WorldWideScience

Sample records for bone and bones

  1. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  2. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  3. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  4. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  5. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  6. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  7. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  8. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  9. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  10. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  11. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  12. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  13. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  14. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  15. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  16. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and periphe...

  17. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  18. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  19. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  20. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  1. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  2. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  3. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Nutrition Nutrition Food For Thought Quiz True or false: Prunes contain ... health. True False View Answers Loading ... Sponsored by: Food and Your Bones – Osteoporosis Nutrition Guidelines The food ...

  4. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.;

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  5. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  6. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  7. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J; Partridge, Nicola C

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  8. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  9. Bone metastases: When and how lung cancer interacts with bone

    OpenAIRE

    Roato, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and debilitating consequence of lung cancer: 30%-40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer develop bone metastases during the course of their disease. Lung cancer cells find a favorable soil in the bone microenvironment due to factors released by the bone matrix, the immune system cells, and the same cancer cells. Many aspects of the cross-talk among lung tumor cells, the immune system, and bone cells are not clear, but this review aims to summarize the recen...

  10. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  11. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  12. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  13. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or s...... or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine....

  14. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (...

  15. Influence of bone environment on ceramic osteointegration in spinal fusion: comparison of bone-poor and bone-rich sites

    OpenAIRE

    Delécrin, Joël; Deschamps, Cédric; Romih, Mostafa; Heymann, Dominique; Passuti, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative experimental data showed differences in bone quality and ceramic incorporation between bone-rich and bone-poor implantation sites. Bone in-growth was significantly lower for ceramic implanted at a lumbar intertransverse than a laminar site. Bone-marrow enrichment of the lumbar intertransverse site (regarded as bone-poor) greatly facilitated ceramic osteointegration. The vertebral interbody site, despite theoretical richness in osteogenic precursor cells, might be bone-poor at the...

  16. Bone and cancer: the osteoncology

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Toni; Mercatali, Laura; Amadori, Dino

    2013-01-01

    In recent years clinicians have witnessed a radical change in the relationship between bone and cancer, with in particular an increase in bone metastases incidence due to an improvement of patients survival. Bone metastases are responsible for the high morbidity in cancer patients with a strong clinical impact. For all these reasons, efforts have been directed to this important field with the foundation of the osteoncology, a new scientific and clinical branch involved in the management of pa...

  17. Dynamic scintigraphy of bone and bone marrow in multiple myeloma patients with bone-marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether dynamic registration at bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy produces additional information compared to subsequent static registrations of bone-marrow transplants in multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 8 dynamic bone and 6 dynamic bone-marrow scintigraphies were performed in 10 patients. The dynamic scintigraphies were compared with conventional radiography, MR images, and static scintigraphies of bone and bone marrow. Results: No additional information was revealed by the dynamic registration method; on the contrary, 4 of the 8 known lesions were not discerned at dynamic registration. An incidental observation was that the time-activity curves of both radiopharmaceuticals had a specific pattern. (orig.)

  18. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importa...

  19. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Bones, Muscles, and Joints KidsHealth > For Parents > Bones, Muscles, ... able to stand, walk, run, or even sit. Bones and What They Do From our head to ...

  20. Molecular mechanism of bone formation and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Bone formation and regeneration are mediated by the coordinate action of various factors. Among these, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) play crucial roles in bone formation.

  1. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with nanocr......The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  2. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  3. Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones, ... home. What to Do: For a Suspected Broken Bone: Do not move a child whose injury involves ...

  4. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas of physiological need. The mechanism by which cells are precisely targeted to areas requiring repair is both clinically relevant and poorly understood. The osteocyte has been assumed to play a role in sensing damage and signaling for its removal, due largely to its abundance throughout the mineralized bone matrix. However, until recently there has been little evidence that osteocyte function is modified in the vicinity of the microdamage. Here I outline the possibility that the targeted removal of bone containing microcracks might involve signals derived from the apoptotic death of the osteocyte. I shall discuss data that support or refute this view and will consider the possible molecular mechanisms by which controlled cell death might contribute to the signals for repair in the light of work involving cells in bone and other tissue systems.

  5. Bone composition: relationship to bone fragility and antiosteoporotic drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a bone can be described in terms of the mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, the organic phase, which consists of collagen type I, noncollagenous proteins, other components and water. The relative proportions of these various components vary with age, site, gender, disease and treatment. Any drug therapy could change the composition of a bone. This review, however, will only address those pharmaceuticals used to treat or prevent diseases of bone: fragility fractures in particular, and the way they can alter the composition. As bone is a heterogeneous tissue, its composition must be discussed in terms of the chemical makeup, properties of its chemical constituents and their distributions in the ever-changing bone matrix. Emphasis, in this review, is placed on changes in composition as a function of age and various diseases of bone, particularly osteoporosis. It is suggested that while some of the antiosteoporotic drugs can and do modify composition, their positive effects on bone strength may be balanced by negative ones. PMID:24501681

  6. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  7. Limb bone morphology, bone strength, and cursoriality in lagomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Danczak, Robert; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to broadly evaluate the relationship between cursoriality (i.e. anatomical and physiological specialization for running) and limb bone morphology in lagomorphs. Relative to most previous studies of cursoriality, our focus on a size-restricted, taxonomically narrow group of mammals permits us to evaluate the degree to which 'cursorial specialization' affects locomotor anatomy independently of broader allometric and phylogenetic trends that might obscure such a relationship. We collected linear morphometrics and μCT data on 737 limb bones covering three lagomorph species that differ in degree of cursoriality: pikas (Ochotona princeps, non-cursorial), jackrabbits (Lepus californicus, highly cursorial), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani, level of cursoriality intermediate between pikas and jackrabbits). We evaluated two hypotheses: cursoriality should be associated with (i) lower limb joint mechanical advantage (i.e. high 'displacement advantage', permitting more cursorial species to cycle their limbs more quickly) and (ii) longer, more gracile limb bones, particularly at the distal segments (as a means of decreasing rotational inertia). As predicted, highly cursorial jackrabbits are typically marked by the lowest mechanical advantage and the longest distal segments, non-cursorial pikas display the highest mechanical advantage and the shortest distal segments, and rabbits generally display intermediate values for these variables. Variation in long bone robusticity followed a proximodistal gradient. Whereas proximal limb bone robusticity declined with cursoriality, distal limb bone robusticity generally remained constant across the three species. The association between long, structurally gracile limb bones and decreased maximal bending strength suggests that the more cursorial lagomorphs compromise proximal limb bone integrity to improve locomotor economy. In contrast, the integrity of distal limb bones is maintained with increasing

  8. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  9. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesion in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose 99mTc-MDP bone scan showed cold defects, 99mTc-sulfur colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy clearly delineated the areas of tumor-cell invasion. In all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but abnormalities were not recognized on bone-marrow scintigram in all of their lesions. In conclusion, the combination technique of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy was a useful method in evaluating bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  10. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  11. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can res...

  12. Use of Spongious Bone Chips and Fascia Temporalis in Alveolar Bone Defects

    OpenAIRE

    TÜZ, Hakan H.; AKAL, Ümit K.; CAMBAZOĞLU, Mine; KİŞNİŞCİ, Reha Ş.

    2004-01-01

    Graft materials are used for inducement of regeneration in bone defects. Organic and synthetic bone graft materials facilitate remodelation or healing of the bone and induce new bone formation in the area of bone resorption caused by pathological, traumatic, and physiological reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of spongious allogenic bone graft and fascia temporalis membranous collagen tissue on the healing of bone defects clinically and radiologically. The study was c...

  13. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for periodontitis and tooth loss. Role of the Dentist and Dental X Rays Research supported by the ... normal bone density. Because many people see their dentist more regularly than their doctor, dentists are in ...

  14. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  15. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  16. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  17. Myeloma bone disease: Pathophysiology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma bone disease is marked by severe dysfunction of both bone formation and resorption and serves as a model for understanding the regulation of osteoblasts (OBL) and osteoclasts (OCL) in cancer. Myeloma bone lesions are purely osteolytic and are associated with severe and debilitating bone pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression, as well as increased mortality. Interactions within the bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma are responsible for the ...

  18. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  19. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2015-08-01

    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  20. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However,...

  1. Androgen and bone mass in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnnieW.C.Kung

    2003-01-01

    Androgens have multiple actions on the skeleton throughout life. Androgens promote skeletal growth and accumulation of minerals during puberty and adolescence and stimulate osteoblast but suppress osteoclast function,activity and lifespan through complex mechanisms. Also androgens increase periosteal bone apposition, resulting in larger bone size and thicker cortical bone in men. There is convincing evidence to show that aromatization to estrogens was an important pathway for mediating the action of testosterone on bone physiology. Estrogen is probably the dominant sex steroid regulating bone resorption in men, but both testosterone and estrogen are important in maintaining bone formation. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 148-154)

  2. Skeletal Cell Fate Decisions Within Periosteum and Bone Marrow During Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Colnot, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results...

  3. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  4. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  5. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  6. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A;

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  7. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  8. [Bone and Men's Health. Bone selective androgen receptor modulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki

    2010-02-01

    Androgen, one of the sex steroid hormones shows various biological activities on the corresponding various tissues. Many efforts to produce novel drug materials maintaining a desired biological activity with an adequate tissue selectivity, which is so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) , are being performed. As one of such efforts, studies on SARMs against bone tissues which possess a significant potential to stimulate a bone formation with reducing undesirable androgenic virilizing activities are in progress all over the world. This review focuses on the research and development activities of such SARMs and discuses their usefulness for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. Transplant Outcomes (Bone Marrow and Cord Blood)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports show patient survival and transplant data of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplants in the transplant ... Data by Center Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants performed at a specific ...

  10. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  11. Cancer of the Bone and Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Bone and Joint Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Bone and Joint Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  12. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99mTc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  13. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Willems

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  14. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  15. Mechanical Signaling for Bone Modeling and Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Robling, Alexander G.; Turner, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Proper development of the skeleton in utero and during growth requires mechanical stimulation. Loading results in adaptive changes in bone that strengthen bone structure. Bone’s adaptive response is regulated by the ability of resident bone cells to perceive and translate mechanical energy into a cascade of structural and biochemical changes within the cells — a process known as mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction pathways are among the most anabolic in bone, and consequently, there is g...

  16. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The person performing the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy will know your medical history, but might ask additional questions, such as what medicines you're taking or whether you have any allergies. Be sure to ... on the aspiration and biopsy site about 30 minutes before the procedure. You ...

  17. Wnt and Wnt inhibitors in bone metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Christopher L. Hall; Zhang, Jian; Evan T. Keller

    2012-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a clinically devastating development of progressive cancers including prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Bone metastases are typically painful, lead to adverse skeletal-related events, such as fracture, and are highly resistant to therapy. A major contribution to the ability of cancers to successfully establish bone metastases is their ability to exploit mechanisms of normal bone remodeling. Wnts are a large family of morphogenic proteins that are cr...

  18. Bone Appetit: The Role of Food and Nutrition in Building and Maintaining Strong Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is a living, dynamic, metabolically active tissue. It under goes a process of constant renewal throughout life, through a process called bone turnover in which cells called osteoclasts remove old or damaged bone, and cells called osteoblasts make new bone to replace it. A healthy, balanced di...

  19. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects. PMID:27649725

  20. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  1. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    formation and graft resorption in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four harvesting techniques were used: (i) corticocancellous blocks particulated by a bone mill; (ii) bone scraper; (iii) piezosurgery; and (iv) bone slurry collected from a filter device upon drilling. The grafts were placed into bone defects...

  2. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of Sphenoid Bone and Clivus Misdiagnosed as Chordoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Cesur; Asik, Murat; Yanik, Inanc; Ozkanli, Seyma; Tutar, Onur; Hasiloglu, Zehra Isik

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign and rapidly expanding bone destructive lesions of any bone. They are commonly localized in the metaphysis of long bones, whereas skull base ABCs are rare. We report a case of a 21-year-old man who had been misdiagnosed as chordoma and undergone surgery. However, histopathological examination revealed it to be an ABC. PMID:26605267

  3. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  4. Imatimid-induced bone marrow necrosis detected on MRI examination and mimicking bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Pechoux, C. le; Cioffi, A.; Domont, J.; Cesne, A. le [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2007-09-15

    Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In contrast to liver and/or abdominal involvement, bone metastases are an uncommon event in GIST. We report here two patients with metastatic GIST who developed pelvic bone marrow focal lesions visible on MRI examinations, while Imatinib dramatically improved other tumor sites. A biopsy in one patient diagnosed bone marrow necrosis. The other patient had a favorable follow-up over several years, without bone metastases. Focal bone marrow abnormalities, detected on MRI examinations and mimicking bone metastases in patients who were otherwise responding, should be considered as probable bone marrow necrosis. (orig.)

  5. Vitamin D -prevalence, mortality and bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup, Darshana Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Bone pain is a common and debilitating symptom of many metabolic bone diseases. However, almost nothing is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to bone pain and the pain states are poorly characterized. It is well-established that osteomalacia due to severe vitamin D deficiency...... of this thesis was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its impact on mortality. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary and translational study was carried out to investigate the effects of disturbed calcified tissue on the nervous system. Thus, quantification and characterization...... of the pain syndrome in patients with vitamin D deficiency and bone pain. Furtherme, development of a non-cancer animal model of bone pain, was carried out, to enable investigations of bone pain threshold, bone microenvironment and endocrinology parameters involved in this debilitating disease. A unique...

  6. Development of combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnosis of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites for advanced cancers. The skeletal-related events caused by bone metastases could have a significant influence on patient's clinical outcome and quality of life. Currently, bone scintigraphy is the first choice for detecting bone metastases. Although the sensitivity is high, the specificity of bone scintigraphy is still very low. It has been reported that by combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers, the specificity can be significantly increased. Meantime, the sensitivity and accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone metastases can be improved. We reviewed the literatures in the recent years to evaluate the potential value of combination with bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnoses of bone metastases. (authors)

  7. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  8. Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, H.G.; Bartl, R.; Koischwitz, D.; Rodermund, O.E.

    1982-12-01

    The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatory granulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequently occurring bone lesions (half of all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy.

  9. The influence of bone surface availability in bone remodelling - A mathematical model including coupled geometrical and biomechanical regulations of bone cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pivonka, Peter; Buenzli, Pascal R.; Scheiner, Stefan; Hellmich, Christian; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a biomaterial undergoing continuous renewal. The renewal process is known as bone remodelling and is operated by bone-resorbing cells (osteoclasts) and bone-forming cells (osteoblasts). Both biochemical and biomechanical regulatory mechanisms have been identified in the interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Here we focus on an additional and poorly understood potential regulatory mechanism of bone cells, that involves the morphology of the microstructure of bone. Bone cells...

  10. Vitamin K and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women.

  11. Bone mass and bone metabolic indices in male master rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwicka, Ewa; Nowak, Alicja; Zep, Wojciech; Leszczyński, Piotr; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess bone mass and bone metabolic indices in master athletes who regularly perform rowing exercises. The study was performed in 29 men: 14 master rowers and 15 non-athletic, body mass index-matched controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were performed for the total body, regional areas (arms, total forearms, trunk, thoracic spine, pelvis, and legs), lumbar spine (L1-L4), left hip (total hip and femoral neck), and forearm (33 % radius of the dominant and nondominant forearm). Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, visfatin, resistin, insulin, and glucose were determined. Comparative analyses showed significantly lower levels of body fat and higher lean body mass values in the rowers compared to the control group. The rowers also had significantly higher values of total and regional (left arm, trunk, thoracic spine, pelvis, and leg) BMD, as well as higher BMD values for the lumbar spine and the left hip. There were significant differences between the groups with respect to insulin, glucose, and the index of homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance. In conclusion, the systematic training of master rowers has beneficial effects on total and regional BMD and may be recommended for preventing osteoporosis. PMID:25224128

  12. Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyl Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1 diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2. An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss.

  13. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...

  14. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  15. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  16. Statistical shape and appearance models of bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-03-01

    When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone.

  17. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C;

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found...... in lumbar bone mineral density, femoral neck bone mineral density, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ionized calcium and phosphate. The urinary excretion of both hydroxyproline and calcium relative to urinary creatinine excretion was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia, p = 0.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  18. Deregulation of Bone Forming Cells in Bone Diseases and Anabolic Effects of Strontium-Containing Agents and Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Tan; Binbin Zhang; Xiaomei Zhu; Ping Ao; Huajie Guo; Weihong Yi; Guang-Qian Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Age-related bone loss and osteoporosis are associated with bone remodeling changes that are featured with decreased trabecular and periosteal bone formation relative to bone resorption. Current anticatabolic therapies focusing on the inhibition of bone resorption may not be sufficient in the prevention or reversal of age-related bone deterioration and there is a big need in promoting osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. Enhanced understanding of the network formed by key signaling pathways ...

  19. Interventional radiology in bone and joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, M.; Laredo, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recent radiologic procedures in bone and joints, some of which eliminate the need for surgery are exposed, including: trephine biopsies of the thoracic and lumbar spine, sacro-iliac joints, peripheral bones synovial membrane and soft tissues, using either fluoroscopic echographic or CT guidance - chemonucleolysis - vascular embolization of skeletal tumors and management of vertebral hemangiomas - selective steroid injection in a broad spectrum of diseases including vertebral facet syndrome, cervicobrachial nerve root pain, rotator cuff calcium deposit, bone cysts.

  20. Anorexia Nervosa, Obesity and Bone Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and obesity are conditions at the extreme ends of the nutritional spectrum, associated with marked reductions versus increases respectively in body fat content. Both conditions are also associated with an increased risk for fractures. In anorexia nervosa, body composition and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content are important determinants of low bone density, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength. In addition, anorexia nervosa is characterized by inc...

  1. Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Olmedillas Hugo; González-Agüero Alejandro; Moreno Luis A; Casajus José A; Vicente-Rodríguez Germán

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass. Methods A scientific literature search on studies discussing bone mass and bone metabolism in cyclists was performed to collect all relevant published material up to April 2012. Descriptive, cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional studies were all reviewed. Inclusion criteria...

  2. Prostate Cancer and Bone: The Elective Affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Rucci; Adriano Angelucci

    2014-01-01

    The onset of metastases dramatically changes the prognosis of prostate cancer patients, determining increased morbidity and a drastic fall in survival expectancy. Bone is a common site of metastases in few types of cancer, and it represents the most frequent metastatic site in prostate cancer. Of note, the prevalence of tumor relapse to the bone appears to be increasing over the years, likely due to a longer overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Bone tropism represents an intriguing c...

  3. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 ....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P

  4. [The new bone formation and bone metabolism in Forestier disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrych, Daniel; Bohatyrewicz, Andrzej; Woźniak, Wojciech; Zietek, Paweł; Kołodziej, Łukasz; Karaczun, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Wojciech; Antoniak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The study was performed on 36 male patients between 65 and 83 years who were either hospitalised or treated in the out-patients clinic due to Forestier's disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the advance of ectopic bone formation process in cervical spine and bony metabolic changes in treated patients. The study showed reverse corelation between the degree of advance of cervical hyperostosis and the prevalence of osteoporosis and metabolic disorders in the tested group. The authors have emphasized the need of precise evaluation and differentiation of Forestier's disease and degenerative spine disease. PMID:18847002

  5. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  6. Bone Adaptation and Regeneration - New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bacabac, Rommel Gaud

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly renewed and adapts to its local loading environment. Mechanical loading results in adaptive changes in bone size and shape that strengthen bone structure. The mechanisms for adaptation involve a multistep process called mechanotransduction, which is the ability of resident bone cells to perceive and translate mechanical energy into a cascade of structural and biochemical changes within the cells. The transduction of a mechanical signal to a biochemical response involves pathways within the cell membrane and cytoskeleton of the osteocytes, the professional mechansensor cells of bone. During the last decade the role of mechanosensitive osteocytes in bone metabolism and turnover, and the lacuno-canalicular porosity as the structure that mediates mechanosensing, is likely to reveal a new paradigm for understanding the bone formation response to mechanical loading, and the bone resorption response to disuse. Strain-derived fluid flow of interstitial fluid through the lacuno-canalicular porosity seems to mechanically activate the osteocytes, as well as ensures transport of cell signaling molecules, nutrients and waste products. Cell-cell signaling from the osteocyte sensor cells to the effector cells (osteoblasts or osteoclasts), and the effector cell response - either bone formation or resorption, allow an explanation of local bone gain and loss as well as remodeling in response to fatigue damage as processes supervised by mechanosensitive osteocytes. The osteogenic activity of cultured bone cells has been quantitatively correlated with varying stress stimulations highlighting the importance of the rate of loading. Theoretically a possible mechanism for the stress response by osteocytes is due to strain amplification at the pericellular matrix. Single cell studies on molecular responses of osteocytes provide insight on local architectural alignment in bone during remodeling. Alignment seems to occur as a result of the

  7. Bone regeneration: current concepts and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGonagle Dennis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis.

  8. Joint prosthesis and method of bone fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterom, R; Pijl, A J; Bersee, H.E.N.; Van der Helm, F.C.; Herder, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a joint prosthesis (10), for example, a knee joint or shoulder joint prosthesis comprising a first, socket-holding prosthesis part (11) for attachment to a first bone (12) and a second, ball-holding prosthesis part (13) for attachment to a second bone (14) that intermates with the first prosthesis part, wherein the first bone and the second bone are situated at either side of a joint, and wherein the ball (2) of the second prosthesis part is rotatably received in the ...

  9. From bone to breast and back - the bone cytokine RANKL and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman D; Hamann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role in regulating bone homeostasis. Osteoporosis and malignant bone disease secondary to breast cancer are characterized by enhanced RANKL production and increased bone turnover. Thus, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody to RANKL, has been developed and is now approved for various bone loss conditions. Recent results indicate that RANKL may also promote the development and osseous migration of breast cancer.

  10. The Effect of Estrogen on the Restoration of Bone Mass and Bone Quality in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of estrogen on its ability to restore the bone mass and bone quality in ovariectomized rats by examining the changes of bone morphology and histomorphometry, 3month-old rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control, ovariectomized (OVX), shamoperated (Sham-O) and OVX plus estrogen (OVX+E2). Treatment initiated from the day 8 weeks after operation and continued for 12 weeks. Bone morphology and histomorphometry were examined afterwards. Results showed that comparing to control group, the trabecular bone in OVX appeared thinner and reduced in the amount. The connectivity between trabecula was decreased and the structure disordered. The free-end of trabecula was increased. The cavity of bone marrow enlarged. After treatment with estrogen, above changes improved remarkably by different degree, although did not reach the normal face. The bone histomorphometry results damonstrated that estrogen treatment increased bone mass and the amount of trabecula by 129% and 132% respectively (P<0. 05). The activity of bone resorption decreased significantly and the rate of bone formation increased to 203 %. These results suggest that treatment of ovariectomized rats with estrogen can not only increase bone mass, also improve the bone structure and enhance the property of bone mechanics.

  11. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  12. Androgens and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2008-01-01

    Testosterone is the major gonadal sex steroid produced by the testes in men. Testosterone is also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries in women. The adrenal glands produce the weaker androgens dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione. These androgens collectively affect skeletal homeostasis throughout life in both men and women, particularly at puberty and during adult life. Because testosterone can be metabolized to estradiol by the aromatase enzyme, ...

  13. Nanoscale characterization of bone-implant interface and biomechanical modulation of bone ingrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone-implant interface is characterized by an array of cells and macromolecules. This study investigated the nanomechancial properties of bone-implant interface using atomic force microscopy in vitro, and the mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth in vivo using bone histomorphometry. Upon harvest of screw-type titanium implants placed in vivo in the rabbit maxilla and proximal femur for 4 weeks, nanoindentation was performed in the bone-implant interface at 60-μm intervals radially from the implant surface. The average Young's Moduli (E) of the maxillary bone-implant interface was 1.13 ± 0.27 MPa, lacking significant differences at all intervals. In contrast, an increasing gradient of E was observed radially from the femur bone-implant interface: 0.87 ± 0.25 MPa to 2.24 ± 0.69 MPa, representing significant differences among several 60-μm intervals. In a separate experiment, bone healing was allowed for 6 weeks for proximal femur implants. The right femoral implant received axial cyclic loading at 200 mN and 1 Hz for 10 min/d over 12 days, whereas the left femoral implant served as control. Cyclic loading induced significantly higher bone volume, osteoblast numbers per endocortical bone surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate than controls. These data demonstrate nanoscale and microscale characterizations of bone-implant interface, and mechanical modulation of bone ingrowth surrounding titanium implants

  14. Nanoscale characterization of bone-implant interface and biomechanical modulation of bone ingrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: pclark4@gmail.com; Clark, Andrew M. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Rodriguez, Anthony [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Hussain, Mohammad A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Mao, Jeremy J. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: jmao2@uic.edu

    2007-04-15

    Bone-implant interface is characterized by an array of cells and macromolecules. This study investigated the nanomechancial properties of bone-implant interface using atomic force microscopy in vitro, and the mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth in vivo using bone histomorphometry. Upon harvest of screw-type titanium implants placed in vivo in the rabbit maxilla and proximal femur for 4 weeks, nanoindentation was performed in the bone-implant interface at 60-{mu}m intervals radially from the implant surface. The average Young's Moduli (E) of the maxillary bone-implant interface was 1.13 {+-} 0.27 MPa, lacking significant differences at all intervals. In contrast, an increasing gradient of E was observed radially from the femur bone-implant interface: 0.87 {+-} 0.25 MPa to 2.24 {+-} 0.69 MPa, representing significant differences among several 60-{mu}m intervals. In a separate experiment, bone healing was allowed for 6 weeks for proximal femur implants. The right femoral implant received axial cyclic loading at 200 mN and 1 Hz for 10 min/d over 12 days, whereas the left femoral implant served as control. Cyclic loading induced significantly higher bone volume, osteoblast numbers per endocortical bone surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate than controls. These data demonstrate nanoscale and microscale characterizations of bone-implant interface, and mechanical modulation of bone ingrowth surrounding titanium implants.

  15. Bone resorption facilitates osteoblastic bone metastatic colonization by cooperation of insulin-like growth factor and hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takuya; Aikawa, Tomoya; Yasuda, Hisataka; KOBAYASHI, Tatsuya; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a multistep process that includes cancer cell dissemination, colonization, and metastatic growth. Furthermore, this process involves complex, reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. Bone resorption is known to be involved in both osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastasis. However, the precise roles of the bone resorption in the multistep process of osteoblastic bone metastasis remain unidentified. In this study, we show that bone resorp...

  16. Vitamin D and bone health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton for most land vertebrates including humans. Sunlight causes the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in the skin. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is to keep the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range to maintain essential cellular functions and to promote mineralization of the skeleton. Most foods do not contain any vitamin D. Foods fortified with vitamin D have a variable amount present and cannot be depended on as a sole source of vitamin D nutrition. Exposure to sunlight provides most humans with their vitamin D requirement. Aging, sunscreen use and the change in the zenith angle of the sun can dramatically affect the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency is now being recognized as a major cause of metabolic bone disease in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes osteomalacia but can exacerbate osteoporosis. It is generally accepted that an increase in calcium intake to 1000-1500 mg/d along with an adequate source of vitamin D of at least 400 IU/d is important for maintaining good bone health

  17. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  18. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations

  19. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  20. Bone graft substitutes and bone morphogenetic proteins for osteoporotic fractures: What is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); V. Alt (Volker)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite improvements in implants and surgical techniques, osteoporotic fractures remain challenging to treat. Among other major risk factors, decreased expression of morphogenetic proteins has been identified for impaired fracture healing in osteoporosis. Bone grafts or bone graft substi

  1. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Min Yoo; Myung-Han Lee; Ji Hyung Park; Dong-Hyun Seo; Sangyeob Lee; Byungjo Jung; Han Sung Kim; Kiho Bae

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT) and Per2 knockout (KO) mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduc...

  2. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    . Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling...

  3. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13and tibia, compared with their wild-type littermates. Natural variation in humans and targeted disruption in mice demonstrate that WNT16 is an important determinant of CBT, BMD, bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  4. Connecting mechanics and bone cell activities in the bone remodeling process: an integrated finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain-damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.'s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone

  5. Bone balance within a cortical BMU: local controls of bone resorption and formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Smith

    Full Text Available Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the 'integration of information' occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable

  6. Bone balance within a cortical BMU: local controls of bone resorption and formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Dunstan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the 'integration of information' occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable BMU behaviors.

  7. Clonal Characterization of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells and Their Application for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yin; Mareddy, Shobha; Crawford, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolat...

  8. Evaluation of heterotopic bone formation induced by squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, T; Kawai, T; Takei, N; Kise, T; Eda, S; Urist, M R

    1997-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein is an important molecule whose bioactivity depends on the carrier. Squalane is used in the formulation of various kinds of cosmetics because it is easily emulsified and has the property of spreading well. Thus, squalane might be effective as a bone morphogenetic protein delivery system. As a test for this possibility, gelatin capsules containing squalane and bone morphogenetic protein (bovine derived partially purified) composite were implanted under the hind-quarter perimuscular membrane of ddY mice. Control capsules containing only bone morphogenetic protein were used for controls. The implants were radiographically and histologically examined at 1 to 4 weeks after the operation. According to the radiographic analysis, squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite and bone morphogenetic protein only control specimens formed widespread heterotopic bone tissues. The amount of heterotopic bone formation in the composite experimental specimens was approximately 40% greater than that in the controls. Histologic examination of experimental and control specimens revealed varying amounts of perichondral ossification by 2 weeks. By 3 and 4 weeks, the bone deposits were colonized by hematopoietic bone marrow. Squalane was effective for the slow local release of bone morphogenetic protein. Furthermore, the squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite was a reliable osteoinductive biomaterial.

