront, sequential or extended adjuvant mode. Overall, AIs are associated with a small but significant improvement in disease free survival. The expanding use of AIs in the treatment of early breast cancer means that individual patients will be exposed to the agents for longer durations, making it increasingly important to establish their long-term safety. This review focused on the effects of AIs on bone metabolism, serum lipids and cardiovascular risk. AIs have adverse effects on bone turnover with a reduction of bone mineral density and an increase in the rate of fragility fractures. With respect to tamoxifen AIs present lower thrombotic risk and a less favorable impact on lipid profile, whereas the true effects on cardiovascular risk still remain to be clarified. An adequate monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD and lipid profile could be recommended for post-menopausal women candidate to AIs.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, bone loss, lipids, cardiovascular risk

  11. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have broken bones. Aromatase inhibitors may raise cholesterol. Women with pre-existing coronary ... and master’s-prepared nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, ...

  12. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach S. Templeton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014 and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006 and IL-1β (P = .001 in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche.

  13. Short telomere length, cancer survival, and cancer risk in 47102 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Cawthon, Richard M;

    2013-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer.......Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer....

  14. Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis: insight into risk factors and microstructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyi; Yin, Jimin; Gao, Junjie; Cheng, Tak S; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zhang, Changqing; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the adult population. As a progressive degenerative joint disorder, OA is characterized by cartilage damage, changes in the subchondral bone, osteophyte formation, muscle weakness, and inflammation of the synovium tissue and tendon. Although OA has long been viewed as a primary disorder of articular cartilage, subchondral bone is attracting increasing attention. It is commonly reported to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of OA. Subchondral bone sclerosis, together with progressive cartilage degradation, is widely considered as a hallmark of OA. Despite the increase in bone volume fraction, subchondral bone is hypomineralized, due to abnormal bone remodeling. Some histopathological changes in the subchondral bone have also been detected, including microdamage, bone marrow edema-like lesions and bone cysts. This review summarizes basic features of the osteochondral junction, which comprises subchondral bone and articular cartilage. Importantly, we discuss risk factors influencing subchondral bone integrity. We also focus on the microarchitectural and histopathological changes of subchondral bone in OA, and provide an overview of their potential contribution to the progression of OA. A hypothetical model for the pathogenesis of OA is proposed.

  15. Bisphosphonate use in patients with lung cancer and bone metastases: recommendations of a European expert panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Marinis, Filippo; Eberhardt, Wilfried; Harper, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are effective in preventing, reducing the incidence, and delaying the onset of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases in a variety of solid tumors, including lung cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence for the use...... of BPs in lung cancer and to provide specific European recommendations to support the clinical practice of using BPs to treat patients with lung cancer with bone metastases. METHODS: An expert panel of European clinical oncologists and lung cancer specialists convened for two face-to-face meetings...... designed to review available evidence on the efficacy of BPs in lung cancer and to develop recommendations based on published literature and clinical practice experiences. RESULTS: The panel recommends screening patients with lung cancer for bone metastases at the initial staging of disease to assess...

  16. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  17. ANGPTL2 increases bone metastasis of breast cancer cells through enhancing CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuro; Endo, Motoyoshi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Odagiri, Haruki; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Tanoue, Hironori; Ito, Hitoshi; Yugami, Masaki; Miyata, Keishi; Morinaga, Jun; Horiguchi, Haruki; Motokawa, Ikuyo; Terada, Kazutoyo; Morioka, Masaki Suimye; Manabe, Ichiro; Iwase, Hirotaka; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Oike, Yuichi

    2015-03-16

    Bone metastasis of breast cancer cells is a major concern, as it causes increased morbidity and mortality in patients. Bone tissue-derived CXCL12 preferentially recruits breast cancer cells expressing CXCR4 to bone metastatic sites. Thus, understanding how CXCR4 expression is regulated in breast cancer cells could suggest approaches to decrease bone metastasis of breast tumor cells. Here, we show that tumor cell-derived angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) increases responsiveness of breast cancer cells to CXCL12 by promoting up-regulation of CXCR4 in those cells. In addition, we used a xenograft mouse model established by intracardiac injection of tumor cells to show that ANGPTL2 knockdown in breast cancer cells attenuates tumor cell responsiveness to CXCL12 by decreasing CXCR4 expression in those cells, thereby decreasing bone metastasis. Finally, we found that ANGPTL2 and CXCR4 expression levels within primary tumor tissues from breast cancer patients are positively correlated. We conclude that tumor cell-derived ANGPTL2 may increase bone metastasis by enhancing breast tumor cell responsiveness to CXCL12 signaling through up-regulation of tumor cell CXCR4 expression. These findings may suggest novel therapeutic approaches to treat metastatic breast cancer.

  18. Periodontal disease severity and cancer risk in postmenopausal women: The Buffalo OsteoPerio Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Genco, Robert J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few prospective studies have reported on relationships between objective periodontal disease (PD) measures and cancer risk. This association was examined in 1,337 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study. Methods Oral alveolar crestal bone height (ACH) was measured using oral radiographs. Incident cancers were adjudicated with medical records. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between ACH and incident cancer outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results There were 203 confirmed total incident cancer cases during follow-up (12.2±4.2 years). After adjusting for age and smoking, there were no statistically significant associations between ACH-defined PD categories and total cancer risk (mild/moderate vs. none: HR=1.33, 95%CI: 0.91–1.94; severe vs. none: HR=1.20, 95%CI: 0.77–1.86). ACH-defined PD categories were not associated with common site-specific cancers. Whole mouth mean and worst site ACH (per 1mm loss) were significantly associated with increased risk of lung (adjusted HR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.54; adjusted HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.08–1.66, respectively), but not total or other site-specific cancer. Smoking status modified the associations between continuous ACH variables and total cancer risk; measures of PD were associated with total cancer among smokers but not never-smokers (interaction p=0.02 and p<0.01 for whole mouth mean and worst site ACH, respectively). Conclusions ACH-defined PD was associated with total cancer risk in ever but not never-smoking postmenopausal women. Whole mouth mean and worst site ACH were associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these results need to be interpreted cautiously given the small number of lung cancer cases (n=18). Further research utilizing a larger sample is warranted to confirm the relationships among oral bone loss, site-specific cancers, and total cancer. PMID:26661782

  19. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment.

  20. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechner, Laura A; Eley, John G; Howell, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were...... to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment...

  1. Gastric Cancer in Korean Americans: Risks and Reductions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Karen E

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leadings cause of cancer worldwide. However, Koreans have the highest reported incidence of this deadly disease. Risk factors predisposing to the formation of gastric cancer include a combination of environmental risks, such as diet and infection (Helicobacter pylori), and, in some cases, genetic predisposition. Early screening and detection is essential to reduce gastric cancer mortality. The low prevalence and late onset of gastric cancer in Americans, compared ...

  2. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-10-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30-40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  3. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  4. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  5. Skeletal events of Anastrozole versus Tamoxifen on bone mineral density and bone biomarker osteocalcin in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lobna R Ezz Elarab; Menha Swellam; Manal M Abdel Wahab; Karima M Maher

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Postmenopausal women with breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss because of age related estrogen deficiency face which accelerated with the use of aromatase inbibitors (AIs).We aimed to study the effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation biomarker osteocalcin level in postmenopausal breast cancer patients,for the first three years of adjuvant hormonal treatment of both groups Tamoxifen versus Anastrozol.Methods:One-hundered postmenopausal breast cancers were prospectively randomized to receive either Tamoxifen 20 rag/day (n=50) or Anastrozole 10 mg (n=50).Both BMD and osteocalcin were assessed initially before treatment and then at regular intervals for both groups.Results:Use of Tamoxifen was associated with significant annual decrease in osteocalcin (P=0.001),whereas Anastrozole group had gradual increase of the annual levels (P<0.01).BMD decreased significantly in Anastrozole versus Tamoxifen groups (2.6% vs.0.4%,P<0.001).Osteoporosis T<-2.5 was reported significantly higher in Anastrozole group (P<0.01).Women with initial osteopenia in Anastrozole group showed significant decrease in BMD (P<0.05).The addition of bisphosphonate for patients with early osteoporosis markedly improved both osteocalcin level and BMD.Conclusion:Tamoxifen preserves BMD in postmenopausal breast cancer patients,whereas Anastrozole accelerates age associated fall in BMD especially in the first year of therapy,moreover,the addition of bisphosphonate can help to decrease the skeletal related events associated with treatment to ensure better quality of life with treatment.

  6. Essential roles of the interaction between cancer cell-derived chemokine, CCL4, and intra-bone CCR5-expressing fibroblasts in breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Soichiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Nishimura, Tatsunori; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Gotoh, Noriko; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2016-08-01

    From a murine breast cancer cell line, 4T1, we established a subclone, 4T1.3, which consistently metastasizes to bone upon its injection into the mammary fat pad. 4T1.3 clone exhibited similar proliferation rate and migration capacity as the parental clone. However, the intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused larger tumors than that of the parental cells, accompanied with increases in fibroblast, but not osteoclast or osteoblast numbers. 4T1.3 clone displayed an enhanced expression of a chemokine, CCL4, but not its specific receptor, CCR5. CCL4 shRNA-transfection of 4T1.3 clone had few effects on its in vitro properties, but reduced the tumorigenicity arising from the intra-bone injection. Moreover, intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused smaller tumors in mice deficient in CCR5 or those receiving CCR5 antagonist than in wild-type mice. The reduced tumor formation was associated with attenuated accumulation of CCR5-positive fibroblasts expressing connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)/CCN2. Tumor cell-derived CCL4 could induce fibroblasts to express CTGF/CCN2, which could support 4T1.3 clone proliferation under hypoxic culture conditions. Thus, the CCL4-CCR5 axis can contribute to breast cancer metastasis to bone by mediating the interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts in bone cavity.

  7. Radium-223 treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    The alpha emitter Radium-223 ((22)3Ra-Cl2) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. More than 1,000 patients have been included in clinical phase I-III tests showing significant reduction in alkaline...

  8. The role of purinergic receptors in cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain severely compromises the quality of life of many patients suffering from bone metastasis, as current therapies leave some patients with inadequate pain relief. The recent development of specific animal models has increased the understanding of the molecular and cellular...

  9. The Biological Effects of Dickkopf1 on Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells and Bone Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hailin; Ma, Ningqiang; Jiao, Mi; Shen, Weiwei; Xin, Bo; Wang, Tongfei; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Helong

    2017-01-02

    The bone is among the most common sites of metastasis in patients with lung cancer. Over 30%-40% of lung cancers can develop bone metastasis, and no effective therapeutic methods exist in clinic cases. Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Dickkopf1 (DKK1) play important roles in the progression of lung cancer, which preferentially metastasizes to the skeleton. However, the role of DKK1 in osteotropism of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to define the role of DKK1 in SCLC bone metastasis and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that the expression level of DKK1 was dramatically higher in bone metastatic SCLC cells (SBC-5 cell line) compared with that in cells without bone metastatic ability (SBC-3 cell line). Therefore, we hypothesized that DKK1 was involved in the bone metastasis of SCLC. We then suppressed the DKK1 expression in SBC-5 cells by RNAi and found that downregulation of DKK1 can inhibit cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion, but increase the apoptosis rate. Downregulation of DKK1 did not affect the cell cycle progression of SBC-5 cells in vitro. In vivo, downregulated DKK1 in SBC-5 cells resulted in attenuated bone metastasis. These results indicated that DKK1 may be an important regulator in bone metastases of SCLC, and targeting DKK1 may be an effective method to prevent and treat skeleton metastases in SCLC cases.

  10. The Role of Osteoblast-Derived Inflammatory Cytokines in Bone Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    examination, approximately 70% of patients who die from breast or prostate cancer have bone metastases [1]. The incidences from thyroid, kidney , and lung...The adipocyte has been found to secrete tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and leptin , which stimulate bone resorption and inhibit

  11. The effect of statins in colorectal cancer is mediated through the bone morphogenetic protein pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodach, Liudmila L.; Bleuming, Sylvia A.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Hommes, Daniel W.; Van Den Brink, Gus R.; Hardwick, James C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Epidemiological evidence suggests that statins prevent colorectal cancer (CRC), but the biological mechanism remains obscure. Statins induce bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression in bone cells. We have previously shown that BMPs act as tumor suppressors in CRC. We hypothesiz

  12. Beta 2-Microglobulin: A Novel Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Human Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-14

    Pohl from Emory University to the Center for Disease Control at Atlanta. However, we will pursue this aim in collaboration with Dr. David Agus...bone: causes, consequences and therapeutic opportunities. Nat Rev Cancer 2(8):584–593. doi: 10.1038/nrc867 30. Roodman GD (2004) Mechanisms of bone

  13. Recreational football training decreases risk factors for bone fractures in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Aagaard, Per; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2010-01-01

    The present intervention was designed to investigate whether a 14-week period of regular recreational association football (F) or endurance running (R) has an effect on the risk of falls and bone fractures due to gains in muscle function and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). Fifty healthy u...

  14. Improving quality of life in patients with advanced cancer: Targeting metastatic bone pain

    OpenAIRE

    von Moos, Roger; Costa, Luis; Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Niepel, Daniela; Santini, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease in patients with advanced cancer is frequently associated with skeletal complications. These can be debilitating, causing pain, impaired functioning and decreased quality of life, as well as reduced survival. This review considers how the management of metastatic bone pain might be optimised, to limit the considerable burden it can impose on affected patients. Cancer-related pain is notoriously under-reported and under-treated, despite the availability of many therapeu...

  15. Vegetable and fruit intake after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Erin L; Carroll, Peter R; Chan, June M

    2012-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce and legumes have been associated with reduced risk of incident advanced prostate cancer. In vitro and animal studies suggest these foods may inhibit progression of prostate cancer, but there are limited data in men. Therefore, we prospectively examined whether intake of total vegetables, and specifically cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce and legumes, after diagnosis reduce risk of prostate cancer progression among 1,560 men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer and participating in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor, a United States prostate cancer registry. As a secondary analysis, we also examined other vegetable subgroups, total fruit and subgroups of fruits. The participants were diagnosed primarily at community-based clinics and followed from 2004 to 2009. We assessed vegetable and fruit intake via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and ascertained prostate cancer outcomes via urologist report and medical records. We observed 134 events of progression (53 biochemical recurrences, 71 secondary treatments likely due to recurrence, 6 bone metastases and 4 prostate cancer deaths) during 3,171 person-years. Men in the fourth quartile of post-diagnostic cruciferous vegetable intake had a statistically significant 59% decreased risk of prostate cancer progression compared to men in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio (HR): 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 0.76; p-trend: 0.003). No other vegetable or fruit group was statistically significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis may reduce risk of prostate cancer progression.

  16. Lung cancer screening: identifying the high risk cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Michael W.; Raji, Olaide Y; John K. Field

    2015-01-01

    Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a viable screening tool for early lung cancer detection and mortality reduction. In practice, the success of any lung cancer screening programme will depend on successful identification of individuals at high risk in order to maximise the benefit-harm ratio. Risk prediction models incorporating multiple risk factors have been recognised as a method of identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. Identification of individuals at high ri...

  17. Radionuclide conjugates of calcitonin for imaging bone disease and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenland, William Edward Peverell

    2002-07-01

    Salmon calcitonin (sCt) is a peptide with a higher affinity for human calcitonin receptors (hCtR) than human calcitonin. It has been used for treating osteoporosis, Paget's disease and bone pain. High levels of hCtRs are expressed on osteoclasts, bone metastases and primary breast and prostate cancers. The peptide was chosen for radiolabelling as a possible imaging agent. Direct labelling with {sup 99m}Tc via simultaneous reduction of the indigenous disulfide bond and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (VII) with the water soluble phenyl phosphine (TPPDS) was performed. The radiolabelled peptide was not suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical due to the heterogeneity of the product as observed by reverse phase HPLC and due to poor binding to the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. The electospray MS suggested a {sup 99}Tc-TPPDS (III) core instead of the expected {sup 99}Tc=O (V) core. Normal sCt has 3 conjugatible primary amines leading to a mixture of 8 possible products. A sCt analogue (sCtA) with a single primary amine was produced and conjugated to the chelator TETA to produce a single conjugated species. The sCtA-TETA was labelled with cold Cu and characterised by electospray MS. The monodentate ligand Hynic was synthesised directly into the peptide using N-{alpha}-Fmoc-N-{epsilon}-(Hynic-Boc)-Lys a novel orthogonally protected amino acid. The peptide was labelled with {sup 99m}Tc with tricine coligands. The radiolabelled peptide produced a single peak as observed by reverse phase HPLC and bound to MCF7 cell in a specific manner. The electospray MS suggested that one of the tricine coligands is lost due to the heating effect and possibly replaced by an adjacent histidine acting as a ternary ligand. The sCtLys{sup 18}-Hynic{sup 99m}Tc(tricine){sub 2} labelled peptide is the lead radiolabelled peptide and could be used for a normal biodistribution animal study, followed by clinical evaluation in humans. (author)

  18. Minimal residual disease in bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Joachim; Rosenberg, Robert; Dahm, Michael; Janni, Wolfgang; Gutschow, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The presence of occult micrometastases in bone marrow (BM) of patients with early breast cancer increases the risk of relapse. Detection of circulation tumor cells in peripheral blood (PB) may also influence the patient's prognosis. Few data are available on the correlation between tumor cell dissemination in BM and PB in solid epithelial tumors. Twenty-milliliter blood samples were collected from PB of 42 patients with advanced breast cancer and centrifuged using the density gradient OncoQuick (OncoQuick Greiner BioOne, Frickenhausen, Germany). The BM aspirates available from 11 of the 42 patients were centrifuged using density centrifugation Ficoll. Tumor cell detection was performed by microscopy after cytospin preparation and immunocytochemical staining with the monoclonal antibody A45-B/B3. Cytokeratin-positive cells were detected in 23 patients (55%) in the PB and in three patients (27%) in the BM. A cohort with bone lesions as the only metastatic side showed a correlation as follows: 7 of the 11 patients (64%) had negative findings in BM and PB, whereas cytokeratin-positive cells in PB were present in 3 of these 11 patients (27%). The presence of visceral metastases was associated with the detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in the PB in 20 of the 31 patients (65%) in this subgroup. The density gradient OncoQuick in combination with immunocytochemical staining allows the detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in PB of patients with advanced breast cancer. The immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in PB seems to be associated with the site of metastatic manifestation.

  19. Epidemiology, risk and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falanga, A; Russo, L

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is associated with a fourfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE varies according to the type of malignancy (i. e. pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, lymphoma) and its disease stage and individual factors (i. e. sex, race, age, previous VTE history, immobilization, obesity). Preventing cancer-associated VTE is important because it represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to identify cancer patient at particularly high risk, who need thromboprophylaxis, risk prediction models have become available and are under validation. These models include clinical risk factors, but also begin to incorporate biological markers. The major American and European scientific societies have issued their recommendations to guide the management of VTE in patients with cancer. In this review the principal aspects of epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of cancer-associated VTE are summarized.

  20. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis,

  1. Fruits and vegetables and the risk of epithelial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, prospective studies on fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to epithelial cancer risk were described. The main research question was whether higher intakes were related to lower risks of epithelial cancers, mainly of lung cancer.In the Seven Countries Study, at the population

  2. Bone Allografts: What Is the Risk of Disease Transmission with Bone Allografts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV antibody by ELISA. Autopsy of donor reveals occult disease. Donor bone tests positive for bacterial contamination. Donor and bone test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAG) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Donor tests positive for syphilis. Using ...

  3. Breast cancer risk prediction using a clinical risk model and polygenic risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yiwey; Hu, Donglei; Ma, Lin; Huntsman, Scott; Gard, Charlotte C; Leung, Jessica W T; Tice, Jeffrey A; Vachon, Celine M; Cummings, Steven R; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ziv, Elad

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer risk assessment can inform the use of screening and prevention modalities. We investigated the performance of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model in combination with a polygenic risk score (PRS) comprised of 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from genome-wide association studies. We conducted a nested case-control study of 486 cases and 495 matched controls within a screening cohort. The PRS was calculated using a Bayesian approach. The contributions of the PRS and variables in the BCSC model to breast cancer risk were tested using conditional logistic regression. Discriminatory accuracy of the models was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Increasing quartiles of the PRS were positively associated with breast cancer risk, with OR 2.54 (95 % CI 1.69-3.82) for breast cancer in the highest versus lowest quartile. In a multivariable model, the PRS, family history, and breast density remained strong risk factors. The AUROC of the PRS was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.57-0.64), and an Asian-specific PRS had AUROC 0.64 (95 % CI 0.53-0.74). A combined model including the BCSC risk factors and PRS had better discrimination than the BCSC model (AUROC 0.65 versus 0.62, p = 0.01). The BCSC-PRS model classified 18 % of cases as high-risk (5-year risk ≥3 %), compared with 7 % using the BCSC model. The PRS improved discrimination of the BCSC risk model and classified more cases as high-risk. Further consideration of the PRS's role in decision-making around screening and prevention strategies is merited.

  4. 8q24 Cancer risk allele associated with major metastatic risk in inflammatory breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bertucci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association studies have identified low penetrance alleles that participate to the risk of cancer development. The 8q24 chromosomal region contains several such loci involved in various cancers that have been recently studied for their propensity to influence the clinical outcome of prostate cancer. We investigated here two 8q24 breast and colon cancer risk alleles in the close vicinity of the MYC gene for their role in the occurrence of distant metastases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective series of 449 patients affected with breast or colon adenocarcinoma was genotyped for the rs13281615 and/or rs6983267 SNPs. Statistical analyses were done using the survival package v2.30 in the R software v2.9.1. The two SNPs did not influence the development of distant metastases of colon cancer; rs6983267 showed a mild effect on breast cancer. However, this effect was greatly emphasized when considering inflammatory breast cancer (IBC solely. Replicated on a larger and independent series of IBC the contribution of the genotype to the metastatic risk of IBC was found an independent predictor of outcome (p = 2e-4; OR 8.3, CI95:2.6-33. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows first that the monitoring of this specific germline variation may add a substantial tool for IBC prognostication, an aggressive disease that evolves towards distant metastases much more frequently than non-IBC and for which no reliable prognostic factor is available in medical practice. Second, it more generally suggests that risk alleles, while associated with low susceptibility, could correlate with a high risk of metastasis.

  5. WNT5A and Its Receptors in the Bone-Cancer Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Stefanie; Rachner, Tilman D; Rauner, Martina; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signaling is critical for tumorigenesis and skeletal remodeling. However, its contribution to the formation of metastatic bone lesions remains poorly defined. One major challenge of unraveling its role in cancer progression is the high complexity of Wnt signaling, which includes numerous ligands, receptors, and inhibitors, with intricate biological effects and specific signaling pathways depending on the cellular context. In this perspective, we summarize the role of the noncanonical Wnt ligand WNT5A in the development and metastatic process of osteotropic cancer entities. We focus on its tumor-suppressive function in breast cancer, tumor promoting effects in melanoma, and ambiguous role in prostate cancer, and discuss potential challenges and opportunities that may be associated with targeting Wnt signaling for cancer therapy and treatment of bone metastases. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Stem cells and cancer: Evidence for bone marrow stem cells in epithelial cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Chen Li; Calin Stoicov; Arlin B Rogers; JeanMarie Houghton

    2006-01-01

    Cancer commonly arises at the sites of chronic inflammation and infection. Although this association has long been recognized, the reason has remained unclear. Within the gastrointestinal tract, there are many examples of inflammatory conditions associated with cancer, and these include reflux disease and Barrett's adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, Helicobacter infection and gastric cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer and viral hepatitis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma.There are several mechanisms by which chronic inflammation has been postulated to lead to cancer which includes enhanced proliferation in an endless attempt to heal damage, the presence of a persistent inflammatory environment creating a pro-carcinogenic environment and more recently a role for engraftment of circulating marrow-derived stem cells which may contribute to the stromal components of the tumor as well as the tumor mass itself. Here we review the recent advances in our understanding of the contributions of circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells to the formation of tumors in animal models as well as in human beings.

  7. Establishing a family risk assessment clinic for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.

  8. Radiation therapy for metastatic lesions from breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    This paper summarizes radiation therapy in the treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 70% of breast cancer patients, and the goals of radiation therapy for bone metastasis are: palliation of pain, prevention and treatment of neuropathic symptoms, and prevention of pathologic fractures. The prognosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer is known to be better than that of bone metastasis from other solid tumors. Local-field radiation, hemibody (or wide-field) radiation, and systemic radionuclide treatment are the major methods of radiation therapy for pain palliation. Although many studies have shown that breast cancer is more responsive to radiation therapy for pain palliation than other solid tumors, some studies found no significant difference. Local-field radiation therapy, which includes multi-fraction irradiation and single-fraction irradiation, is currently the most generally used method of radiotherapy for pain palliation. Pain palliation has been reported to be achieved in approximately 80% to 90% of patients treated with local-field external beam irradiation. Three types of multi-fraction irradiation therapy are administered depending on the prognosis: high-dose fraction irradiation (36-50 Gy/12-25 Fr/2.4-5 wk), short-course irradiation (20-30 Gy/10-15 Fr/2-3 wk), and ultra-short-course irradiation (15-25 Gy/2-5 Fr/1 wk). The most common irradiation schedule is 30 Gy/10 Fr/2 wk. Although many reports indicate no significant difference in pain palliation according to the dose, the percentage of patients who show a complete cure is significantly higher in those treated with doses of 30 Gy or more, and thus the total irradiation dose should be at least 30 Gy. High-dose fraction irradiation is indicated for patients with an expected survival time of 6 months or more while short-course or single-fraction irradiation is indicated for those with an expected survival time of 3 months or more. Single

  9. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental a

  10. A multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic at Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre – A review of the experience from 1999 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy K Li

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kathy K Li, Emily Sinclair, Joan Pope, Macey Farhadian, Kristin Harris, Julie Napolskikh, Albert Yee, Lawrence Librach, Lesia Wynnychuk, Cyril Danjoux, Edward Chow. On behalf of the Bone Metastases Team.Bone Metastases Site Group, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Our objective in this study was to review the experience of a one-stop multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic (BMC that offers a coordinated multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer patients with bone metastases in a tertiary cancer centre. Patients with symptomatic bone metastases were referred to BMC and assessed by a team of specialists in various disciplines – interventional radiology, orthopedic surgery, palliative medicine, and radiation oncology. At initial consultation, patient demographics, reasons for referral, and case disposition were recorded. From January 1999 to February 2005, a total of 272 patients with bone metastases were referred to the BMC. The median age was 65 years (range 28–95 and median KPS score at consultation was 60 (range 30–90. The majority of patients came from home (74%, while others came from a nursing home or the hospital (9%. Almost a third (28% of patients had 2 or more reasons of referral, yielding a total of 354 reasons. The most common reason for referral was bone pain (42%, bone metastases (21%, high risk for pathological fracture (12%, and pathological fracture (10%. Of the 272 patients who received consultation, 40% received palliative radiotherapy, 19% received interventional surgery, 7% were referred to other support services such as palliative care, physiotherapy, and 7% had further investigation or imaging. A multidisciplinary clinic is useful for co-coordinating the management of bone metastatic disease in symptomatic patients.Keywords: bone metastases, multidisciplinary approach, experience

  11. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  12. The risk for developing cancer in Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitman, Yael; Boker-Keinan, Lital; Berkenstadt, Michal; Liphsitz, Irena; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Ries-Levavi, Liat; Sarouk, Ifat; Pras, Elon; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer risks in heterozygous mutation carriers of the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes are controversial. To shed light on this issue, cancer rates were evaluated by cross referencing asymptomatic Israeli heterozygous mutation carriers in the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes with cancer diagnoses registered at the Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR). Comparison of observed to expected Standardized Incidence Rates (SIR) was performed. Overall, 474 individuals participated in the study: 378 females; 25 Arab and 31 Jewish ATM carriers, 152 BLM carriers, and 170 FANCC carriers (all Ashkenazim). Age range at genotyping was 19-53 years (mean + SD 30.6 + 5 years). In addition, 96 males were included; 5, 34, and 57 ATM, BLM, and FANCC mutation carriers, respectively. Over 5-16 years from genotyping (4721 person/years), 15 new cancers were diagnosed in mutation carriers: 5 breast, 4 cervical, 3 melanomas, and one each bone sarcoma, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer. No single cancer diagnosis was more prevalent then expected in all groups combined or per gene analyzed. Specifically breast cancer SIR was 0.02-0.77. We conclude that Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers are not at an increased risk for developing cancer.

  13. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  14. Primary care physicians' cancer screening recommendation practices and perceptions of cancer risk of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Harry T; Ma, Grace X; Gold, Robert S; Atkinson, Nancy L; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians' perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.

  15. Chronic Osteomyelitis in Sternum Mimicking Bone Metastasis of Lung Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hyung Jun; Kim, Yu Keong; Lee, Sang Mi; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Primary sternal osteomyelitis without predisposing factors is a rare condition, and it is hardly differentiated from metastatic bone tumor especially in patient with the history of primary malignancy because osteomyelitis shares frequently common findings with metastatic bone lesion on {sup 18}F-FDG PET and bone scan. Although there have been several publications of primary osteomyelitis mimicking bone metastasis in the spine or extremities, we report a case of primary sternal osteomyelitis in the patient with lung cancer, which has, to our knowledge, not been reported before.

  16. The hypoxic cancer secretome induces pre-metastatic bone lesions through lysyl oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Thomas R; Rumney, Robin M H; Schoof, Erwin M; Perryman, Lara; Høye, Anette M; Agrawal, Ankita; Bird, Demelza; Latif, Norain Ab; Forrest, Hamish; Evans, Holly R; Huggins, Iain D; Lang, Georgina; Linding, Rune; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2015-06-04

    Tumour metastasis is a complex process involving reciprocal interplay between cancer cells and host stroma at both primary and secondary sites, and is strongly influenced by microenvironmental factors such as hypoxia. Tumour-secreted proteins play a crucial role in these interactions and present strategic therapeutic potential. Metastasis of breast cancer to the bone affects approximately 85% of patients with advanced disease and renders them largely untreatable. Specifically, osteolytic bone lesions, where bone is destroyed, lead to debilitating skeletal complications and increased patient morbidity and mortality. The molecular interactions governing the early events of osteolytic lesion formation are currently unclear. Here we show hypoxia to be specifically associated with bone relapse in patients with oestrogen-receptor negative breast cancer. Global quantitative analysis of the hypoxic secretome identified lysyl oxidase (LOX) as significantly associated with bone-tropism and relapse. High expression of LOX in primary breast tumours or systemic delivery of LOX leads to osteolytic lesion formation whereas silencing or inhibition of LOX activity abrogates tumour-driven osteolytic lesion formation. We identify LOX as a novel regulator of NFATc1-driven osteoclastogenesis, independent of RANK ligand, which disrupts normal bone homeostasis leading to the formation of focal pre-metastatic lesions. We show that these lesions subsequently provide a platform for circulating tumour cells to colonize and form bone metastases. Our study identifies a novel mechanism of regulation of bone homeostasis and metastasis, opening up opportunities for novel therapeutic intervention with important clinical implications.