  9. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone. PMID:17690924

  10. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  11. No negative effects of bone impaction grafting with bone and ceramic mixtures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.J.C.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Welten, M.L.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Schreurs, B.W.; Buma, P.

    2005-01-01

    Reconstructing large loaded bone defects with ceramic bone graft extenders is tempting considering the expected future donor bone shortage. However, whether there are negative effects is unknown. Standardized large defects in the acetabulum of goats were created and subsequently reconstructed with m

  12. Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Won, J. E.; Yun, Y. R.; Jang, J. H.; S. H. Yang; Kim, J. H.; W. Chrzanowski; Wall, I. B.; Knowles, J. C.; Kim, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctio...

  13. Pain and Paget's Disease of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Paget’s Disease of Bone Paget’s Disease Management Pain and Paget’s Disease of Bone Publication available in: ... focus(); */ } //--> Print-Friendly Page May 2015 Types of Pain Paget’s disease can cause several different kinds of ...

  14. Joint prosthesis and method of bone fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, R.; Van der Pijl, A.J; Bersee, H.E.N.; Van der Helm, F.C.; Herder, J.L

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a joint prosthesis (10), for example, a knee joint or shoulder joint prosthesis comprising a first, socket-holding prosthesis part (11) for attachment to a first bone (12) and a second, ball-holding prosthesis part (13) for attachment to a second bone (14) that intermates wi

  15. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo;

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone mineralisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chen Guo; Quan Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in bone. The critical role of FGF23 in mineral ion homeostasis was first identified in human genetic and acquired rachitic diseases and has been further characterised in animal models. Recent studies have revealed that the levels of FGF23 increase significantly at the very early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may play a critical role in mineral ion disorders and bone metabolism in these patients. Our recent publications have also shown that FGF23 and its cofactor, Klotho, may play an independent role in directly regulating bone mineralisation instead of producing a systematic effect. In this review, we will discuss the new role of FGF23 in bone mineralisation and the pathophysiology of CKD-related bone disorders.

  17. Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cannata, J.B. (Jorge); Rodríguez, Minerva; Gómez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Among the chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone format...

  18. Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim; Kristensen, Helene Bjørg;

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires bone resorption by osteoclasts, bone formation by osteoblasts, and a poorly investigated reversal phase coupling resorption to formation. Likely players of the reversal phase are the cells recruited into the lacunae vacated by the osteoclasts and presumably preparing these...... lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined...... histomorphometry and IHC on human iliac biopsy specimens, and showed that reversal cells are immunoreactive for factors typically expressed by osteoblasts, but not for monocytic markers. Furthermore, a subpopulation of reversal cells showed several distinctive characteristics suggestive of an arrested...

  19. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis and Associated Muscle Weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Waning, David L.; Guise, Theresa A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a preferred site for breast cancer metastasis and leads to pathological bone loss due to increased osteoclast-induced bone resorption. The homing of tumor cells to the bone depends on the support of the bone microenvironment in which the tumor cells prime the pre-metastatic niche. The colonization and growth of tumor cells then depends on adaptations in the invading tumor cells to take advantage of normal physiological responses by mimicking bone marrow cells. This concerted effort by...

  1. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  2. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  3. FSH and TSH in the Regulation of Bone Mass: The Pituitary/Immune/Bone Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Graziana Colaianni; Concetta Cuscito; Silvia Colucci

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences have highlighted that the pituitary hormones have profound effects on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis is now becoming an important issue in the skeletal biology. Here, we discuss the topical evidence about the dysfunction of the pituitary-bone axis that leads to osteoporotic bone loss. We will explore the context of FSH and TSH hormones arguing their direct or indirect role in bone loss. In addition, we will focus on the knowledge that both FSH and TSH have influence on...

  4. Morphological characteristics of frontal sinus and nasal bone focusing on bone resorption and apposition in hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, H; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, Liselotte;

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls.......To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls....

  5. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  6. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in relation to clinical outcome in bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: A total of 70 radiographies and 70 bone scintigraphies were compared in 35 patients. Results: The skull, the extremities, the iliac and public bones were better assessed with radiography. For new vertebral lesions and for lesions in the ribs and sternum, bone scintigraphy proved superior. For the sacrum, the methods were equal. When bone scintigraphy was used as a complement to radiography, 4% more pathological sites were found. No patient had both a normal radiography and a pathological bone scintigraphy, but 5 patients had both a normal bone scintigraphy and a pathological radiography. The results of the radiological examinations did not always correlate with the clinician's grading of the patient's disease. The radiological examinations had no prognostic value for the 7 patients examined on several occasions. Conclusion: The ability of conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy to disclose myeloma lesions varies, depending on location and size of the lesions. Radiography should remain the primary examination modality also for bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients. Bone scintigraphy can severe as a complement for investigating unexplained pain, e.g. caused by lesions in vertebrae or ribs. (orig.)

  7. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-tian; MA Qing-jie; HE Cheng-yan; WANG Cai-xia; GAO Shi; HOU Xia; MA Tong-hui

    2007-01-01

    An overt phenotype of aquaporin-1 knockout(AQP1 ko) mice is growth retardation, suggesting possible defects in bone development and metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed the bone mineral density(BMD), bone calcium and phosphorus contents, and bone metabolism in an AQP1 ko mouse model. The BMD of femurs in AQP1 ko mice was significantly lower than that of litter-matched wildtype mice as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Consistently, the contents of bone total calcium and phosphorus were also significantly lower in AQP1 ko mice. The reduced BMD caused by AQP1 deficiency mainly affect male mice. Bone metabolic activity, as indicated by 99mTc-MDP absorption measurements, was remarkably reduced in AQP1 ko mice. These results provide the first evidence that AQP1 play an important role in bone structure and metabolism.

  8. Biofabrication of bone tissue: approaches, challenges and translation for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Daniel; Tare, Rahul S; Yang, Liang-Yo; Williams, David F; Ou, Keng-Liang; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2016-03-01

    The rising incidence of bone disorders has resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this demand, exacerbated by an increasing ageing population. Bone tissue engineering is seen as a means of developing alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or reconstructing bone defects by combining biomaterials, cells and signalling factors. However, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice as a consequence of several challenges. The use of additive manufacturing techniques for bone biofabrication is seen as a potential solution, with its inherent capability for reproducibility, accuracy and customisation of scaffolds as well as cell and signalling factor delivery. This review highlights the current research in bone biofabrication, the necessary factors for successful bone biofabrication, in addition to the current limitations affecting biofabrication, some of which are a consequence of the limitations of the additive manufacturing technology itself. PMID:26803405

  9. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  10. Correlation between absence of bone remodeling compartment canopies, reversal phase arrest, and deficient bone formation in post-menopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Andersen, Thomas; Hauge, Ellen M; Rolighed, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    Bone remodeling compartments (BRCs) were recently recognized to be present in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and critical for bone reconstruction in multiple myeloma and endogenous Cushing's syndrome. The BRCs are outlined by a cellular canopy separating the bone remodeling events...

  11. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  12. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P effect attributable to a decrease in cortical thickness and, thus, cortical bone mass (no significant effect on cancellous vBMD, week 10) attributed to an increase in endosteal bone resorption (nominally increased endosteal circumference). Trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) decreased significantly in both CMA groups at 6 and 10 wk, associated with a decrease in trabecular number. CMA significantly decreased muscle cross-sectional area in the proximal hindlimb at 6 and 10 wk. In conclusion, chronic metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number. PMID:24352505

  13. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  14. Calcium phosphate cement delivering zoledronate decreases bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Wang, Chen-Chie; Lu, Dai-Hua; Hsu, Li-Ho; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2012-06-01

    Patients sustaining bony fractures frequently require the application of bone graft substitutes to fill the bone defects. In the meantime, anti-osteoporosis drugs may be added in bone fillers to treat osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women and the elderly. The effects of zoledronate-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (ZLN/CPC) on ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated. OVX rats were implanted with ZLN/CPC, containing 0.025 mg ZLN in the greater omentum. Afterward the clinical sign of toxicity was recorded for eight weeks. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematology and serum bone turnover markers analyses. The four limbs of the rats were harvested and micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) scanning and bone ash analyses were performed. No clinical toxicity was observed in the treated rats. Compared to the OVX rats, levels of bone resorption markers (fragments of C-telopeptides of type I collagen) and bone formation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) decreased significantly in the treated rats. Osteopontin, which mediates the anchoring of osteoclasts to the mineral matrix of bones, also decreased significantly. Micro-CT scanning and histologic examinations of the distal femoral metaphyses showed that the cancellous bone architectures were restored, with a concomitant decrease in bone porosity. The bone mineral content in the bone ashes also increased significantly. This study indicates that ZLN-impregnated CPC reduces bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in OVX rats. CPC may be an appropriate carrier to deliver drugs to treat osteoporosis, and this approach may also reduce rates of post-dosing symptoms for intravenous ZLN delivery.

  15. Calcium phosphate cement delivering zoledronate decreases bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients sustaining bony fractures frequently require the application of bone graft substitutes to fill the bone defects. In the meantime, anti-osteoporosis drugs may be added in bone fillers to treat osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women and the elderly. The effects of zoledronate-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (ZLN/CPC) on ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated. OVX rats were implanted with ZLN/CPC, containing 0.025 mg ZLN in the greater omentum. Afterward the clinical sign of toxicity was recorded for eight weeks. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematology and serum bone turnover markers analyses. The four limbs of the rats were harvested and micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) scanning and bone ash analyses were performed. No clinical toxicity was observed in the treated rats. Compared to the OVX rats, levels of bone resorption markers (fragments of C-telopeptides of type I collagen) and bone formation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) decreased significantly in the treated rats. Osteopontin, which mediates the anchoring of osteoclasts to the mineral matrix of bones, also decreased significantly. Micro-CT scanning and histologic examinations of the distal femoral metaphyses showed that the cancellous bone architectures were restored, with a concomitant decrease in bone porosity. The bone mineral content in the bone ashes also increased significantly. This study indicates that ZLN-impregnated CPC reduces bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in OVX rats. CPC may be an appropriate carrier to deliver drugs to treat osteoporosis, and this approach may also reduce rates of post-dosing symptoms for intravenous ZLN delivery. (paper)

  16. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  17. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  18. Targeting Bone Remodeling by Isoflavone and 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in the Context of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yiwei Li; Dejuan Kong; Aamir Ahmad; Bin Bao; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases have long been believed to be osteoblastic because of bone remodeling leading to the formation of new bone. However, recent studies have shown increased osteolytic activity in the beginning stages of PCa bone metastases, suggesting that targeting both osteolytic and osteoblastic mediators would likely inhibit bone remodeling and PCa bone metastasis. In this study, we found that PCa cells could stimulate differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts throu...

  19. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley DA

    2016-01-01

    Denise A Yardley1,2 1Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly ...

  20. Bone metastases in breast cancer and its risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is considered to often involve bone metastasis. Early detection and treatment of bone metastasis are essential in improving the prognosis of this disease. In 47 patients with bone metastasis confirmed with bone scintigraphy, we examined the appearance time of bone metastasis; bone metastasis was frequently observed with the progress of stage, but no association with the appearance time was found. Age was not associated with the incidence of bone metastasis but was found to be closely related to its appearance time. That is to say, patients with breast cancer below 40 years of age showed relatively early bone metastasis. Bone scintigraphy is required every 6 months at least for 3 years after the operation. In patients over 40 years of age, on the other hand, bone scintigraphy is required only once a year but has to be continued for 5 years or more, because they often show relatively late bone metastasis. (author)

  1. Bone tumours in children and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The auther stresses the importance 1) of clinical data (e.g. age of the patient, localisation of the lesion, type and duration of the symptoms), 2) of radiographic findings and 3) of anatomicopathological changes which must all be taken into account especially in the judgment of bone tumours. Radiographic examination is of importance here also as a morphological method as it gives a picture of the 'mosaic' of a bone change. Biopsy material alone may contain only isolated parts with ambiguous histological findings, so that the true nature of the bone lesion can only be recognized by comparsion with the X-ray findings. (orig.)

  2. Inulin, oligofructose and bone health: experimental approaches and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M

    2005-04-01

    Inulin-type fructans have been proposed to benefit mineral retention, thereby enhancing bone health. Many, but not all, experimental animal studies have shown increased mineral absorption by feeding non-digestible oligosaccharides. Possible reasons for inconsistencies are explored. A few studies have reported an enhanced bone mineral density or content. Bone health can be evaluated in chronic feeding studies with bone densitometry, bone breaking strength, bone mineral concentration and bone structure. Isotopic Ca tracers can be used to determine the point of metabolism affected by feeding a functional food ingredient. These methods and the effects of feeding inulin-type fructose are reviewed. Inulin-type fructans enhance Mg retention. Chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose enhance femoral Ca content, bone mineral density and Ca retention through enhanced Ca absorption and suppressed bone turnover rates, but it is not bone-promoting under all conditions.

  3. Rheumatic manifestations of primary and metastatic bone tumors and paraneoplastic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waimann, Christian A; Lu, Huifang; Suarez Almazor, Maria E

    2011-11-01

    Bone tumors can show a wide range of nonspecific rheumatic manifestations. The presence of unexplained or atypical chronic bone pain, an enlarging bone mass, neurovascular compression syndromes, or pathologic fractures should alert us to the possibility of a bone tumor causing these symptoms. These patients must undergo a complete physical examination; adequate imaging; and, if needed, a biopsy to confirm their diagnosis and offer them an opportune treatment. In addition, bone tumors and other malignancies can present remote clinical manifestations and unusual laboratory findings (eg, HOA, hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and hypercalcemia) that may be the first and early manifestation of an occult cancer. These findings should motivate a cancer screening according to age, sex, and personal history. Cancer therapies also have a big impact on bone health, increasing the risk of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and/or osteonecrosis. Rheumatologists should be aware of possible long-term adverse events of cancer treatment to avoid future complications.

  4. Nanotechnology in the targeted drug delivery for bone diseases and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenyi Gu,1,2 Chengtie Wu,3 Jiezhong Chen,1 Yin Xiao1 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment approaches. Similarly, this technique has been used for treating bone diseases including bone regeneration. In this review, we have summarized and highlighted the recent advancement of nanostructured particles and scaffolds for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis, osteosarcoma, bone infections and inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as for bone regeneration. Nanoparticles used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules to specific bone sites for gene therapies are also included. The investigation of the implications of nanoparticles in bone diseases have just begun, and has already shown some promising potential. Further studies have to be conducted, aimed specifically at assessing targeted delivery and bioactive scaffolds to further improve their efficacy before they can be used clinically. Keywords: nanoparticles, nanostructured scaffold, cancer bone metastasis, bone diseases, target drug delivery, bone regeneration

  5. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  6. Effects of prostaglandin on experimental bone malignancy and on scintigrams of bone and marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between prostaglandin E (PgE) and scintigrams of bone (Tc-99m MDP) and bone marrow (Tc-99m SC) was investigated in normal and VX-2-bearing rabbits. PgE in plasma of normal rabbits was 486.2. In rabbits with VX-2 transplanted into femoral muscles, PgE was in the normal range unless the tumor invaded bone. PgE was not increase significantly in rabbits when the tumor was transplanted into the marrow cavity. When tumor invaded bone, PgE increassed markedly (to 1335). Elevation of PgE did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not higher than in the untreated group. Indomethacin may suppress the local acceleration of calcium metabolism

  7. Isolation and Colony Formation of Murine Bone and Bone Marrow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaffie, Sophie; Chau, You-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Adult homeostasis is dependent on normal Wt1 expression. Loss of Wt1 expression in adult mice causes rapid loss of the mesenchymal tissues, fat and bone, amongst other phenotypes. Bone and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells can be studied by cell isolation and expansion. The stemness of these cells can then be characterized by carrying out a colony-forming unit-fibroblast assay and observing clonogenic capabilities. PMID:27417960

  8. Local treatment of a bone graft by soaking in zoledronic acid inhibits bone resorption and bone formation. A bone chamber study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belfrage Ola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone grafts are frequently used in orthopaedic surgery. Graft remodelling is advantageous but can occur too quickly, and premature bone resorption might lead to decreased mechanical integrity of the graft. Bisphosphonates delay osteoclastic bone resorption but may also impair formation of new bone. We hypothesize that these effects are dose dependent. In the present study we evaluate different ways of applying bisphosphonates locally to the graft in a bone chamber model, and compare that with systemic treatment. Methods Cancellous bone grafts were placed in titanium chambers and implanted in the tibia of 50 male rats, randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as negative control and the grafts were rinsed in saline before implantation. In the second and third groups, the grafts were soaked in a zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml for 5 seconds and 10 minutes respectively before being rinsed in saline. In the fourth group, 8 μL of zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml was pipetted onto the freeze-dried grafts without rinsing. The fifth group served as positive control and the rats were given zoledronic acid (0.1 mg/kg systemically as a single injection two weeks after surgery. The grafts were harvested at 6 weeks and analysed with histomorphometry, evaluating the ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft as an equivalent to the anabolic osteoblast effect and the amount (bone volume/total volume; BV/TV of remaining bone in the remodelled graft as equivalent to the catabolic osteoclast effect. Results In all chambers, almost the entire graft had been revascularized but only partly remodelled at harvest. The ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft was lower in grafts soaked in zoledronic acid for 10 minutes compared to control (p = 0.007. In all groups receiving zoledronic acid, the BV/TV was higher compared to control. Conclusions This study found a strong inhibitory effect on bone resorption by

  9. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, S [Universidad Autonoma, Rheumatology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Salvanes, F. [Universidad Autonoma, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Diaz-Curiel, M. [Universidad Autonoma, Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934{+-}217 mg, 878{+-}83 mg, 149{+-}14 mg and 29{+-}7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298{+-}24 mg/cm{sup 2}, 455{+-}32 mg/cm{sup 2}, 617{+-}60 mg/cm{sup 2} and 678{+-}163 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  10. Effects of Tai Ji Exercise on Bone Structure and Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong; David Lawson

    2005-01-01

    To evaluated the effects of the 24 movements Tai Ji exercise on bone structure and function. Broadband Ultrsonic Attenuation (BUA) and velocity of sound (VOS), bone formation marker Osteocalcin (OSTN) and bone resorption markers urinary Pyridum crosslinks (PYR and D-PYR) were studied before and after four months of Tai Ji exercise. Improved bone structure and increased bone density in menopausal women were reflected by BUA results. The increased BUA appears to be associated with increased bone formation rather than decreased bone resorption.

  11. Parathyroid and bone imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-Sen; LU Han-Kui; LUO Quan-Yong; CHEN Li-Bo; MA Ji-Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal derangements occur quite often in patient with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We investigated parathyroid and bone imagings in 59 cases of pathologically proven PHPT. Forty-nine cases were pathologically proven parathyroid adenomas; 8 presented hyperplasia and the other 2 were adenocarcinomas. Parathyroid imaging (early phase imaging, EPI) was conducted at 30 min after injecting 740~925MBq 99mTc-MIBI and 2~3h later (delayed phase imaging, DPI) separately. The following thyroid imagings were performed at the same posture 10 min after intravenous injection of 74~111MBq 99mTcO4-. The 99mTc- MIBI subtraction imaging data were obtained by subtracting thyroid imaging from that of DPI. Among 49 cases of proven hyperparathyroid adenoma 45 yielded positive imagings. Eight cases with hyperplasia gave negative results. The results were positive in 2 cases of parathyroid adenocarcinoma. Results of 99mTc-MDP/bone imaging: 35 cases of hyperparathyroid adenocarcinoma (disease duration 1-6 months) showed normal bone images, while 14 cases showed superscan images, course being 4-12 months. Bone imaging for 2 cases of adenocarcinoma showed multiple, radioactive aggregated foci (brown tumor imaging); course lasting 10-24 months. The results of bone imaging in 8 cases of hyperplasia/ hyperparathyroidism were normal. It was concluded that diagnostic accuracy for parathyroid was 79.6% and for parathyroid adenoma was 91.8%, and the technique has no diagnostic value for hyperplasia. The 99mTc-MDP / bone imaging results for PHPT can be classified into three categories, i.e. normal, superscan and brown tumor. The imaging results correlated well with the different categories and degrees of bone damage, the duration of clinical course and the pathological types. Therefore, it's important to use bone imaging data in association with therapy to reflect the stage and progress of PHPT.

  12. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  13. [Bone formation and corticotomy-induced accelerated bone remodeling: can alveolar corticotomy induce bone formation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Nathan; Charrier, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-03-01

    Current orthodontic treatments must answer an increasing demand for faster yet as efficient treatments, especially in adult patients. These past years, the amelioration of orthodontic, anesthetic and orthognathic surgery techniques have allowed considerable improvement of orthodontico-surgical treatments and of adult orthodontic treatments. Alveolar corticotomy (an example of such techniques) accelerates orthodontic tooth movements by local modifications of bone metabolism, inducing a transient osteopenia. This osteopenia allows greater tooth movements than conventional techniques. Whereas there is a growing understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of alveolar corticotomies, there is little data regarding the osteogenic potential of such technique. In the present article, we review the literature pertaining to alveolar corticotomies and their underlying biological mechanisms and present a clinical case underlining the osteogenic potential of the technique. PMID:25888047

  14. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ying Wu; E Xiao; Dana T Graves

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  15. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Saraswathy; S Pal; C Rose; T P Sastry

    2001-08-01

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone implant. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of prawn (Pinaeus indicus, family Crustaceae) which is a by-product of seafood industries. Chitosan gives toughness to the product and do not allow the DGB particles to wither away when the implant is placed in the defect. Gelatin was used as binder for the preparation of DGB–chitosan composite. The DGB, chitosan and DGB–chitosan–gelatin composite, which were prepared in the laboratory, were analysed for their physicochemical properties by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies.

  16. Skeletal Blood Flow in Bone Repair and Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan E.Tomlinson; Matthew J.Silva

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue, although this aspect of bone is often overlooked. In this article, the importance of blood flow in bone repair and regeneration will be reviewed. First, the skeletal vascular anato-my, with an emphasis on long bones, the distinct mechanisms for vascularizing bone tissue, and methods for remodeling existing vasculature are discussed. Next, techniques for quantifying bone blood flow are briefly summarized. Finally, the body of experimental work that demonstrates the role of bone blood flow in fracture healing, distraction osteogenesis, osteoporosis, disuse osteopenia, and bone grafting is examined. These results illustrate that adequate bone blood flow is an important clinical consideration, particularly during bone regeneration and in at-risk patient groups.

  17. Exercise and bone mass in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Fuentes, Teresa; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, Jose A L

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that exercise prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates bone growth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed during growth in non-physically active children. Bone mass can be increased by some exercise programmes in adults and the elderly, and attenuate the losses in bone mass associated with aging. This review provides an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies performed to date involving training and bone measurements. Cross-sectional studies show in general that exercise modalities requiring high forces and/or generating high impacts have the greatest osteogenic potential. Several training methods have been used to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and content in prospective studies. Not all exercise modalities have shown positive effects on bone mass. For example, unloaded exercise such as swimming has no impact on bone mass, while walking or running has limited positive effects. It is not clear which training method is superior for bone stimulation in adults, although scientific evidence points to a combination of high-impact (i.e. jumping) and weight-lifting exercises. Exercise involving high impacts, even a relatively small amount, appears to be the most efficient for enhancing bone mass, except in postmenopausal women. Several types of resistance exercise have been tested also with positive results, especially when the intensity of the exercise is high and the speed of movement elevated. A handful of other studies have reported little or no effect on bone density. However, these results may be partially attributable to the study design, intensity and duration of the exercise protocol, and the bone density measurement techniques used. Studies performed in older adults show only mild increases, maintenance or just attenuation of BMD losses in postmenopausal women, but net changes in BMD relative to control subjects who are losing bone mass are beneficial in

  18. Skeleton and Glucose Metabolism: A Bone-Pancreas Loop

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bone has been considered a structure essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic function. Recent advances in bone biology have highlighted the importance of skeleton as an endocrine organ which regulates some metabolic pathways, in particular, insulin signaling and glucose tolerance. This review will point out the role of bone as an endocrine “gland” and, specifically, of bone-specific proteins, as the osteocalcin (Ocn), and proteins involved in bone remodeling, as osteopr...

  19. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  20. Biochemical Bone Markers in Prostate Cancer Patients with Local and Advanced Bone Metastates

    OpenAIRE

    AKSOY, Hülya

    2001-01-01

    In the present study involving patients with bone metastases arising from prostate cancer, we measured urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) as a marker of collagen breakdown activity, serum total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activities and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). This study included 20 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 23 patients with carcinoma, 11 of had with bone metastases. DPD excretion in urine was significantly greater in prostate cancer patients w...

  1. Bone tumors of the spine and sacral bone; Primaere Tumoren der Wirbelsaeule und des Sakrums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, Juergen [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte gGmbH, Bremen (Germany). Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie

    2010-12-15

    Bone tumors and tumorlike lesions of the spine are rare entities and may harbour diagnostic problems. In this article we discuss the epidemiology, topographic aspects, clinical and radiologic features as well as the diagnostic management of vertebral bone tumors. Entities that should be more familiar to the radiologist (i.e. osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, hemangioma, giant cell tumor, chordoma, aneurysmal bone cyst) are considered in more detail. (orig.)

  2. Comparative study of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balliu, E., E-mail: eballiu@gmail.co [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Boada, M.; Pelaez, I. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, J.C. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta Caterina, Girona (Spain); Barcelo-Vidal, C. [Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Girona (Spain); Rubio, A.; Galofre, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Castro, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Pedraza, S. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy in the detection of metastases to bone. Material and methods: Forty randomly selected patients with known malignant tumours were prospectively studied using bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI. Two patients were excluded. Symptoms of bone metastasis were present in 29 (76%) patients and absent in nine (24%). Findings were classified into four categories according to the probability of bone metastasis: (1) negative, (2) probably negative, (3) probably positive, and (4) positive. Diagnostic accuracy was determined according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The definitive diagnosis was reached using other imaging techniques, biopsy, or 12 months clinical follow-up. Results: Metastases were present in 18 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 94, 90, and 92%, respectively, for whole-body MRI and 72, 75, and 74%, respectively, for bone scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (96%) than for bone scintigraphy (77%; p<0.05). Interobserver agreement measured by the kappa index was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (0.895) than for bone scintigraphy (0.524; p<0.05). Whole-body MRI detected lesions in tissues other than bone in 17 (45%) patients. Conclusions: Whole-body MRI is more accurate and more objective than bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. Whole-body MRI can also detect lesions in tissues other than bone.

  3. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Witkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23 that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0–1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6 months, 6 months–1 year and 1–4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point

  4. Arteria1 microvascularization and breast cancer colonization in bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, T

    1997-01-01

    Bone is one of the most preferential target organs of cancer metastases. Breast, prostate and lung cancers have a special predilection for colonization in bone. In an animal model in which inoculation of cancer cells into the left cardiac ventricle selectively develops osteolytic bone metastases but rarely forms metastases in non-bone organs, the pattern of breast cancer colonization in bone was studied radiologically and histologically. Colonization of cancer ...

  5. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    OpenAIRE

    Lui PPY; Zhang P; KM, Chan; Qin L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis") which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be ...

  6. Image findings and bone metabolic markers of bone involvement by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameta, Ayako; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Harada, Mikiko; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Hayama, Kazuhide [Nippon Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata

    2000-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the circulating pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and carboxyl-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) are useful markers for detecting metastasis of malignancies to bone. Since ICTP and PICP are related to collagen metabolism, respectively breaking down and synthesizing type I collagen, elevated blood concentrations of these markers may reflect direct jaw bone destruction by oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between serum ICTP and PICP levels and bone invasion associated with oral cancer. Bone invasion was evaluated in 41 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by panoramic radiography and {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy. We also assayed serum levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and compared them with concentrations of bone metabolic markers and imaging findings. There was no significant relationship between serum ICTP and PICP levels and bone invasion. However, in three of the five cases that showed remarkably high serum ICTP levels, {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake in the lesion was intensely increased. This suggests that serum ICTP levels may be elevated when bone metabolic changes caused by cancer involving the bone are extensive. We could find no significant correlation among serum levels of ICTP, PICP, and PTHrP. ICTP and PICP do not appear to be good indicators of direct bone invasion by oral SCC in early stages. (author)

  7. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  8. Dried plum's unique capacity to reverse bone loss and alter bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rendina

    Full Text Available Interest in dried plum has increased over the past decade due to its promise in restoring bone and preventing bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. This study compared the effects of dried plum on bone to other dried fruits and further explored the potential mechanisms of action through which dried plum may exert its osteoprotective effects. Adult osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 25% (w/w dried plum, apple, apricot, grape or mango for 8 weeks. Whole body and spine bone mineral density improved in mice consuming the dried plum, apricot and grape diets compared to the OVX control mice, but dried plum was the only fruit to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in the vertebra and prevent bone loss in the tibia. Restoration of biomechanical properties occurred in conjunction with the changes in trabecular bone in the spine. Compared to other dried fruits in this study, dried plum was unique in its ability to down-regulate osteoclast differentiation coincident with up-regulating osteoblast and glutathione (GPx activity. These alterations in bone metabolism and antioxidant status compared to other dried fruits provide insight into dried plum's unique effects on bone.