  17. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  18. 胃癌骨转移的临床特点%Clinical characteristics of bone metastasis from gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高嘉; 王俊锋; 李万荣; 张云鹏; 沈志祥

    2015-01-01

    据文献报道胃癌伴有骨转移发生率为0.46%~38%,胃癌伴骨转移的高危因素包括:年轻患者、病理为低分化腺癌、BorrmannⅢ型、浸润深度T3和T4、伴多发淋巴转移和胃体部肿瘤。转移途径半数以上为非门脉系统。胃癌伴骨转移而无肝转移病例占69%,骨转移与淋巴转移区站转移有密切关联,距胃原发病灶3 cm以上存在淋巴转移者,其骨转移发生率为27%。核素扫描为骨转移提供了诊断途径和可靠的依据,HCG、CEA肿瘤标志物检测对诊断骨转移有所帮助,治疗以放化疗为主。骨转移预后较差,大多生存期<6个月。%The bone is a common site of metastasis for gastric cancer. High-risk factors of metastatic gastric cancer include young age, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, Borrmann type III tumors, depth of invasion at Se and Pm levels, positive lymph nodes, and gastric cancer with concomitant body of stomach cancer. More than half of the transfer pathway belongs to the non-portal system. Cases of gastric cancer with bone metastasis but without liver metastasis accounted for 69%of the total gastric cancer cases, whereas the incidence rate of bone metastasis with lymph node metastasis (≥3 cm away from the primary lesion) was 27%. In addition to the tumor markers human chorionic gonadotropin and carcinoembryonic antigen, radionuclide scan of the bone metastasis provides diagnostic pathways and reliable basis for treatment. Chemoradiation and surgery as symptomatic treatments are alternative therapies for stomach cancer. Bone metastasis confers unfavorable prognosis, and the survival time is often less than six months.

  19. Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.

  20. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  1. Plasma Cysteinylglycine Levels and Breast Cancer Risk in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysteinylglycine, a prooxidant generated during the catabolism of glutathione, has been suggested to induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, leading to the development of human cancers. Observational data relating cysteinylglycine status to breast cancer risk are lacking. We prospectively ev...

  2. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlı, Ali Murat; Göksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Başsorgun, Cumhur İbrahim; Coşkun, Hasan Şenol

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient's history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage. PMID:23956898

  3. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient’s history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

  4. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Benarba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al (n=54 and non-A. longa group (non-Al (n=24. 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine pyridinoline (PYD and deoxypyridinoline (DPD were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine, uric acid, and urea were measured. 1 g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers. The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the reduction in renal function caused by the aristolochic acids contained in the roots.

  5. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Mediates Metastatic Dormancy of Prostate Cancer in Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sambad; Xing, Fei; Liu, Yin; Wu, Kerui; Said, Neveen; Pochampally, Radhika; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Balaji, K C; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2016-09-09

    Prostate cancer is known to frequently recur in bone; however, how dormant cells switch its phenotype leading to recurrent tumor remains poorly understood. We have isolated two syngeneic cell lines (indolent and aggressive) through in vivo selection by implanting PC3mm stem-like cells into tibial bones. We found that indolent cells retained the dormant phenotype, whereas aggressive cells grew rapidly in bone in vivo, and the growth rates of both cells in culture were similar, suggesting a role of the tumor microenvironment in the regulation of dormancy and recurrence. Indolent cells were found to secrete a high level of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which significantly stimulated the expression of BMP7 in bone marrow stromal cells. The secreted BMP7 then kept cancer cells in a dormant state by inducing senescence, reducing "stemness," and activating dormancy-associated p38 MAPK signaling and p21 expression in cancer cells. Importantly, we found that SPARC was epigenetically silenced in aggressive cells by promoter methylation, but 5-azacytidine treatment reactivated the expression. Furthermore, high SPARC promoter methylation negatively correlated with disease-free survival of prostate cancer patients. We also found that the COX2 inhibitor NS398 down-regulated DNMTs and increased expression of SPARC, which led to tumor growth suppression in bone in vivo These findings suggest that SPARC plays a key role in maintaining the dormancy of prostate cancer cells in the bone microenvironment.

  6. Incidence of bone metastases and skeletal-related events in breast cancer patients: A population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryzek Jon P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BrCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the industrialized world. More than half of women presenting with metastatic BrCa develop bone metastases. Bone metastases increase the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs, defined as pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy, and orthopaedic surgery. Both bone metastases and SREs are associated with unfavorable prognosis and greatly affect quality of life. Few epidemiological data exist on SREs after primary diagnosis of BrCa and subsequent bone metastasis. We therefore estimated the incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed BrCa patients in Denmark from 1999 through 2007. Methods We estimated the overall and annual incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients in Denmark from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2007 using the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR, which covers all Danish hospitals. We estimated the cumulative incidence of bone metastases and SREs and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the 35,912 BrCa patients, 178 (0.5% presented with bone metastases at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis, and of these, 77 (43.2% developed an SRE during follow up. A total of 1,272 of 35,690 (3.6% BrCa patients without bone metastases at diagnosis developed bone metastases during a median follow-up time of 3.4 years. Among these patients, 590 (46.4% subsequently developed an SRE during a median follow-up time of 0.7 years. Incidence rates of bone metastases were highest the first year after the primary BrCa diagnosis, particularly among patients with advanced BrCa at diagnosis. Similarly, incidence rates of a first SRE was highest the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis. Conclusions The high incidence of SREs following the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis

  7. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Paige; Barrdahl, Myrto; Joshi, Amit D;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention. Objective: To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors. Design, ...

  8. Natural History of Malignant Bone Disease in Gastric Cancer: Final Results of a Multicenter Bone Metastasis Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Nicola; Pantano, Francesco; Ibrahim, Toni; Gamucci, Teresa; De Vita, Fernando; Di Palma, Teresa; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Barni, Sandro; Bernardo, Antonio; Febbraro, Antonio; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Bertocchi, Paola; Catalano, Vincenzo; Giommoni, Elisa; Comandone, Alessandro; Maiello, Evaristo; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Ferrara, Raimondo; Trogu, Antonio; Berardi, Rossana; Leo, Silvana; Bertolini, Alessandro; Angelini, Francesco; Cinieri, Saverio; Russo, Antonio; Pisconti, Salvatore; Brunetti, Anna Elisabetta; Azzariti, Amalia; Santini, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone metastasis represents an increasing clinical problem in advanced gastric cancer (GC) as disease-related survival improves. In literature, few data on the natural history of bone disease in GC are available. Patients and Methods Data on clinicopathology, skeletal outcomes, skeletal-related events (SREs), and bone-directed therapies for 208 deceased GC patients with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. Results Median time to bone metastasis was 8 months (CI 95%, 6.125–9.875 months) considering all included patients. Median number of SREs/patient was one. Less than half of the patients (31%) experienced at least one and only 4 and 2% experienced at least two and three events, respectively. Median times to first and second SRE were 2 and 4 months, respectively. Median survival was 6 months after bone metastasis diagnosis and 3 months after first SRE. Median survival in patients who did not experience SREs was 5 months. Among patients who received zoledronic acid before the first SRE, the median time to appearance of first SRE was significantly prolonged compared to control (7 months vs 4 months for control; P: 0.0005). Conclusions To our knowledge, this retrospective analysis is the largest multicenter study to demonstrate that bone metastases from GC are not so rare, are commonly aggressive and result in relatively early onset of SREs in the majority of patients. Indeed, our large study, which included 90 patients treated with ZOL, showed, for the first time in literature, a significant extension of time to first SRE and increase in the median survival time after diagnosis of bone metastasis. Taken together, these data may support the beneficial effects of ZOL in GC patients. PMID:24204569

  9. P2X7 receptor-mediated analgesia in cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; D. Schwab, Samantha; Frøsig-Jørgensen, Majbrit;

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a common and debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of molecular events, including mechanisms observed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, but also changes unique...

  10. Discoidin domain receptor 2 facilitates prostate cancer bone metastasis via regulating parathyroid hormone-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; Jin, Su; Wei, Zhang; Huilian, Hou; Zhanhai, Yin; Yue, Teng; Juan, Li; Jing, Li; Libo, Yao; Xu, Li

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton but the underlying mechanism remains largely undefined. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family and is activated by collagen binding. This study aimed to investigate the function and detailed mechanism of DDR2 in prostate cancer bone dissemination. Herein we found that DDR2 was strongly expressed in bone-metastatic prostate cancer cells and tissues compared to that in normal controls. Enhanced expression of constitutively activated DDR2 led to elevation in motility and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells, whereas knockdown of DDR2 through specific shRNA caused a dramatic repression. Knockdown of DDR2 in prostate cancer cells resulted in significant decrease in the proliferation, differentiation and function of osteoblast. Over-expression of DDR2 in prostate cancer cells resulted in notable acceleration of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, whereas knockdown of DDR2 exhibited the opposite effects. An intrabone injection bone metastasis animal model demonstrated that DDR2 promoted osteolytic metastasis in vivo. Molecular evidence demonstrated that DDR2 regulated the expression, secretion, and promoter activity of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), via modulating Runx2 phosphorylation and transactivity. DDR2 was responsive to TGF-β and involved in TGF-β-mediated osteoclast activation and bone resorption. In addition, DDR2 facilitated prostate cancer cells adhere to type I collagen. This study reveals for the first time that DDR2 plays an essential role in prostate cancer bone metastasis. The mechanism disclosure may provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  12. Risk factors for low bone mass in healthy young adults from North India: studies on BMD and bone turnover markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Fotedar Verma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite availability of adequate sunshine, Indian population has the highest prevalence of low bone mass and Bone Mineral Content (BMC. Risk factors for osteoporosis have been extensively studied in the west but poorly investigated in India. We studied BMD and Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs among healthy young adults. Methods: Fifty one healthy young adults (28 Males, 23 Females in the age group of 20-35 years were studied. Morphometric, biochemical parameters and BMD (whole body, spine, hip and wrist were recorded. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, BMI and Waist/Hip Ratio (WHR. BTMs studied included - serum Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (sBAP, serum Collagen cross-linked C-Terminal telopeptide (sCTx, serum Osteocalcin (OC and human intact parathyroid hormone (hPTH using standard ELISA kits. Results: Of 51 healthy volunteers 21.57% had normal BMD, 13.73% were frankly osteoporotic and 64.70% were osteopenic. Age, weight and BMI were the best predictors of total BMD and BMC at all sites. sCTX positively correlated with Total Bone Area (TBA, BMD at Hip and Forearm. Using multiple regressions - age, weight, and BMI were significant predictors of BMD in young adults. Percentage body fat had inverse correlation with BMC, BMD and TBA. Weight and height positively correlated with BMD at femoral neck, inter-trochanter and Ward's triangle. Body weight was best predictor of BMD at femoral neck, Ward's triangle, forearm UD, forearm MID and forearm1/3. Conclusion: Majority of healthy young Indians have poor bone health as evidenced by bone markers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 933-939

  13. Supplemental folic acid in pregnancy and maternal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Jan Helge Seglem; Øyen, Nina; Fomina, Tatiana; Melbye, Mads; Tretli, Steinar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Bjørge, Tone

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that increased intake of folate protects against the development of several types of cancer. Some studies have, however, raised concern about the safety of folate in relation to cancer risk. Here we examined the risk of maternal cancer after intake of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy. Methods: This is a population-based cohort study comprising 429,004 women with data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, the Cancer Registry of Norway, and other nation...

  14. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types.......The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  15. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, RR; Nielsen, CK; Nasser, A;

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... of the P2X7R KO mouse. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of the P2X7 receptors in bone cancer pain. Pain-related behaviours had an earlier onset in bone cancer-bearing, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice, and treatment with A-438079 failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours....

  16. Urinary Cadmium and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Shafer, Martin M; Bonner, Matthew R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Manson, JoAnn E; Meliker, Jaymie R; Neuhouser, Marian L; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a widespread heavy metal pollutant that may act as an exogenous estrogenic hormone. Environmental cadmium exposure has been associated with risk of breast cancer in retrospective studies. We prospectively assessed the relationship between cadmium exposure, evaluated by creatinine-normalized urinary cadmium concentration, and invasive breast cancer among 12,701 postmenopausal women aged ≥50 years in a Women's Health Initiative study of bone mineral density. After a median of 13.2 years of follow-up (1993-2010), 508 cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,050 comparison women were identified for a case-cohort analysis. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Risk of breast cancer was not associated with urinary cadmium parameterized either in quartiles (comparing highest quartile with lowest, hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.14; P for trend = 0.20) or as a log-transformed continuous variable (per 2-fold higher urinary cadmium concentration, hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.03). We did not observe an association between urinary cadmium and breast cancer risk in any subgroup examined, including never smokers and women with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) less than 25. Results were consistent in both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposure is associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  17. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  18. Potential synergistic implications for stromal-targeted radiopharmaceuticals in bone-metastatic prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Sartor

    2011-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity and chemotherapy-resistant 'stem cells' represent two of the most pressing issues in devising new strategies for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Though curative strategies have long been present for men with localized disease, metastatic prostate cancer is currently incurable. Though substantial improvements in outcomes are now possible through the utilization of newly approved therapies, novel combinations are clearly needed. Herein we describe potentially synergistic interactions between bone stromal-targeted radiopharmaceuticals and other therapies for treatment of bone-metastatic prostate cancer. Radiation has long been known to synergize with cytotoxic chemotherapies and recent data also suggest the possibility of synergy when combining radiation and immune-based strategies. Combination therapies will be required to substantially improve survival for men with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer and we hypothesize that bone-targeted radiopharmaceuticals will play an important role in this process.

  19. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  20. Bone marrow granulomas in infiltrating lobular breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kettle, P.; Allen, D C

    1997-01-01

    A 50 year old woman with a history of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma presented with back pain. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging were not conclusive. A bone marrow aspirate appeared normal. A routine trephine biopsy specimen showed granulomas but no obvious infiltration by carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with epithelial markers demonstrated carcinoma cells in the trephine specimen. This case illustrates the difficulty of detecting infiltrating lobular carcinoma in bone m...