  9. Distribution of Caesium-137 in Samples Consisting of Soft Tissue, Bone and Bone Marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations which were performed up to now on the distribution of-caesium-137 in the human organism could not explain exactly the distribution of the radiocaesium between bone and bone marrow. That is why a reliable estimation of the radiation burden of the skeleton caused by the incorporation of atmospheric caesium-137 is not given in the literature. Therefore, the concentration of caesium-137 in compact bones as well as in bone marrow was determined. Furthermore, the concentration of caesium-137 in the soft tissue of the same individuals was measured. (author)

  10. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  11. Bone microenvironment-mediated resistance of cancer cells to bisphosphonates and impact on bone osteocytes/stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasmari, Abeer; Lin, Shih-Chun; Dibart, Serge; Salih, Erdjan

    2016-08-01

    Anti-resorptive bisphosphonates (BPs) have been clinically used to prevent cancer-bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone pathologies despite the fact that the phenotypic response of the cancer-bone interactions to BP exposure is "uncharted territory". This study offers unique insights into the interplay between cancer stem cells and osteocytes/osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells using a three-dimensional (3D) live cancer-bone interactive model. We provide extraordinary cryptic details of the biological events that occur as a result of alendronate (ALN) treatment using 3D live cancer-bone model systems under specific bone remodeling stages. While cancer cells are susceptible to BP treatment in the absence of bone, they are totally unaffected in the presence of bone. Cancer cells colonize live bone irrespective of whether the bone is committed to bone resorption or formation and hence, cancer-bone metastasis/interactions are though to be "independent of bone remodeling stages". In our 3D live bone model systems, ALN inhibited bone resorption at the osteoclast differentiation level through effects of mineral-bound ALN on osteocytes and osteoblasts. The mineral-bound ALN rendered bone incapable of osteoblast differentiation, while cancer cells colonize the bone with striking morphological adaptations which led to a conclusion that a direct anti-cancer effect of BPs in a "live or in vivo" bone microenvironment is implausible. The above studies were complemented with mass spectrometric analysis of the media from cancer-bone organ cultures in the absence and presence of ALN. The mineral-bound ALN impacts the bone organs by limiting transformation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts and leads to diminished endosteal cell population and degenerated osteocytes within the mineralized bone matrix. PMID:27155840

  12. Haemopoiesis in murine bone marrow and spleen after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulopoiesis was studied in mice repeatedly exposed to doses of 3 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at 4-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy on the basis of total bone marrow cellularity follow-up and analysis of myelograms and splenograms. Half the number of the mice received lO6 nuclear cells of syngeneic bone marrow after each fractional radiation dose. After an initial steep decrease, the number of granuloid cells in the spleen increased about 30-fold between days 12 and 16 of the experiment (total dose 9 and 12 Gy, respectively). This increase was temporary and between days 20 and 24 (total dose 15 and 18 Gy, respectively) a steep decrease again occurred. At a low level (below 10% of the control value) the granuloid cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment (day 37, total dose 24 Gy). The behavior of the granuloid compartment of hemopoiesis thus contrasts with findings in the erythroid compartment (Hofer et al., 1989) when high numbers of erythroid nuclear cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment. On the whole, the influence of repeated bone marrow transplantation on granulopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen is positive. Of the 22 comparisons made between bone marrow recipients and mice only irradiated, 14 differences are statistically significant, always in favor of bone marrow recipients. (author)

  13. Effects of prostaglandin on experimental bone malignancy and on scintigrams of bone and marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between prostaglandin E (PgE) and scintigrams of bone (Tc-99m MDP) and bone marrow (Tc-99m SC) was investigated in normal and VX-2-bearing rabbits. PgE in plasma of normal rabbits was 486.2 +/- 185.7 pg/ml (n . 86) and the maximum-to-minimum (max/min) ratio was 1.85 +/- 0.26 at 4 wk after tumor implantation. In rabbits with VX-2 transplanted into femoral muscles, PgE was in the normal range unless the tumor invaded bone. PgE did not increase significantly in rabbits when the tumor was transplanted into the marrow cavity. When tumor invaded bone, PgE increased markedly (to 1335 +/- 584 pg/ml). Elevation of PgE did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group was not higher than in the untreated group. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the time of appearance of abnormal bone scans. However, when the number of transplanted cells in the bone marrow was reduced, the treatment with indomethacin delayed the increase in tracer uptake in the affected bone and resulted in a photon-deficient area. Indomethacin may suppress the local acceleration of calcium metabolism

  14. Preparation and characterization of a novel bone graft composite containing bone ash and egg shell powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gunasekaran Krithiga; Thotapalli P Sastry

    2011-02-01

    Egg shells which were hitherto discarded as wastes were collected, purified and powdered into a particle size in the range of 5–50 m. A composite bone graft material in cylindrical form was prepared using egg shell powder (ESP), bone ash (BA) and gelatin. These bone grafts were characterized for their FT–IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and mechanical properties. The mechanical studies indicate that the composite having a stoichiometric ratio of BA (3 g) and ESP (7 g) has shown better mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated the crystallographic nature of BA is akin to hydroxyapatite (HA) and both BA and ESP did not lose their crystalline nature when bone grafts were prepared. This revealed that ESP may be used as a component in bone graft utilizing the solid waste from the poultry industry.

  15. Temporal bone fracture and its complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and treatment oftemporal bone fractures and injuries in the medial-inner ear.Methods: The clinical data of 48 cases of temporal bone fractures admitted to our hospital from January 1989 to November 1999 were retrospectively analyzed.Results: Forty-eight patients with temporal bone fractures accounted for 17.00% of the homochronous craniofacial fractures. Of the 48 cases, temporal bone fractures induced by traffic accidents accounted for 66.67%, capillary fractures for 93.75%, medial-inner ear injuries or craniocerebral injuries for 77.08% and hearing loss or tinnitus for 48.00%. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea and facioplegia accounted for 36.70% and 3.00%, respectively, in the longitudinal fractures, while they were 25.00% and 37.50%, respectively, in the transversal fractures. Primary emergent operations were performed on 46 cases and neurosurgery accounted for 46.00%. Secondary procedures accounted for 16.70%. As a result, 43 cases survived (89.58%) and 5 died (10.41%).Conclusions: Traffic injury is the first high-dangerous factor for temporal bone fractures, which are often complicated with medial-inner ear or craniocerebral injury. The CSF otorrhea is common in the longitudinal fractures and facioplegia is common in the transversal fractures. The key step is to rescue the life, keep the airway unobstructed and maintain the circulation in the primary emergency treatment.

  16. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    From a public health perspective, developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the well-known increase in fracture risk of human bone with age is essential. This also represents a challenge from materials science and fracture mechanics viewpoints. Bone has a complex, hierarchical structure with characteristic features ranging from nanometer to macroscopic dimensions; it is therefore significantly more complex than most engineering materials. Nevertheless, by examining the micro-/nano-structural changes accompanying the process of aging using appropriate multiscale experimental methods and relating them to fracture mechanics data, it is possible to obtain a quantitative picture of how bone resists fracture. As human cortical bone exhibits rising ex vivo crack-growth resistance with crack extension, its fracture toughness must be evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior. While the crack initiation toughness declines with age, the more striking finding is that the crack-growth toughness declines even more significantly and is essentially absent in bone from donors exceeding 85 years in age. To explain such an age-induced deterioration in the toughness of bone, we evaluate its fracture properties at multiple length scales, specifically at the molecular and nanodimensions using pico-force atomic-force microscopy, nanoindentation and vibrational spectroscopies, at the microscale using electron microscopy and hard/soft x-ray computed tomography, and at the macroscale using R-curve measurements. We show that the reduction in crack-growth toughness is associated primarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, in particular involving crack bridging, and that this occurs at relatively coarse size-scales in the range of tens to hundreds of micrometers. Finally, we briefly describe how specific clinical treatments, e.g., with steroid hormones to treat various inflammatory conditions, can prematurely damage bone, thereby reducing its

  17. Macrophage Polarization and Bone Formation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Nicole J

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of inflammation to bone loss is well documented in arthritis and other diseases with an emphasis on how inflammatory cytokines promote osteoclastogenesis. Macrophages are the major producers of cytokines in inflammation, and the factors they produce depend upon their activation state or polarization. In recent years, it has become apparent that macrophages are also capable of interacting with osteoblasts and their mesenchymal precursors. This interaction provides growth and differentiation factors from one cell that act on the other and visa versa-a concept akin to the requirement for a feeder layer to grow hemopoietic cells or the coupling that occurs between osteoblasts and osteoclasts to maintain bone homeostasis. Alternatively, activated macrophages are the most likely candidates to promote bone formation and have also been implicated in the tissue repair process in other tissues. In bone, a number of factors, including oncostatin M, have been shown to promote osteoblast formation both in vitro and in vivo. This review discusses the different cell types involved, cellular mediators, and how this can be used to direct new bone anabolic approaches. PMID:26498771

  18. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  19. Vitamin D and Bone Health; Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Strain

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and significant economic and health costs. Vitamin D is a secosteriod hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Sub-optimal vitamin D status has been reported in many populations but it is a particular concern in older people; thus there is clearly a need for effective strategies to optimise bone health. A number of recent studies have suggested that the role of vitamin D in preventing fractures may be via its mediating effects on muscle function (a defect in muscle function is one of the classical signs of rickets and inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation can improve muscle strength which in turn contributes to a decrease in incidence of falls, one of the largest contributors to fracture incidence. Osteoporosis is often considered to be an inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with increased bone metabolism. The immunoregulatory mechanisms of vitamin D may thus modulate the effect of these cytokines on bone health and subsequent fracture risk. Vitamin D, therefore, may influence fracture risk via a number of different mechanisms.

  20. Molecular and cellular basis of bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Osteoclast research has an exciting history and a challenging future. More than 3 decades ago, it became evident that bone-resorbing osteoclasts are of hematopoietic origin and are ultimately linked to the "basic multicellular unit," where they team up with the other cell types, including bone-forming osteoblasts. Since 2 decades, we have learned about the signaling pathways controlling genes relevant for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. It took another decade until the hypothesized "osteoclast differentiation" factor was discovered and was translated into an approved pharmacologic strategy. Here, the focus is on another molecular target, cathepsin K, a cysteine protease being released by the osteoclast into the resorption compartment. Genetic deletion and pharmacological blocking of cathepsin K reduces bone resorption but with ongoing bone formation. This observation not only holds great promise to become a new pharmacologic strategy, but it also provides new insights into the coordinated work of cells in the "basic multicellular unit" and thus, bridges the history and future of osteoclast research. This article is a short primer on osteoclast biology for readers of the special issue on odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor. PMID:25223736

  1. Dental pulp stem cells and bone regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia KAPAROU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Dental pulp, a soft tissue of mesenchymal origin, contains stem cells derived from cranial neural crest cells. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs reside into special anatomic locations of dental pulp, the so called “niches”. Stem cell niches are located predominately, but not exclusively, in the perivascular regions of the pulpal cavity. DPSCs exhibit clonogenic and high proliferative activity and are capable of differentiating into several cell types. The main function of these cells is the production of tertiary/reparative dentine following trauma or caries of dental crown. Previous studies have shown that DPSCs can differentiate into osteoblast-like cells that secrete abundant extracellular matrix and can build a woven bone in vitro. Moreover, DPSCs are capable of forming a complete and well-vascularised lamellar bone after grafting ectopically into immunocompromised rats. The in vivo transplantation of DPSCs into critical-sized bone defects in animal models has been shown to promote and/or accelerate bone regeneration. These results are clearly encouraging and stress the need of further research for the potential clinical use of DPSCs in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  3. Bone induction by composite of bioerodible polyorthoester and deminiralized bone matrix in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinholt, E.M.; Solheim, E. (Institute for Surgical Research, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo (Norway)); Bang, G. (Department of Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, University of Bergen (Norway)); Sudmann, E. (Hagavik Orthopedic Hospital, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1991-01-01

    A composite of a local, sustained, drug-release system, Alzamer bioerodible polyorthoester, and demineralized bone-matrix (DBM) particles implanted in the abdominal muscle of 89 Wistar rats induced cartilage and bone formation at the same rate as DBM when evaluated histologically and by {sup 85}Sr uptake. The composite implant was technically easier to use than DBM alone. (author).

  4. Remodelling of bone and bones. Effects of altered mechanical stress on anlages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, E; Feik, S A

    1982-04-01

    Tails from 4-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were bent in situ or skinned bent tail segments were transplanted s.c. into 50 g hosts. Tissue changes were studied for up to 24 weeks by radiographic and histological techniques. The early changes in situ resulted largely from limited translation of bones within their encasing tissues with resorption on the leading (pressure) side inducing thinning, and on the trailing (tension) side thickening of bone. The changes in transplanted anlages occurred in 3 stages: initially, bending of the anlages, with tension between the stretched periosteum and the outer bone surface inducing formation, and compression of cartilage and bone on the inner aspect leading to resorption; then resumption of longitudinal growth and expansion of the bent loop leading to translation of bones within the encasing soft tissues with resorption and thinning of bone on the leading pressure side and formation, with thickening of the inner shaft, on the trailing tension side; and finally with cessation of growth and translation, a reversal to the previous phase. The results support the hypothesis that 2 processes are involved: first, internal stress, and second, translation of bones with, in all instances, pressure inducing resorption and tension inducing formation of bone.

  5. Mimicking Bone - Chemical and Physical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie C Cox

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that chemical and physical features of bone contribute to its functionality, reactivity and mechanical performance. This fundamental rationale underpins the author’s research strategy. This paper presents a summary of efforts to fabricate a synthetic structure, referred to as a scaffold, that both chemically and physical emulates the intricate structure of bone. An understanding of key features of bone tissue that contribute to its remarkable properties is presented as a background to this work. Novel work aimed at improving the understanding of the synthesis of a ceramic biomaterial, namely hydroxyapatite, that is chemically similar to bone mineral is discussed. A case study involving the manufacture of porous scaffolds by 3D printing is also presented. In summary, this article highlights a number of on-going challenges that multidisciplinary tissue engineers aim to solve to get one step closer to mimicking bone, which clinically could improve the quality of life for millions of people worldwide.  Photo credit: By Doc. RNDr. Josef Reischig, CSc. (Author's archive [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

  6. Medullary bone and humeral breaking strength in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that large amounts of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis may increase breaking strength, various parameters of bone quality and quantity were examined in two large flocks of hens near end of lay. We conclude that the amount of medullary bone in the humerus of hens during the laying period influences bone strength. This medullary bone may not have any intrinsic strength, but may act by contributing to the fracture resistance of the surrounding cortical bone. Using a quantitative, low dose, radiographic technique, we can predict, from early in the laying period, those birds which will develop large amounts of medullary bone in their humeri by the end of the laying period. The formation of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis is not at the expense of the surrounding radiographed cortical bone

  7. A physical mechanism for coupling bone resorption and formation in adult human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Skorzynska, Katarzyna Ewa;

    2009-01-01

    within strict limits throughout adult life. Here, we determined that the bone marrow microanatomy adjacent to remodeling areas is a central player in this process. By using histomorphometry and multiple immunostainings, we demonstrated in biopsies exhibiting coupled bone resorption and formation...

  8. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  9. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  10. Biochemical markers of bone turnover and their association with bone marrow lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, D.J.; LaValley, M.; Li, J.; Bauer, D.C.; Nevitt, M.; Groot, J. de; Poole, R.; Eyre, D.; Guermazi, A.; Gale, D.; Totterman, S.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Our objective was to determine whether markers of bone resorption and formation could serve as markers for the presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Methods: We conducted an analysis of data from the Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study (BOKS). Knee magnetic resonance images were

  11. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  12. Solid-state P-31 MR studies of bone mineral and calcium phosphate bone cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium phosphate bone cements have recently been used to promote bone healing and remodeling, but little is known of their bioabsorption. The purpose of this paper to characterize and quantitate bone mineral and calcium phosphate bone cements with the use of solid-state P-31 NMR imaging to establish a model for bioabsorption studies. Pulverized cortical rabbit bone, octacalcium phosphate spherulites, and two synthetic apatite formulations (A and B, Norian, Mountain View, Calif) were evaluated in vitro. A 9.4-T Varian VXR-400S spectrometer operating at 161.9 MHz for P-31 was used to obtain NMR imaging spectra with the magic-angel spinning technique at a sample spin frequency of 6-7.5 kHz, utilizing an external 85% phosphoric acid reference. T1 was determined in a static 90 degrees τ 90 degrees experiment. Quantitation was attempted in mixed samples

  13. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  14. [Bone marrow involvement and eosinophilia in paracoccidioidomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai-Yasuda, M A; Higaki, Y; Uip, D E; Mori, N S; Del Negro, G; Melo, N T; Hutzler, R U; Amato Neto, V

    1992-01-01

    The authors described three acute paracoccidioidomycosis patients with bone marrow involvement. P. brasiliensis yeast forms were observed in bone marrow smears of all them, and in one case, culture also revealed fungus growth. The mononuclear phagocytic system involvement, the blood eosinophilia and the negative skin hypersensibility responses were emphasized in all of them, as well as the severity of the disease in one case, with disseminated bone lesions and 20.260 eosinophils/mm3 in peripheral blood. The authors discuss the possible role of eosinophil in the host-parasite interaction in paracoccidioidomycosis, suggesting that TH 2 subpopulation activation and increased IL 5 and GM-CSF secretions may be responsible by eosinophilia in the most severe case. PMID:1340036

  15. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan

  16. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander;

    2004-01-01

    rats as compared to their controls (P rats with isolated GHD. Whether similar conditions are present in GHD patients need further investigations. The changes described, however, may provide...... collagen morphology and bone mineralisation in cortical bone as well as bone strength in GHD rats to try to clarify the explanation for the increased fracture rate. The Dw-4 rat was used as a model for GHD. This strain of rats has an autosomal recessive disorder, reducing GH synthesis to approximately 10......% and growth rate to approximately 40-50% when compared to normal control rats. Five male Dw-4 rats were examined at age 12 weeks and five healthy Lewis rats served as age-matched controls. The animals were examined for (1) bone mineral status by dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) and ash weight/bone volume...

  17. Stereo morphology of temporal bone and ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴朴; 刘阳; 姜泗长; 方耀云; 王今; 杨伟炎

    2004-01-01

    Background The temporal bone has the most complicated anatomic feature among the whole human body, which always challenges otolaryngologists. This study was to study three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the temporal bone and the ear by means of a computer image processing technique, for the purpose of providing a 3D image to help in pathological, diagnostic and surgical procedures. Methods Forty sets of temporal bone celloidin serial sections with reference points were prepared and the contours of selected structures and reference points were entered into a graphics programme. The technique of computer-aided 3D reconstruction was applied to obtain 3D images and parameters of the temporal bones and the ears. Stereo views of the ossicles (n=5), the facial nerves (n=11), the posterior tympanic sinuses (n=11), the posterior ampullary nerves (n=4), the endolymphatic ducts and sacs (n=5), and the bony and membranous labyrinth (n=1) were reconstructed. Results Three-dimensional images, including the cochlea, the ossicles, the nerves, the tendons and the endolymphatic fluid system in the temporal bone, were obtained. Stereo picture pairs and 3D parameters of spatial dimensions, angle and volume for these reconstructed structures were calculated. The arrangement of the ossicles, spatial relationship of the bony and membranous labyrinth, the whole course of the facial nerves, the endolymphatic sac and posterior tympanic cavity were clearly observable. Stereo picture pairs made the spatial relationships among the above-mentioned structures much clearer. The operation of the posterior ampullary nerve transection was designed and simulated on the graphic computer based on 3D anatomic investigations. Conclusion The technique of computer-aided 3D reconstruction provides a new tool to observe the morphology of the temporal bone and thus may allow design and study of new surgical approaches.

  18. Study of gelatinized marrow stroma osteoblasts and true bone ceramic active bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tai-fang; XIA Ren-yun; YANG Cai-hong; CHEN An-min; LUO Yong-xiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate a new method to construct tissue-engineering bone that will be applicable clinically.   Methods: The cultured 5th generation rabbit bone marrow stroma osteoblasts (MSO) was dissolved in 3% sodium alginate solution (the final concentration of sodium alginate in the solution being 1%, and MSO, 5×106/L), and then inoculated into prepared true bone ceramic (TBC) and gelatinized the bone by dribbling with calcium gluconate. The standard bone defect models were made in 48 adult New Zealand rabbits both radius. Among the 48 rabbits, 24 were in Groups A and B, in which the left radius was implanted with gelatinized MSO-TBC (Group A) and right radius implanted with autograft-bone (Group B); and the other 24 were in control group whose left radius was implanted with non-gelatinized MSO-TBC (Group C) and right radius implanted with gelatinized TBC (Group D). Outcomes of the implanted bones were assessed by radiology, pathological histology, osteogenetic quantitative analysis, and biomechanics at 2, 4, 8,12 weeks postoperatively. Results: In Groups A and B, a satisfactory bone reparation and bony union was noted within 12 weeks. In Groups C and D, bone reparation was not satisfied compared with Group A in terms of ostogenetic quantity and biomechanics.  Conclusions: Gelatinized MSO-TBC is an ideal artificial active bone that overcomes TBC shortcomings of fragileness and smooth surface that is not eligible for seed cells adhesion. It is promising to put into clinical use extensively.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy in bone metastasis detection: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Silvija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bone scintigraphy is well-known method for the detection of neoplastic lesions with a high sensitivity and, at the same time, a lower specificity. On the other hand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is previously established noninvasive imaging method regarding its diagnostic specificity. The aim of this study was to determine the possibilities and to correlate two different diagnostic methods - bone scintigraphy and MRI in the detection of bone metastasis in the spine and pelvic bones. Methods. A total of 123 patients who underwent both bone scintigraphy and spine and pelvic MRI on 1.5 T MR imager were enrolled in this study. Scans were subsequently analyzed in total and divided in regions of interest (cervical, upper, middle and lower thoracic, upper and lower lumbar and pelvic region, which includes sacral spinal segment; afterwards the total number of 585 matching regions were compared and statistically analyzed. Results. The statistical analysis demonstrated significant correlation between the findings of both methods in total. Divided by regions of interest, significant degrees of correlation were demonstrated in all of them, except in the cervical spine region where the r-value was in the range of low correlation. Conclusion. Having a high mutual correlation, bone scintigraphy and MRI are to be considered as the complementary diagnostic methods in the detection of bone metastases. Still, increased diagnostic potential of MRI may highlights negative bone scintigraphy findings in the patients with solitary metastatic lesions or diffuse vertebral infiltration. Advances in the bone scintigraphy (single photon emission tomography - SPECT, SPECTcomputed tomography - SPECT-CT and MRI (whole body MRI, diffusion MRI, make it possible the diagnostic potential of both methods will result in a further improvement in bone metastasis detection.

  20. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  1. Wine and bone health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutleša, Zvonimir; Budimir Mršić, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    A light-to-moderate wine consumption has been shown to provide several beneficial effects on the skeletal system, including reduced risk of bone mass loss and fractures. Wine is rich in phenolic compounds, strong phytoestrogens and natural antioxidants, to which bone protection is mainly attributed. The objective of this review was to give an overview of the exact mechanisms by which wine consumption is involved in bone protection. We found a great variety of in vitro research on the beneficial effects of isolated wine phenolics on the skeletal system, with a significant lack of evidence of their in vivo effects. In addition, we found almost no studies investigating how wine, a mixture of these phenolics dissolved in ethanol, affects the skeletal system. Our results warrant further research on this interesting topic.

  2. OSL properties of anthropological bone and tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric, Niyazi [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.tr; Kosal, Mehmet [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kosal@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Altay Atlihan, M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: atlihan@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Rabia Yuece, Ulkue [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ulku.yuce@taek.gov.tr

    2008-06-15

    The aim of present work was to investigate whether anthropological bone and teeth can be used in dosimetric and dating studies. The radiation dose responses of anthropological human bone and pig teeth were obtained and studied using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The radiation dose responses of these materials were found to be compatible with commonly used feldspar and quartz compounds. The IRSL signal was shown to be linear with a radiation dose until {approx}200 Gy and stable at ambient temperature, which may allow the use of such materials for dating.

  3. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  4. Soy Isoflavones and Osteoporotic Bone Loss: A Review with an Emphasis on Modulation of Bone Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Lee, Sun-Kyeong; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder that affects both women and men, although estrogen deficiency induced by menopause accelerates bone loss in older women. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of men and women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Since the current drug therapies available have multiple side effects, including increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or complications, a search for potential nonpharmacologic alternative therapies for osteoporosis is of prime interest. Soy isoflavones (SI) have demonstrated potential bone-specific effects in a number of studies. This article provides a systematic review of studies on osteoporotic bone loss in relation to SI intake from diet or supplements to comprehensively explain how SI affect the modulation of bone remodeling. Evidence from epidemiologic studies supports that dietary SI attenuate menopause-induced osteoporotic bone loss by decreasing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Other studies have also illustrated that bone site-specific trophic and synergistic effects combined with exercise intervention might contribute to improve the bioavailability of SI or strengthen the bone-specific effects. To date, however, the effects of dietary SI on osteoporotic bone loss remain inconclusive, and study results vary from study to study. The current review will discuss the potential factors that result in the conflicting outcomes of these studies, including dosages, intervention materials, study duration, race, and genetic differences. Further well-designed studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanism and evaluate the effects of SI on osteoporosis in humans. PMID:26670451

  5. Bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 47Ca calcitonin study is described which is used in combination with a conventional balance study in 5 patients with hyperthyroidism both before and after therapy and in 1 control subject. The experimentally obtained data were analyzed according to Wendeberg and Dymling. The magnitude of the 47Ca loss through perspiration could not be determined. This fact can affect the rate of accretion but not the other parameters of calcium kinetics. A markedly flow of tracer into bone (inflow, internal disappearance, accretion, rate of accretion) and of calcium out of bone (resorption, outflow) was observed

  6. Influence of Gastrectomy on Cortical and Cancellous Bones in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Iwamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of gastrectomy (GX on cortical and cancellous bones in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into the two groups of 10 animals each: a sham operation (control group and a GX group. Seven weeks after surgery, the bone mineral content and density (BMC and BMD, resp. and the mechanical strength of the femur were determined, and bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on the tibia. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, ultimate force, work to failure, and stiffness of the femoral distal metaphysis and the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis. GX induced a decrease in cancellous bone mass, characterized by an increased osteoid thickness, osteoid surface, osteoid volume, and bone formation. GX also induced a decrease in cortical bone mass, characterized by increased endocortical bone resorption. The GX induced reductions in the bone mass and strength parameters were greater in cancellous bone than in cortical bone. The present study showed that the response of bone formation, resorption, and osteoid parameters to GX and the degree of GX-induced osteopenia and the deterioration of bone strength appeared to differ between cortical and cancellous bones in rats.

  7. Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Rodriguez García, Minerva; Gómez Alonso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Among the chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone formation and bone resorption, and less new bone is formed to replace bone losses. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization as "a disease characterized by low bone mineral density and micro architectural deterioration leading to low bone strength and increased risk of fractures." In the general population, there is a good correlation between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements and bone fractures, but this is not the case with CKD patients. Despite the fact that we have a great number of active antiosteoporotic drugs, the experience in CKD patients is limited. Adynamic bone is suspected based on biochemical parameters, mainly parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone alkaline phosphatase, but it needs to be proven using a bone biopsy, where a low or zero bone formation rate and a reduction or absence of osteoblasts and osteoclasts should be found. The clinical management of adynamic bone has important limitations and currently does not allow taking many active measures. Treatment is mainly based on the prevention of risk factors known to induce PTH oversuppression, such as aluminium and calcium load and very high doses of vitamin D receptor activators. Due to the limitations in the treatment of both conditions, prevention plays a key role in the management of these disorders. PMID:23023723

  8. Uranium and thorium in fossil bones : activity ratios and dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plicht, J. van der; Bartstra, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed fossil bones by U-series disequilibrium from five different sites (Ngandong and Sonde, Indonesia; Gold Ox Hill, People's Republic of China; Pestera, Romania and Ksar Akil, Lebanon). Two samples were taken from all bones: one representing surface material, and one from the inner bone

  9. Altered Bone Metabolism and Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. Objective To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Results Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g, 25 had bone pain, and 21 had a history of bne fractures. Serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol and urine calcium were decreased and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were increased in urine. Serum calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. There was no statistical correlation between three classes of fecal elastase-1 (200 µg/g and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1, 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to -2.5, and 1 had osteoporosis (T score -2.5. There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065. Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (p<0.05. Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT had significantly higher DXA values (p<0.05. Conclusions Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone

  10. Comparison of bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the initial diagnosis of bone involvement in children with malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative efficacy of bone and 67Ga scintigraphy for detecting the presence of bone involvement by malignant lymphomas is compared. 83 children were evaluated (mean age 12 years) with histologically proven HD and NHL utilizing bone and 67Ga scintigraphy which were performed prior to treatment. Three of these patients had biopsy proven primary malignant lymphoma of bone. Bone scintigraphy detected 18 bone lesions in 13 patients and 67Ga scintigraphy detected the same 18 bone lesions and in addition 101 extraosseous lesions. Radiography confirmed the presence of focal bone lesions. Both osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions were identified. It was concluded that bone scintigraphy is not necessary in the initial staging of children with malignant lymphoma unless there are specific osseous symptoms. (author)

  11. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr−/−) and wild-type (Ahr+/+) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr+/+ mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr−/− mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr+/+ mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr−/− mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr+/+ mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation results in increased trabecular bone and softer

  12. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  13. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE METABOLISM FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of two biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in liver recipients. Methods and results. Bоne densitometry of L2–L4 and neck of femur, serum level of some hormones (PTH, vitamin D3, estradiol, testosterone regulating osteoclastogenesis as well as com- parative analyses of two bone resorption markers β-crosslaps and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP-5b were fulfilled in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In 1 month after OLT bone density reduction of L2–L4 and neck of femur; decrease of vitamin D3, estradiol in women, testosterone in men and increase levels of bone resorption markers were observed. In 1 and 2 years after OLT the rise of bone density, increased levels of PTH, estradiol, testosterone and decreased β-crosslaps levels were revealed, while vitamin D3 and TRAP-5b levels remained stable. Conclusion. TRAP-5b was found to be a more speciffic marker of bone resorption, independent from collagen metabolism in liver. Osteoporosis defined in long-term period after OLT was associated with higher TRAP-5b and revialed in women with low estradiol level. 