  1. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  2. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  3. When is a bone scan study appropriate in asymptomatic men diagnosed with prostate cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj P.Pal; Thivyaan Thiruudaian; Masood A.Khan

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine when a bone scan investigation is appropriate in asymptomatic men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Methods: Between November 2005 and July 2006, 317 men with prostate cancer underwent a bone scan study; 176 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cut-offs as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using digital rectal examination finding, biopsy Gleason scores and age were performed to determine when a bone scan study is likely to be of value. Results: Only 1/61 men (1.6%) with a serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL had a positive bone scan. However, 2/38 men (4.7%) with a serum PSA 20.1-40.0 ng/mL, 3/20 men (15%) with a serum PSA 40.1-60.0 ng/mL, 7/19 men (36.8%) with a serum PSA 60.1-100.0 ng/mL and 19/38 men (50%) with a serum PSA > 100.0 ng/mL had positive bone scans. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were uninformative in these groups. Conclusion: Based on our findings, a bone scan is of limited value in asymptomatic prostate cancer patients presenting PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL. Therefore, this investigation can be eliminated unless a curative treatment is contemplated. Furthermore, digital rectal examination finding, biopsy Gleason score and age are unhelpful in predicting those who might harbor bone metastasis.

  4. Medical treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis: from bisphosphonates to targeted drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Bulent; Cicin, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer bone metastasis causing severe morbidity is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. It causes pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord and other nerve compression syndromes and life threatening hypercalcemia. Breast cancer metastasizes to bone through complicated steps in which numerous molecules play roles. Metastatic cells disrupt normal bone turnover and create a vicious cycle to which treatment efforts should be directed. Bisphosphonates have been used safely for more than two decades. As a group they delay time to first skeletal related event and reduce pain, but do not prevent development of bone metastasis in patients with no bone metastasis, and also do not prolong survival. The receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand inhibitor denosumab delays time to first skeletal related event and reduces the skeletal morbidity rate. Radionuclides are another treatment option for bone pain. New targeted therapies and radionuclides are still under investigation. In this review we will focus on mechanisms of bone metastasis and its medical treatment in breast cancer patients.

  5. Gastric cancer patients at high-risk of having synchronous cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ho Lee; Jae-Gahb Park; Jae-Moon Bae; Ja Seong Bae; Keun Won Ryu; Jong Seok Lee; Sook Ryun Park; Chan Gyoo Kim; Myoung Cheorl Kook; Il Ju Choi; Young Woo Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify patients with a high-risk of having a synchronous cancer among gastric cancer patients.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the prospective gastric cancer database at the National Cancer Center,Korea from December 2000 to December 2004. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with synchronous cancers and those of patients without synchronous cancers were compared. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for the presence of a synchronous cancer in gastric cancer patients.RESULTS: 111 of 3291 gastric cancer patients (3.4%)registered in the database had a synchronous cancer.Among these 111 patients, 109 had a single synchronous cancer and 2 patients had two synchronous cancers. The most common form of synchronous cancer was colorectal cancer (42 patients, 37.2%) followed by lung cancer (21 patients, 18.6%). Multivariate analyses revealed that elderly patients with differentiated early gastric cancer have a higher probability of a synchronous cancer.CONCLUSION: Synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients are not infrequent. The physicians should try to find synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients,especially in the elderly with a differentiated early gastric cancer.

  6. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  7. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  8. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  9. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing...... increased the risk of postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer. Additionally accounting for the degree of overweight further increased the risk of obesity-related cancer. Risks associated with a longer overweight duration were higher in men than in women and were attenuated by smoking. For postmenopausal...

  10. The host microenvironment influences prostate cancer invasion, systemic spread, bone colonization, and osteoblastic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourik S Ganguly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Most PCa patients die with osteoblastic bone metastases. What triggers PCa metastasis to the bone and what causes osteoblastic lesions remain unanswered. A major contributor to PCa metastasis is the host microenvironment. In this revew, we address how the primary tumor microenvironment influences PCa metastasis via integrins, extracellular proteases, and transient epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT to promote PCa progression, invasion, and metastasis. We discuss how the bone microenvironment influences metastasis; where chemotactic cytokines favor bone homing, adhesion molecules promote colonization, and bone-derived signals induce osteoblastic lesions. Animal models that fully recapitulate human PCa progression from primary tumor to bone metastasis are needed to understand the PCa pathophysiology that leads to bone metastasis. Better delineation of the specific processes involved in PCa bone metastasize is needed to prevent or treat metastatic PCa. Therapeutic regimens that focus on the tumor microenvironment could add to the PCa pharmacopeia.

  11. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun, E-mail: biochelab@yuhs.ac; Chung, Won-Yoon, E-mail: wychung@yuhs.ac

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Bone Protective Agents in Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nine out of ten metastatic prostate cancer (PCa patients will develop osseous metastases. Of these, every second will suffer from skeletal-related events (SRE. SRE are associated with an increased risk for death, which is markedly increased in the presence of pathological fracture. Moreover, health insurance costs nearly double in the presence of SRE. Zoledronic acid and denosumab are both approved drugs for the prevention or delay of SRE in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC patients with osseous metastases. However, long-term treatment with one of these two drugs is associated with the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ. Routine inspections of the oral cavity before and during treatment are mandatory in these patients. Regarding imaging techniques, bone scintigraphy seems to be a promising tool to detect early stage MRONJ. Zoledronic acid does not reduce the incidence of SRE in hormone-sensitive PCa. First data shows 3-monthly application of zoledronic acid to be equi-effective to monthly application.

  13. F-8 sodium fluoride position emission tomography/computed tomography for detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis compared with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Won Woo; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performances of F-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (bone PET/CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis. We retrospectively enrolled 6 thyroid cancer patients (age = 44.7 ± 9.8 years, M:F = 1:5, papillary:follicular = 2:4) with suspected bone metastatic lesions in the whole body iodine scintigraphy or BS, who subsequently underwent bone PET/CT. Pathologic diagnosis was conducted for 4 lesions of 4 patients. Of the 17 suspected bone lesions, 10 were metastatic and 7 benign. Compared to BS, bone PET/CT exhibited superior sensitivity (10/10 = 100% vs. 2/10 = 20%, p = 0.008), and accuracy (14/17 = 82.4% vs. 7/17 = 41.2%, p < 0.025). The specificity (4/7 = 57.1%) of bone PET/CT was not significantly different from that of BS (5/7 = 71.4%, p > 0.05). Bone PET/CT may be more sensitive and accurate than BS for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis.

  14. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs - correlation with health and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Thamm, D H; Backus, R

    2016-09-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is important in bone health as well as many diseases including cancer. Supplementation may increase responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and canine C-reactive protein (c-CRP) were measured in healthy dogs and dogs with haemoabdomen. Regression analysis determined optimal 25(OH)D concentrations. In healthy dogs (n = 282), mean iPTH concentrations correlated inversely (r(2) = 0.88, P 150 ng mL(-1) . Relative risk of cancer increased with decreasing 25(OH)D concentrations [RR = 3.9 for 25(OH)D below 40 ng mL(-1) (P = 0.0001)]. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in dogs vary widely, and are influenced by dietary VitD content. Serum vitD measurement can identify dogs for which supplementation may improve health and response to cancer therapy.

  15. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  16. Risk of second primary cancer following prostate cancer radiotherapy: DVH analysis using the competitive risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takam, R.; Bezak, E.; Yeoh, E. E.

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancer (SPC) corresponding to various radiation treatment techniques for prostate cancer. Estimation of SPC was done by analysing differential dose-volume histograms (DDVH) of normal tissues such as rectum, bladder and urethra with the competitive risk model. Differential DVHs were obtained from treatment planning systems for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy techniques. The average risk of developing SPC was no greater than 0.6% for all treatment techniques but was lower with either LDR or HDR brachytherapy alone compared with any EBRT technique. For LDR and HDR brachytherapy alone, the risk of SPC for the rectum was 2.0 × 10-4% and 8.3 × 10-5% respectively compared with 0.2% for EBRT using five-field 3D-CRT to a total dose of 74 Gy. Overall, the risk of developing SPC for urethra following all radiation treatment techniques was very low compared with the rectum and bladder. Treatment plans which deliver equivalent doses of around 3-5 Gy to normal tissues were associated with higher risks of development of SPC.

  17. Risk of second primary cancer following prostate cancer radiotherapy: DVH analysis using the competitive risk model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takam, R; Bezak, E [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Yeoh, E E [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia)], E-mail: Rungdham.Takam@health.sa.gov.au

    2009-02-07

    This study aimed to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancer (SPC) corresponding to various radiation treatment techniques for prostate cancer. Estimation of SPC was done by analysing differential dose-volume histograms (DDVH) of normal tissues such as rectum, bladder and urethra with the competitive risk model. Differential DVHs were obtained from treatment planning systems for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy techniques. The average risk of developing SPC was no greater than 0.6% for all treatment techniques but was lower with either LDR or HDR brachytherapy alone compared with any EBRT technique. For LDR and HDR brachytherapy alone, the risk of SPC for the rectum was 2.0 x 10{sup -4}% and 8.3 x 10{sup -5}% respectively compared with 0.2% for EBRT using five-field 3D-CRT to a total dose of 74 Gy. Overall, the risk of developing SPC for urethra following all radiation treatment techniques was very low compared with the rectum and bladder. Treatment plans which deliver equivalent doses of around 3-5 Gy to normal tissues were associated with higher risks of development of SPC.

  18. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer

  19. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictor...

  20. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Arrigoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps.

  1. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Chiara; Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps. PMID:27571063

  2. Assessment of the Effects of Zoledronic Acid Therapy on Bone Metabolic Indicators in Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients with Bone Metastatasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Abdullah; Sahin, Nurettin; Caniklioglu, Mehmet; Kula, Mustafa; Ekmekcioglu, Oguz; Tatlisen, Atila

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Assessment of effects of zoledronic acid therapy on bone metabolic indicators in hormone-resistant prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis. Material and Methods. Hormone-resistant prostate cancer patients who were identified to have metastases in their bone scintigraphy were taken to trial group. Before administration of zoledronic acid, routine tests for serum calcium, total alkalen phosphates were studied. Sample sera for bone metabolic indicators BALP, PINP, and ICTP were collected. Bone pain was assessed via visual analogue scale and performance via Karnofsky performance scale. Four mg zoledronic acid was administered intravenously once a month. Results. When serum levels of bone forming indicators PINP; BALP were compared before and after therapy, there were insignificant decreases (P = .33, P = .21, resp.). Serum levels of bone destruction indicator ICTP was compared, and there was a significant decrease after zoledronic acid therapy (P = .04). When performances of the patients were compared during therapy period, performances decreased significantly due to progress of illness (P = .01). All patients had ostalgia caused by bone metastases at various degrees. Significant decrease in pain scores was observed (P < .01). Conclusion. Zoledronic acid therapy decreased bone destruction and was effective in palliation of pain in patient with bone metastasis. Using bone metabolic indicators during followup of zoledronic acid therapy might be useful. PMID:22084798

  3. Milk and the risk and progression of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that nutritional factors contribute to a substantial proportion of cancer cases, and milk contains numerous bioactive substances that could affect risk and progression of cancer. Cancer results from multiple genetic and epigenetic events over time, so demonstrating a specific effect of nutrients or other bioactive food components in human cancer is challenging. Epidemiological evidence consistently suggests that milk intake is protective against colorectal cancer. Calcium supplements have been shown to reduce risk for recurrence of adenomatous polyps. Calcium supplementation has not been observed to reduce risk for colon cancer, although long latency and baseline calcium intake affect interpretation of these results. High calcium intake from both food and supplements is associated with increased risk for advanced or fatal prostate cancer. Results from epidemiological studies examining the relationship between intake of dairy foods and breast or ovarian cancer risk are not consistent. Animal studies have suggested that galactose may be toxic to ovarian cells, but results from epidemiological studies that have examined ovarian cancer risk and milk and/or lactose intakes are mixed. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention encourage meeting recommended levels of calcium intake primarily through food choices rather than supplements, and choosing low-fat or nonfat dairy foods.

  4. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  5. TRPV4 deficiency causes sexual dimorphism in bone metabolism and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eerden, B C J; Oei, L; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Hoenderop, J G J; van Schoor, N M; Pettersson-Kymmer, U; Schreuders-Koedam, M; Uitterlinden, A G; Hofman, A; Suzuki, M; Klaushofer, K; Ohlsson, C; Lips, P J A; Rivadeneira, F; Bindels, R J M; van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2013-12-01

    We explored the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) in murine bone metabolism and association of TRPV4 gene variants with fractures in humans. Urinary and histomorphometrical analyses demonstrated reduced osteoclast activity and numbers in male Trpv4(-/-) mice, which was confirmed in bone marrow-derived osteoclast cultures. Osteoblasts and bone formation as shown by serum procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide and histomorphometry, including osteoid surface, osteoblast and osteocyte numbers were not affected in vivo. Nevertheless, osteoblast differentiation was enhanced in Trpv4(-/-) bone marrow cultures. Cortical and trabecular bone mass was 20% increased in male Trpv4(-/-) mice, compared to sex-matched wild type (Trpv4(+/+)) mice. However, at the same time intracortical porosity was increased and bone matrix mineralization was reduced. Together, these lead to a maximum load, stiffness and work to failure of the femoral bone, which were not different compared to Trpv4(+/+) mice, while the bone material was less resistant to stress and less elastic. The differential impacts on these determinants of bone strength were likely responsible for the lack of any changes in whole bone strength in the Trpv4(-/-) mice. None of these skeletal parameters were affected in female Trpv4(-/-) mice. The T-allele of rs1861809 SNP in the TRPV4 locus was associated with a 30% increased risk (95% CI: 1.1-1.6; p=0.013) for non-vertebral fracture risk in men, but not in women, in the Rotterdam Study. Meta-analyses with the population-based LASA study confirmed the association with non-vertebral fractures in men. This was lost when the non-population-based studies Mr. OS and UFO were included. In conclusion, TRPV4 is a male-specific regulator of bone metabolism, a determinant of bone strength, and a potential risk predictor for fractures through regulation of bone matrix mineralization and intra-cortical porosity. This identifies TRPV4 as a unique sexually

  6. Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Junbao; Chen Long; Zhu Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.Methods We searched Medline,EMBASE,ISI Web of Science,and the Cochrane library for studies published up to November 2013.We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest tea consumption categories.Results The summary OR for high versus no/almost never tea drinkers was 1.04 (95% CI:0.91-1.20),with no significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.751;I2=0.0%).The OR was 0.99 (95% CI:0.77-1.28) in males and 1.01 (95% CI:0.79-1.29) in females.The OR was 1.07 (95% CI:0.85-1.34) in Asian studies,1.05 (95% CI:0.84-1.31) in European studies,and 0.98 (95% CI:0.72-1.34) in the US studies.The OR was 0.87 (95% CI:0.69-1.10) without adjustment for a history of diabetes and 1.16 (95% CI:0.97-0.39) after adjustment for a history of diabetes.The OR was 0.90 (95% CI:0.72-1.12) without adjustment for alcohol drinking and 1.16 (95% CI:0.96-1.39) after adjustment for alcohol drinking.The OR was 0.97 (95% CI:0.76-1.25) without adjustment for BMI and 1.07 (95% CI:0.87-1.31) after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion This systematic meta-analysis of cohort studies dose not provide quantitative evidence that tea consumption is appreciably related to the risk of pancreatic cancer,even at high doses.

  7. P2X7 receptor-mediated analgesia in cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; D. Schwab, Samantha; Frøsig-Jørgensen, Majbrit

    2015-01-01

    for cancer-induced bone pain. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is involved in a variety of cellular functions and has been linked to both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here we study the analgesic potential of P2X7 receptor antagonism in a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain. In cancer-bearing animals, the P2......Pain is a common and debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of molecular events, including mechanisms observed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, but also changes unique....... The results suggest that the P2X7R is involved in the mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain, and that P2X7R antagonism might be a useful analgesic target. No effect was observed in sham or naïve animals, indicating that the P2X7R-mediated effect is state-dependent, and might therefore be an advantageous...

  8. Mutifactorial analysis of risk factors for reduced bone mineral density in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah A Bartram; Robert T Peaston; David J Rawlings; David Walshaw; Roger M Francis; Nick P Thompson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in a cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to identify the relative significance of risk factors for osteoporosis.METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight unselected patients (92 M, 166 F) with CD were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine and hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and bone resorption by measuring urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD)and N-telopeptide (NTX).RESULTS: Between 11.6%-13.6% patients were osteoporotic (T score < -2.5) at the lumbar spine and/or hip. NTX levels were significantly higher in the patients with osteoporosis (P < 0.05) but BSAP and DPD levels were not significantly different. Independent risk factors for osteoporosis at either the lumbar spine or hip were a low body mass index (P < 0.001), increasing corticosteroid use (P < 0.005), and male sex (P < 0.01).These factors combined accounted for 23% and 37% of the reduction in BMD at the lumbar spine and hip respectively.CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that osteoporosis is common in patients with CD and suggest that increased bone resorption is the mechanism responsible for the bone loss. However, less than half of the reduction in BMD can be attributed to risk factors such as corticosteroid use and low BMI and therefore remains unexplained.

  9. Sociodemographic status, stress, and risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage S; Zhang, Zuo-Feng;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The social gradient in prostate cancer incidence observed in several studies may be a result of differential access to prostate cancer screening. We aim to assess if socioeconomic status, stress, and marital status are associated with prostate cancer risk in a population with free access...

  10. Changes in mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for breast cancer is high mammographic density. Mammographic density represents the amount of fibroglandular tissue relative to the fat tissue in the breast. Women with >75% of their b

  11. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  12. Is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease a Risk Factor for Ovarian Cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Jensen, Allan; Albieri, Vanna;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been proposed as a risk factor for ovarian cancer. However, the existing literature on the association between PID and ovarian cancer risk is inconclusive, and only few cohort studies have been conducted. METHODS: Using nationwide Danish registries...

  13. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development. De

  14. Cancer risk among patients with congenital heart defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten; Garne, Ester; Sværke, Claus

    2013-01-01

    -based interventions, the standardised incidence ratio was 1.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-2.29). Conclusion The overall risk of cancer among congenital heart defect patients without Down's syndrome was not statistically significantly elevated. Cancer risk in the congenital heart defect cohort as a whole...

  15. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Ji, B.T.; Shu, X.O.; Chow, W.H.; Xue, S.; Yang, G; Li, H.L.; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y.T.; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40-70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reporte

  16. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alina Stoita; Ian D Penman; David B Williams

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  17. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B

    2011-05-21

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  18. Breast cancer osteomimicry and its role in bone specific metastasis; an integrative, systematic review of preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awolaran, Olugbenga; Brooks, Susan A; Lavender, Verna

    2016-12-01

    Metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer and the preference of invasive breast cancer metastasising to bone has been widely reported. However, the biological basis of breast cancer osteotropism is not fully understood. This paper provides, for the first time, an integrative, systematic review of evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in the homing of metastatic breast cancer to the bone. Pubmed, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were searched using keywords and synonyms for molecular, metastasis, breast cancer and bone to identify articles published between January 2004 and August 2016. 4491 potentially relevant citations were retrieved. 63 articles met the inclusion criteria, which were primary studies reporting evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in predisposing breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. 12 of those 63 articles that additionally met quality criteria were included in the review. Extracted data were tabulated and key findings that indicated biological mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis to bone were synthesised. 15 proteins expressed by breast cancer cells were identified as factors that mediate breast cancer bone metastasis: ICAM-1, cadherin-11, osteoactivin, bone sialoprotein, CCN3, IL-11, CCL2, CITED2, CXCR4, CTGF, OPN, CX3CR1, TWIST1, adrenomedullin and Enpp1. Upregulation or overexpression of one or more of them by breast cancer cells resulted in increased breast cancer metastasis to bone in vivo, except for CCL2 where bone-metastatic cells showed a reduced expression of this factor. All factors identified, here expressed by breast cancer cells, are proteins that are normally expressed in the bone microenvironment and linked to physiologic bone functions. All have a functional role in one of more of the following: cell proliferation and differentiation, bone mineralization and remodelling, cell adhesion and/or chemokine signalling. Six of them (cadherin-11, ICAM-1, OPN, CX3CR1

  19. Methods to Predict and Lower the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ercole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention for prostate cancer (PCa continues to generate interest from both physicians and the patient population. The goal of chemoprevention is to stop the malignant transformation of prostate cells into cancer. Multiple studies on different substances ranging from supplements to medical therapy have been undertaken. Thus far, only the studies on 5α-reductase inhibitors (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events [REDUCE] trial have demonstrated a reduction in the risk of PCa, while results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT concluded no decreased risk for PCa with selenium or vitamin E.

  20. Chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Norppa, Hannu; Ceppi, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    studies and to evaluate the strength of this association, a pooled analysis was carried out. The pooled database included 11 national cohorts and a total of 22 358 cancer-free individuals who underwent genetic screening with CA for biomonitoring purposes during 1965-2002 and were followed up for cancer...... for stomach cancer [RR(medium) = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.37-3.70), RR(high) = 3.13 (95% CI = 1.17-8.39)]. Exposure to carcinogens did not modify the effect of CA levels on overall cancer risk. These results reinforce the evidence of a link between CA frequency and cancer risk and provide novel information...

  1. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  2. Can I lower the Risk of My Cancer Progressing or Coming Back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No Longer Working Thyroid Cancer After Treatment Can I Lower the Risk of My Cancer Progressing or ... Treatment Living as a Thyroid Cancer Survivor Can I Lower the Risk of My Cancer Progressing or ...

  3. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  4. Role of sympathetic nerves in the establishment of metastatic breast cancer cells in bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Elefteriou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The bone marrow microenvironment is characterized by its multicellular nature, and perhaps less obviously by the high mobility of multiple transient and stationary cell lineages present in this environment. The trafficking of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells between the bone marrow and blood compartments is regulated by a number of bone marrow-derived factors. It is suspected that transformed metastatic cells “hijack” these processes to engraft into the skeleton and eventually cause the skeletal complications associated with metastatic disease. In this short review, experimental and association data supporting the contribution of a less recognized cell type of the bone marrow – the nerves of the sympathetic nervous system – to early events of the breast cancer bone metastatic process, are summarized.

  5. Bone-targeted therapy for metastatic breast cancer-Where do we go from here? A commentary from the BONUS 8 meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofu; Amir, Eitan; Singh, Gurmit; Clemons, Mark; Addison, Christina

    2014-03-01

    The annual Bone and The Oncologist New Updates (BONUS 8) conference focuses on the current understanding and dilemmas in the treatment and prevention of bone metastasis in cancer, as well as novel research on bone homeostasis and cancer-induced bone loss. We present commentaries from experts for their own take on where they feel the field of bone-targeted therapies for metastatic breast cancer is moving, or needs to move, if we are to make further progress.

  6. Cold metastases detected by bone scintigraphy in aggressive lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Carsi, C.; Perales Vila, A. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear de l`Hospital 9 d`Octubre, Valencia (Spain); Ruiz Hernandez, G. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear de l`Hospital Clinic Universitari, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez Marchori, C.; Oro Camps, J. [Servei de Traumatologia de l`Hospital 9 d`Octubre, Valencia (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    A case of a 55-year-old man was remitted to Traumatology Department to present back pain of two weeks of evolution. The results of bone scintigraphy and the patient`s evolution allowed the diagnosis. This case report and a literature review showed the importance of using a routine bone scan in diagnosis of bone metastases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein 55jaehriger Mann mit seit zwei Wochen andauernden lumbalen Schmerzen wurde in der orthopaedischen Klinik untersucht. Die Evolution des klinischen Bildes und eine Knochenszintigraphie ermoeglichten die Diagnose. Dieser klinische Fall und das wissenschaftliche Schrifttum zeigten, wie wichtig eine routinemaessige Knochenszintigraphie in der Diagnostik von Knochenmetastasen ist. (orig.)

  7. Rosacea and risk of cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Fowler, Joseph F; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common facial skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-10% among Caucasians. OBJECTIVE: We compared cancer incidence in patients previously diagnosed with rosacea with that in the general population. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of the Danish population using...... individual-level linkage of administrative registers. All Danish citizens aged ≥18years were followed from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012. Patients with rosacea (the exposure) were compared with the general population, serving as control subjects. The outcome was a diagnosis of one of the following...... for age, sex, socio-economic status, and healthcare consumption were estimated by Cox regression models. RESULTS: The study comprised a total of 49,475 patients with rosacea and 4,312,213 subjects from the general population. There was no increased risk of malignant melanoma, ovarian, endometrial...

  8. Behavioral, medical imaging and histopathological features of a new rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Doré-Savard

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical bone cancer pain models mimicking the human condition are required to respond to clinical realities. Breast or prostate cancer patients coping with bone metastases experience intractable pain, which affects their quality of life. Advanced monitoring is thus required to clarify bone cancer pain mechanisms and refine treatments. In our model of rat femoral mammary carcinoma MRMT-1 cell implantation, pain onset and tumor growth were monitored for 21 days. The surgical procedure performed without arthrotomy allowed recording of incidental pain in free-moving rats. Along with the gradual development of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, behavioral signs of ambulatory pain were detected at day 14 by using a dynamic weight-bearing apparatus. Osteopenia was revealed from day 14 concomitantly with disorganization of the trabecular architecture (µCT. Bone metastases were visualized as early as day 8 by MRI (T(1-Gd-DTPA before pain detection. PET (Na(18F co-registration revealed intra-osseous activity, as determined by anatomical superimposition over MRI in accordance with osteoclastic hyperactivity (TRAP staining. Pain and bone destruction were aggravated with time. Bone remodeling was accompanied by c-Fos (spinal and ATF3 (DRG neuronal activation, sustained by astrocyte (GFAP and microglia (Iba1 reactivity in lumbar spinal cord. Our animal model demonstrates the importance of simultaneously recording pain and tumor progression and will allow us to better characterize therapeutic strategies in the future.

  9. Risk factors for developing mineral bone disease in phenylketonuric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirás, Alicia; Bóveda, M Dolores; Leis, María R; Mera, Antonio; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís; Fernández-Lorenzo, José R; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2013-03-01

    There is a compromised bone mass in phenylketonuria patients compared with normal population, but the mechanisms responsible are still a matter of investigation. In addition, tetrahydrobiopterin therapy is a new option for a significant proportion of these patients and the prevalence of mineral bone disease (MBD) in these patients is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study including 43 phenylketonuric patients. Bone densitometry, nutritional assessment, physical activity questionnaire, biochemical parameters, and molecular study were performed in all patients. Patients were stratified by phenotype, age and type of treatment. The MBD prevalence in phenylketonuria was 14%. Osteopenic and osteoporotic (n=6 patients) had an average daily natural protein intake significantly lower than the remaining (n=37) patients with PKU (14.33 ± 8.95 g vs 21.25 ± 20.85 g). Besides, a lower body mass index was found. There were no statistical differences in physical activity level, calcium, phosphorus and fat intake, and in phenylalanine, vitamin D, paratohormone, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid blood levels. Mutational spectrum was found in up to 30 different PAH genotypes and no relationship was established among genotype and development of MBD. None of the twelve phenylketonuric patients treated with tetrahydrobiopterin (27.9%), for an average of 7.1 years, developed MBD. Natural protein intake and blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were significantly higher while calcium intake was lower in these patients. This study shows that the decrease in natural protein intake can play an important role in MBD development in phenylketonuric patients. Therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin allows a more relaxed protein diet, which is associated with better bone mass.

  10. Impact of Maternal Diet on Offspring Bone Fracture Risk During Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo

    , including maternal diet and vitamin D status. However, few studies have investigated whether these factors during pregnancy impact offspring bone health in short as well as in the long term. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate epidemiologically whether maternal vitamin D status...... and dietary patterns in two prospective pregnancy cohorts, were associated with offspring risk of bone fractures in childhood. Overall, our studies provided limited support to the hypothesis that fetal bone health is programmed by the maternal vitamin D status and overall diet during pregnancy. However......, there were some indications of an increased risk for fractures when the mother consumed a Western diet and had high consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks. Further, our results indicated that mid-pregnancy use of dietary supplements with high doses of vitamin D increased the risk for offspring...

  11. Serum bone turnover markers (PINP and ICTP) for the early detection of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer : A longitudinal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, N.; de Jong, I. J.; van der Veer, E.; Breeuwsma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: An increase in bone turnover markers in patients with prostate cancer may predict bone metastases but it can also reflect the effects of androgen deprivation treatment. To assess the diagnostic efficacy of early detection of skeletal metastases we retrospectively performed serial measuremen

  12. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  13. Breast cancer risk and the BRCA1 interacting protein CTIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Choong, David Y H; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Visvader, Jane E; Campbell, Ian G

    2008-11-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 predispose to breast cancer. CTIP interacts with BRCA1 and so could also be associated with increased risk. We screened CTIP for germline mutations in 210 probands of breast cancer families including 129 families with no mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. No coding variants were detected in CTIP, therefore, it is unlikely to be involved in breast cancer risk.

  14. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-02-21

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

  15. Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    second leading cause of cancer death.1 Obesity is a known risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women.2 Green tea consumption has been...by which green tea may decrease breast cancer risk. This study evaluates the effects of green tea consumption with high EGCG concentrations on...Obesity 2009; 17(2):310-317. 5. Phung OJ, Baker WL, Matthews LJ, Lanosa M, Thorne A, Coleman CI. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine

  16. Association of dialysis with the risks of cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yen Lin

    Full Text Available To increase the survival span after dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, identifying specific cancer risks is crucial in the cancer screening of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the risks of various cancers in an incident dialysis group in comparison with a non-dialysis group.We conducted a nationwide cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who initially received long-term dialysis between January 1997 and December 2004, were selected and defined as the dialysis group and were matched with the non-dialysis patients (control group according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risk analysis was used to estimate cumulative incidence and subdistribution hazard ratios (SHRs of the first cancer occurrence.After consideration for the competing risk of mortality, the dialysis group showed a significantly higher 7-year cancer incidence rate than did the control group (6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0%-6.7% vs 1.7%; 95% CI, 1.4%-2.1%; P <0.001.The modified Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the dialysis group had significantly association with increased risks for all cancers (SHR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.02-3.88. The risk of cancers was dominated in younger and female patients. Specific cancer risks were significantly higher in the dialysis group particularly in the development of oral, colorectal, liver, blood, breast, renal, upper urinary tract, and bladder cancer than in the control group. Multivariable stratified analyses confirmed the association between long-term dialysis and cancer in all subgroups of patients.Dialysis is associated with a higher risk of cancer in patients with ESRD. However, cancer screening in ESRD population should be a selective approach, based on individual patient health condition and life expectancy.