  14. Postmenopausal bone loss and the risk of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, C

    1994-01-01

    The two most important risk factors for long-term skeletal health are the peak bone mass and the subsequent rate of bone loss. The rate of bone loss after skeletal maturity is determined by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Furthermore, all factors that impair estrogen production will increase bone loss. The present risk of developing osteoporosis and fractures may be assessed by bone mass measurements in the total skeleton, or in local parts of the skeleton such as the spine, hip and forearm, by single-photon/X-ray absorptiometry (SPA or SXA), dual-photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DPA or DXA), or quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Furthermore, the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women may be assessed by means of a number of biochemical markers. The fútúre risk of developing osteoporosis may thus be determined by combining the values for bone mineral content and bone loss. PMID:8081059

  15. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension, bone marrow, endothelial cell precursors and serotonin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Banas, Sophie M; Monassier, Laurent; Maroteaux, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin and bone-marrow-derived stem cells participate together in triggering pulmonary hypertension. Our work has shown that the absence of 5-HT2B receptors generates permanent changes in the composition of the blood and bone-marrow in the myeloid lineages, particularly in endothelial cell progenitors. The initial functions of 5-HT2B receptors in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are restricted to bone-marrow cells. They contribute to the differentiation/proliferation/mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone-marrow. Those bone-marrow-derived cells have a critical role in the development of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. These data indicate that bone-marrow derived endothelial progenitors play a key role in the pathogenesis of PAH and suggest that interactions involving serotonin and bone morphogenic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2) could take place at the level of the bone-marrow. PMID:27687599

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  18. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  19. Bone development and its relation to fracture repair. The role of mesenchymal osteoblasts and surface osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, F

    2008-01-01

    Bone development occurs by two mechanisms: intramembranous bone formation and endochondral bone formation. Bone tissue forms by eventual differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into either mesenchymal osteoblasts (MOBL), which synthesize woven bone in random orientation, or surface osteoblasts (SOBL), which synthesize bone on surfaces in a well oriented lamellar array. Bone repair uses the same formation patterns as bone development but the specific mechanism of repair is determined by the b...

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES FOR BONE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Pakkath Abdul Rub Sajid; Thiyagarajan Devasena

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a malady leading to bone fracture and results from imbalance in the rate of osteoblastic bone formation with respect to osteoclastic bone degradation.6 Nanotechnology raises exciting possibilities for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating osteoporosis.6 We use silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles endowed with natural bone-targeting capabilities and express potent pro-osteoblastogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic activation in vitro and show the ability to increase bo...

  1. Quality assessment for processed and sterilized bone using Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takeaki; Uchida, Kentaro; Naruse, Kouji; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Urabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Suto, Kaori; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate the potential for infection, many tissue banks routinely process and terminally sterilize allografts prior to transplantation. A number of techniques, including the use of scanning electron microscopy, bone graft models, and mechanical property tests, are used to evaluate the properties of allograft bone. However, as these methods are time consuming and often destroy the bone sample, the quality assessment of allograft bones are not routinely performed after processing and steril...

  2. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  3. Microgravity Stress: Bone and Connective Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Susan A; Martinez, Daniel A; Boudreaux, Ramon D; Mantri, Anita V

    2016-04-01

    The major alterations in bone and the dense connective tissues in humans and animals exposed to microgravity illustrate the dependency of these tissues' function on normal gravitational loading. Whether these alterations depend solely on the reduced mechanical loading of zero g or are compounded by fluid shifts, altered tissue blood flow, radiation exposure, and altered nutritional status is not yet well defined. Changes in the dense connective tissues and intervertebral disks are generally smaller in magnitude but occur more rapidly than those in mineralized bone with transitions to 0 g and during recovery once back to the loading provided by 1 g conditions. However, joint injuries are projected to occur much more often than the more catastrophic bone fracture during exploration class missions, so protecting the integrity of both tissues is important. This review focuses on the research performed over the last 20 years in humans and animals exposed to actual spaceflight, as well as on knowledge gained from pertinent ground-based models such as bed rest in humans and hindlimb unloading in rodents. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms for alterations in bone and connective tissues with exposure to microgravity, but intriguing questions remain to be solved, particularly with reference to biomedical risks associated with prolonged exploration missions. PMID:27065165

  4. Thrombospondin-1 regulates bone homeostasis through effects on bone matrix integrity and nitric oxide signaling in osteoclasts

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah R Amend; Uluckan, Ozge; Hurchla, Michelle; Leib, Daniel; Novack, Deborah Veis; Silva, Matthew; Frazier, William; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), an endogenous antiangiogenic, is a widely expressed secreted ligand with roles in migration, adhesion and proliferation and is a target for new therapeutics. While TSP1 is present in the bone matrix and several TSP1 receptors play roles in bone biology, the role of TSP1 in bone remodeling has not been fully elucidated. Bone turnover is characterized by coordinated activity of bone-forming osteoblasts (OB) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OC). TSP1−/− mice had increased...

  5. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  6. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  7. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ripamonti Carla; Trippa Fabio; Barone Gloria; Maranzano Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression). Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treat...

  8. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Ernst K. F. Fröhlich

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hen...

  9. TGFβ and Hypoxia Drive Breast Cancer Bone Metastases through Parallel Signaling Pathways in Tumor Cells and the Bone Microenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lauren K. DUNN; Pierrick G.J. FOURNIE; Khalid S. MOHAMMAD; C. Ryan MCKENNA; Holly W. DAVIS; Maria NIEWOLNA; Xianghong PENG; John M. CHIRGWIN; Theresa A.GUISE

    2009-01-01

    @@ Breast cancers frequently metastasize to bone, a site of hypoxia and high concentrations of active TGFβ. Skeletal metastases involve interactions between tumor and bone cells driven by locally secreted proteins, many of which are increased by hypoxia and TGFβ.

  10. Sex steroids and bone: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Although the process of bone remodelling or its control has not yet been fully elucidated there is, at present, sufficient information available to conclude that ovarian steroids (estrogens, androgens, progesterone) play an essential role in skeletal homeostasis. The mechanism of action of sex steroids on the skeleton is still not entirely clear, but it has traditionally included indirect effects on systemic hormones that regulate calcium balance and a direct receptor-mediated action. More recently, changes in cytokine production within the bone marrow, as well as pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic effects in the osteoblastic cells, have been proposed as new perspectives on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sex steroids influence adult bone homeostasis. Mechanical loading, when combined with estrogens or androgens, results in a greater osteogenic response than either condition separately. Women are especially at risk for osteoporosis if they have had a premature or surgical menopause and have not received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Other reproductive factors that can help to identify women with osteopenia and emphasize the role of sex steroids in preserving bone mass in premenopausal women include: age at menarche, menstrual history and irregularities (including those associated with excessive exercise), age at menopause, previous hysterectomy, hyperprolactinaemia, anorexia nervosa, scoliosis, ovarian dysgenesis, pregnancy and lactation, and pharmacological ovarian suppression. The prevention of osteoporosis starts with the onset of the menarche. A combination of exercise, appropriate nutrition and a healthy lifestyle all maximize bone mineral accrual and result in optimal peak bone mass; normal ovarian function is essential to this process. Unfortunately, many women actually become aware of the need for osteoporosis prevention much later in life, usually after they have already become menopausal. HRT, however, has important limitations for

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone tumours and mimics: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays several roles in the evaluation of bone tumours and tumour-like conditions. Basic MRI technique for evaluation of bone tumours is discussed in this article, and the local staging of bone tumours and the MRI appearance of common and characteristic osseous lesions are reviewed. (author)

  12. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Henry; Galea, Gabriel L; Meakin, Lee B; Delisser, Peter J; Lanyon, Lance E; Windahl, Sara H; Price, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα) depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse) mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an obligatory contributor to

  13. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Todd

    Full Text Available Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an

  14. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Lv; Aisen Zhang; Wenjuan Di; Yunlu Sheng; Peng Cheng; Hanmei Qi; Juan Liu; Jing Yu; Guoxian Ding; Jinmei Cai; Bin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis,...

  15. Muscle and bone, two interconnected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Wittrant, Yohann; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Walrand, Stéphane; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    As bones are levers for skeletal muscle to exert forces, both are complementary and essential for locomotion and individual autonomy. In the past decades, the idea of a bone-muscle unit has emerged. Numerous studies have confirmed this hypothesis from in utero to aging works. Space flight, bed rest as well as osteoporosis and sarcopenia experimentations have allowed to accumulate considerable evidence. Mechanical loading is a key mechanism linking both tissues with a central promoting role of physical activity. Moreover, the skeletal muscle secretome accounts various molecules that affect bone including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-15, myostatin, osteoglycin (OGN), FAM5C, Tmem119 and osteoactivin. Even though studies on the potential effects of bone on muscle metabolism are sparse, few osteokines have been identified. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Wnt3a, which are secreted by osteocytes, osteocalcin (OCN) and IGF-1, which are produced by osteoblasts and sclerostin which is secreted by both cell types, might impact skeletal muscle cells. Cartilage and adipose tissue are also likely to participate to this control loop and should not be set aside. Indeed, chondrocytes are known to secrete Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and adipocytes produce leptin, adiponectin and IL-6, which potentially modulate bone and muscle metabolisms. The understanding of this system will enable to define new levers to prevent/treat sarcopenia and osteoporosis at the same time. These strategies might include nutritional interventions and physical exercise. PMID:25804855

  16. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  17. Spatial orientation in bone samples and Young's modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.G.M. Geraets; L.J. van Ruijven; H.G.C. Verheij; P.F. van der Stelt; T.M.G.J. van Eijden

    2008-01-01

    Bone mass is the most important determinant of the mechanical strength of bones, and spatial structure is the second. In general, the spatial structure and mechanical properties of bones such as the breaking strength are direction dependent. The mean intercept length (MIL) and line frequency deviati

  18. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm2(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Hypercalcemia and altered biochemical bone markers in post-bone marrow transplantation osteopetrosis: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulpiya, Alisa; Mahachoklertwattana, Pat; Pakakasama, Samart; Hongeng, Suradej; Poomthavorn, Preamrudee

    2012-08-01

    Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is a rare disorder of bone resorption defect that results in generalized sclerotic bones and bone marrow failure. Allogeneic BMT is the only treatment for cure. One of the complications following a successful BMT is hypercalcemia that is a unique complication in this group of patients. We report a three-yr-old boy with osteopetrosis who developed hypercalcemia following the successful BMT. His maximal calcium level was 13.3 mg/dL. Markedly increased both bone formation and resorption markers were demonstrated along with hypercalcemia. These findings indicated an active donor-derived osteoclastic function and thus bone resorption following the successful donor engraftment in the patient. Treatment with hyperhydration, furosemide and bone resorption inhibitors, calcitonin, and bisphosphonate led to normalization of the serum calcium level. Bone resorption but not bone formation marker was persistently elevated despite having normocalcemia during a 16.5-month follow-up period. PMID:21323826

  20. Bone Quality: The Mechanical Effects of Microarchitecture and Matrix Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Day (Judd)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this body of work we have examined some of the current concepts pertaining to the relation between bone mass, bone quality and the mechanical properties of bone. In our first series of studies we used a model of human osteoarthritis to investigate the implications of changes in the ef

  1. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  2. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  3. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  4. Bone tissue regeneration indento-alveolar surgery : clinical and experimental studies on biomaterials and bone graft substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin-Platt, Annika

    2011-01-01

    Pathological processes in the alveolar and facial bones can lead to bone loss that may not heal with complete regeneration. Biomaterials can be used to facilitate the healing process and/or as a bone substitute, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Persistent leakage of bacteria/bacterial toxins, after root canal treatment, may lead to a residual bone defect. The healing is dependent on a placed dental biomaterial providing a tight seal. The composition of the filling material may als...

  5. Unusual localizations of unicameral bone cysts and aneurysmal bone cysts: A retrospective review of 451 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Osman Emre; Çamurcu, İsmet Yalkın; Özer, Devrim; Arıkan, Yavuz; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2015-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBC) and aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign cystic lesions of bone which are easily diagnosed. However, unusual locations may lead to a false diagnosis. Therefore the aim of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of unusual localizations. The authors studied 451 cases with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of UBC or ABC, seen between 1981 and 2012. In the UBC group (352 cases) humerus, femur and calcaneus were found to be the most common sites, while acetabulum, scapula, scaphoid, lunatum, metacarpals, metatarsals, toe phalanges and ulna each accounted for less than 1%. In the ABC group (99 cases) the most common sites of involvement were femur, humerus and tibia, while finger phalanges, ilium, acetabulum, pubis, calcaneus, cuboid, and toe phalanges each accounted for only 1%. The differential diagnosis of cystic bone lesions should include both UBC and ABC. Pain complaints plead for the latter, except in case of fracture. PMID:26280957

  6. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  7. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  8. Safe Harvesting of Outer Table Parietal Bone Grafts Using an Oscillating Saw and a Bone Scraper : A Refinement of Technique for Harvesting Cortical and "Cancellous"-Like Calvarial Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen; Putters, Thomas F.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2012-01-01

    Calvarial bone is a readily available source of bone for preimplantation augmentation procedures of the alveolar process. However, the calvaria consist mostly of cortical bone, and cancellous bone of the diploic space is scarce. A bone scraper (Safescraper Twist; META, Reggio Emilia, Italy) was used

  9. The reliability and representativity of non-dynamic bone histomorphometry in uremic osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, J G; Pødenphant, J; Gammelgaard, Bente

    1993-01-01

    trabecular bone indices are reliable variables and, with the possible exception of bone mass determination, indicative of systemic bone disease. Bone aluminium concentration and cortical bone indices are unreliable measures of uremic bone disease. These reservations apply to the diagnostic use of biopsy...

  10. Surface chemistry and effects on bone regeneration of a novel biomimetic synthetic bone filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Marco; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Sartori, Maria; Ferrari, Andrea; Parrilli, Annapaola; Bollati, Daniele; Baena, Ruggero Rodriguez Y; Cassinelli, Clara; Fini, Milena

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents results of physico-chemical and biological investigations of a surface-engineered synthetic bone filler. Surface analysis confirms that the ceramic phosphate granules present a collagen nanolayer to the surrounding environment. Cell cultures tests show that, in agreement with literature reports, surface-immobilized collagen molecular cues can stimulate progression along the osteogenic pathway of undifferentiated human mesenchymal cells. Finally, in vivo test in a rabbit model of critical bone defects shows statistically significant increase of bone volume and mineral apposition rate between the biomimetic bone filler and collagen-free control. All together, obtained data confirm that biomolecular surface engineering can upgrade the properties of implant device, by promoting more specific and targeted implant-host cells interactions.

  11. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period.

  12. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  13. Specific absorbed fraction in bone tissue and bone marrow resulting from photons distributed in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code 'ALGAM: Monte Carlo Estimation of Internal Dose from Gamma -ray Sources in a Phanton Man' only provides for an average dose to bone marrow resulting from a photon source distributed in the human body. Since there is no realistic model for the separation of these doses in the present phantom, some modifications were performed in the ALGAM code in order to introduce an heterogeneous skeleton and through this new model it was possible to make the estimation of dose in bone marrow. The specific absorbed fraction resulting from running the new program for 12 monoenergetic photon sources distributed in three source organs - skeleton, red marrow and yellow marrow is presented. The results obtained show that for low photon energies, the old model overestimates the specific absorbed fraction in bone marrow up to a factor of 4; while in bone, it underestimates the specific absorbed fractions up to a factor of 1.6. (Author)

  14. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) MRI contrast agent for bone marrow imaging. Differentiating bone metastasis and osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explored appropriate scan timing for bone marrow imaging enhanced using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and evaluated the usefulness of SPIO in differentiating metastasis and osteomyelitis in patients. The method of this study was to determine the adequate scan timing after administration of SPIO, 5 healthy subjects were examined using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scanner. Sagittal images of their lumbar spines were obtained using short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) sequence before and 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours after intravenous injection of 8 μmol Fe/kg SPIO (ferucarbotran). MR signal intensities (SIs) were evaluated. Based on the results, 12 patients, five with bone metastasis and seven with vertebral osteomyelitis, were examined using the same procedure before and 3 hours after intravenous injection of ferucarbotran at the same dose. SIs of the bone metastases, osteomyelitis, and surrounding normal bone marrow were measured, and relative enhancement (RE) was calculated for each lesion. In the healthy volunteers, maximum reduction in signal was observed 3 to 24 hours (P<0.05) after administration of SPIO; thereafter and up to 48 hours, the SI gradually recovered. In the patients, the RE of the bone metastases was -12.2%, which was significantly higher than that in the osteomyelitis (- 35.0%, P<.001) and normal bone marrow (-46.6%, P<.0005). Maximum suppression of signal intensity in bone marrow was seen 3 hours after injection of ferucarbotran, the point at which ferucarbotran allows differentiation of bone metastasis from ostoemyelitis. (author)

  15. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass and spinal fracture in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rix, M; Andreassen, H;

    1997-01-01

    -eight women had a lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) above 0.860 g/cm2, and 278 women had a BMD below 0.860 g/cm2. Spinal fracture was diagnosed from lateral spine X-ray studies and defined as at least 20% height reduction (wedge, compression, or endplate fracture) in at least one vertebra (T4-L4). Bone...

  16. Effect of cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin on repairing large segmental bone defects and preventing infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪波; 陈安民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of repairing long segmental bone defects and preventing infection with cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin (C-BMG). Methods: C-BMG was made from putting cefazolin into BMG by vacuum absorption and lyophilization techniques. The sustaining period of effective drug concentration in vitro and in vivo was detected. The time of inhibiting bacteria, and the drug concentration in local tissues ( bone and muscle) and plasma after implantation of C-BMG were examined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The effective inhibition time to staphylococcus aureus of C-BMG was 22 days in vitro; while 14 days in vivo. The cefazolin concentration in local tissues was higher in early stage, and later it kept a stable and low drug release. C-BMG showed an excellent ability to repair segmental long bone defects.Conclusions: C-BMG can gradually release cefazolin with effective drug concentration and has excellent ability to repair segmental bone defects. It can be used to repair segmental long bone defects and prevent infection after operation.

  17. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  18. Tracheal cartilage regeneration and new bone formation by slow release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igai, Hitoshi; Chang, Sung Soo; Gotoh, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yasumichi; Yamamoto, Masaya; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 released slowly from gelatin sponge for tracheal cartilage regeneration. A 1-cm gap was made in the mid-ventral portion of each of 10 consecutive tracheal cartilages. In the control group (n = 4), the resulting gap was left untreated. In the gelatin group (n = 4), plain gelatin was implanted in the gap. In the BMP-2 group (n = 4), gelatin containing 100 microg BMP-2 was implanted. We euthanatized all dogs in each group at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation, respectively, and then examined the implant site macro- and microscopically. In the BMP-2 group, regenerated fibrous cartilage and newly formed bone were observed at 1 and 12 months. Regenerated cartilage was observed at the ends of the host cartilage stumps, with newly formed bone in the middle portion. The gaps were filled with regenerated cartilage and newly formed bone. At 3 and 6 months, regenerated cartilage, but not newly formed bone, was evident. The regenerated cartilage was covered with perichondrium and showed continuity with the host cartilage. We succeeded in inducing cartilage regeneration and new bone formation in canine trachea by slow release of 100 microg BMP-2 from gelatin. PMID:18204324

  19. Morphometrical variations of the carpal bones in thoroughbreds and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunnabi, A H; Ahmed, Y A; Philip, C J; Davies, H M S

    2012-04-01

    There is scant morphological data for equine carpal bones despite the frequent pathology in Thoroughbreds (TB). This study aimed to identify morphological and morphometrical variations and similarities in carpal bones between and within TB and Ponies (Po). Carpal bones from nine TB and 13 Po were prepared by boiling and drying. Lateromedial width, dorsopalmar depth, proximodistal height, relative density and volume of each bone were measured. Normalized measurements of the radial (Cr) and third (C3) carpal bones were significantly different in all dimensions, and there were significant variations in relative sizes of articular facets of the ulnar (Cu), C3 and fourth (C4) carpal bones between the groups. Bilaterally, the proportionate volume of the intermediate carpal bone (Ci) was significantly greater in Po while that of Cu and C4 were significantly greater in TB. Relative density of most bones was greater in Po. The palmar tuberosity of the proximal surface of Ci and palmar tubercle on the palmar surface of Cu were more prominent and relatively larger in TB. In the second carpal bone (C2), the distal extent of the proximal articular surface on the palmar surface was greater in Po. The inconsistent first carpal bone (C1) was relatively larger in Po. Morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal bones between TB and Po indicate potential effects of selection for body size or fast exercise.

  20. Comparisons of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Primary Adherent Culture of Compact Bone Fragments and Whole Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Yiting Cai; Tianshu Liu; Fang Fang; Chengliang Xiong; Shiliang Shen

    2015-01-01

    The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment cult...

  1. Histologic Evaluation of Bone Healing Following Application of Anorganic Bovine Bone and β-tricalcium Phosphate in Rabbit Calvaria

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Rokn; Moslemi, N.; B. Eslami; H. Khandagh Abadi; M. Paknejad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Both anorganic bovine bone (ABB) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are used in clinical practice as bone substitute materials, but there is limited data comparing these two materials in standardized defects. The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effectiveness of ABB and β-TCP in the healing of experimentally induced bone defects. Materials and Methods: Eighteen bone defects were created on the calvaria of six rabbits. In each animal, one defect was left untreate...

  2. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  3. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician.

  4. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician. PMID:27471408

  5. Skeletal development of mice lacking bone sialoprotein (BSP--impairment of long bone growth and progressive establishment of high trabecular bone mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Bouleftour

    Full Text Available Adult Ibsp-knockout mice (BSP-/- display shorter stature, lower bone turnover and higher trabecular bone mass than wild type, the latter resulting from impaired bone resorption. Unexpectedly, BSP knockout also affects reproductive behavior, as female mice do not construct a proper "nest" for their offsprings. Multiple crossing experiments nonetheless indicated that the shorter stature and lower weight of BSP-/- mice, since birth and throughout life, as well as their shorter femur and tibia bones are independent of the genotype of the mothers, and thus reflect genetic inheritance. In BSP-/- newborns, µCT analysis revealed a delay in membranous primary ossification, with wider cranial sutures, as well as thinner femoral cortical bone and lower tissue mineral density, reflected in lower expression of bone formation markers. However, trabecular bone volume and osteoclast parameters of long bones do not differ between genotypes. Three weeks after birth, osteoclast number and surface drop in the mutants, concomitant with trabecular bone accumulation. The growth plates present a thinner hypertrophic zone in newborns with lower whole bone expression of IGF-1 and higher IHH in 6 days old BSP-/- mice. At 3 weeks the proliferating zone is thinner and the hypertrophic zone thicker in BSP-/- than in BSP+/+ mice of either sex, maybe reflecting a combination of lower chondrocyte proliferation and impaired cartilage resorption. Six days old BSP-/- mice display lower osteoblast marker expression but higher MEPE and higher osteopontin(Opn/Runx2 ratio. Serum Opn is higher in mutants at day 6 and in adults. Thus, lack of BSP alters long bone growth and membranous/cortical primary bone formation and mineralization. Endochondral development is however normal in mutant mice and the accumulation of trabecular bone observed in adults develops progressively in the weeks following birth. Compensatory high Opn may allow normal endochondral development in BSP-/- mice

  6. Hollow-Bone-Graft Dynamic Hip Screw Can Fix and Promote Bone Union after Femoral Neck Fracture: an Experimental Research

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN, Jia-zuo; YAO, Jian-fei; LIN, Da-sheng; Lian, Ke-jian; Ding, Zhen-qi; Lin, Bin; GUO, Zhi-min; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Li, Qiang; LI, Lin; Qi, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Background: Delayed bone union, nonunion or osteonecrosis often occur after femoral neck fractures in young adults. Secondary bone healing requires strong internal fixation, intramedullary pressure reduction and early functional exercise. Objective: To compare bone healing of femoral neck fractures treated with hollow-bone-graft dynamic hip screws (Hb-DHS) and standard dynamic hip screws (DHS) in an animal model. Design: Testing of specifically designed fixation devices in a pig animal model....

  7. Hollow-Bone-Graft Dynamic Hip Screw Can Fix and Promote Bone Union after Femoral Neck Fracture: an Experimental Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-zuo SHEN, Jian-fei YAO, Da-sheng LIN, Ke-jian LIAN, Zhen-qi DING, Bin LIN, Zhi-min GUO, Ming-hua ZHANG, Qiang LI, Lin LI, Peng QI

    2012-01-01

    Background: Delayed bone union, nonunion or osteonecrosis often occur after femoral neck fractures in young adults. Secondary bone healing requires strong internal fixation, intramedullary pressure reduction and early functional exercise.Objective: To compare bone healing of femoral neck fractures treated with hollow-bone-graft dynamic hip screws (Hb-DHS) and standard dynamic hip screws (DHS) in an animal model.Design: Testing of specifically designed fixation devices in a pig animal model.In...

  8. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  9. Bmp2 and Bmp4 accelerate alveolar bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mingming; Zhao, Yibing; Zhang, Fangming; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    Alveolar bone remodeling is a continuous process that takes place during development and in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. However, detailed knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms involved in alveolar bone development is still lacking. This study aims at improving our understanding of alveolar bone formation and the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) in this process. Mice at embryonic (E) day 13.5 to postnatal (PN) day 15.5 were selected to observe the process of alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone development was found to be morphologically observable at E14.5. Molar teeth isolated from mice at PN7.5 were pretreated with Bmp2, Bmp4, Noggin, or BSA, and grafted subcutaneously into mice. The subcutaneously implanted tooth germs formed alveolar bone indicating the role of the dental follicle in alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone formation was increased after pretreatment with Bmp2 and Bmp4, but not with Noggin. Gene expression levels in dental follicle cells from murine molars were also determined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of Runx2, Bsp, and Ocn were significantly higher in dental follicle cells cultured with Bmp2 or Bmp4, and significantly lower in those cultured with Noggin when compared with that of the BSA controls. Our results suggest that the dental follicle participates in alveolar bone formation and Bmp2/4 appears to accelerate alveolar bone development.

  10. [Numerical variants and congenital fusions of carpal bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecail, B; Perruez, H; Colin, D

    2007-03-01

    The number of carpal bones may be increased or decreased by the fact of anatomical variants or true congenital anomalies. Numerical increment arises from additional or from split bones. Over twenty accessory carpal bones have been described but the commonest are the os centrale carpi, the os radiale externum, the triangular bone and the styloideum bone. Additional carpal bones usually result from a failure of fusion of their ossification centers. A congenital origin is not clearly established for all these ossicles. The scaphoid and lunate may split into two or three bones and several cases of bipartite hamulus of the hamatum have been reported. A carpus with only seven bones results from the congenital absence of a normal bone, which mainly affects the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum, or from a synostosis between two carpal bones, usually the lunate and triquetrum. Congenital fusions originate from an absence of joint cavitation into the embryo and chondrification of the joint interzone. Numerical carpal variants are uncommon as independent entities but occur with a relative high frequency in association with complex malformations of the hand. These anomalies are detectable on plain radiographs of the wrist, but CT-scan and MR-Imaging are useful to differentiate bipartite and accessory bones from carpal fractures or posttraumatic injuries, carpal fusions having to be distinguished from bony ankylosis.

  11. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  12. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  13. Current methods and advances in bone densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Scientific Inst. ``CSS``, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Glueer, C.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Majumdar, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Blunt, B.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Genant, H.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Bone mass is the primary, although not the only, determinant of fracture. Over the past few years a number of noninvasive techniques have been developed to more sensitively quantitate bone mass. These include single and dual photon absorptiometry (SPA and DPA), single and dual X-ray absorptiometry (SXA and DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). While differing in anatomic sites measured and in their estimates of precision, accuracy, and fracture discrimination, all of these methods provide clinically useful measurements of skeletal status. It is the intent of this review to discuss the pros and cons of these techniques and to present the new applications of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MRI) in the detection and management of osteoporosis. (orig.)