  17. Modeling invasion of metastasizing cancer cells to bone marrow utilizing ecological principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kun-Wan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasion of a new species into an established ecosystem can be directly compared to the steps involved in cancer metastasis. Cancer must grow in a primary site, extravasate and survive in the circulation to then intravasate into target organ (invasive species survival in transport. Cancer cells often lay dormant at their metastatic site for a long period of time (lag period for invasive species before proliferating (invasive spread. Proliferation in the new site has an impact on the target organ microenvironment (ecological impact and eventually the human host (biosphere impact. Results Tilman has described mathematical equations for the competition between invasive species in a structured habitat. These equations were adapted to study the invasion of cancer cells into the bone marrow microenvironment as a structured habitat. A large proportion of solid tumor metastases are bone metastases, known to usurp hematopoietic stem cells (HSC homing pathways to establish footholds in the bone marrow. This required accounting for the fact that this is the natural home of hematopoietic stem cells and that they already occupy this structured space. The adapted Tilman model of invasion dynamics is especially valuable for modeling the lag period or dormancy of cancer cells. Conclusions The Tilman equations for modeling the invasion of two species into a defined space have been modified to study the invasion of cancer cells into the bone marrow microenvironment. These modified equations allow a more flexible way to model the space competition between the two cell species. The ability to model initial density, metastatic seeding into the bone marrow and growth once the cells are present, and movement of cells out of the bone marrow niche and apoptosis of cells are all aspects of the adapted equations. These equations are currently being applied to clinical data sets for verification and further refinement of the models.

  18. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposissyndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fábio Guilherme Campos; Marleny Novaes Figueiredo; Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidityand mortality around the world, and approximately 5%of them develop in a context of inherited mutationsleading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes.Recognition and characterization of thesepatients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basisof CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized bythe predominant histological structure found within thepolyps. The aim of the present paper is to review themost important clinical features of the HamartomatousPolyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disordersformed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposissyndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome(Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes).A literature search was performed in order to retrievethe most recent and important papers (articles,reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regardingthe studied subject. We searched for terms such as"hamartomatous polyposis syndromes", "Peutz-Jegherssyndrome", "juvenile polyposis syndrome", "juvenilepolyp", and "PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome"(Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). Thepresent article reports the wide spectrum of diseaseseverity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a specialfocus on their potential to develop colorectal and otherneoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectalcancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers andPTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%,39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regardingcancer surveillance recommendations is also presented.

  19. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based.

  20. Effects of COLIA1 polymorphisms and haplotypes on perimenopausal bone mass, postmenopausal bone loss and fracture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Bofill, N; Husted, L B; Harsløf, T;

    2011-01-01

    : lumbar spine BMD 1.030 +/- 0.137 g/cm(2), 1.016 +/- 0.147 g/cm(2) and 0.988 +/- 0.124 g/cm(2) in women with the GG, GT and TT genotypes, respectively (p ..., respectively (p = 0.01). The effect remained after 10 years although statistical significance was lost. Haplotype 3 (-1997T-1663ins+1245G) was associated with lower bone mass and higher levels of bone turnover. Compared with haplotype 1, haplotype 3 carriers had lower BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck...... and total hip by 0.016 +/- 0.007 g/cm(2), 0.015 +/- 0.006 g/cm(2) and 0.017 +/- 0.006 g/cm(2), respectively (p risk and no overall interaction with the effects of hormone therapy could be demonstrated for any...

  1. Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, L; Beelen, MLR; Gallee, MPW; Hollema, H; Benraadt, J; van Leeuwen, FE

    2000-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer. However, few studies have produced reliable risk estimates by duration, dose, and recency of use, or addressed the prognosis of endometrial cancers in tamoxifen-treated women. Methods We did a nationwide case-control study on the risk an

  2. Cytokeratin-positive cells in preoperative peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates of patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Brünner, N

    2002-01-01

    Detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood may have prognostic significance in cancer patients. Furthermore, a correlation between uPAR expression on micrometastases and patient prognosis has been suggested. However, in patients with colorectal cancer, preoperative...... in preoperatively obtained bone marrow aspirates or peripheral blood from patients with colorectal cancer....... detection and characterization of tumour cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood, using an immunocytochemical approach, have not yet been substantiated as a prognostic tool. METHODS: Forty-one bone marrow aspirates and 38 peripheral blood aspirates, obtained preoperatively from patients with colorectal...

  3. The diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bone Gla protein (osteocalcin) in patients with recurrent breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamby, C; Egsmose, C; Söletormos, G

    1993-01-01

    bone survey. The sites of recurrence were bone (61%), bone marrow (46%), soft tissue (52%), lung (13%), pleura (11%), liver (4%), and brain (2%). Radiology and bone biopsy served as key diagnoses as to the presence or absence of bone metastases. The diagnostic efficiency of B-scan and S-AP was greater...... than that of S-BGP, and the result of BGP measurement was associated with neither extent nor number of bone metastases. However, the BGP values were significantly lower in patients who had visceral metastases, and the median duration of survival after recurrence was 13 months for patients with low S......Serum bone Gla protein (S-BGP), a marker of bone metabolism, was measured in 60 patients included in a staging programme for recurrent breast cancer. Other diagnostic procedures comprised S-alkaline phosphatase (S-AP), bone scan (B-scan), bilateral iliac crest bone marrow biopsies, and radiological...

  4. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranen, Taru A; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-08-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on ~4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment.

  5. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaws in advanced stage breast cancer was detected from bone scan: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Thongjood, Thanaporn; Aroonroch, Rangsima

    2017-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are indicated to treat skeletal-related events (SREs) for cancer patients with bone metastasis. We report a 79-year-old woman with advanced stage breast cancer with bone metastasis who was prescribed BPs (zoledronate), then developed osteonecrosis of jaw. We provide a brief review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:28210558

  6. 18F-NaF Positive Bone Metastases of Non 18F-FDG Avid Mucinous Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Soydal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of gastric cancer bone metastasis is crucial since its presence is an independent prognostic factor. In this case report, we would like to present 18F-NaF positive bone metastases of non 18F-FDG avid gastric mucinous cancer

  7. Cancer risk of patients discharged with acute myocardial infarct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    We studied whether common shared environmental or behavioral risk factors, other than tobacco smoking, underlie both atherosclerotic diseases and cancer. We identified a group of 96,891 one-year survivors of acute myocardial infarct through the Danish Hospital Discharge Register between 1977...... and 1989. We calculated the incidence of cancer in this group by linking it to the Danish Cancer Registry for the period 1978-1993. There was no consistent excess over the expected figures for any of the categories of cancer not related to tobacco smoking. Specifically, the rates of colorectal cancer...... in acute myocardial infarct patients were similar to those of the general population, as were the rates for hormone-related cancers, including endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancers. We found a moderate increase in the risk for tobacco-related cancers, which was strongest for patients with early...

  8. The diagnostic utility of the flare phenomenon on bone scintigraphy in staging prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Gary J.R.; Lewington, Valerie J.; Chua, Sue C. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Venkitaraman, Ram; Huddart, Robert A.; Parker, Christopher C.; Dearnaley, David D.; Horwich, Alan [Royal Marsden Hospital, Academic Urology Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam S. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy (BS) lacks sensitivity for detecting very early skeletal metastases (SM) in prostate cancer (PC) and is often limited by poor specificity. Also scintigraphic flare of SM can occur following effective treatment and mislead an early response assessment. We hypothesised that a flare reaction might amplify the signal from subclinical SM, increasing the sensitivity of BS and that the phenomenon may be specific for metastases. We conducted a prospective study to determine the frequency of the flare phenomenon in patients with metastatic PC starting hormone therapy and to explore its utility in patients with negative staging scans but considered at high risk of SM and in those with equivocal baseline BS abnormalities. Ninety-nine patients commencing first-line hormone therapy had repeat BS at 6 weeks to score a flare reaction. Of 22 patients with unequivocal SM on the baseline scan, a flare occurred in 9 (41%). Of 36 high-risk localised prostate cancer patients with normal BS pre-treatment, the scan became positive for metastases at 6 weeks in 4 (11%). Of 41 patients with pre-treatment scintigraphic abnormalities of uncertain aetiology, a flare occurred in 8 cases (20%). All eight were confirmed to have SM by follow-up and imaging. Of the 33 remaining patients without a flare, 2 developed SM at 14 months and the remainder did not develop SM in a median follow-up period of 36 months. The flare phenomenon following initial hormone therapy can be used to improve both sensitivity and specificity of BS in PC. (orig.)

  9. High bone turnover elevates the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koji; Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ohara, Kenji; Eguro, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX). Of the 85 denosumab-treated patients with osteoporosis studied, 22 (25.9%) developed hypocalcemia. Baseline serum total P1NP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly higher in patients with hypocalcemia than in those with normocalcemia following denosumab administration (all P76.5 μg/L, TRACP-5b >474 mU/dL, or urinary NTX >49.5 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine had a higher risk of hypocalcemia (Posteoporosis with higher baseline bone turnover than in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with normal baseline bone turnover, because maintenance of normal serum calcium in this subgroup is more dependent on bone resorption. Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is strongly recommended for denosumab-treated patients with high bone turnover, despite supplementation with activated vitamin D and oral calcium.

  10. Light deficiency confers breast cancer risk by endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-09-01

    North-America and northern European countries exhibit the highest incidence rate of breast cancer, whereas women in southern regions are relatively protected. Immigrants from low cancer incidence regions to high-incidence areas might exhibit similarly higher or excessive cancer risk as compared with the inhabitants of their adoptive country. Additional cancer risk may be conferred by incongruence between their biological characteristics and foreign environment. Many studies established the racial/ethnic disparities in the risk and nature of female breast cancer in United States between African-American and Caucasian women. Mammary tumors in black women are diagnosed at earlier age, and are associated with higher rate of mortality as compared with cancers of white cases. Results of studies on these ethnic/racial differences in breast cancer incidence suggest that excessive pigmentation of dark skinned women results in a relative light-deficiency. Poor light exposure may explain the deleterious metabolic and hormonal alterations; such as insulin resistance, deficiencies of estrogen, thyroxin and vitamin-D conferring excessive cancer risk. The more northern the location of an adoptive country the higher the cancer risk for dark skinned immigrants. Recognition of the deleterious systemic effects of darkness and excessive melatonin synthesis enables cancer protection treatment for people living in light-deficient environment. Recent patents provide new methods for the prevention of hormonal and metabolic abnormities.

  11. Improving radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone pain

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals are indicated in cancer patients with multiple painful skeletal metastases. The majority of these patients are hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients in an advanced stage of their disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals relieve pain and improve the patients quality of life. The mostly used radiopharmaceuticals are 89SrCl2 (Metastron), 153Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet) and 186Re-HEDP. Differences between 89SrCl2, 153Sm-EDTMP and 186Re-HEDP were investigated. It ...

  12. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oue, Erika [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Iimura, Tadahiro [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Kazuhiro [Section of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Kayamori, Kou [Section of Diagnostic Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Pathology, Ome Municipal General Hospital, Ome, Tokyo (Japan); Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first

  13. Pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 promote breast cancer cell growth in bone in a murine xenograft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bones are the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis. Upon arrival within the bone microenvironment, breast cancer cells coordinate the activities of stromal cells, resulting in an increase in osteoclast activity and bone matrix degradation. In late stages of bone metastasis, breast cance...

  14. Counseling women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanek, M E

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risk analysis is a relatively new clinical service that has developed as more precise information has become available regarding specific risk factors. Both epidemiological and genetic factors contribute substantially to the identification of women at higher risk for developing breast cancer. The definition of what constitutes risk, an understanding of which factors influence risk, and the ability to present risk information clearly are critical features. In addition to providing information about risk and assessing each woman's perception of risk, the emotional issues must be addressed. The focus of intervention should center upon the benefits of early detection, assessment of breast self-examination skills, individualized breast cancer screening recommendations, such as mammography and physical exams, and recommendations for life style changes for possible prevention.

  15. Bone Factors Regulating the Osteotropism of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    radiographically and histopathologically among breast carcinoma cells. Ectopic calcifications associated with malignant lesions are formed by...CBFA1 +/- mice, plus supernumerary teeth .42 CBFA1 was capable of inducing osteoblast related genes in non-osteoblastic tissue. In C3H10t1/2 cells and in...These mechanisms involve inappropriate ectopic expression of bioactive bone proteins which activate osteoclasts (PTIIrp, bone sialopotein, osteopontin

  16. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in...

  17. Intake of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Knekt, P.; Järvinen, R; Seppänen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Aromaa, A

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between intake of dairy products and risk of breast cancer was studied in 4697 initially cancer-free women, aged 15 years or over. During a 25 year follow-up period after the collection of food consumption data, 88 breast cancers were diagnosed. Intakes of foods were calculated from dietary history interviews covering the habitual diet of examinees over the preceding year. There was a significant inverse gradient between milk intake and incidence of breast cancer, the age-adj...

  18. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  19. Topical treatment with Tong-Luo-San-Jie Gel alleviates bone cancer pain in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juyong; Zhang, Ruixin; Dong, Changsheng; Jiao, Liying; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jiyong; Wang, Zhengtao; Ying, Qi Liang Mao; Fong, Harry; Lao, Lixing

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The herbal analgesic gel Tong-Luo-San-Jie (TLSJ) and its modifications are used in traditional Chinese medicine to manage cancer pain. However, its mechanisms are still unknown. Aim of the study To investigate the effects and mechanisms of TLSJ gel on bone cancer pain in a rat model. Materials and Methods A bone cancer pain rat model was established by inoculating Walker 256 rat carcinoma cells directly into the right tibial medullary cavity of Sprague-Dawley rats (150–170 g); Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) tibial inoculation was used as control. Cancer-bearing rats were treated twice a day with external TLSJ gel (0.5 g/cm2/day) or inert gel control for 21 days (n=10/group). Behavioral tests such as mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were carried out. Osteoclastic activities were determined and carboxyterminal pyridinoline cross-linked type I collagen telopeptides (ICTP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) concentrations were detected with ELISA after treatment. Adverse effects were monitored, and biochemical and histological tests were performed in naïve rats treated with local TLSJ gel for six weeks. Results TLSJ treatment significantly restored bone cancer-induced decrease of PWL and mechanical threshold compared to inert gel. It also decreased the level of blood serum ICTP and BAP and inhibited osteoclast activities. No adverse effects or abnormal biochemical and histological changes were detected after TLSJ treatment. Conclusion The present study shows that TLSJ significantly inhibits bone cancer-induced thermal and mechanical sensitization. It suggests that the gel may be useful in managing cancer pain and that it may act by inhibiting osteoclastic activity. PMID:22960543

  20. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  1. Hip bone mineral density, bone turnover and risk of fracture in patients on long-term suppressive L-thyroxine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijckmann, AC; Huijberts, MSP; Geusens, P; de Vries, J; Menheere, PPCA; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Untreated hyperthyroidism and treatment with high doses of thyroid hormone are associated with osteoporosis. However, their effect on bone turnover, their contribution to bone mineral density (BMD) in the context of other clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and the prevalence of verteb

  2. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  3. Utilization of bone densitometry for prediction and administration of bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases receiving antiandrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abby Holt,1 Muhammad A Khan,2 Swetha Gujja,3 Rangaswmy Govindarajan31Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, 2White River Health System, Batesville, 3Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USABackground: Prostate cancer subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA relapse who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT are recommended to have baseline and serial bone densitometry and receive bisphosphonates. The purpose of this community population study was to assess the utilization of bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer.Methods: A cohort study of men aged 65 years or older with non-metastatic incident diagnoses of prostate cancer was obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER-linked Medicare claims between 2004 and 2008. Claims were used to assess prescribed treatment of ADT, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonates.Results: A total of 30,846 incident prostate cancer cases receiving ADT and aged 65 years or older had no bone metastases; 87.3% (n=26,935 on ADT did not receive either bone densitometry or bisphosphonate therapy. Three percent (n=931 of the cases on ADT received bisphosphonate therapy without ever receiving bone densitometry, 8.8% (n=2,702 of the cases on ADT received bone densitometry without receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, while nearly 1% (0.90%, n=278 of the cases on ADT received both bone densitometry and bisphosphonates. Analysis showed treatment differed by patient characteristics.Conclusion: Contrary to the recommendations, bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy are underutilized in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer.Keywords: prostatic neoplasms, androgen antagonists, bone densitometry, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, osteoporosis

  4. COX2 genetic variation, NSAIDs, and advanced prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, I.; Liu, X.; Plummer, S J; Krumroy, L M; Casey, G; Witte, J S

    2007-01-01

    Collective evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) plays a role in prostate cancer risk. Cyclooxygenase 2 is the major enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the enzymatic activity of COX2 and long-term use of NSAIDs appears to modestly lower the risk of prostate cancer. We investigated whether common genetic variation in COX2 influences the risk of advanced prostate canc...