  14. Current methods and advances in bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, G.; Gluer, C. C.; Majumdar, S.; Blunt, B. A.; Genant, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    Bone mass is the primary, although not the only, determinant of fracture. Over the past few years a number of noninvasive techniques have been developed to more sensitively quantitate bone mass. These include single and dual photon absorptiometry (SPA and DPA), single and dual X-ray absorptiometry (SXA and DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). While differing in anatomic sites measured and in their estimates of precision, accuracy, and fracture discrimination, all of these methods provide clinically useful measurements of skeletal status. It is the intent of this review to discuss the pros and cons of these techniques and to present the new applications of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MRI) in the detection and management of osteoporosis.

  15. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic. PMID:24755526

  16. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic.

  17. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS. PMID:27319388

  18. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  19. In vivo bone biocompatibility and degradation of porous fumarate-based polymer/alumoxane nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mistry, A.S.; Pham, Q.P.; Schouten, C.; Yeh, T.; Christenson, E.M.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how the incorporation of surface-modified alumoxane nanoparticles into a biodegradable fumarate-based polymer affects in vivo bone biocompatibility (characterized by direct bone contact and bone ingrowth) and in vivo degradability. Porous scaffolds were f

  20. Serum ferritin in liver and bone malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin concentration is increased during iron overload, however, during chronic infection and malignant diseases as well. In 383 patients with proven malignancy or suspicion of a malignant disease liver and/or bone scans were performed and serum ferritin was measured in addition. Although there exists a certain linkage between the tumorous disease and serum ferritin level, a definite correlation does not exist. Furthermore serum ferritin is not a measure to differentiate between infectious and malignant diseases. (orig.)

  1. Experimental Comparison of Cranial Particulate Bone Graft, rhBMP-2, and Split Cranial Bone Graft for Inlay Cranioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Couto, Rafael A; Kurek, Kyle C; Rogers, Gary F; Mulliken, John B; Greene, Arin K

    2013-05-01

    Background :  Particulate bone graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are options for inlay cranioplasty in children who have not developed a diploic space. The purpose of this study was to determine whether particulate bone graft or rhBMP-2 has superior efficacy for inlay cranioplasty and to compare these substances to split cranial bone. Methods :  A 17 mm × 17 mm critical-sized defect was made in the parietal bones of 22 rabbits and managed in four ways: Group I (no implant; n=5), Group II (particulate bone graft; n=5), Group III (rhBMP-2; n=7), and Group IV (split cranial bone graft; n=5). Animals underwent microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis 16 weeks after cranioplasty. Results :  Defects without an implant (Group I) demonstrated inferior ossification (41.4%; interquartile range [IQR], 28.9% to 42.5%) compared to those treated with particulate bone graft (Group II: 99.5%; IQR, 97.8% to 100%), rhBMP-2 (Group III: 99.6%; IQR, 99.5% to 100%), or split cranial bone (Group IV: 100%) (P inlay calvarial defect areas equally, although the thickness of bone healed with rhBMP-2 is inferior. Clinically, particulate bone graft or split cranial bone graft may be superior to rhBMP-2 for inlay cranioplasty.

  2. [Grading of soft tissue and bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, I; Wardelmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy grading is an essential element in the classification of sarcomas. It correlates with the prognosis of the disease and the risk of metastasis. This article presents the grading schemes for soft tissue, bone and pediatric sarcomas. It summarizes the histological criteria of the Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system and the Pediatric Oncology Group as well as the grading of bone tumors by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Furthermore, the potential relevance of gene expression signatures, the complexity index in sarcoma (CINSARC) and single genetic alterations (p53, MDM2, p16, SWI/SNF, EWSR1 fusions and PAX3/PAX7-FOXO1 fusions) for the prognosis of sarcomas are discussed. PMID:27384333

  3. [Sarcopenia and bone mineral property with age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2016-08-01

    In order to maintain functional activities in the elderly, promotion of musculoskeletal care is important toward successful aging and healthy longevity. In practice, reduction of falls and fall-related injuries together with treatment of osteoporosis is important to keep activities of daily living. Recent findings suggest the possibility that there is a relationship between skeletal muscle and bone mineral property, represented by pathophysiological linkage between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:27461501

  4. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  5. Human Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation: Growth Factors, Hormones and Regulatory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eijken, Marco

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is the most common bone disease and is characterized by low bone mass, micro architectural deterioration and decreased bone quality resulting in increased risk of fractures. Osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, play a crucial role in the regulation of bone mass and bone quality. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and undergo a complex differentiation process regulated by many endocrine and autocrine factors. In order to develop novel bone anabolic drugs, more knowl...

  6. Tibial dyschondroplasia and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz ICL Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, UNESP, Botucatu-SP, Brazil. The aim was to establish the normal values of bone mineral density (BMD expressed in millimeters of aluminum in the tibia of broiler chickens using optical densitometry of radiographs. Four hundred Cobb male chicks were reared from 1 to 40 days of age, when 40 of them were selected and the right femur-tibia articulation was radiographed. Radiographs were taken with the X-ray equipment calibrated for 45 kvp and 3.2 mAs and a focus-to-film distance of 90 cm. An aluminum phantom ASTM-6063 consisting of 20 ladder steps with graduate density was placed parallel to the area to be radiographed and used as a densitometry reference standard. Radiograph images were analyzed using the software ATHENA - SIA. The proximal growth plate of the right tibia epiphysis was used as the standard reading region. The inclination axis of the reading window was 0 and the window was 10 mm high and 40-45 mm wide, depending on the bone size. Optical densitometry values of the radiographs ranged from 1.46 to 1.77 mmAl, and the coefficient of variation was 9.93%. It was concluded that densitometry values beyond the range established in the present study might indicate the presence of bone alteration in the tibia of broilers.

  7. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  8. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative bone lesions using dexamethasone interventional 3- and 24-hour bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven adult patients with suspected skeletal metastases were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30), following intravenous administration of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP), 3- and 24-h scintigraphy of bone lesions was performed. The 24/3 h lesion to bone background radiouptake ratio (RUR) was calculated for each lesion. In group B (n=47), the same procedure was followed with dexamethasone intervention (10 mg in 24 h) following the 3-h acquisition. In group A, after determination of the critical point, malignant and degenerative bone lesions could be separated with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.76, 0.72 and 0.73, respectively. The mean RUR of the malignant lesions was 1.20± 0.23, and that of the benign lesions, 0.95± 0.15. In group B cases, significantly increased sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.87, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, were found (P<0.001). The mean RUR of the malignant lesions was 1.48± 0.34, and that of degenerative lesions, 0.88± 0.19. Dexamethasone interventional bone scintigraphy seems to be a new cost-effective method for differentiating malignant from degenerative bone lesions using the RUR. (orig.)

  9. Bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone invasions of face and skull epitheliomas and ORL neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy has been considerably improved by the use of technetium 99m-labelled organic phosphates: the physical characteristics are almost ideal for detection and the extemporaneous labelling of the product is convenient. This study on 75 patients has proved the value of bone scintigraphy in evaluating the bone invasion of tumoral lesions affecting the face and skull. An 88% agreement was found for scintigraphy, radiography giving 81%. The technique allows a fast assessment of whole-body bone invasion from one examination, with no extra injection of radioactive product, and it is therefore possible to orient the radiological enquiry without having to X-ray the whole skeleton, which reduces the amount of irradiation delivered to the organism. From these observations it may be concluded that scintigraphy is a simple, harmless method, with many advantages, but its limits must be known and it must always be interpreted as a function of other clinical and radiological data. It should be systematic in research on the local spreading of face and skull epitheliomas, in neoplasms of the ORL sphere and in the search for bone metastases

  10. Effect of Epimedium-derived Phytoestrogen on Bone Turnover and Bone Microarchitecture in OVX-induced Osteoporotic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin PENG; Renyun XIA; Huang FANG; Feng LI; Anmin CHEN; Ge ZHANG; Ling QIN

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the preventive effect of epimedium-defivod phytoestrogen (PE) on osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in rats, 11-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly di- vided into Sham, OVX and PE groups. One week after OVX, daily oral administration of PE (0.4 g·kg-1·day·-1) started in PE group, and rats in Sham and OVX groups were given vehicle accordingly. The administrations lasted for 12 weeks. The biological markers including serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) for bone turnover were evaluated at the end of the 12th week. On the 13th week, all the rats were sacrificed. The right proximal tibiae were removed, subjected to micro CT for determination of trabeonlar bone structure and then bone histomorphometry was per- formed to assess bone remodeling. The OVX rats were in a high bone turnover status as evidenced by increased bone formation markers and bone resorption markers. Treatment with PE could suppress the high bone turnover rate in OVX rats. Micro CT data revealed that PE treatment could ameliorate the deterioration of the micro-architecture of proximal tibiae induced by OVX, as demonstrated by greater bone volume, increased trabecular thickness and less trahecular separation in PE group in comparison with OVX group. The static and dynamic parameters of bone histomorphometry indi- cated that there were significant increases in bone formation variables and significant decreases in bone resorption variables between PE and OVX groups. The findings suggest that PE has a beneficial effect on trabecular bone in OVX rat model and this effect is possibly associated with stimulation of bone formation as well as inhibition of bone resorption.

  11. Levels of serotonin, sclerostin, bone turnover markers as well as bone density and microarchitecture in patients with high bone mass phenotype due to a mutation in Lrp5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Andersen, Tom E.; Gossiel, F;

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with an activation mutation of the Lrp5 gene exhibit high bone mass (HBM). Limited information is available regarding compartment specific changes in bone. The relationship between the phenotype and serum serotonin is not well documented. Objective: to evaluate bone, serotonin...... and forearm and cortical thickness were positively and trabecular area negatively associated with age (r =0.49, 0.57, 0.74 and -0.61, respectively, p ...

  12. Treatment of severe bone deficiency in acetabular revision surgery using a reinforcement device and bone grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Ji-liang; LIN Jin; JIN Jin; QIAN Wen-wei; WENG Xi-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe acetabular bone deficiency is a major challenge in acetabular revision surgery. Most cases require reconstruction of the acetabulum with bone grafting and a reinforcement device. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of this procedure for severe acetabular bone deficiency in acetabular revision surgery.Methods This study involved 12 patients (2 males and 10 females) with severe acetabular bone defects who underwent implantation of a reinforcement device (ring or cage) and bone grafting between February 2003 and October 2008. Using the Paprosky classification, 2 cases were Paprosky ⅡC, 6 were ⅢA, and 4 were ⅢB. The mean age at the time of surgery was 63.0 years (range, 46-78 years). During revision surgery, a reinforcement ring was implanted in 6patients, and a cage in 6 patients. The clinical and radiographic results were evaluated retrospectively. The mean duration of follow-up was 37 months (range, 9-71 months).Results The average Harris Hip Score improved from 35.2 preoperatively to 82.9 at the time of the final follow-up visit.The results were excellent in 8 hips (66.7%), good in 2 (16.7%), and fair in 2 (16.7%). Osteolysis was found in 1 case, but did not worsen. Three patients had yellow wound effusion, with healing after administration of dressing changes,debridement, and antibiotics. Dislocation occurred in a 62-year-old woman. Closed reduction was performed, and dislocation did not recur. There was no evidence of intraoperative acetabular fracture, nerve injury, ectopic ossification,aseptic loosening, or infection.Conclusion Reconstruction with a reinforcement device and bone grafting is an effective approach to the treatment of acetabular bone deficiency in acetabular revision surgery, given proper indications and technique.

  13. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  14. Protection by salidroside against bone loss via inhibition of oxidative stress and bone-resorbing mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kang Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a pivotal pathogenic factor for bone loss in mouse model. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea L, exhibits potent antioxidative effects. In the present study, we used an in vitro oxidative stress model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and a murine ovariectomized (OVX osteoporosis model to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on bone loss and the related mechanisms. We demonstrated that salidroside caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation of cell survival, alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining and activity, calcium deposition, and the transcriptional expression of Alp, Col1a1 and Osteocalcin (Ocn in the presence of H(2O(2. Moreover, salidroside decreased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, and osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL and IL-6 induced by H(2O(2. In vivo studies further demonstrated that salidroside supplementation for 3 months caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA and an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in blood of ovariectomized mouse (P<0.05, it also improved trabecular bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in the fourth lumbar vertebra and distal femur. Our study indicated that the protection provided by salidroside in alleviating bone loss was mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the release of bone-resorbing mediators and oxidative damage to bone-forming cells, suggesting that salidroside can be used as an effective remedy in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis.

  15. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  16. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S. K.; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  17. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  18. Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La WG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Geun La,1 Min Jin,1 Saibom Park,1,2 Hee-Hun Yoon,1 Gun-Jae Jeong,1 Suk Ho Bhang,1 Hoyoung Park,1,2 Kookheon Char,1,2 Byung-Soo Kim1,31School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2The National Creative Research Initiative Center for Intelligent Hybrids, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO can be used for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and substance P (SP, and that this delivery promotes bone formation on titanium (Ti implants that are coated with GO. GO coating on Ti substrate enabled a sustained release of BMP-2. BMP-2 delivery using GO-coated Ti exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in bone-forming cells in vitro compared with bare Ti. SP, which is known to recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, was co-delivered using Ti or GO-coated Ti to further promote bone formation. SP induced the migration of MSCs in vitro. The dual delivery of BMP-2 and SP using GO-coated Ti showed the greatest new bone formation on Ti implanted in the mouse calvaria compared with other groups. This approach may be useful to improve osteointegration of Ti in dental or orthopedic implants.Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, graphene oxides, stem cell recruitment, substance P

  19. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  20. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  1. Tea and bone health: steps forward in translational nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the aging population worldwide. Cross-sectional and retrospective evidence indicates that tea consumption may be a promising approach in mitigating bone loss and in reducing risk of osteoporotic fractures among older adults. Tea polyphenols enhance osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Animal studies reveal that intake of tea polyphenols have pronounced positive effects on bone as shown by higher bone mass and trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness and lower trabecular separation via increasing bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. These osteoprotective effects appear to be mediated through antioxidant or antiinflammatory pathways along with their downstream signaling mechanisms. A short-term clinical trial of green tea polyphenols has translated the findings from ovariectomized animals to postmenopausal osteopenic women through evaluation of bioavailability, safety, bone turnover markers, muscle strength, and quality of life. For future studies, preclinical animal studies to optimize the dose of tea polyphenols for maximum osteoprotective efficacy and a follow-up short-term dose-response trial in postmenopausal osteopenic women are necessary to inform the design of randomized controlled studies in at-risk populations. Advanced imaging technology should also contribute to determining the effective dose of tea polyphenols in achieving better bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which are critical steps for translating the putative benefit of tea consumption in osteoporosis management into clinical practice and dietary guidelines.

  2. Impact on bone and muscle area after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis; Stathopoulos, Konstantinos; Trovas, Georgios; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Skarantavos, Grigorios; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes inactivation and consequent unloading of affected skeletal muscle and bone. This cross-sectional study investigated correlations of muscle and bone in spinal cord-injured subjects compared with able-bodied subjects. Thirty-one complete SCI paraplegics were divided according to the neurological level of injury (NLoI) into group A (n=16, above thoracic 7 NLoI, age: 33±16 years, duration of paralysis (DoP): 6±6 years) and group B (n=15, thoracic 8–12, age: 39±14 years, DoP: 5.6±6 years), compared with 33 controls (group C). All were examined with peripheral quantitative computed tomography at 66% of tibia length (bone and muscle area, bone/muscle area ratio). In able-bodied subjects, muscle area was correlated with bone area (P<0.001, r=0.88). Groups A and B differed significantly from the control group in terms of bone and muscle area (P<0.001). In paraplegics, less muscle per unit of bone area (bone/muscle area ratio) was found compared with controls (P<0.001). Bone area was negatively correlated with the DoP in the total paraplegic group (r=−0.66, P<0.001) and groups A and B (r=−0.77, P=0.001 vs r=−0.52, P=0.12, respectively). Muscle area and bone/muscle ratio area correlations in paraplegic groups with DoP were weak. Paraplegic subjects who performed standing and therapeutic walking had significantly higher bone area (P=0.02 and P=0.013, respectively). The relationship between bone and muscle was consistent in able-bodied subjects and it was predictably altered in those with SCI, a clinical disease affecting bone and muscle. PMID:25709810

  3. The Bone-Muscle Relationship in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle forces are a strong determinant of bone structure, particularly during the process of growth and development. The gender divergence in the bone-muscle relationship becomes strongly evident during adolescence. In females, growth is characterized by increased estrogen levels and increased mass and strength of bone relative to that of muscle, whereas in men, increases in testosterone fuel large increases in muscle, resulting in muscle forces that coincide with a large growth in bone dimensions and strength. In adulthood, significant age-related losses are observed for both bone and muscle tissues. Large decrease in estrogen levels in women appears to diminish the skeleton's responsiveness to exercise more than in men. In contrast, the aging of the muscle-bone axis in men is a function of age related declines in both hormones. In addition to the well-known age related changes in the mechanical loading of bone by muscle, newer studies appear to provide evidence of age- and gender-related variations in molecular signaling between bone and muscle that are independent of purely mechanical interactions. In summary, gender differences in the acquisition and age-related loss in bone and muscle tissues may be important for developing gender-specific strategies for using exercise to reduce bone loss with aging.

  4. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  5. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Caiwen; Zhou Huifang; Fu Yao; Gu Ping; Fan Xianqun [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu Guangpeng [Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhang Peng [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science (China); Hou Hongliang; Tang Tingting, E-mail: drfanxianqun@126.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  6. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  7. Comparisons of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Primary Adherent Culture of Compact Bone Fragments and Whole Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment culture was based on the fact that BMSCs were assembled in compact bones. Thus, the procedure included flushing bone marrow out of bone cavity and culturing the fragments without any collagenase digestion. The cell yield from cultured fragments was slightly less than that from cultured bone marrow using the same bone quantity. However, the trypsinized cells from cultured fragments exhibited significantly higher proliferation and were accompanied with more CD90 and CD44 expressions and less CD45 expression. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity of cells from cultured fragments were better than those of cells from bone marrow. The directly adherent culture of compact bone is suitable for mouse BMSC isolation, and more BMSCs with potentially improved proliferation capacity can be obtained in the primary culture.

  8. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation regulates in vitro bone formation and bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Kola, B; Bataveljic, A; Arnett, T R; Viollet, B; Saxon, L; Korbonits, M; Chenu, C

    2010-08-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of energy homeostasis, has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many hormones and antidiabetic drugs metformin and glitazones. The objective of this study was to determine if AMPK can be activated in osteoblasts by known AMPK modulators and if AMPK activity is involved in osteoblast function in vitro and regulation of bone mass in vivo. ROS 17/2.8 rat osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the presence of AMPK activators (AICAR and metformin), AMPK inhibitor (compound C), the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin and the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol. AMPK activity was measured in cell lysates by a functional kinase assay and AMPK protein phosphorylation was studied by Western Blotting using an antibody recognizing AMPK Thr-172 residue. We demonstrated that treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with AICAR and metformin stimulates Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK and dose-dependently increases its activity. In contrast, treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with compound C inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Ghrelin and propranolol dose-dependently increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were not affected by metformin treatment while AICAR significantly inhibited ROS 17/2.8 cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity at high concentrations. To study the effect of AMPK activation on bone formation in vitro, primary osteoblasts obtained from rat calvaria were cultured for 14-17days in the presence of AICAR, metformin and compound C. Formation of 'trabecular-shaped' bone nodules was evaluated following alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that both AICAR and metformin dose-dependently increase trabecular bone nodule formation, while compound C inhibits bone formation. When primary osteoblasts were co-treated with AICAR and compound C, compound C suppressed the stimulatory effect of AICAR on bone nodule formation

  10. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  11. The osteogenic effects of swimming, jumping, and vibration on the protection of bone quality from disuse bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcai, M J; Zamarioli, A; Okubo, R; de Paula, F J A; Volpon, J B

    2015-06-01

    We assessed and compared the effects of swimming, jumping, and vibration therapies on the prevention of bone loss because of unloading. Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups: S, permanent hind limb-suspended rats; CON, control rats; S + Swim, unloading interrupted by swimming exercise; S + C(Swim), suspension interrupted by regular weight-bearing with the same duration as in the S + Swim protocol; S + Jump, unloading interrupted by jumping exercise; S + C(Jump), suspension interrupted for regular weight-bearing as in the S + Jump group; S + Vibr, unloading interrupted by vibration; and S + C(Vibr), suspension with interruptions for regular weight-bearing with the same protocol as that used for the S + Vibr rats. At the end of the experiment, the bone mineral density, bone strength, histomorphometric parameters, and serum levels of the bone markers were analyzed. The hind limb-suspended rats exhibited bone quality loss. In contrast, the trained rats showed a significant increase in bone mass, bone strength, bone formation, and serum levels of bone markers compared with the respective controls. Although we did not find a significant difference among the three physical exercises, the osteogenic effect of vibration was slightly lower than that of swimming and jumping. Thus, all physical exercises were efficient in preventing bone loss because of unloading and preserving bone quality. PMID:24779886

  12. Bone formation in cranial, mandibular, tibial and iliac bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Talsnes, O;

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that grafts from membranous derived bone (e.g., calvarial grafts) retain their volume better than those from endochondral derived bone (e.g., iliac bone grafts). Increased osteogenesis in grafts of the former type has been offered as the explanation. However, simple...

  13. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  14. Late radiation damage in bone, bone marrow and brain vasculature, with particular emphasis upon fractionation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray induced changes in rat and human bone and bone marrow vasculature and in rat brain vasculature were measured as a function of time after irradiation and absorbed dose. The absorbed dose in the organ varied from 5 to 25 Gy for single dose irradiations and from 19 to 58 Gy for fractionated irradiations.The number of fractions varied from 3 to 10 for the rats and from 12 to 25 for the human. Blood flow changes were measured using an ''1''2''5I antipyrine or ''8''6RbCl extraction technique. The red blood cell (RBC) volume was examined by ''5''1Cr labelled red cells. Different fractionation models have been compared. Radiation induced reduction of bone and bone marrow blood flow were both time and dose dependent. Reduced blood flow 3 months after irradiation would seem to be an important factor in the subsequent atrophy of bones. With a single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow returned to the control level by 7 months after irradiation. In the irradiated bone the RBC volume was about same as that in the control side but in bone marrow the reduction was from 32 to 59%. The dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose (NSD) formula produced about the same damage to the rat femur seven months after irradiation when the extraction of ''8''6Rb chloride and the dry weight were concerned as the end points. However, the results suggest that the NSB formula underestimates the late radiation damage in bone marrow when a small number of large fractions are used. In the irradiated brains of the rats the blood flow was on average 20.4% higher compared to that in the control group. There was no significant difference in brain blood flow between different fractionation schemes. The value of 0.42 for the exponent of N corresponds to the average value for central nervous system tolerance in the literature. The model used may be sufficiently accurate for clinical work provided the treatment schemes used do not depart too radically from standard practice

  15. Association between insulin resistance and bone structure in non-diabetic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Finkelstein, Joel S; Bouxsein, Mary L;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength. DESIGN...... covariates (e.g., time since menopause, cigarette smoking, physical activity, prior use of osteoporosis medications or glucocorticoids). CONCLUSIONS: In non-diabetic, postmenopausal women, insulin resistance was associated with smaller bone size, greater volumetric bone mineral density and generally...

  16. Bones and oil reservoirs : bioengineers use oilpatch technology to study fluid flow in bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    2003-06-01

    The fact that porosity and the presence of channels are qualities that are common to oil reservoirs and bones, led to the use of reservoir modelling technology in investigating bone disorders and to the discovery of dramatic changes in the structure and blood supply of osteoarthritic bones that lie under degenerating cartilage. CMG (Computer Modelling Group) Ltd., developers of reservoir simulation software claim that their software packages can help with the modelling of cellular responses to strains and deformations that occur as fluid flows through bone after a traumatic event such as a tear in the anterior cruciate ligament, a common sports-related injury. Researchers at the University of Calgary expect that by looking at the changes in blood and fluid flow within the bone, they can attain a better understanding of the chain of events that leads to osteoarthritis. Better understanding of the progression of the disease could eventually lead to more precise administration of drugs to deal with osteoarthritic pain, and even to the prevention of painful arthritic joints.

  17. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in ...

  18. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Yravedra, José; Baquedano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution. PMID:27144649

  19. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Yravedra, José; Baquedano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution.

  20. Comparison of FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for detection of bone metastases in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Steffen; Heusner, Till; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)), email: steffen.hahn@uk-essen.de; Kuemmel, Sherko; Koeninger, Angelika (Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)); Nagarajah, James; Mueller, Stefan; Boy, Christian; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany))

    2011-11-15

    Background Bone scintigraphy is the standard procedure for the detection of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. FDG-PET/CT has been reported to be a sensitive tool for tumor staging in different malignant diseases. However, its accuracy for the detection of bone metastases has not been compared to bone scintigraphy. Purpose To compare whole-body FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases on a lesion basis in breast cancer patients. Material and Methods Twenty-nine consecutive women (mean age 58 years, range 35-78 years) with histologically proven breast cancer were assessed with bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET/CT. Twenty-one patients (72%) were suffering from primary breast cancer and eight patients (28%) were in aftercare with a history of advanced breast cancer. Both imaging procedures were assessed for bone metastases by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Concordant readings between bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT were taken as true. Discordant readings were verified with additional MRI imaging in all patients and follow-up studies in most patients. Results A total of 132 lesions were detected on bone scintigraphy, FDG-PET/CT or both. According to the reference standard, 70/132 lesions (53%) were bone metastases, 59/132 lesions (45%) were benign, and three lesions (2%) remained unclear. The sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 76% (53/70) compared to 96% (67/70) for FDG-PET/CT. The specificity of bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT was 95% (56/59) and 92% (54/59), respectively. According to the reference standard bone metastases were present in eight out of the 29 patients (28%), whereas 20 patients (69%) were free of bone metastases. One (3%) patient had inconclusive readings on both modalities as well as on MRI and follow-up studies. Bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT correctly identified seven out of eight patients with bone metastases and 20 out of 20 patients free of metastases. Conclusion On a lesion

  1. [Bone fracture and the healing mechanisms. Fragility fracture and bone quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawatari, Taro; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2009-05-01

    Fracture occurs in bone having less than normal elastic resistance without any violence. Numerous terms have been used to classify various types of fractures from low trauma events; "fragility fracture", "stress fracture", "insufficiency fracture", "fatigue fracture", "pathologic fracture", etc. The definitions of these terms and clinical characteristics of these fractures are discussed. Also state-of-the-art bone quality assessments; Finite element analysis of clinical CT scans, assessments of the Microdamage, and the Cross-links of Collagen are introduced in this review.

  2. Treatment of tibial defect and bone nonunion with limb shortening with external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 刘建; 胡蕴玉; 孟国林; 金格勒; 袁志; 王海强; 戴先文

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft (RBX) in the treatment of tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening. Methods: Twenty patients ( 13 males and 7 females) with tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion or congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening were treated with external fixation. Two kinds of external fixators were used: a half ring sulcated external fixator used in 13 patients and a combined external fixator in 7 patients. Foot-drop was corrected at the same time with external fixation in 4 patients. The shortened length of the tibia was in the range of 2-9 cm, with an average of 4.8 cm. For bone grafting, RBX was used in 12 patients, autogenous ilium was used in 3 patients and autogenous fibula was implanted as a bone plug into the medullary canal in 1 case, and no bone graft was used in 4 patients. Results: All the 20 patients were followed-up for 8 months to 7 years, averaging 51 months. Satisfactory function of the affected extremities was obtained. All the shortened extremities were lengthened to the expected length. For all the lengthening area and the fracture sites, bone union was obtained at the last. The average healing time of 12 patients treated with RBX was 4.8 months. Conclusions: Both the half ring sulcated external fixator and the combined external fixator have the advantages of small trauma, simple operation, elastic fixation without stress shielding and non-limitation from local soft tissue conditions, and there is satisfactory functional recovery of affected extremities in the treatment of tibial bone defects, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia combined with limb shortening. RBX has good biocompatibility and does not cause immunological rejections. It can also be safely used in treatment of bone nonunion and has reliable effect to promote bone healing.

  3. The impact of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo...... was administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6...... weeks (left tibia). Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created. Removal torque test (RMT) was performed at the distal implants. Ground sections were made from the proximal and the central bone beds. The fraction of mineralized bone in contact to the implant (BIC) and the bone density within...

  4. Bone marrow invasion in multiple myeloma and metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C; Luna, A

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is the imaging study of choice for the management of bone marrow disease. MRI sequences enable us to integrate structural and functional information for detecting, staging, and monitoring the response the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases in the spine. Whole-body MRI has been incorporated into different guidelines as the technique of choice for managing multiple myeloma and metastatic bone disease. Normal physiological changes in the yellow and red bone marrow represent a challenge in analyses to differentiate clinically significant findings from those that are not clinically significant. This article describes the findings for normal bone marrow, variants, and invasive processes in multiple myeloma and bone metastases.

  5. Effects of denosumab, alendronate, or denosumab following alendronate on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, bone mass and bone strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenuik, Paul J; Smith, Susan Y; Samadfam, Rana; Jolette, Jacquelin; Zhou, Lei; Ominsky, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a chronic disease wherein increased bone remodeling reduces bone mass and bone strength. Antiresorptive agents including bisphosphonates are commonly used to mitigate bone loss and fracture risk. Osteoclast inhibition via denosumab (DMAb), a RANKL inhibitor, is a newer approach for reducing fracture risk in patients at increased risk for fracture. The safety of transitioning from bisphosphonate therapy (alendronate; ALN) to DMAb was examined in mature ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos). One day after OVX, cynos (7-10/group) were treated with vehicle (VEH, s.c.), ALN (50 μg/kg, i.v., twice monthly) or DMAb (25 mg/kg/month, s.c.) for 12 months. Other animals received VEH or ALN for 6 months and then transitioned to 6 months of DMAb. DMAb caused significantly greater reductions in serum CTx than ALN, and transition from ALN to DMAb caused further reductions relative to continued ALN. DMAb and ALN decreased serum calcium (Ca), and transition from ALN to DMAb resulted in a lesser decline in Ca relative to DMAb or to VEH-DMAb transition. Bone histomorphometry indicated significantly reduced trabecular and cortical remodeling with DMAb or ALN. Compared with ALN, DMAb caused greater reductions in osteoclast surface, eroded surface, cortical porosity and fluorochrome labeling, and transition from ALN to DMAb reduced these parameters relative to continued ALN. Bone mineral density increased in all active treatment groups relative to VEH controls. Destructive biomechanical testing revealed significantly greater vertebral strength in all three groups receiving DMAb, including those receiving DMAb after ALN, relative to VEH controls. Bone mass and strength remained highly correlated in all groups at all tested skeletal sites, consistent with normal bone quality. These data indicate that cynos transitioned from ALN to DMAb exhibited reduced bone resorption and cortical porosity, and increased BMD and bone strength, without

  6. Tissue reaction and material characteristics of four bone substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S S; Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the tissue reactions around four different bone substitutes used in orthopedic and craniofacial surgery. Cylinders of two bovine bone substitutes (Endobon and Bio-Oss) and two coral-derived bone substitutes (Pro Osteon 500......-Oss was osseointegrated to a higher degree than the other biomaterials. Material characteristics obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry analysis and energy-dispersive spectrometry did not explain the differences in biologic behavior....

  7. Porous composite prosthetic pylon for integration with skin and bone

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkin, Mark; Raykhtsaum, Grigory; Pilling, John; Galibin, Oleg V.; Protasov, Mikhail V.; Chihovskaya, Julie V.; Belyaeva, Irina G.; Blinova, Miralda I.; Yudintseva, Natalia M.; Potokin, Igor L.; Pinaev, George P.; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodimir

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results of the further development and testing of the “skin and bone integrated pylon” (SBIP-1) for percutaneous (through skin) connection of the residual bone with an external limb prosthesis. We investigated a composite structure (called the SBIP-2) made of titanium particles and fine wires using mathematical modeling and mechanical testing. Results showed that the strength of the pylon was comparable with that of anatomical bone. In vitro and in vivo animal studies on...

  8. The Multifaceted Osteoclast; Far and Beyond Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, Hicham; Sanjay, Archana

    2016-08-01

    The accepted function of the bone resorbing cell, osteoclast, has been linked to bone remodeling and pathological osteolysis. Emerging evidence points to novel functions of osteoclasts in controlling bone formation and angiogenesis. Thus, while the concept of a "clastokine" with the potential to regulate osteogenesis during remodeling did not come as a surprise, new evidence provided unique insight into the mechanisms underlying osteoclastic control of bone formation. The question still remains as to whether osteoclast precursors or a unique trap positive mononuclear cell, can govern any aspect of bone formation. The novel paradigm eloquently proposed by leaders in the field brings together the concept of clastokines and osteoclast precursor-mediated bone formation, potentially though enhanced angiogenesis. These fascinating advances in osteoclast biology have motivated this short review, in which we discuss these new roles of osteoclasts. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1753-1756, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019318

  9. Osteoblasts and their applications in bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupani A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Asha Rupani1, Richard Balint2, Sarah H Cartmell1,21Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Hartshill, Stoke-on-Trent, UK; 2Materials Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Tissue engineering is an emerging therapy that offers a new solution to patients suffering from bone loss. It utilizes cells derived from such sources as a patient's own bone or bone marrow, which are laboratory-isolated, grown (so they multiply in number, and placed onto a degradable material, or scaffold, that has mechanical/chemical properties appropriate to the bone section that it is replacing. The cells plus the scaffold are then grown in a container, or bioreactor, which is necessary as it provides the correct environment required for the cells to proliferate, differentiate, and to produce extracellular matrix. The following review focuses on the use of osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering.Keywords: osteoblast, bone, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, orthopaedic

  10. Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of the petrous temporal bone: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mayur; Velho, Vernon; Kharosekar, Hrushikesh

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) arising in the petrous portion of the temporal bone is a rare entity with only five such reported cases in the literature. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with a tender swelling in the right preauricular region with right ear discharge and conductive hearing loss of 4 years' duration. Computed tomography and Magnetic Resonance imaging showed a destructive lesion in the right petrous bone with cavitation consistent with the diagnosis of ABC. Gross total resection of the lesion was achieved and diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The patient had no recurrence at 12 months of follow-up. This report presents the unusual location of an uncommon bony tumor with a review of its clinical, radiological, and histopathological features as well as the treatment modalities available.

  11. Changes in biochemical bone markers during pregnancy and puerperium.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, B. K.; Lee, J.W.; Choi, D. S.; Roh, C. R.; Lee, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the changes in bone turnover during pregnancy and puerperium, we measured serially the levels of serum osteocalcin and urine deoxypyridinoline (Dpy) as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively, in 22 healthy women with normal pregnancy. Nineteen non-pregnant women served as control. The Dpy levels increased significantly at 16 weeks of pregnancy and remained elevated thereafter. The levels of osteocalcin, however, were significantly decreased at 16 weeks of pre...

  12. Cross-talk between bone morphogenetic proteins and inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kraan, Peter M; Davidson, Esmeralda N Blaney

    2015-11-23

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone morphogenetic proteins are generally studied separately and considered to be elements of different worlds, immunology and developmental biology. Varas and colleagues report that these factors show cross-talk in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. They show that pro-inflammatory cytokines not only stimulate the production of bone morphogenetic proteins but that these endogenously produced bone morphogenetic proteins interfere with the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on synoviocytes.

  13. Bone strength and material properties of the glenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Jensen, N.C.; Odgaard, A.;

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the glenoid bone is important to a successful total shoulder replacement. Finite element models have been used to model the response of the glenoid bone to an implanted prosthesis. Because very little is known about the bone strength and the material properties at the glenoid......, these models were all based on assumptions that the material properties of the glenoid were similar to those of the tibial plateau. The osteopenetrometer was used to assess the topographic strength distribution at the glenoid. Strength at the proximal subchondral level of the glenoid averaged 66.9 MPa. Higher...... of the cortical bone to the total glenoid strength was assessed by compression tests of pristine and cancellous-free glenoid specimens. Strength decreased by an average of 31% after the cancellous bone was removed. The material properties of the glenoid cancellous bone were determined by axial compression tests...

  14. Disintegration of Bone Cement by Continuous and Pulsating Water Jet

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hloch; Foldyna, J.; Sitek, L. (Libor); M. Zeleňák; Hlaváček, P.; Hvizdoš, P.; Kloc, J.; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Kozak, D.; Magurová, D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of using continuous water jet and ultrasonic pulsating water jet for bone cement disintegration. Bone-cement Pallacos R+G (manually mixed) was disintegrated ex-vivo. Mechanical properties of the bone cement were determined by nano-indentation. Factors employed in evaluation were pressure (40, 80, 120) MPa and traverse speed for continuous water jet, pressure (8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20) MPa and orifice type (flat, circular) for ultrasonic pulsating water jet. Depth p...

  15. Green Tea and Bone Health: Evidence from Laboratory Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay J; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss in the elderly population. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea with its bioactive components on bone health with an emphasis on the following: (i) the etio...

  16. The effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness on micromotion and peri-implant bone strain distribution in an immediately loaded implant: a nonlinear finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness at the implant-placement site on micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) and the peri-implant bone strain distribution under immediate-loading conditions. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model of the posterior mandible with an implant was constructed. Various bone parameters were simulated, including low or high cancellous bone density, low or high crestal cortical bone density, and crestal cortical bone thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. Delayed- and immediate-loading conditions were simulated. A buccolingual oblique load of 200 N was applied to the top of the abutment. Results The maximum extent of micromotion was approximately 100 μm in the low-density cancellous bone models, whereas it was under 30 μm in the high-density cancellous bone models. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum micromotion in the low-density cancellous bone models. The minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone was affected by the density of the crestal cortical bone and cancellous bone to the same degree for both delayed and immediate loading. In the low-density cancellous bone models under immediate loading, the minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone decreased with an increase in crestal cortical bone thickness. Conclusions Cancellous bone density may be a critical factor for avoiding excessive micromotion in immediately loaded implants. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum extent of micromotion and peri-implant bone strain in simulations of low-density cancellous bone under immediate loading. PMID:27382504

  17. [Distribution of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells in lung tissue and bone marrow of mouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Ping; Wu, Ren-Na; Guo, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells(MSC) marked with lentiviral plasmid pGC FU-RFP-LV in lung tissue and bone marrow of mouse. The MSC were infected by lentivirus with infection efficiency 78%, the infected MSC were injected into BALB/c mice via tail veins in concentration of 1×10(6) /mouse. The mice were randomly divided into 4 group according to 4 time points as 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. The lung tissue and bone marrow were taken and made of frozen sections and smears respectively in order to observed the distributions of MSC. The results indicated that the lentiviral infected MSC displayed phenotypes and biological characteristics which conformed to MSC by immunophenotyping analysis and induction differentiation detection. After the MSC were infected with optimal viral titer MOI = 50, the cell growth no significantly changed; the fluorescent microscopy revealed that the distributions of MSC in bone marrow on day 1, 2, 5 and 7 were 0.50 ± 0.20, 0.67 ± 0.23, 0.53 ± 0.14, 0.33 ± 0.16; those in lung tissue were 0.55 ± 0.15, 0.47 ± 0.13, 0.29 ± 0.13, 0.26 ± 0.08. It is concluded that the distribution of MSC in lung tissue reaches a peak on day 1, while distribution of MSC in bone marrow reaches a peak on day 2. The distribution of mouse MSC relates with RFP gene expression and implantation of MSC in lung tissue and bone marrow.

  18. Bone biosensors: knowing the present and predicting the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashayar, Patricia; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Larijani, Bagher; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Bone is an active organ with the capacity of continuous remodeling throughout adult life. In view of the fact that the current gold standard to assess bone remodeling, bone mineral density, suffers from certain limitations, newer techniques are being developed. Currently enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is commonly used to assess bone turnover markers; the technique, however, is expensive, time consuming and needs trained personnel. Thus, there is a growing demand to fabricate different types of biosensors to provide low cost miniaturized platforms to assess the bone remodeling process more accurately. This review focuses on the latest advancements in the field of bone biosensing technologies. Its results might help provide possible solutions for translation of this technology for point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  19. The effects of bone marrow aspirate, bone graft, and collagen composites on fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Sandri, Monica;

    2012-01-01

    contamination, and non union as well as the potential risk of disease transmission. Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. This study attempted to determine the effects of newly developed HA/Collagen-composites with and without bone....../Collagen-BMA; autograft or allograft. Allograft was served as the control group. The observation period was 5 weeks. The sheep were euthanized and both femurs were harvested. A push-out mechanical test and histological analysis were performed. Results: No significant differences were seen in the mechanical properties...

  20. Men and women have similarly shaped carpometacarpal joint bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M T Y; Zhang, J; Crisco, J J; Weiss, A P C; Ladd, A L; Nielsen, P; Besier, T

    2015-09-18

    Characterizing the morphology of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint bones and how they vary across the population is important for understanding the functional anatomy and pathology of the thumb. The purpose of this paper was to develop a statistical shape model of the trapezium and first metacarpal bones to characterize the size and shape of the whole bones across a cohort of 50. We used this shape model to investigate the effects of sex and age on the size and shape of the CMC joint bones and the articulating surface area of the CMC joint. We hypothesized that women have similar shape trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men, following scaling for overall size. We also hypothesized that age would be a significant predictor variable for CMC joint bone changes. CT image data and segmented point clouds of 50 CMC bones from healthy adult men and women were obtained from an ongoing study and used to generate two statistical shape models. Statistical analysis of the principal component weights of both models was performed to investigate morphological sex and age differences. We observed sex differences, but were unable to detect any age differences. Between men and women the only difference in morphology of the trapezia and first metacarpal bones was size. These findings confirm our first hypothesis, and suggest that the women have similarly shaped trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men. Furthermore, our results reject our second hypothesis, indicating that age is a poor predictor of CMC joint morphology.

  1. Vascular biology and bone formation: hints from HIF

    OpenAIRE

    Towler, Dwight A.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of the JCI, Wang, Clemens, and colleagues demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) signaling in bone-building osteoblasts is central to the coupling of angiogenesis and long bone development in mice (see the related article beginning on page 1616). They show that bone formation controlled by osteoblast HIFα signaling is not cell autonomous but is coupled to skeletal angiogenesis dependent upon VEGF signaling. Thus, strategies that promote HIFα signaling in osteoblasts ...

  2. Technical aspects and clinical interpretation of bone mineral measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahner, H

    1989-01-01

    Four procedures--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy radiography, and quantitative computed tomography--allow nontraumatic measurement of bone mineral, with high accuracy and precision, under conditions generally encountered in patient care situations. By using these procedures, almost any part of the skeleton is accessible to such measurements. Total bone is measured by the absorptiometry procedures, trabecular bone by quantitative computed tomography. Sever...

  3. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍健聪; 邓尚贵; 谢超; 童国忠

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1...

  4. Microradiographic investigations of bone mineralisation in premature and young infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper intends to lay down the fundamentals of normal mineralisation in the perinatal phase as a basis for investigations of disturbed mineralisation. Data are presented on the percentage area of the mineralized osseous tissue, the osteocyte density, and the mineral contents of healthy bones at this age. Comparative morphological examinations of thin bone sections and microradiographs give a picture of bone development at this age. (orig./AJ)

  5. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n......), and carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1). In F, BMD in PF increased up to 1.8% (P football, OC was 45% and 46% higher (P ... football for elderly men had an osteogenic effect, which was further developed after 12 months, whereas resistance...

  6. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Witkowska; Aziza Alibhai; Chloe Hughes; Jennifer Price; Karl Klisch; Sturrock, Craig J.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2014-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethi...

  7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES FOR BONE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakkath Abdul Rub Sajid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a malady leading to bone fracture and results from imbalance in the rate of osteoblastic bone formation with respect to osteoclastic bone degradation.6 Nanotechnology raises exciting possibilities for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating osteoporosis.6 We use silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles endowed with natural bone-targeting capabilities and express potent pro-osteoblastogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic activation in vitro and show the ability to increase bone mineral density invivo. Here, we initially synthesize mesoporous silica nanoparticles by coating with octadecyl trimethoxy silane. The silica nanoparticles thus prepared is chosen as control. Two different samples of silica nanocomposites are prepared ; first binding silica nanoparticles with fluorescent dye i.e tetracycline (SiO2-Tet, the second sample prepared by combining (SiO2-Tet with magnetic nanoparticles (cobalt-ferrite solution to form (SiO2-Tet-MNP. All these synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using XRD, SEM, FTIR, E-DAX analysis. Post—characterization work plan involves incorporation of silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles into human bones (or in rat bones in case human bones is not at all available. This includes Micro CT-Scanning , Injecting (SiO2-Tet-MNP into bone tissues, Quantitating Bone Mineral Density. Finally results are obtained through test outcome which includes estimations of cell mineralization assays, detection of osteoclast formation, nanoparticle association with Bone surface (Incubation with (SiO2-Tet /(SiO2-Tet-MNP for 2 hours in well-plates, statistical analyses and figures obtained from characterization methods and thereby expressing the property of silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles to increase bone mineral density and combating osteoporosis.

  8. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple, yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions. (orig.)

  9. Development and clinical trial of a novel bioactive bone cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Strontium(Sr)and related compounds have become more attractive in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Previously,we developed a novel bioactive bone cement which is mainly composed of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite(Sr-HA)filler and bisphenol A diglycidylether dimethacrylate(Bis-GMA)resin.This bone cement is superior to conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)bone cement in bioactivity,biocompatibility,and osseointegration.It also has shown sufficient mechanical strength properties for its use in percutaneous vertebroplasty(PVP)and total hip replacement(THR).In this paper,we review the in vitro,in vivo and clinical evidence for the effectiveness of this bioactive bone cement.

  10. Bone health, vitamin D and lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa Gómez, Clara; Flores Robles, Bryan Josué; Andréu, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is high. This is likely due to photoprotection measures in addition to intrinsic factors of the disease. Low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of low bone mineral density and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency could also have undesirable effects on patients' immune response, enhancing mechanisms of loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Vitamin D levels should be periodically monitored and patients should be treated with the objective of reaching vitamin D levels higher than 30-40 ng/ml.

  11. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women ( 繁體中文 ) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Asian ...

  12. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  13. Humoral Regulation of Osteoclasts and Their Role in Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Sebile Dökmetaş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts are derived from the macrophage haematopoietic lineage, resemble monocyte-like phagocytic cells, and are involved in bone resorption. The cells of the bone and the immune system communicate by cytokines and growth factors. The discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK signalling pathway in osteoclasts provides a deeper understanding of osteoclastogenesis, mechanisms of the activation of bone resorption, and how bone structure and mass are affected by hormones. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 12-7

  14. The composite of bone marrow concentrate and PRP as an alternative to autologous bone grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Hakimi

    Full Text Available One possible alternative to the application of autologous bone grafts represents the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potency of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP in combination with BMC. In 32 mini-pigs a metaphyseal critical-size defect was surgically created at the proximal tibia. The animals were allocated to four treatment groups of eight animals each (1. BMC+CPG group, 2. BMC+CPG+PRP group, 3. autograft group, 4. CPG group. In the BMC+CPG group the defect was filled with autologous BMC in combination with calcium phosphate granules (CPG, whereas in the BMC+CPG+PRP group the defect was filled with the composite of autologous BMC, CPG and autologous PRP. In the autograft group the defect was filled with autologous cancellous graft, whereas in the CPG group the defect was filled with CPG solely. After 6 weeks radiological and histomorphometrical analysis showed significantly more new bone formation in the BMC+CPG+PRP group compared to the BMC+CPG group and the CPG group. There were no significant differences between the BMC+CPG+PRP group and the autograft group. In the PRP platelets were enriched significantly about 4.7-fold compared to native blood. In BMC the count of mononuclear cells increased significantly (3.5-fold compared to the bone marrow aspirate. This study demonstrates that the composite of BMC+CPG+PRP leads to a significantly higher bone regeneration of critical-size defects at the proximal tibia in mini-pigs than the use of BMC+CPG without PRP. Furthermore, within the limits of the present study the composite BMC+CPG+PRP represents a comparable alternative to autologous bone grafting.

  15. Infrared laser and bone metabolism; A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordjestani, M.; Dermaut, L. (Department of Orthodontics, University of Ghent (Belgium)); Thierens, H. (Institute of Medical Physics, University of Ghent (Belgium))

    1994-01-01

    A circular defect in each parietal bone of six Wislander rats was created. The animals were divided into two three-unit subgroups. The experimental group received infrared laser radiation on the left defect. The control group was sham irradiated. After 28 days, the bone metabolism was evaluated by technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy. The obtained results revealed no differences in bone metabolic activity between the laser-treated and the control defects. (au) (18 refs.).

  16. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  17. Bone Metabolism and Arterial Stiffness After Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Cseprekál

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To assess the relationship between bone and vascular disease and its changes over time after renal transplantation. Metabolic bone disease (MBD is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD and is associated with cardiovascular (CV disease. Following transplantation (Tx, improvement in CV disease has been reported; however, data regarding changes in bone disease remain controversial. Methods: Bone turnover and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV were assessed in 47 Tx patients (38 (3-191 months after Tx. Results: Bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteocalcin (OC and beta-crosslaps were significantly higher in Tx patients, and decreased significantly after one year. There was a negative correlation between BALP, OC and steroid administered (r=-0.35;r=-0.36 respectively. PWV increased in the Tx group (1.15 SD. In patients with a follow up of Conclusions: Increased bone turnover and arterial stiffness are present following kidney transplantation. While bone turnover decreases with time, arterial stiffness correlates initially with bone turnover, after which the influence of cholesterol becomes significant. Non-invasive estimation of bone metabolism and arterial stiffness may help to assess CKD-MBD following renal transplantation.

  18. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis: pathogenesis, prognosis and targeted strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Abdallah Abou; Salama, Mohamed E.; Carreau, Nicole; Tremblay, Douglas; Verstovsek, Srdan; Mesa, Ruben; Hoffman, Ronald; Mascarenhas, John

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow fibrosis is a central pathological feature and World Health Organization major diagnostic criterion of myelofibrosis. Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, lysyl oxidase, transforming growth factor-β, impaired megakaryocyte function, and aberrant JAK-STAT signaling have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow fibrosis. A number of studies indicate that bone marrow fibrosis is an adverse prognostic variable in myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, modern myelofibrosis prognostication systems utilized in risk-adapted treatment approaches do not include bone marrow fibrosis as a prognostic variable. The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. Here we review the pathogenesis, biological consequences, and prognostic impact of bone marrow fibrosis. We discuss the rationale of various anti-fibrogenic treatment strategies targeting the clonal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, aberrant signaling pathways, fibrogenic cytokines, and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27252511

  19. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis: pathogenesis, prognosis and targeted strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Abdallah Abou; Salama, Mohamed E; Carreau, Nicole; Tremblay, Douglas; Verstovsek, Srdan; Mesa, Ruben; Hoffman, Ronald; Mascarenhas, John

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow fibrosis is a central pathological feature and World Health Organization major diagnostic criterion of myelofibrosis. Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, lysyl oxidase, transforming growth factor-β, impaired megakaryocyte function, and aberrant JAK-STAT signaling have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow fibrosis. A number of studies indicate that bone marrow fibrosis is an adverse prognostic variable in myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, modern myelofibrosis prognostication systems utilized in risk-adapted treatment approaches do not include bone marrow fibrosis as a prognostic variable. The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. Here we review the pathogenesis, biological consequences, and prognostic impact of bone marrow fibrosis. We discuss the rationale of various anti-fibrogenic treatment strategies targeting the clonal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, aberrant signaling pathways, fibrogenic cytokines, and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27252511

  20. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone loss and enhanced tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PPY Lui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-tunnel bone loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is commonly observed, both clinically and experimentally. We aimed to study the effect and mechanisms of different doses of alendronate in the reduction of peri-tunnel bone loss and promotion of graft-bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction. Eighty-four ACL-reconstructed rats were divided into 4 groups. Alendronate at different dosages, or saline, were injected subcutaneously weekly, for 2 or 6 weeks post-reconstruction, for vivaCT (computed tomography imaging, biomechanical tests, histology and immunohistochemistry. Alendronate significantly increased bone mass and density of tissue inside bone tunnels except at the epiphyseal region of tibial tunnel. The femoral tunnel diameter decreased significantly in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups compared to that in the saline group at week 6. Alendronate significantly increased the peri-tunnel bone mass and density along all tunnel regions at week 6. Better graft-bone tunnel integration and intra-tunnel graft integrity were observed in the alendronate groups. The ultimate load was significantly higher in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups at week 2, but not at week 6. There was a reduction in matrix metalloprotein (MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells at the peri-tunnel region and graft-bone interface in the alendronate-treated group compared to the saline group. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone resorption, increased mineralised tissue inside bone tunnel as well as histologically and biomechanically promoted graft-bone tunnel healing, probably by reducing the expression of MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells. Alendronate might be used for reducing peri-tunnel bone loss and promoting graft-bone tunnel healing at early stage post-ACL reconstruction.

  1. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

  2. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  3. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  4. The history and histology of bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Samuel S; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite

    2016-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins are a group of structurally related proteins within the TGF-β superfamily of proteins with a diverse repertoire of functions in embryonic and adult organisms. As is apparent from the name, the members first characterized participate in bone growth, development, and remodeling. The "morphogenic" activity per se is defined as the induction of a recapitulation of endochondral bone formation by appropriate stem cells. The regenerative capacity of bone has been recognized since ancient times. The mechanism, applications, and conceptual basis of bone transplantation, bone implantation, ectopic bone formation, and exogenously induced bone formation have been studied by many investigators for more than a century. This review examines the efforts to characterize this activity in the European and American literature over approximately the last century. Because of the inherently complex nature of the process induced by these molecules (inflammation, stem cell proliferation, cartilage differentiation, replacement of cartilage with bone) it is important to evaluate previous investigations through a histological perspective. The cellular basis of the contemporary bioassay for BMP activity is illustrated and discussed from the histological point of view. PMID:26907674

  5. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  6. Osteotransductive bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  7. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies.

  8. Surface primary bone tumors: Systematic approach and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Diaz, Cristina; Soler Fernandez, Rafaela; Rodriguez Garcia, Esther; Fernandez Armendariz, Pablo; Diaz Angulo, Carolina [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruna, Department of Radiology, A Coruna (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Surface primary bone tumors may appear similar to their intramedullary counterpart, but because they are rare, they may pose diagnostic challenges when showing different characteristics compared to their intramedullary counterpart. It is important for radiologists to recognize the imaging findings for various uncommon surface primary bone tumors, which may help to reduce the differential diagnosis or to lead to a specific diagnosis. Radiography is typically used for first-line imaging. If necessary, it is followed by CT or MRI for evaluation and characterization of surface bone tumors. The aim of this article is to review the imaging findings and differential diagnosis for surface primary bone tumors. (orig.)

  9. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  10. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  11. Haemopoiesis in murine bone marrow and spleen after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoiesis was studied in mice repeatedly exposed to doses of 3 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at 4-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy on the basis of total bone marrow and spleen cellularity follow-up and analysis of myelograms and splenograms. Half the number of the mice received 106 nuclear cells of syngeneic bone marrow after each fractional radiation dose. It was mainly the spleen which was involved in the adaptation and regeneration of erythropoiesis, its contribution to total erythropoiesis in bone marrow recipients having been as high as 73.9% (day 20 of experiment, total dose 15 Gy). In mice only irradiated, the number of nuclear cells of erythroid lineage decreased to zero values sooner in the spleen (day 16 of experiment, total dose 12 Gy) than in the bone marrow (day 24 of experiment, total dose 18 Gy). The analysis of the results of collections made on day 9 after the last irradiation revealed, however, that the hemopoietic microenvironment of the spleen and hemopoietic cells capable of differentiation in the erythroid direction were so resistant to irradiation in mice only irradiated that erythropoiesis in their spleens exhibited signs of regeneration even after the highest total dose of 24 Gy. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs

  12. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  13. Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K; Klibanski, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone densi...

  14. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.

  15. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  16. Preliminary Study on 41Ca-AMS Technology for Early Diagnosis and Monitoring of Bone Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Hong-tao; PANG; Fang-fang; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; DOU; Liang; SHI; Yan-jun; ZHANG; Shuang; WU; Shao-yong; WANG; Xiao-ming; ZHAO; Qin-zhang; YANG; Xu-ran; XU; Yong-ning; LAN; Xiao-xi; CAI; Li; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million,50%-60%of which will end up with bone metastasis.The bone metastasis of cancer and bone cancer usually causes a variety of bone-related events,such as the pathological fracture,malignant hypercalcemia and bone marrow

  17. Bone mineral mass and bone turnover parameters in osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Erdtsieck (Ronald)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decades osteoporosis has been recognized as an important public health problem. Several causes for this problem can be pointed out. The most probable cause for the development of osteoporosis is the loss of ovarian function in women and the increasing age of people, thereby i

  18. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  19. Poly(L-lactide) bone plates and screws for internal fixation of mandibular swing osteotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tams, J; Rozema, FR; Bos, RRM; Roodenburg, JLN; Nikkels, PGJ; Vermey, A

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated bone healing after mandibular swing osteotomies fixed with biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) bone plates in four patients. A step osteotomy treated with two PLLA bone plates (n=3), and a straight osteotomy treated with one PLLA bone plate (n=1) were performed. Bone healing wa

  20. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - discharge; ...