  5. Increased risk of colon cancer after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gerald; Verkooijen, Helena M; Zanetti, Roberto; Schmidlin, Franz; Shubert, Hyma; Merglen, Arnaud; Miralbell, Raymond; Bouchardy, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Radiotherapy can induce second cancers. Controversies still exist regarding the risk of second malignancies after irradiation for prostate cancer. We evaluated the risk of developing colon and rectum cancers after prostate cancer in irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry, we included in the study all men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1980 and 1998 who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. Of the 1,134 patients, 264 were treated with external radiotherapy. Patients were followed for occurrence of colorectal cancer up to 31 December, 2003. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates for the general population to obtain the expected cancer incidence. The cohort yielded to 3,798 person-years. At the end of follow-up 19 patients had developed a colorectal cancer. Among irradiated patients the SIR for colorectal cancer was 3.4 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7-6.0). Compared to the general population, the risk was significantly higher for colon cancer (SIR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.8-7.6), but not for rectal cancer (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.2-7.2). The risk of colon cancer was increased in the period of 5-9 years after diagnosis (SIR = 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-9.2). The overall SIR of secondary cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy was 1.35 (p = 0.056). Nonirradiated patients did not have any increased risk of rectal or colon cancer. This study shows a significant increase of colon but not rectum cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The risk of second cancer after irradiation, although probably small, needs nevertheless to be carefully monitored.

  6. Incidence and imaging characteristics of skeletal metastases detected by bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Detection of metastatic bone disease by skeletal scintigraphy is a classical application of nuclear medicine in cancer patients. Detection of bone metastases in patients with lung cancer is necessary for an appropriate treatment modality. The aim of this study was to report the frequency and imaging characteristics of bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy (BS using technetium-99m phosphonates in patients with lung cancer. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a total of one hundred patients (78 males and 22 females, mean age of 63.3 years, with the diagnosis of lung cancer, who underwent BS during a three-year period (2003−2005. Scintiscans were classified as positive, negative and suspicious with regard to the presence of bone metastases. Results. The incidence of positive, negative and suspicious findings were 57%. 32% and 11%, respectively. Out of 57 patients with bone metastases, 51 had multiple asymmetric foci of increased tracer activity localized in the ribs, spine, extremities, pelvis, sternum, scapula and skull in 72%, 54%, 49%, 37%, 12%, 9% and 5% of scans, respectively. BS revealed solitary metastases in 6 of the patients. The lesions were located in the lower limbs in three patients and in the upper limbs, pelvis and sternum in the remaining three patients. Conclusion. Bone scintigraphy plays a significant role in staging and selecting of patients for curative lung surgery. Due to the fact that metastatic involvment of the extremities was frequently shown, our study suggests that systematic inclusion of the limbs in BS acquisition should be obligatory.

  7. The CT flare response of metastatic bone disease in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiou, Christina; deSouza, Nandita M. (Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)), email: Christina.Messiou@icr.ac.uk; Cook, Gary (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)); Reid, Alison H.M.; Attard, Gerhardt; Dearnaley, David; deBono, Johann S. (Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom))

    2011-06-15

    Background New or worsening bone lesions in patients responding to treatment, known as the flare phenomenon is well described on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, but to our knowledge has not previously been described on CT. The appearance of new or worsening bone sclerosis on CT in patients with prostate cancer may therefore be erroneously classified as disease progression. Purpose To assess the incidence of osteoblastic healing flare response at 3-month CT assessment in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and to identify associated features that enable differentiation from progressive metastatic bone disease at 3 months. Material and Methods CT scans of 67 patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer undergoing treatment were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to clinical outcome. Changes in number, size, and density of metastatic bone lesions were documented and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) in soft tissue lesions, alkaline phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, and 99mTc-MDP bone scans were used for correlation. Results Of the 39 patients who had 3- and 6-month follow-up, eight patients (21%) demonstrated an increase in number, size, or density of sclerotic lesions on the 3-month CT scan despite improvement in PSA and soft tissue lesions. Three out of eight patients (8%) maintained partial response/remained stable at follow-up and were defined as showing a flare response: in this group bone metastases evident on CT showed a qualitative and quantitative increase in density and no lesions faded at 3 months. In contrast, in all patients who progressed at 3 months by PSA/RECIST criteria (n = 8) bone lesions showed a mixed pattern with some lesions increasing and others decreasing in density. Conclusion The incidence of flare response of metastatic bone disease evident at 3-month post-treatment CT in patients with prostate cancer undergoing systemic treatment is 8%. In patients with falling PSA and stable/responding soft tissue

  8. Integrated multimodal imaging of dynamic bone-tumor alterations associated with metastatic prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Brisset

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis occurs for men with advanced prostate cancer which promotes osseous growth and destruction driven by alterations in osteoblast and osteoclast homeostasis. Patients can experience pain, spontaneous fractures and morbidity eroding overall quality of life. The complex and dynamic cellular interactions within the bone microenvironment limit current treatment options thus prostate to bone metastases remains incurable. This study uses voxel-based analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI and CT scans to simultaneously evaluate temporal changes in normal bone homeostasis along with prostate bone metatastsis to deliver an improved understanding of the spatiotemporal local microenvironment. Dynamic tumor-stromal interactions were assessed during treatment in mouse models along with a pilot prospective clinical trial with metastatic hormone sensitive and castration resistant prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Longitudinal changes in tumor and bone imaging metrics during delivery of therapy were quantified. Studies revealed that voxel-based parametric response maps (PRM of DW-MRI and CT scans could be used to quantify and spatially visualize dynamic changes during prostate tumor growth and in response to treatment thereby distinguishing patients with stable disease from those with progressive disease (p<0.05. These studies suggest that PRM imaging biomarkers are useful for detection of the impact of prostate tumor-stromal responses to therapies thus demonstrating the potential of multi-modal PRM image-based biomarkers as a novel means for assessing dynamic alterations associated with metastatic prostate cancer. These results establish an integrated and clinically translatable approach which can be readily implemented for improving the clinical management of patients with metastatic bone disease.

  9. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping.

  10. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer....... We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41......,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated...

  11. LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER: ACTIVE TREATMENT OR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašković, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The widely used screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen has resulted in identification of potentially lethal prostate cancers at a much more curable stage and has been associated with significant falls in prostate cancer mortality. In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies in men, the advent of sensitive diagnostic testing has also resulted in detection of low risk cancers due to the high incidence of latent prostate cancer in aging men and prolonged natural history of the disease. This, in turn, has entailed the problem of cancer overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Approximately 6 times as many men will be diagnosed with the disease as will die from it. Active surveillance appeared as a response to the clearly documented risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low risk prostate cancer for localized prostate cancer. It entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with 'curative-intent' treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at an increased risk of disease progression. This approach attempts to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and lost opportunity for cure. A systematic literature review brings current knowledge on the subject.

  12. Telomere length and the risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Choi, Yi Young; Lee, Won Kee; Choi, Jin Eun; Cha, Sung Ick; Kim, Yeon Jae; Kim, Chang Ho; Kam, Sin; Jung, Tae Hoon; Park, Jae Yong

    2008-07-01

    Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability. There is growing evidence that short telomeres induce chromosome instability and thereby promote the development of cancer. We investigated the association of telomere length and the risk of lung cancer. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 243 lung cancer patients and 243 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age, sex and smoking status. Telomere length was significantly shorter in lung cancer patients than in controls (mean +/- standard deviation: 1.59 +/- 0.75 versus 2.16 +/- 1.10, P telomere length, the risk of lung cancer was found to increase as telomere length shortened (P(trend) telomere length was used as the cutoff between long and short telomeres, individuals with short telomeres were at a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those with long telomeres (adjusted odds ratio = 3.15, 95% confidence interval = 2.12-4.67, P telomere length on the risk of lung cancer was more pronounced in patients with small cell carcinoma than in those with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001, test for homogeneity). These findings suggest that shortening of the telomeres may be a risk factor for lung cancer, and therefore, the presence of shortened telomeres may be used as a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer.

  13. Pregnancy-related characteristics and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hutson, Alan D; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B; Edge, Stephen B; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-09-01

    Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend pregnancies (p trend pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  14. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  15. 宫颈癌术后骨髓保护调强放疗研究%Bone marrow-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy for postoperative treatment of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuli Zhang; Mingmin Zheng; Junmao Gao; Weidong Xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare bone marrow-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)with IMRT without entering pelvic bone marrow as a planning constraint in the treatment of cervical cancer after hysterectomy. Methods: For a cohort of 10 patients, bone marrow-sparing IMRT and routine IMRT planning were designed. Theproscribed dose was 45 Gy/1.8 Gy/25f, 95% of the planning target volume received this dose. Doses were computed with a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS) using convolution/superimposition (CS) algorithm. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis in terms of planning target volume (PTV) homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) as well as organs at risk (OARs) dose and volume parameters. Results: Bone marrow-sparing IMRT had an vantages over routine IMRT in terms of CI, but inferior to the latter for HI. Compared with routine IMRT, V5,V10, V20, V30, V40 of pelvic bone marrow of bone marrow-sparing IMRT reduced by 1.81%, 8.61%, 31.81%, 29.50%, 28.29%,respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between bone marrow-sparing IMRT and routine IMRT in terms of small bowel, bladder and rectum. Conclusion: For patients with cervical cancer after hysterectomy, bone marrowsparing IMRT reduced the pelvic bone marrow volume irradiated at all dose levels and might be conducive to preventing the occurrence of acute bone marrow toxicity.

  16. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  17. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - an independent risk factor for cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, V A; Becker, S; Kaaks, R

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological findings have shown up to two-fold increases in the risks of cancers of the colorectum, breast, endometrium, kidney (renal cell tumours), liver and pancreas among diabetes patients. In the present review, we address the question whether, on the basis of these epidemiological observations, type 2 diabetes should be considered a specific and independent risk factor for these various forms of cancer, due to its particular metabolic characteristics of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. On the basis of further epidemiological evidence among non-diabetic individuals, as well as recent studies examining the effects of different types of diabetes treatment on cancer risks, we conclude that chronic elevations in fasting and non-fasting blood levels of glucose and/or insulin are plausible independent risk factors for cancer, but that much of the increase in cancer risks associated with these two metabolic factors may occur within the normoglycaemic and insulinemic (non-diabetic) ranges. Furthermore, for some tumour types (e. g. cancer of the endometrium) the associations of risk with type 2 diabetes may to a large extent be due to, and at least partially confounded by, other obesity-related alterations in (e. g. sex steroid) metabolism that in part are independent of glucose and/or insulin metabolism. Specifically for pancreatic cancer, a major question, addressed in detail by other reviews, is whether associations of risk with plasma glucose, insulin or overt type 2 diabetes could be either a cause, or possibly also a consequence of tumour development (or both).

  18. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro......BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic...... or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated...... genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from...

  19. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  20. SU-D-9A-07: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Bai, S [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Zhang, Y [Beijing Cancer Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China); Ming, X [TianJin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Y [Tianjin University, Tianjin, Tianjin (China); Deng, J [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To systematically evaluate the imaging doses and cancer risks associated with various imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation during image-guided radiotherapy of an increasingly large number of cancer patients. Methods: 141 patients (52 brain cases, 47 thoracic cases, 42 abdominal cases, aged 3 to 91 years old) treated between October 2009 and March 2010 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. During the whole radiotherapy course, each patient underwent at least one type of imaging procedures, i.e., kV portal, MV portal and kVCBCT, besides CT simulations. Based on Monte Carlo modeling and particle transport in human anatomy of various dimensions, the correlations between the radiation doses to the various organs-at-risk (OARs) at the head, the thoracic and the abdominal regions and one's weight, circumference, scan mAs and kVp have been obtained and used to estimate the radiation dose from a specific imaging procedure. The radiation-induced excess relative risk (ERR) was then estimated with BEIR VII formulism based on one's gender, age and radiation dose. 1+ ERR was reported in this study as relative cancer risk. Results: For the whole cohort of 141 patients, the mean imaging doses from various imaging procedures were 8.3 cGy to the brain, 10.5 cGy to the lungs and 19.2 cGy to the red bone marrow, respectively. Accordingly, the cancer risks were 1.140, 1.369 and 2.671, respectively. In comparison, MV portal deposited largest doses to the lungs while kVCBCT delivered the highest doses to the red bone marrow. Conclusion: The compiled imaging doses to a patient during his/her treatment course were patient-specific and site-dependent, varying from 1.2 to 263.5 cGy on average, which were clinically significant and should be included in the treatment planning and overall decision-making. Our results indicated the necessity of personalized imaging to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing the associated cancer risks

  1. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis.

  2. Bone Cell-autonomous Contribution of Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor to Breast Cancer-induced Osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G; Mollat, Patrick; Ralston, Stuart H; Idris, Aymen I

    2015-09-04

    The cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) has previously been implicated as a regulator of tumor growth, bone remodeling, and bone pain. However, very little is known about the role of the skeletal CB2 receptor in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts changes associated with breast cancer. Here we found that the CB2-selective agonists HU308 and JWH133 reduced the viability of a variety of parental and bone-tropic human and mouse breast cancer cells at high micromolar concentrations. Under conditions in which these ligands are used at the nanomolar range, HU308 and JWH133 enhanced human and mouse breast cancer cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and exacerbated osteolysis, and these effects were attenuated in cultures obtained from CB2-deficient mice or in the presence of a CB2 receptor blocker. HU308 and JWH133 had no effects on osteoblast growth or differentiation in the presence of conditioned medium from breast cancer cells, but under these circumstances both agents enhanced parathyroid hormone-induced osteoblast differentiation and the ability to support osteoclast formation. Mechanistic studies in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts showed that JWH133 and HU308 induced PI3K/AKT activity in a CB2-dependent manner, and these effects were enhanced in the presence of osteolytic and osteoblastic factors such as RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand) and parathyroid hormone. When combined with published work, these findings suggest that breast cancer and bone cells exhibit differential responses to treatment with CB2 ligands depending upon cell type and concentration used. We, therefore, conclude that both CB2-selective activation and antagonism have potential efficacy in cancer-associated bone disease, but further studies are warranted and ongoing.