  1. The role of biochemical of bone turnover markers in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease: a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, E; Bergmann, P; Bruyère, O; Delanaye, P; Durnez, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Ferrari, S L; Gielen, E; Goemaere, S; Kaufman, J-M; Toukap, A Nzeusseu; Reginster, J-Y; Rousseau, A-F; Rozenberg, S; Scheen, A J; Body, J-J

    2016-07-01

    The exact role of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the management of metabolic bone diseases remains a topic of controversy. In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aimed to provide a state of the art on the use of these biomarkers in different clinical or physiological situations like in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men, in elderly patients, in patients suffering from bone metastasis, in patients with chronic renal failure, in pregnant or lactating women, in intensive care patients, and in diabetics. We also gave our considerations on the analytical issues linked to the use of these biomarkers, on potential new emerging biomarkers, and on the use of bone turnover biomarkers in the follow-up of patients treated with new drugs for osteoporosis. PMID:27026330

  2. Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Northrop, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Comparison of whole calvarial bones and long bones during early growth in rats. Histology and collagen composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, J M; Klein, L

    1975-07-25

    The distribution of ossified collagen (bone) and uncalcified collagen (fibrous tissue and cartilage) was compared histologically for rat and dog calvaria at birth. The relative amount of bone and uncalcified collagen was quantitated morphologically for rat calvaria during the first four weeks of rapid growth. Whereas dog calvaria are essentially ossified at birth, rat calvaria at birth consist mostly of fibrous tissue but rapidly become ossified with growth. Bacterial collagenase was used to separate uncalcified collagen from calcified collagen of whole membranous bones (frontal and parietal) and long bones (femur and humerus) at birth from man, monkey, dog, guinea pig, rabbit and rat. By this means quantitative changes in the relative fractions of the two forms of collagen were determined during the first eight weeks of postnatal growth for each type of rat bone. Quantitative biochemical data on whole rat bones (calvarium, femur, humerus) confirmed measurements based on histology which showed that at birth rat calvaria are mostly uncalcified as compared to other species whose bones are mostly ossified at birth. With growth rat membranous bones ossify more rapidly than long bones.

  4. Ameloblastin is not implicated in bone remodelling and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kuroda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastin (AMBN is an enamel matrix protein produced by ameloblasts. It has been suggested that AMBN might also be implicated in craniofacial bone formation. Our objective was to determine whether AMBN has an effect on osteogenic mineralisation and influences bone remodelling and repair. MC3T3-E1 cells were screened for endogenous expression of enamel proteins using real time PCR. Various osteogenic cells were infected with lentivirus encoding for AMBN and protein expression was verified using immunochemistry. Cultures were stained with alizarin red and mineralisation was quantified. Healing bone was probed for expression of AMBN by DNA microarray analysis. Tooth extraction, experimental tooth movement (ETM, and creation of a non-critical size bone defect in the tibia (BDT were carried out in wild type and AMBNΔ5-6 mutant mice. Tissues were processed for immunolabelling of AMBN and Bril, an osteoblast specific protein associated with active bone formation. MC3T3-E1 cells and healing bone showed no significant expression of AMBN. Overexpression of AMBN in osteogenic cultures induced no noticeable changes in mineralisation. In wild type mice, AMBN was immunodetected in ameloblasts and enamel, but not in normal bone, and at sites where bone remodelling and repair were induced. Bone remodelling during ETM and BDT repair in AMBNΔ5-6 mice were not significantly different from that in wild type animals. Our results suggest that AMBN does not influence osteogenic activity in vitro under the conditions used, and does not participate in craniofacial bone remodelling under mechanical stress and in repair of non-critical size bone defects.

  5. The Rho-GEF Kalirin regulates bone mass and the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Su; Pierre P. Eleniste; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Mandela, Prashant; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.; Allen, Matthew R; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Dysregulation in the activity of the bone cells can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Kalirin is a novel GTP-exchange factor protein that has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling and dendritic spine formation in neurons. We examined Kalirin expression in skeletal tissue and f...

  6. Radiographic skeletal survey and radionuclide bone scan in Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhuyse, J.P. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Clapuyt, P. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Malghem, J. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Everarts, P. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Melin, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Brichard, B. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Ninane, J. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Vermylen, C. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Cornu, G. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-10-01

    Background. The lack of a consensus in the literature on the imaging strategy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) bone lesions in childhood. Objective. To evaluate the relative value of radionuclide bone scan (RBS) and radiographic skeletal survey (RSS) in the detection of LCH bone lesions, both in the initial work-up of the disease and during the follow-up period. Materials and methods. Ten children with bone lesions evaluated by means of RSS and RBS in a retrospective study (1984-1993). Results. Fifty radiologically and/or scintigraphically abnormal foci were detected: 27 anomalies in the initial work-up (12 by both RSS and RBS, 8 by RSS only and 7 by RBS only) and 23 additional anomalies during follow-up (10 by both RSS and RBS, 10 by RSS only and 3 by RBS only). RSS+/RBS- lesions (n = 18) are more frequently encountered in the skull (P = 0.038), and more frequently lack radiologic signs of osteoblastic activity (P = 0.020), than RSS+/RBS+ lesions (n = 22). RSS-/RBS+ abnormalities (n = 10) were most frequently insignificant. Conclusion. In the initial work-up both RSS and RBS should be carried out, while in the follow-up only RSS should be performed. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Radiographic skeletal survey and radionuclide bone scan in Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The lack of a consensus in the literature on the imaging strategy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) bone lesions in childhood. Objective. To evaluate the relative value of radionuclide bone scan (RBS) and radiographic skeletal survey (RSS) in the detection of LCH bone lesions, both in the initial work-up of the disease and during the follow-up period. Materials and methods. Ten children with bone lesions evaluated by means of RSS and RBS in a retrospective study (1984-1993). Results. Fifty radiologically and/or scintigraphically abnormal foci were detected: 27 anomalies in the initial work-up (12 by both RSS and RBS, 8 by RSS only and 7 by RBS only) and 23 additional anomalies during follow-up (10 by both RSS and RBS, 10 by RSS only and 3 by RBS only). RSS+/RBS- lesions (n = 18) are more frequently encountered in the skull (P = 0.038), and more frequently lack radiologic signs of osteoblastic activity (P = 0.020), than RSS+/RBS+ lesions (n = 22). RSS-/RBS+ abnormalities (n = 10) were most frequently insignificant. Conclusion. In the initial work-up both RSS and RBS should be carried out, while in the follow-up only RSS should be performed. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  9. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  10. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.herlin@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Finnilä, Mikko A.J., E-mail: mikko.finnila@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Zioupos, Peter, E-mail: p.zioupos@cranfield.ac.uk [Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University, Shrivenham SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Aula, Antti, E-mail: antti.aula@gmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Risteli, Juha, E-mail: juha.risteli@ppshp.fi [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.miettinen@crl.com [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Jämsä, Timo, E-mail: timo.jamsa@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Tuukkanen, Juha, E-mail: juha.tuukkanen@oulu.fi [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja, E-mail: merja.korkalainen@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Håkansson, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Hakansson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Viluksela, Matti, E-mail: matti.viluksela@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr{sup −/−}) and wild-type (Ahr{sup +/+}) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr{sup +/+} mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr{sup −/−} mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr{sup +/+} mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr{sup −/−} mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr{sup +/+} mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation

  11. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Aisen; Di, Wenjuan; Sheng, Yunlu; Cheng, Peng; Qi, Hanmei; Liu, Juan; Yu, Jing; Ding, Guoxian; Cai, Jinmei; Lai, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis, lumbar spine BMD exhibited positive associations with total and all regional fat depots, regardless of the fat distribution. However, the correlation disappeared with adjusted covariables of age, BMI, HDL-C, and HbA1c%. TBS was negatively correlated with fat mass. In multiple linear regression models, android fat (and not gynoid, trunk, or limbs fat) showed significant inverse association with TBS (β = -0.611, P android fat and visceral fat, may have negative effects on bone microstructure; whereas body fat mass contributes to BMD through mechanical loading.

  12. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  13. Bone Repair on Fractures Treated with Osteosynthesis, ir Laser, Bone Graft and Guided Bone Regeneration: Histomorfometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Aciole, Jouber Mateus; dos Santos Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the analysis of histomorfometric, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with osteosynthesis, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ780 nm, 50 mW, CW) associated or not to the use of hydroxyapatite and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Surgical fractures were created, under general anesthesia (Ketamina 0,4 ml/Kg IP and Xilazina 0,2 ml/Kg IP), on the dorsum of 15 Oryctolagus rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with wire osteosynthesis. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite and GBR technique used. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16 J/cm2, 4×4 J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death (overdose of general anesthetics) the specimes were routinely processed to wax and underwent histological analysis by light microscopy. The histomorfometric analysis showed an increased bone neoformation, increased collagen deposition, less reabsorption and inflammation when laser was associated to the HATCP. It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of CHA.

  14. Bone Replacement Materials and Techniques Used for Achieving Vertical Alveolar Bone Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone augmentation in vertical dimension remains the holy grail of periodontal tissue engineering. Successful dental implant placement for restoration of edentulous sites depends on the quality and quantity of alveolar bone available in all spatial dimensions. There are several surgical techniques used alone or in combination with natural or synthetic graft materials to achieve vertical alveolar bone augmentation. While continuously improving surgical techniques combined with the use of auto- or allografts provide the most predictable clinical outcomes, their success often depends on the status of recipient tissues. The morbidity associated with donor sites for auto-grafts makes these techniques less appealing to both patients and clinicians. New developments in material sciences offer a range of synthetic replacements for natural grafts to address the shortcoming of a second surgical site and relatively high resorption rates. This narrative review focuses on existing techniques, natural tissues and synthetic biomaterials commonly used to achieve vertical bone height gain in order to successfully restore edentulous ridges with implant-supported prostheses.

  15. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often ...

  16. Anorganic bovine bone and a silicate-based synthetic bone activate different microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalisa, Palmieri; Furio, Pezzetti; Ilaria, Zollino; Anna, Avantaggiato; Luca, Scapoli; Marcella, Martinelli; Marzia, Arlotti; Elena, Masiero; Carinci, Francesco

    2008-09-01

    Bio-Oss (BO), composed of anorganic bovine bone, is widely used in several bone regeneration procedures in oral surgery. PerioGlas (PG) is an alloplastic material that has been used for grafting of periodontal osseous defects since the 1990s. However, how these biomaterials alter osteoblast activity to promote bone formation is poorly understood. We attempted to address this question by using microRNA microarray techniques to investigate differences in translational regulation in osteoblasts exposed to BO and PG. By using miRNA microarrays containing 329 probes designed from human miRNA sequences, we investigated miRNAs whose expression was significantly modified in an osteoblast-like cell line (MG-63) cultured with BO vs PG. Three up-regulated miRNAs (mir-337, mir-200b, mir-377) and 4 down-regulated miRNAs (mir-130a, mir-214, mir-27a, mir-93) were identified. Our results indicated that BO and PG act on different miRNAs. Globally, PG causes activation of bone-forming signaling, whereas BO also activates cartilage-related pathways.

  17. MR imaging of bone oedema: Mechanisms and interpretation pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustace, S.; Keogh, C.; Blake, M.; Ward, R.J.; Oder, P.D.; Dimasi, M

    2001-01-01

    Widespread use of MRI now allows the routine identification of previously unevaluated traumatic bone marrow oedema and haemorrhage. Similar marrow oedema is identified in patients with tumours, hyperaemia and medullary congestion. Patterns and extent of traumatic bone marrow oedema and haemorrhage are dictated by mechanism. Diffusion techniques may allow precise evaluation of severity of injury. Illustrative examples and discussion are presented. Eustace, S. (2001)

  18. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  19. Dissociation of bone formation markers in bone metastasis of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, M; Maeda, H.; Yoshimura, K; Yamauchi, T.; Kawai, T.; Ogata, E

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the meaning and clinical value of bone formation markers in bone metastasis from prostate cancer, we investigated the bone formation markers carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BA1-p) and osteocalcin, so-called bone gla protein (BGP) in 43 prostate cancer patients with and 46 patients without overt bone metastasis. Patients with bone metastasis were evaluated repeatedly by bone scan at intervals of 3-6 months. The expression...

  20. Bone Structure and Estimated Bone Strength in Obese Patients Evaluated by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine; Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hansen, Stinus;

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), but whether obesity-related higher bone mass increases bone strength and thereby protect against fractures is uncertain. We estimated effects of obesity on bone microarchitecture and estimated strength in 36 patients (12 males and 24...... patients compared with controls in radius and tibia with higher trabecular number (p = 0.002 and p estimated failure load (FL) was higher in tibia (p ... lower per kg body weight in radius and tibia in obese patients compared with controls (p = 0.007 and p estimated...

  1. Treatment of the benign bone tumors including femoral neck lesion using compression hip screw and synthetic bone graft

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Tomoki; Matsumine Akihiko; Asanuma Kunihiro; Matsubara Takao; Sudo Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The proximal femur is one of the most common locations for benign bone tumors and tumor like conditions. We describe the clinical outcomes of the surgical treatment of benign lesions of the proximal femur including femoral neck using compression hip screw and synthetic bone graft. Methods: Thirteen patients with benign bone tumors or tumor like conditions of the proximal femur including femoral neck were surgically treated. Their average age at the time of presentatio...

  2. Naringin ameliorates bone loss induced by sciatic neurectomy and increases Semaphorin 3A expression in denervated bone

    OpenAIRE

    Xinlong Ma; Jianwei Lv; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Guosheng Xing; Ying Wang; Lei Sun; Jianbao Wang; Fengbo Li; Yanjun Li; Zhihu Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Naringin maintains bone mass in various osteoporosis models, while its effect on bone in disuse osteoporosis has not been reported. The present study explores whether naringin can prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) and whether the Semaphorin 3A-induced Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the osteoprotection of naringin. Naringin dose-dependently prevented the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular structure and biomechanical...

  3. Effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy and bone grafting on artificial bone defects in minipigs: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Regezi, J A; Fong, B; Hakim-Faal, Z; Rohrer, M; Tran, C; Schiff, T

    2002-06-01

    Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy has been advocated as an adjunct in the enucleation and curettage of locally aggressive lesions of the jaws. Simultaneous autogenous bone grafting has also been advocated to accelerate bone formation and reduce morbidity. There is, however, relatively little scientific basis for either of these hypotheses. In this study, nine Yucatan minipigs had artificial defects created in the mandible, which were treated with liquid nitrogen spray. Half of the defects were grafted with autogenous bone from the chin and half were closed primarily. Two animals were sacrificed 3 days postoperatively to measure the width of necrosis and the rest were sacrificed at 3 months to assess healing and new bone formation. It was found that drilling the artificial defects alone caused bone necrosis for a mean depth of 0.09 mm. Liquid nitrogen cryospray caused a mean depth of bone necrosis of 0.82 mm (range 0.51-1.52 mm). The defects that were bone grafted healed well clinically. Defects not bone grafted showed a 50% rate of wound breakdown and sequestrum formation with delayed healing. Vital staining showed a non-significantly greater rate of bone formation in the grafted defects. Digitally superimposed radiography showed a non-significantly greater bone density in the non-grafted defects at 3 months postoperatively. It appears that liquid nitrogen cryospray does devitalize an area of bone around defects in the mandible. The width of necrosis is usually less than 1 mm and subsequent healing is enhanced by autogenous bone grafting. This has clinical implications. PMID:12190137

  4. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF BONE MARROW ASPIRATION AND BONE MARROW BIOPSY IN HAEMATOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Due to diagnostic difficulties by peripheral smear alone, evaluation of the bone marrow is required for confirmation of a suspected clinical diagnosis. AIMS To study and to correlate the bone marrow aspiration with biopsy findings. METHODS AND MATERIAL A total number of 100 cases were evaluated. Bone marrow aspiration slides were stained with Leishman stain and biopsy sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin after decalcification. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Chi square test to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. P values obtained after completion of 100 cases and Kappa value determined to know the strength of agreement between bone marrow aspiration and biopsy diagnosis. RESULTS Of the 100 cases studied, the age of the patient ranged from 4-78 years with male-to-female ratio being 1.3:1. The most common condition was anaemia (47% and the most common haematological malignancy was multiple myeloma (13%. In our institution, the incidence of multiple myeloma was found to be higher than leukemia. There was a positive correlation of 85.8%, sensitivity of bone marrow aspiration was found to be 88.5% and Negative Predictive Value (NPV was 94.4%. The p value of 0.001 was statistically significant and the Kappa value of 0.91 shows an excellent agreement between aspiration and biopsy diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS Aspiration helps to know the better morphology of the cells and biopsy to assess the cellularity, pattern of distribution of cells. Biopsy is also useful when aspiration is inadequate due to faulty technique. Hence, combined evaluation helps in accurate diagnosis and management.

  5. Late sarcoma development after curettage and bone grafting of benign bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picci, Piero, E-mail: piero.picci@ior.it [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Sieberova, Gabriela [Dept. of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia); Alberghini, Marco; Balladelli, Alba; Vanel, Daniel [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Hogendoorn, Pancras C.W. [Dept. of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Mercuri, Mario [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Background and aim: Rarely sarcomas develop in previous benign lesions, after a long term disease free interval. We report the experience on these rare cases observed at a single Institution. Patients and methods: 12 cases curetted and grafted, without radiotherapy developed sarcomas, between 1970 and 2005, 6.5-28 years from curettage (median 18, average 19). Age ranged from 13 to 55 years (median 30, average 32) at first diagnosis; tumors were located in the extremities (9 GCT, benign fibrous histiocytoma, ABC, and solitary bone cyst). Radiographic and clinic documentation, for the benign and malignant lesions, were available. Histology was available for 7 benign and all malignant lesions. Results: To fill cavities, autogenous bone was used in 4 cases, allograft in 2, allograft and tricalcium-phosphate/hydroxyapatite in 1, autogenous/allograft in 1, heterogenous in 1. For 3 cases the origin was not reported. Secondary sarcomas, all high grade, were 8 osteosarcoma, 3 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and 1 fibrosarcoma. Conclusions: Recurrences with progression from benign tumors are possible, but the very long intervals here reported suggest a different cancerogenesis for these sarcomas. This condition is extremely rare accounting for only 0.26% of all malignant bone sarcomas treated in the years 1970-2005 and represents only 8.76% of all secondary bone sarcomas treated in the same years. This incidence is the same as that of sarcomas arising on fibrous dysplasia, and is lower than those arising on bone infarcts or on Paget's disease. This possible event must be considered during follow-up of benign lesions.

  6. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  7. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  8. An assessment of bone marrow and bone endosteum dosimetry methods for photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Shah, Amish P.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-11-01

    The rather complex and microscopic histological structure of the skeletal system generally limits one's ability to accurately model this tissue during dosimetric evaluations. Consequently, various assumptions must be made to evaluate the absorbed dose from external and internal photons to the radiosensitive tissues of the red (or haematopoietically active) bone marrow and the osteogenic tissues of the skeletal endosteum. These various methods for photon skeletal dosimetry have not been inter-compared, partly due to the lack of a realistic reference model that can provide a high-resolution three-dimensional geometry for secondary electron particle transport. In the present study, the paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model developed by Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 45 344) was utilized to evaluate the absorbed dose per incident photon fluence to these skeletal regions from idealized parallel beams of monoenergetic photons. The PIRT model results were then used as a local reference against which absorbed doses via other methods were compared. For red bone marrow dosimetry, four approximate techniques were considered: (1) the dose response function method (DRF method) presented in ORNL/TM-8381, (2) the mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio method (two-parameter MEAC method), (3) the MEAC method with the additional use of energy-dependent dose enhancement factors from King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345) (three-parameter MEAC method), and (4) the three-parameter MEAC method applied at the voxel level through the use image-specific CT numbers (CTN method). For the bone endosteum (i.e., bone surfaces), two approximate techniques were compared: (1) the DRF method for bone surfaces and (2) the homogeneous bone approximation (HBA) method. In each case, the local reference standard was assumed to be that of the PIRT model. Four different ex vivo bone specimens with distinctively different internal structures were used in the study: the cranium, the lumbar

  9. RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin in arthritic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Bezerra

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Tissue proteinases released by synovia, chondrocytes and pannus can cause cartilage destruction and cytokine-activated osteoclasts have been implicated in bone erosions. Rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues produce a variety of cytokines and growth factors that induce monocyte differentiation to osteoclasts and their proliferation, activation and longer survival in tissues. More recently, a major role in bone erosion has been attributed to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL released by activated lymphocytes and osteoblasts. In fact, osteoclasts are markedly activated after RANKL binding to the cognate RANK expressed on the surface of these cells. RANKL expression can be upregulated by bone-resorbing factors such as glucocorticoids, vitamin D3, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Supporting this idea, inhibition of RANKL by osteoprotegerin, a natural soluble RANKL receptor, prevents bone loss in experimental models. Tumor growth factor-ß released from bone during active bone resorption has been suggested as one feedback mechanism for upregulating osteoprotegerin and estrogen can increase its production on osteoblasts. Modulation of these systems provides the opportunity to inhibit bone loss and deformity in chronic arthritis.

  10. Efficacy of DR, CT and MRI in bone tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjiao Zhang; Xuefeng Cui; Changcheng Li; Shenjiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to investigate the ef icacy of digital radiography (DR), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in bone tumors. Methods:Fifty-five patients with histological y confirmed bone tumors underwent imaging examinations. Fifty-five patients were performed DR, 21 CT and 20 MRI. Results:DR of 51 pa-tients clearly revealed bone changes. DR of 40 patients wel showed marginal. Twenty tumors appeared periosteal reaction on DR and 19 calcification on DR. CT scan of 21 patients clearly depicted bone changes, marginal and calcification and CT scan of 8 revealed periosteal reaction. MRI scan of 20 patients al showed marginal and soft-tissue mass and bone marrow edema was prominent in 8 patients. Conclusion:DR is the first imaging approach for born tumors. CT wel reveal the extent and minute structure of the bone tumors, the extent, soft-tissue mass and bone marrow edema are more dramatical y demon-strated on MRI imaging. DR integrates with CT and MRI, is helpful in diagnosis of bone tumors.

  11. Effect of mining and utilizing bone coal on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average air γ-ray dose rates measured from the field, road, bone coal, bone coal cinder and bone coal cinder bricks in the three bone coal mines in west Zhejiang Province, are 3.8 x 102, 4.1 x 102, 7.1 x 102, 4.0 x 102 and 7.1 x 102 nGy/h, respectively. The mean contents of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the bone coal of the three bone coal mines are 2.0 x 103, 2.1 x 103, 3.9 x 101 and 6.1 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively, in the bone coal cinder (BCC) are 1.6 x 103, 1.6 x 103, 2.3 x 101 and 4.5 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and in the bone coal cinder brick (BCCB) are 1.2 x 103, 1.2 x 103, 2.4 x 101 and 4.0 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and those in the reference soil are 3.4 x 102, 1.0 x 102, 4.9 x 101 and 4.9 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively. The annual mean of effective dose equivalent for public living in house buildings made with BCCB near the three mines is 6.8 mSv

  12. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA; CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001 and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001. Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP, in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

  13. Effect of mining and utilizing bone coal on environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The average air -ray dose rates measured from the field, road, bone coal, bone coal cinder and bone coalcinder bricks in the three bone coal mines in westZhejiang Province, are 3.8 102,4.1 102, 7.1 102, 4.0 102and 7.1 102 nGy/h, respectively. The mean contents of238U, 226Ra,232Th and 40K in the bone coal of the three bone coalmines are 2.0 103, 2.1 103, 3.9 101 and6.1 102 Bq/kg, respectively, in the bone coal cinder(BCC)are 1.6 103, 1.6 103, 2.3 101and 4.5 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and in the bone coalcinder brick(BCCB) are 1.2 103, 1.2 103,2.4 101 and 4.0 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and those in thereference soil are 3.4 102, 1.0 102, 4.9 101and 4.9 102 Bq/kg, respectively. Theannual mean of effective dose equivalentfor public living in house buildings made with BCCB near thethree mines is 6.8 mSv.

  14. Urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and clinical usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baris Simsek; (O)zgul Karacaer; inci Karaca

    2004-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review the urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline. Data Related researches published in 1985 -2000 were systematically reviewed. Results Bone markers could be used for early diagnosis of bone metabolic diseases. Biochemical markers of bone resorption that reflect osteoclast activity and/or collagen degradation provide a new and potentially important clinical tool for the assessment and monitoring of bone metabolism. Assessment of bone resorption can be achieved with measurement of urinary hydroxylysine glycosides, urinary excretion of the collagen pyridinium cross-links, urinary excretion of type I collagen telopeptide breakdown products (cross-linked telopeptides) and urinary hydroxyproline. Conclusion Urinary hydroxyproline has been in use as a marker of bone resorption, but it lacks sensitivity and specificity. It is a modified aminoacid that is a metabolic product of collagen breakdown.Hydroxyproline may be released either free or with fragments of the collagen molecule attached during bone resorption, and it is also liberated by the breakdown of complement and nonskeletal collagen.

  15. Characterisation of debris from laser and mechanical cutting of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmanis, Nikolaos; McGuinness, Garrett B; McGeough, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Laser cutting of bones has been proposed as a technology in orthopaedic surgery. In this short study, the laser-bone interaction was examined using a pulsed erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser and compared to a conventional cutting technique. Microscopic analysis revealed the nature of waste debris and showed higher proportions of finer particles for conventional sagittal sawing compared to laser cutting.

  16. An expression relating breaking stress and density of trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajapakse, C.S.; Thomsen, J.S.; Ortiz, J.S.E.;

    2004-01-01

    previously published data on bone samples from iliac crest and vertebral body. It represents the experimental biomechanical data at least as well as the power-law, and provides means for extrapolating results from small biopsy samples to an entire bone. In addition, changes caused by trabecular thinning...

  17. Fracture risk and bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, Vladimir K; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2008-06-01

    Bone health is a major lifelong concern in caring for women and girls with Turner syndrome (TS). There is an approximately 25% increase in fracture risk most of which is related to medium or high impact trauma. The long bones, especially of the forearm are predominantly affected. This fact may be due to a selective cortical bone deficiency in TS which is unrelated to hypogonadism. In addition, lack of adequate estrogen replacement can lead to trabecular bone deficiency and increase in vertebral compression fractures after age 45. Evaluation of bone density by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is important, however, it should be used judiciously in TS in view of its inherent tendency to underestimate the bone density of people with short stature. Bone size-independent methods, such as QCT or volumetric transformation of DEXA data should be used in individuals shorter than 150 cm. Achieving optimal bone density is of critical importance for fracture prevention in TS, and should be pursued by timely introduction of hormone replacement therapy, adequate dose of estrogens during the young adult life, optimal calcium and vitamin D intake and regular physical exercise. In addition, other measures to prevent fall and trauma should be considered, including optimizing hearing and vision, avoiding contact sports and exercise to improve coordination. PMID:18415020

  18. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... options Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it ... a vein and settle in areas of damaged bones (like those containing cancer spread). Once there, they give off radiation that ...

  20. Green tea and bone health: Evidence from laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss in the elderly population. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea with its bioactive components on bone health with an emphasis on the following: (i) the etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) evidence of osteo-protective impacts of green tea on bone mass and microarchitecture in various bone loss models in which induced by aging, sex hormone deficiency, and chronic inflammation, (iii) discussion of impacts of green tea on bone mass in two obesity models, (iv) observation of short-term green tea supplementation given to postmenopausal women with low bone mass, (v) possible mechanisms for the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, and (vi) a summary and future research direction of green tea and bone health.

  1. The "love-hate" relationship between osteoclasts and bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are unique cells that destroy the mineralized matrix of the skeleton. There is a "love-hate" relationship between the osteoclasts and the bone matrix, whereby the osteoclast is stimulated by the contact with the matrix but, at the same time, it disrupts the matrix, which, in turn, counteracts this disruption by some of its components. The balance between these concerted events brings about bone resorption to be controlled and to contribute to bone tissue integrity and skeletal health. The matrix components released by osteoclasts are also involved in the local regulation of other bone cells and in the systemic control of organismal homeostasis. Disruption of this regulatory loop causes bone diseases, which may end up with either reduced or increased bone mass, often associated with poor bone quality. Expanding the knowledge on osteoclast-to-matrix interaction could help to counteract these diseases and improve the human bone health. In this article, we will present evidence of the physical, molecular and regulatory relationships between the osteoclasts and the mineralized matrix, discussing the underlying mechanisms as well as their pathologic alterations and potential targeting.

  2. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui PPY

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis" which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed.

  3. Effect of bone-status on retention and distribution of americium-241 in bones of small rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forced physical exercise before and after application of americium-241 resulted in only small changes in bone-structure and behaviour of the radionuclide in bone. Feeding of a low phosphorus or low calcium diet resulted in an increased excretion of americium from bone, whereby Zn-DTPA as chelating agent removed an additional fraction of the radionuclide from bone. Low calcium diet and simultaneous continuous infusion of pharmacological doses of vitamin D-hormones didn't increase the excretion of americium more than the low calcium diet alone. (orig.)

  4. Bone health in endurance athletes: runners, cyclists, and swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Kirk L; Hecht, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Weight-bearing exercise has been recognized widely to be beneficial for long-term bone health. However inherent differences in bone-loading characteristics and energy expenditure during participation in endurance sports place many endurance athletes at a relative disadvantage with regard to bone health compared with other athletes. Adolescents and adults who participate in endurance sports, such as running, and non-weight-bearing sports, such as biking and swimming, often have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than athletes participating in ball and power sports, and sometimes their BMD is lower than their inactive peers. Low BMD increases the risk of stress and fragility fractures, both while an athlete is actively competing and later in life. This article reviews the variable effects of distance running, cycling, swimming, and triathlons on bone health; the evaluation of stress and fragility fractures; and the diagnosis, management, and prevention of low BMD in endurance athletes.