  3. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 contributes to morphine tolerance in rats with cancer-induced bone pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Gao, Xiu-Juan; Ren, Chun-Guang; Hu, Ji-Hua; Liu, Xian-Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zong-Wang; Fu, Zhi-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain can severely compromise the life quality of patients, while tolerance limits the use of opioids in the treatment of cancer pain. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is known to contribute to neuropathic pain. However, the role of spinal MCP-1 in the development of morphine tolerance in patients with cancer-induced bone pain remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of spinal MCP-1 in morphine tolerance in bone cancer pain rats (MTBP rats). Bone cancer pain was induced by intramedullary injection of Walker 256 cells into the tibia of the rats, while morphine tolerance was induced by continuous intrathecal injection of morphine over a period of 9 days. In addition, anti-MCP-1 antibodies were intrathecally injected to rats in various groups in order to investigate the association of MCP-1 with mechanical and heat hyperalgesia using the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) tests, respectively. Furthermore, MCP-1 and CCR2 expression levels were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, and CCR2 expression levels were measured using RT-qPCR. The results indicated that MCP-1 and CCR2 expression levels were significantly increased in the spinal cord of MTBP rats. Intrathecal administration of anti-MCP-1 neutralizing antibodies was observed to attenuate the mechanical and thermal allodynia in MTBP rats. Therefore, the upregulation of spinal MCP-1 and CCR2 expression levels may contribute to the development of mechanical allodynia in MTBP rats. In conclusion, MCP-1/CCR2 signaling may serve a crucial role in morphine tolerance development in rats suffering from cancer-induced bone pain.

  4. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  5. An approach for the identification of targets specific to bone metastasis using cancer genes interactome and gene ontology analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Vashisht

    Full Text Available Metastasis is one of the most enigmatic aspects of cancer pathogenesis and is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality. Secondary bone cancer (SBC is a complex disease caused by metastasis of tumor cells from their primary site and is characterized by intricate interplay of molecular interactions. Identification of targets for multifactorial diseases such as SBC, the most frequent complication of breast and prostate cancers, is a challenge. Towards achieving our aim of identification of targets specific to SBC, we constructed a 'Cancer Genes Network', a representative protein interactome of cancer genes. Using graph theoretical methods, we obtained a set of key genes that are relevant for generic mechanisms of cancers and have a role in biological essentiality. We also compiled a curated dataset of 391 SBC genes from published literature which serves as a basis of ontological correlates of secondary bone cancer. Building on these results, we implement a strategy based on generic cancer genes, SBC genes and gene ontology enrichment method, to obtain a set of targets that are specific to bone metastasis. Through this study, we present an approach for probing one of the major complications in cancers, namely, metastasis. The results on genes that play generic roles in cancer phenotype, obtained by network analysis of 'Cancer Genes Network', have broader implications in understanding the role of molecular regulators in mechanisms of cancers. Specifically, our study provides a set of potential targets that are of ontological and regulatory relevance to secondary bone cancer.

  6. Risk factors associated with lung cancer in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, Moira; Koo, L C; Ho, J C-M; Tsang, K W-T; Chau, W-S; Chiu, S-W; Ip, M S-M; Lam, W-K

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with lung cancer in Hong Kong. Three hundred and thirty-one histologically or cytologically proven consecutive cases of lung cancer and the same number of in- and out-patients without cancer matched for age and sex were recruited for this study using a detailed questionnaire completed by a trained interviewer. Smoking was the most important risk factor associated with lung cancer but the attributable risk (AR) was estimated to be 45.8% in men and 6.2% in women, considerably lower compared with those estimated in early 1980s. In addition, among women, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at work+/-at home and lack of education, were independent risk factors for lung cancer with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.60, (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-8.51) and OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.27-4.55), respectively. Among men, exposure to insecticide/pesticide/herbicide, ETS exposure at work or at home, and a family history of lung cancer and were independent risk factors with adjusted OR 3.29 (95% CI 1.22-8.9, OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.24-4.76 and OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.43-3.94, respectively). Exposure to incense burning and frying pan fumes were not significant risk factors in both sexes. A moderate or high consumption of fat in the diet was associated with increased risk in men but decreased risk in women. The results of this study suggested that as the prevalence of smoking declined, the influence of smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer decreased even further. Moreover, the contribution of other environmental, occupational and socioeconomic factors may be more apparent as etiological factors for lung cancer in a population with relatively high lung cancer incidence but low AR from active smoking.

  7. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...... to 20 years in a longitudinal register-based cohort study. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related information were obtained through Danish administrative registers. RESULTS: Cancer survivors had a small but significantly increased risk for unemployment following cancer. Stratified analyses showed...

  8. Fibrous dysplasia mimicking bone metastasis on both bone scintigraphy and {sup 18}F FDG PET CT: Diagnostic dilemma in a patient with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KC, Sud Hir Suman; Sharma, Punit; Singh, Har Man Deep; Bal, Chand Rasekhar; Kumar, Rake Sh [India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2012-12-15

    Bone is the most common distant site to which breast cancer metastasizes. Commonly used imaging modalities for imaging bone metastasis are bone scintigraphy, plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). Although bone scintigraphy gas high sensitivity for detecting bone metastasis, its specificity is low. This is because of the fact that bone scintigraphy images secondary changes in bone rather than just tumor cells {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F FDG) PET CT, on the other hand, directly images the tumor cells' glucose metabolism. Unfortunately, similar to bone scintigraphy, benign bone conditions can also show increased {sup 18}F FDG uptake on PET CT, and PET positive asymptomatic fibrous dysplasia can be misinterpreted as a metastasis. Fibrous dysplasia of bone has wide skeletal distribution, with variability of {sup 18}F FDG uptake and CT appearance. It is therefore important to recognize the characteristics of this skeletal dysplasia, to allow differentiation from skeletal metastasis. Bone lesions with {sup 18}F FDG uptake need to be carefully interpreted when evaluating patients with known malignancy. In doubtful cases, fibrous dysplasia should be given as a differential diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis may be warranted, as highlighted in the present case.

  9. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p consumption was higher in the LC group (p consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p consumption of fruits and vegetables between the LC patients and controls; however, the LC patients did have a greater consumption of cooked tomatoes and cooked root vegetables (p = 0.039 for both), and the controls had more consumption of leeks (p = 0.042) and, among controls younger than 65 years, cooked beans (p = 0.037). Lemon (p = 0.037), squeezed fruit juice (p = 0.032), and watermelon (p = 0.018) were also more frequently consumed by the controls. Other differences at the micronutrient level included greater consumption by the LC patients of retinol (p = 0.044), polyunsaturated fats (p = 0.041), and linoleic acid (p = 0.008); LC patients younger than 65 years also had greater

  10. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  11. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H;

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... of fat mass parameters, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis can be equally achieved in thinner and heavier women....... (r = -0.12 to -0.15, p treatment effect of alendronate was dependent on these risk factors, the group treated with 5 mg of alendronate was included (n = 403). There were no associations between fat mass parameters and response to alendronate treatment, which...

  12. The bone morphogenetic protein pathway is active in human colon adenomas and inactivated in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodach, Liudmila L.; Bleurning, Sylvia A.; Musler, Alex R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel R.; Hommes, Daniel W.; van den Brink, Gijs R.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Hardwick, James C. H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is important in colorectal cancer (CRQ progression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a subgroup within the TGF beta superfamily, recently also have been implicated in CRC, but their precise role in CRC has yet to be investigated. METHODS. The

  13. Integrated Multimodal Imaging of Dynamic Bone-Tumor Alterations Associated with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Hoff, Benjamin A.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Boes, Jennifer L.; Galban, Stefanie; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Galban, Craig J.; Meyer, Charles R.; Schakel, Timothy; Nicolay, Klaas; Alva, Ajjai S.; Hussain, Maha; Ross, Brian D.; Schakel, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastasis occurs for men with advanced prostate cancer which promotes osseous growth and destruction driven by alterations in osteoblast and osteoclast homeostasis. Patients can experience pain, spontaneous fractures and morbidity eroding overall quality of life. The complex and dynamic cellul

  14. Effect of sex in the MRMT-1 model of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Al-Dihaissy, Tamara; Mezzanotte, Laura;

    2015-01-01

    An overwhelming amount of evidence demonstrates sex-induced variation in pain processing, and has thus increased the focus on sex as an essential parameter for optimization of in vivo models in pain research. Mammary cancer cells are often used to model metastatic bone pain in vivo...

  15. Pharmacogenetic risk factors for altered bone mineral density and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. te Winkel (Mariël Lizet); R.D. van Beek (Robert Diederik); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. Pieters (Rob); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground This study investigates pharmacogenetic risk factors for bone mineral (apparent) density (BM(A)D) and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia Design and Methods We determined the influence of SNPs in 4 genes (vitamin-D receptor (VDR: BsmI/ApaI/TaqI and Cdx-2

  16. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  17. Maternal Smoking and the Risk of Cancer in Early Life – A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrich, Isabell Katharina; Viluksela, Matti; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Gissler, Mika; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hänninen, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of the well-known harmful effects on the fetus, many women continue smoking during pregnancy. Smoking as an important source of toxic chemicals may contribute to the developmental origin of diseases. Objectives The aim of this work was to pursue the possible association between maternal smoking and cancer in early life. Specifically, we wanted to identify the associated early life cancer types, and to quantify the associations. Methods In a systematic literature search 825 articles were identified in PubMed and Web of Science, and 55 more through the reference lists. Of these 62 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in meta-analyses. Using Mantel-Haenszel or DerSimonian and Laird method, depending on heterogeneity of the studies, pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals for eight cancer types were calculated. Results Smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for for brain and central nervous system tumors (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02–1.17). Although the risk for lymphoma was also associated (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.05–1.34), it did not hold up in subgroup analyses. Leukemia was not found to be associated with maternal smoking. Five other cancer types (bone, soft tissue, renal, hepatic, and germ cell cancer) were also examined, but the number of studies was too limited to exclude the possibility of maternal smoking as a risk factor for cancer in offspring. Conclusions According to our meta-analyses, maternal smoking is associated with nervous system cancers, but not with leukemia in early life. Confirming or rejecting associations of maternal smoking with lymphoma and the five other cancer types requires further studies. PMID:27824869

  18. Fractal lacunarity of trabecular bone and magnetic resonance imaging: New perspectives for osteoporotic fracture risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Annamaria

    2015-03-18

    Osteoporosis represents one major health condition for our growing elderly population. It accounts for severe morbidity and increased mortality in postmenopausal women and it is becoming an emerging health concern even in aging men. Screening of the population at risk for bone degeneration and treatment assessment of osteoporotic patients to prevent bone fragility fractures represent useful tools to improve quality of life in the elderly and to lighten the related socio-economic impact. Bone mineral density (BMD) estimate by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used in clinical practice for osteoporosis diagnosis. Nevertheless, BMD alone does not represent a good predictor of fracture risk. From a clinical point of view, bone microarchitecture seems to be an intriguing aspect to characterize bone alteration patterns in aging and pathology. The widening into clinical practice of medical imaging techniques and the impressive advances in information technologies together with enhanced capacity of power calculation have promoted proliferation of new methods to assess changes of trabecular bone architecture (TBA) during aging and osteoporosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently arisen as a useful tool to measure bone structure in vivo. In particular, high-resolution MRI techniques have introduced new perspectives for TBA characterization by non-invasive non-ionizing methods. However, texture analysis methods have not found favor with clinicians as they produce quite a few parameters whose interpretation is difficult. The introduction in biomedical field of paradigms, such as theory of complexity, chaos, and fractals, suggests new approaches and provides innovative tools to develop computerized methods that, by producing a limited number of parameters sensitive to pathology onset and progression, would speed up their application into clinical practice. Complexity of living beings and fractality of several physio-anatomic structures suggest

  19. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M T; Felson, D T; Dawson-Hughes, B; Tucker, K L; Cupples, L A; Wilson, P W; Kiel, D P

    2000-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated risk factors for bone loss in elderly women and men. Thus, we examined risk factors for 4-year longitudinal change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, radius, and spine in elders. Eight hundred elderly women and men from the population-based Framingham Osteoporosis Study had BMD assessed in 1988-1989 and again in 1992-1993. BMD was measured at femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's area, radial shaft, ultradistal radius, and lumbar spine using Lunar densitometers. We examined the relation of the following factors at baseline to percent BMD loss: age, weight, change in weight, height, smoking, caffeine, alcohol use, physical activity, serum 25-OH vitamin D, calcium intake, and current estrogen replacement in women. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted with simultaneous adjustment for all variables. Mean age at baseline was 74 years +/-4.5 years (range, 67-90 years). Average 4-year BMD loss for women (range, 3.4-4.8%) was greater than the loss for men (range, 0.2-3.6%) at all sites; however, BMD fell with age in both elderly women and elderly men. For women, lower baseline weight, weight loss in interim, and greater alcohol use were associated with BMD loss. Women who gained weight during the interim gained BMD or had little change in BMD. For women, current estrogen users had less bone loss than nonusers; at the femoral neck, nonusers lost up to 2.7% more BMD. For men, lower baseline weight and weight loss also were associated with BMD loss. Men who smoked cigarettes at baseline lost more BMD at the trochanter site. Surprisingly, bone loss was not affected by caffeine, physical activity, serum 25-OH vitamin D, or calcium intake. Risk factors consistently associated with bone loss in elders include female sex, thinness, and weight loss, while weight gain appears to protect against bone loss for both men and women. This population-based study suggests that current estrogen use may help to maintain bone in women, whereas current

  20. Administration of a tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor attenuates sarcoma-induced nerve sprouting, neuroma formation and bone cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Aaron P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain often accompanies cancer and most current therapies for treating cancer pain have significant unwanted side effects. Targeting nerve growth factor (NGF or its cognate receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. In the present report, we use a mouse model of bone cancer pain and examine whether oral administration of a selective small molecule Trk inhibitor (ARRY-470, which blocks TrkA, TrkB and TrkC kinase activity at low nm concentrations has a significant effect on cancer-induced pain behaviors, tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers, tumor growth and tumor-induced bone remodeling. Early/sustained (initiated day 6 post cancer cell injection, but not late/acute (initiated day 18 post cancer cell injection administration of ARRY-470 markedly attenuated bone cancer pain and significantly blocked the ectopic sprouting of sensory nerve fibers and the formation of neuroma-like structures in the tumor bearing bone, but did not have a significant effect on tumor growth or bone remodeling. These data suggest that, like therapies that target the cancer itself, the earlier that the blockade of TrkA occurs, the more effective the control of cancer pain and the tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers. Developing targeted therapies that relieve cancer pain without the side effects of current analgesics has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life and functional status of cancer patients.