  5. Deposition of 90Sr in bone and the relevant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of fallout 90Sr in bone and radiation dose from the nuclide in Japan is reviewed with special reference to (i) the intraskeletal distribution of 90Sr and reference bone, (ii) bone models for predicting 90Sr level and (iii) possible problems in applying dose rate factors to Japanese, especially to infants and adolescents. An evidence is presented for the assumption that the ratio of the 90Sr concentration in a particular bone to that in vertebra will reach the ratio observed for stable strontium under the virtually constant intake of 90Sr. The importance of surveying 90Sr levels in different bones is stressed. Observed Ratios (bone/diet) found for Japanese are noticeably lower than those reported for Europeans and Americans. The recently presented model for the retention of alkaline earth elements in man by ICRP will be useful if only adults are concerned. Dose rate factors for 90Sr in bone should be given as a function of age for the purpose of better estimation of dose commitments. The cumulative absorbed doses to bone tissues calculated with the Palmley-Mays model and with the Spiers model show remarkably higher levels in school children and young adults than the mean level. (auth.)

  6. Understanding and optimizing bone health in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Theresa A; Brufsky, Adam; Coleman, Robert E

    2010-12-01

    Bone is the preferred site of metastasis for breast cancer, and presence of skeletal lesions is associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. Skeletal-related effects such as pain, pathologic fractures, spinal compression, and hypercalcemia are frequent consequences of skeletal lesions of breast cancer that have debilitating effects on the patients' quality of life. In addition to direct cancer effects on the skeleton, therapies commonly used to treat patients with breast cancer such as chemotherapy and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in cancer therapy-induced bone loss (CTIBL) which is associated with increased risk of skeletal complications such as fractures. Bisphosphonates are a class of antiresorptive drugs that are now firmly established as the cornerstone of the management of skeletal-related events due to breast cancer. Other novel bone-targeting agents such as the anti-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) monoclonal antibody denosumab are also showing promising activity in the treatment of bone metastasis secondary to breast cancer. Moreover, recent provocative evidence suggests that bisphosphonates might also exhibit antitumor activity via direct and indirect mechanisms. The goal of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology of osteolytic bone lesions secondary to breast cancer, provide clinical evidence of currently available bone-targeted drugs in the treatment of bone metastasis and CTIBL, and explore the antitumor activity of current bone-targeted agents in patients with breast cancer.

  7. Surgical treatment and outcomes of temporal bone chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, In Seok; Kim, Jin; Lee, Ho-Ki; Lee, Won-Sang

    2008-12-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon primary benign bone tumor that usually arises in the epiphyses of the long bones. Temporal bone chondroblastoma is a rare primary bone tumor that affects the floor of the middle cranial fossa and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The biological nature of temporal bone chondroblastoma is occasionally aggressive because of local invasion and is known to have a high recurrence after curettage. Therefore, complete resection is recommended. However, the literature provides little information regarding long-term surgical outcomes and complications after surgical resection. The authors have retrospectively analyzed four cases of temporal bone chondroblastoma that had been completely excised by a single surgeon with an eventual long-term follow-up. A single surgeon operated on four patients, two males and two females, with a mean age of 34 years, at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Severance Hospital. In all cases, the tumor involved the middle cranial fossa dura and the mandibular fossa with variable degree of infiltration. All patients have had no tumor recurrence to date (mean follow-up period of 5 years). Complete surgical resection of the temporal bone chondroblastoma is the gold standard for treatment. Precise preoperative image evaluation of tumor extension and proper management of the dura mater and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are the major important features in complete surgical removal that minimize complications in temporal bone chondroblastoma treatment.

  8. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  9. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  10. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  11. Dry bone histology : technicalities, diagnostic value and new applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Hans Henk de

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an easy, rapid and inexpensive supplement to the well-known method of Maat et al. (2001). This new method allows for the histochemical staining of dry bone material, enhancing the visibility of important hallmarks of dry bone histomorphology. In addition, this thesis provides a

  12. Crosstalk between Metastatic Cancer Cells and Bone Microenvironments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiyuki YONEDA

    2009-01-01

    @@ Bone is one of the most preferential target sites for cancers such as breast, prostate and lung cancers to metastasize. Although the mechanism under-lying this organ preference still needs to be elucidated, observations that specific inhibitors of osteoclasts such as bisphosphonates inhibit bone metastases suggest a critical role of osteoclasts.

  13. The clock genes Period 2 and Cryptochrome 2 differentially balance bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maronde (Erik); A.F. Schilling (Arndt); S. Seitz (Sebastian); T. Schinke (Thorsten); I. Schmutz (Isabelle); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); M. Amling (Michael); U. Albrecht (Urs)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Clock genes and their protein products regulate circadian rhythms in mammals but have also been implicated in various physiological processes, including bone formation. Osteoblasts build new mineralized bone whereas osteoclasts degrade it thereby balancing bone formation. To

  14. Chemical and physical properties of bone cement for vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Liang Lai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral compression fracture is the most common complication of osteoporosis. It may result in persistent severe pain and limited mobility, and significantly impacts the quality of life. Vertebroplasty involves a percutaneous injection of bone cement into the collapsed vertebrae by fluorescent guide. The most commonly used bone cement in percutaneous vertebroplasty is based on the polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomers to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA polymers. However, information on the properties of bone cement is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the clinical community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the physical properties of PMMA. The effects of altering the portions and contents of monomer liquid and polymer powders on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also discussed. This information will allow spine surgeons to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific clinical applications and improve safety.

  15. Lessons from rare diseases of cartilage and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James A; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Boyde, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Studying severe phenotypes of rare syndromes can elucidate disease mechanisms of more common disorders and identify potential therapeutic targets. Lessons from rare bone diseases contributed to the development of the most successful class of bone active agents, the bisphosphonates. More recent research on rare bone diseases has helped elucidate key pathways and identify new targets in bone resorption and bone formation including cathepsin K and sclerostin, for which drugs are now in clinical trials. By contrast, there has been much less focus on rare cartilage diseases and osteoarthritis (OA) remains a common disease with no effective therapy. Investigation of rare cartilage syndromes is identifying new potential targets in OA including GDF5 and lubricin. Research on the arthropathy of the ultra-rare disease alkaptonuria has identified several new features of the OA phenotype, including high density mineralized protrusions (HDMPs) which constitute a newly identified mechanism of joint destruction.

  16. Composite bone models in orthopaedic surgery research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfar, John; Menorca, Ron Martin Garcia; Reed, Jeffrey Douglas; Stanbury, Spencer

    2014-02-01

    Composite bone models are increasingly used in orthopaedic biomechanics research and surgical education-applications that traditionally relied on cadavers. Cadaver bones are suboptimal for many reasons, including issues of cost, availability, preservation, and inconsistency between specimens. Further, cadaver samples disproportionately represent the elderly, whose bone quality may not be representative of the greater orthopaedic population. The current fourth-generation composite bone models provide an accurate reproduction of the biomechanical properties of human bone when placed under bending, axial, and torsional loads. The combination of glass fiber and epoxy resin components into a single phase has enabled manufacturing by injection molding. The high level of anatomic fidelity of the cadaver-based molds and negligible shrinkage properties of the epoxy resin results in a process that allows for excellent definition of anatomic detail in the cortical wall and optimized consistency of features between models. Recent biomechanical studies of composites have validated their use as a suitable substitute for cadaver specimens. PMID:24486757

  17. Bone printing: new frontiers in the treatment of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arealis, Georgios; Nikolaou, Vasileios S

    2015-12-01

    Bone defects can be congenital or acquired resulting from trauma, infection, neoplasm and failed arthroplasty. The osseous reconstruction of these defects is challenging. Unfortunately, none of the current techniques for the repair of bone defects has proven to be fully satisfactory. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is the field of regenerative medicine (RM) that focuses on alternative treatment options for bone defects that will ideally address all the issues of the traditional techniques in treating large bone defects. However, current techniques of BTE is laborious and have their own shortcomings. More recently, 2D and 3D bone printing has been introduced to overcome most of the limitations of bone grafts and BTE. So far, results are extremely promising, setting new frontiers in the management of bone defects.

  18. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H. W.; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radia...

  19. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  1. Targeting Bone Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Current Options and Controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Todenhöfer; Arnulf Stenzl; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Rachner, Tilman D.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL), antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs) in the castrat...

  2. Emerging strategies and therapies for treatment of Paget’s disease of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jacques P.

    2011-01-01

    Laëtitia Michou, Jacques P BrownLaval University, Department of Medicine, CHUQ (CHUL) Research Centre and Division of Rheumatology, Quebec City, QC, CanadaAbstract: Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is a progressive monostotic or polyostotic metabolic bone disease characterized by focal abnormal bone remodeling, with increased bone resorption and excessive, disorganized, new bone formation. PDB rarely occurs before middle age, and it is the second most frequent metabolic bone d...

  3. Bone and muscle atrophy with suspension of the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, A.; Marsh, C.; Evans, H.; Johnson, P.; Schneider, V.; Jhingran, S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to identify a suitable model for the study of muscle atrophy due to suspension in space, a modified version of the Morey tail suspension model was used to measure the atrophic responses of rat bone and muscle to 14-30 days of unloading of the hindlimbs. The progress of atrophy was measured by increases in methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake. It is found that bone uptake of methylene diphosphonate followed a phasic pattern similar to changes in the bone formation rate of immobilized dogs and cats. Increased MDP uptake after a period of 60 days indicated an accelerated bone metabolism. Maximum muscle atrophy in the suspended rats was distinctly different from immobilization atrophy. On the basis of the experimental results, it is concluded that the tail suspension model is an adequate simulation of bone atrophy due to suspension.

  4. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  5. RECENT ADVANCES IN PATHO-BIOLOGY OF MYELOMA BONE DISEASE: CLINICOPATHOLOGY AND LITERATURE OF REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Lohit Kumar; Bhubaneswar

    2016-01-01

    Bone disease is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, presenting as lytic lesions associated with bone pain, pathological fractures requiring surgery and/or radiation to bone, spinal cord compression and hypercalcaemia. Increased osteoclastic activity unaccompanied by a compensatory increase in osteoblast function, leading to enhanced bone resorption results in bone disease. The interaction of plasma cells with the bone marrow microenvironment has been shown to play a vital role. Also,...

  6. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  7. Sarcomas of Soft Tissue and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Dirksen, Uta; Bielack, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The definition of soft tissue and bone sarcomas include a large group of several heterogeneous subtypes of mesenchymal origin that may occur at any age. Among the different sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma are aggressive high-grade malignancies that often arise in adolescents and young adults. Managing these malignancies in patients in this age bracket poses various clinical problems, also because different therapeutic approaches are sometimes adopted by pediatric and adult oncologists, even though they are dealing with the same condition. Cooperation between pediatric oncologists and adult medical oncologists is a key step in order to assure the best treatment to these patients, preferably through their inclusion into international clinical trials. PMID:27595362

  8. Hollow-Bone-Graft Dynamic Hip Screw Can Fix and Promote Bone Union after Femoral Neck Fracture: an Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-zuo SHEN, Jian-fei YAO, Da-sheng LIN, Ke-jian LIAN, Zhen-qi DING, Bin LIN, Zhi-min GUO, Ming-hua ZHANG, Qiang LI, Lin LI, Peng QI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed bone union, nonunion or osteonecrosis often occur after femoral neck fractures in young adults. Secondary bone healing requires strong internal fixation, intramedullary pressure reduction and early functional exercise.Objective: To compare bone healing of femoral neck fractures treated with hollow-bone-graft dynamic hip screws (Hb-DHS and standard dynamic hip screws (DHS in an animal model.Design: Testing of specifically designed fixation devices in a pig animal model.Interventions/Methods: We designed Hb-DHS and DHS devices appropriate to the femoral neck and head of experimental animals and used them in eight pigs (4-month-old, male or female, 30-40 kg/each. Under anesthesia, we induced medium neck type, Garden III type femoral neck fractures in each pig with fracture gaps of 0.5 mm and then fixed each left femur with Hb-DHS and each right femur with DHS. We assessed the animals radiographically and by postmortem visual appraisal of evidence of bone healing 8 and 16 weeks postoperatively.Results: There were significant differences in radiographic and general findings between the Hb-DHS and DHS groups at weeks 8 and 16 postoperatively. We found statistically significant differences between the Hb-DHS and DHS groups in bone healing scores, trabecular bone volume percentage and bone mineral density as assessed on plain radiographs and computed tomography images (P < 0.05. There were also significant differences between the Hb-DHS and DHS groups in postmortem visually assessed indicators of bone healing at both 8 and 16 weeks postoperatively.Conclusions: The Hb-DHS device promotes femoral neck bone union, stimulates trabecular bone formation, increases BMD and has advantages over DHS for internal fixation of femoral neck fractures. This animal experiment will contribute to developing optimal treatment for femoral neck fractures in young adults.

  9. In vitro study of the osteocytes response to hypoxia and their regulation of bone homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Montesi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Bone remodelling is a fundamental mechanism for removing and replacing bone during adaptation of the skeleton to mechanical loads. Skeletal unloading leads to severe hypoxia (1%O2) in the bone microenvironment resulting in imbalanced bone remodelling that favours bone resorption. Hypoxia, in vivo, is a physiological condition for osteocytes, 5% O2 is more likely physiological for osteocytes than 20% O2, as osteocytes are embedded deep inside the mineralized bone matrix. Osteocytes are thought...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  11. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  12. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  13. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  14. Correlation of the Levels of the Bone Turnover Markers BAP and β-CTX with Bone Metastasis Progress in Lung Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Qiong; Zhao, Hui; JIA, RUI; Liu, Linlin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Bone metastasis is common in lung cancer patients. The β isomer of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphates (BAP) are regarded as important bone turnover markers in bone resorption and formation. Thus, the aims of this study are to determine the correlation of these bone turnover markers with the extent of bone metastasis of lung cancer. Methods A total of 92 patients with bone metastasis of lung cancer from Tianjin U...

  15. High-grade MRI bone oedema is common within the surgical field in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing joint replacement and is associated with osteitis in subchondral bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, F M; Gao, A; Ostergaard, M;

    2007-01-01

    resected bone. METHODS: Preoperative contrast-enhanced MRI scans were obtained in 11 RA patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery to the hands/wrists or feet. In 9, MRI scans were scored by 2 readers for bone oedema (RAMRIS system). Its distribution with respect to surgical site was investigated. In 4......OBJECTIVES: MRI bone oedema has been observed in early and advanced RA and may represent a cellular infiltrate (osteitis) in subchondral bone. We studied MRI scans from RA patients undergoing surgery, seeking to identify regions of bone oedema and examine its histopathological equivalent in...... patients, 7 bone samples were examined for a cellular infiltrate, and this was compared with MRI bone oedema, scored for spatial extent and intensity. RESULTS: Inter-reader intraclass correlation coefficients for bone oedema were 0.51 (all sites) and 0.98 (bone samples for histology). Bone oedema was...

  16. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  17. Outcome of unstable fractures of metacarpal and phalangeal bones treated by bone tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Jagannath B; Jayasheelan, Nikil; Savur, Amaranth; Mathews, Rejith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of the hand need surgical stabilization which should be rigid enough for early active mobilization. Conventional methods of open reduction and stabilization in the form of composite fixation or screws with or without plates have served the purpose but can be definitely improvised addressing both biological and mechanical principles of fixation. Materials and Methods: 34 patients (29 males and 5 females) with an average age of 32 years (range 10–64 years) with unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of hand who were treated with the modified bone tie between June 2009 and June 2013 were included in this study. 42 fractures, involving the 31 metacarpals and 11 phalanges were included. We have not used this technique in fractures involving the terminal phalanges. Thirty nine of the fractures were treated with K-wires along with the modified bone tie, whereas the other two cases were treated with modified bone tie alone and in one case the bone tie has been used along with the external fixator. The nature of injuries were Road Traffic Accident (n = 24), domestic/industrial injuries (n = 8) and blast (n = 2) injuries. Etiology was crush (n = 24), blunt (n = 7) and incised (n = 3) injuries, respectively. Twenty seven patients were involved with single fractures (either metacarpal or the phalanges), 6 patients had two fractures (both metacarpals or phalanges or one each of metacarpal and phalanx), and 1 patient had three fractures in this study. Dominant hand was involved in 14 patients (40%). Results: We achieved excellent to good results in 83% of 42 fractures within an average period of 10 weeks. Postoperative grip strength of 85% was achieved with in an average period of 12 weeks. Twenty six (20 metacarpals and 6 phalanges) of the 42 fractures regained >85% of the total active movements (TAMs) compared to the contralateral side were considered excellent results. All patients were

  18. RELATION OF PLATE STRAIN AND DISTANCE BETWEEN PLATE AND BONE

    OpenAIRE

    Boonthum Wongchai

    2013-01-01

    The Limited Contact Dynamics Compression Plate (LC-DCP) is normally used in bone fractured with the locking screws. The released distance between the LC-DCP and the bone could bring about the convenience of periosteal blood transportation. However the exceeding distance may cause the plate strain reach yield point and make the LC-DCP deform into plastic zone. This research proposes a study of the effect of the distance between the LC-DCP and the bone on the strain in the LC-DCP. The strains a...

  19. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  20. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  1. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal Sanjay; Chauhan Vijendra; Sharma Sansar; Maheshwari Rajesh; Juyal Anil; Raghuvanshi Shailendra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autologous cancellous bone is the most effective biological graft material. However, harvest of autologous bone is associated with significant morbidity. Since porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate are biodegradable materials and can be replaced by bone tissue, but it lacks osteogenic property. We conducted a study to assess their use as a scaffold and combine them with bone marrow aspirate for bone regeneration using its osteogenic property for posterolateral spina...

  2. Cancellous structure of tarsal bones.

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha

    1985-01-01

    The internal structure of the tarsal bones has been studied to investigate their cancellous architecture. It is revealed that these bones have fine and coarse meshworks and even a tendency for obliteration of the trabecular pattern in the bones lying distal to this midtarsal joint. Internal structure of the talus does not show an arched pattern of bony lamellae. An increased density of bony lamellae in the internal structure of the navicular bone could result from excessive stress, enforced b...

  3. Osteomyelitis of frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedil, V. N.; Raizada, R. M.; Singh, A. K. Kennedy; Puttewar, M. P.; Bali, S.

    2004-01-01

    A case of Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with a subperiosteal absces s, an extrudural abscess and a frontal sinus fistula is presented here for its rarity. A brief review of literature and management of the condition is also discussed.

  4. Targeting bone remodeling by isoflavone and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in the context of prostate cancer bone metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Li

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa bone metastases have long been believed to be osteoblastic because of bone remodeling leading to the formation of new bone. However, recent studies have shown increased osteolytic activity in the beginning stages of PCa bone metastases, suggesting that targeting both osteolytic and osteoblastic mediators would likely inhibit bone remodeling and PCa bone metastasis. In this study, we found that PCa cells could stimulate differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts through the up-regulation of RANKL, RUNX2 and osteopontin, promoting bone remodeling. Interestingly, we found that formulated isoflavone and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (BR-DIM were able to inhibit the differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts through the inhibition of cell signal transduction in RANKL, osteoblastic, and PCa cell signaling. Moreover, we found that isoflavone and BR-DIM down-regulated the expression of miR-92a, which is known to be associated with RANKL signaling, EMT and cancer progression. By pathway and network analysis, we also observed the regulatory effects of isoflavone and BR-DIM on multiple signaling pathways such as AR/PSA, NKX3-1/Akt/p27, MITF, etc. Therefore, isoflavone and BR-DIM with their multi-targeted effects could be useful for the prevention of PCa progression, especially by attenuating bone metastasis mechanisms.

  5. Methodology developed for the simultaneous measurement of bone formation and bone resorption in rats based on the pharmacokinetics of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Maela; Brance, Maria Lorena; Fina, Brenda Lorena; Brun, Lucas Ricardo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for the simultaneous estimation of bone formation (BF) and resorption (BR) in rats using fluoride as a nonradioactive bone-seeker ion. The pharmacokinetics of flouride have been extensively studied in rats; its constants have all been characterized. This knowledge was the cornerstone for the underlying mathematical model that we used to measure bone fluoride uptake and elimination rate after a dose of fluoride. Bone resorption and formation were estimated by bone fluoride uptake and elimination rate, respectively. ROC analysis showed that sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve were not different from deoxypiridinoline and bone alkaline phosphatase, well-known bone markers. Sprague-Dawley rats with modified bone remodelling (ovariectomy, hyper, and hypocalcic diet, antiresorptive treatment) were used to validate the values obtained with this methodology. The results of BF and BR obtained with this technique were as expected for each biological model. Although the method should be performed under general anesthesia, it has several advantages: simultaneous measurement of BR and BF, low cost, and the use of compounds with no expiration date.

  6. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeyere, A.; Somer, F. de; Perdieus, D.; Lemmens, L.; Schillebeeckx, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imeldaziekenhuis Bonheiden (Belgium); Hauwe, L. van den [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp (Belgium)

    2000-02-01

    The CT and MRI findings in a case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone are reported. Although chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, only 10 % of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. The hyoid bone is a rare site of involvement with only seven cases reported previously. (orig.)

  7. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Abnormal bone metabolism in female elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Recently, female athletes are particularly well, the other hand, many athletes suffer from amenorrhea due to excessive training. Especially, in sports with weight restrictions, they suffer from "Female athlete triad" , eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Amenorrhea is nothing else than a lack of estrogen, action on bone resorption and promote bone formation, by neglect this, it lead to osteoporosis and a stress fracture, and they would often give up their career as elite athletes. So we should consider it as serious sports injury. The problems of amenorrhea is should be recognized as a deficiency of estrogen. A Case of amenorrhea in female athletes, it is necessary to consider the hormone replacement therapy based on the appropriate diagnosis. However, it is important to start the management of body fat and body weight and strength of exercises since adolescent for the prevention the amenorrhea. PMID:20354328

  8. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  9. Influence of Nano-HA Coated Bone Collagen to Acrylic (Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cement on Mechanical Properties and Bioactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available This research investigated the mechanical properties and bioactivity of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA bone cement after addition of the nano-hydroxyapatite(HA coated bone collagen (mineralized collagen, MC.The MC in different proportions were added to the PMMA bone cement to detect the compressive strength, compression modulus, coagulation properties and biosafety. The MC-PMMA was embedded into rabbits and co-cultured with MG 63 cells to exam bone tissue compatibility and gene expression of osteogenesis.15.0%(wt impregnated MC-PMMA significantly lowered compressive modulus while little affected compressive strength and solidification. MC-PMMA bone cement was biologically safe and indicated excellent bone tissue compatibility. The bone-cement interface crosslinking was significantly higher in MC-PMMA than control after 6 months implantation in the femur of rabbits. The genes of osteogenesis exhibited significantly higher expression level in MC-PMMA.MC-PMMA presented perfect mechanical properties, good biosafety and excellent biocompatibility with bone tissues, which has profoundly clinical values.

  10. Epigenetic Regulation of Bone Remodeling and Its Impacts in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayor, Chafik; Weber, Franz E.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics describes mechanisms which control gene expression and cellular processes without changing the DNA sequence. The main mechanisms in epigenetics are DNA methylation in CpG-rich promoters, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). DNA methylation modifies the function of the DNA and correlates with gene silencing. Histone modifications including acetylation/deacetylation and phosphorylation act in diverse biological processes such as transcriptional activation/inactivation and DNA repair. Non-coding RNAs play a large part in epigenetic regulation of gene expression in addition to their roles at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Osteoporosis is the most common skeletal disorder, characterized by compromised bone strength and bone micro-architectural deterioration that predisposes the bones to an increased risk of fracture. It is most often caused by an increase in bone resorption that is not sufficiently compensated by a corresponding increase in bone formation. Nowadays it is well accepted that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disorder and there are genetic risk factors for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Here we review emerging evidence that epigenetics contributes to the machinery that can alter DNA structure, gene expression, and cellular differentiation during physiological and pathological bone remodeling. PMID:27598138

  11. Investigation of fabrication and environmental effects on bioceramic bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco Morales, Juan Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive ceramic materials like tricalcium phosphates (TCP) have been emerging as viable material alternatives to the current therapies of bone scaffolding to target fracture healing and osteoporosis. Once scaffolds are implanted at the defect site they should provide mechanical and biological functions, ultimately serving to facilitate with surrounding native tissue. Optimal osteogenic signal expression and subsequent differentiation of cells seeded on the scaffold in both in vivo and in vitro conditions is known to be influenced by scaffold properties and biomechanical environmental conditions. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of fabrication and environmental variables on the properties of bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Specifically, the effect of sintering temperature in the range of 950°C -1150°C of a cost-effective on a large scale manufacturing process, on the physical and mechanical properties of bioceramic bone scaffolds, was investigated. In addition, the effect of a controlled environment was investigated by implementing a bioreactor and bone loading system to study the response of ex vivo trabecular bone to compressive load while perfused with culture medium. Collectively, this thesis demonstrates that: (1) the sintering temperature to fabricate bioceramic scaffolds can be tuned to structural properties, and (2) the use of a controlled mechanical and biochemical environment can enhance bone tissue development. These findings support the development of clinically successful bioceramic scaffolds that may stimulate bone regeneration and scaffold integration while providing structural integrity.

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of Bone Remodeling and Its Impacts in Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayor, Chafik; Weber, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics describes mechanisms which control gene expression and cellular processes without changing the DNA sequence. The main mechanisms in epigenetics are DNA methylation in CpG-rich promoters, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). DNA methylation modifies the function of the DNA and correlates with gene silencing. Histone modifications including acetylation/deacetylation and phosphorylation act in diverse biological processes such as transcriptional activation/inactivation and DNA repair. Non-coding RNAs play a large part in epigenetic regulation of gene expression in addition to their roles at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Osteoporosis is the most common skeletal disorder, characterized by compromised bone strength and bone micro-architectural deterioration that predisposes the bones to an increased risk of fracture. It is most often caused by an increase in bone resorption that is not sufficiently compensated by a corresponding increase in bone formation. Nowadays it is well accepted that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disorder and there are genetic risk factors for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Here we review emerging evidence that epigenetics contributes to the machinery that can alter DNA structure, gene expression, and cellular differentiation during physiological and pathological bone remodeling. PMID:27598138

  13. The impact of methods for estimating bone health and the global burden of bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Zoë A; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem through its association with age related fractures. Fracture rates are generally higher in caucasian women than in other populations. Important determinants include estrogen deficiency in women, low body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, poor dietary calcium intake, physical inactivity, certain drugs and illnesses. Thus, modification of physical activity and dietary calcium/vitamin D nutrition should complement high risk approaches. In addition, the recently developed WHO algorithm for evaluation of 10-year absolute risk of fracture provides a means whereby various therapies can be targeted cost-effectively to those at risk. Risk factors, together with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical indices of bone turnover, can be utilised to derive absolute risks of fracture and cost-utility thresholds at which treatment is justified. These data will provide the basis for translation into coherent public health strategies aiming to prevent osteoporosis both in individuals and in the general population.

  14. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  15. [Nutrition and bone health: What ist the evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Nutrients are of particular importance for bone health: they act as structural elements of bones, modulate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and influence bone remodeling through various mediators. A bone protective diet can be characterised as a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, dairy products, seeds and nuts, whole grain and soy products and moderate amounts of fish, eggs and lean meat. This diet provides sufficient amounts of protein, calcium, magnesium and vitamins (e. g. K, C, folic acid, B6 and B12), which are important for bone development. For specific nutrients, the following bone-protective recommendations can be given: 1.0-1.3 g protein/kg body weight and day; 1000-1200 mg/day calcium, preferably as part of the normal diet. In case of insufficient calcium intake or on antiresorptive medication a supplementation of 200-500 mg or 500-1000 mg calcium/day, respectively, should be given. Furthermore, for prevention of bone fractures a cut off level of ≥ 75 nmol calcidiol/l is suggested. PMID:27439256

  16. [Nutrition and bone health: What ist the evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Nutrients are of particular importance for bone health: they act as structural elements of bones, modulate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and influence bone remodeling through various mediators. A bone protective diet can be characterised as a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, dairy products, seeds and nuts, whole grain and soy products and moderate amounts of fish, eggs and lean meat. This diet provides sufficient amounts of protein, calcium, magnesium and vitamins (e. g. K, C, folic acid, B6 and B12), which are important for bone development. For specific nutrients, the following bone-protective recommendations can be given: 1.0-1.3 g protein/kg body weight and day; 1000-1200 mg/day calcium, preferably as part of the normal diet. In case of insufficient calcium intake or on antiresorptive medication a supplementation of 200-500 mg or 500-1000 mg calcium/day, respectively, should be given. Furthermore, for prevention of bone fractures a cut off level of ≥ 75 nmol calcidiol/l is suggested.

  17. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in mesenchymal stem cell stimulation of cartilage and bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfì, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix-associated bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) govern a plethora of biological processes. The BMPs are members of the transforming growth factor-β protein superfamily, and they actively participate to kidney development, digit and limb formation, angiogenesis, tissue fibrosis and tumor development. Since their discovery, they have attracted attention for their fascinating perspectives in the regenerative medicine and tissue engineering fields. BMPs have been employed i...

  18. Effects of bone marrow transplantation and bone marrow shielding on the intestinal radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hemopoietic tissue transplantation and bone marrow shielding on early intestinal injury in mice after high does gamma irradiation were studied. Fresh bone marrow cells (2 x 106) transplanted after 12 Gy and 10 Gy whole body irradiation had no protective effect on intestinal injury. In mice exposed to 14 Gy whole body or abdominal region irradiation, there was no difference in the decrease of intestinal epithelial cells and inhibition of crypt mitosis. Therefore hemopoietic tissue shielding could not reduce severity of intestinal damage. These results showed that the radiation injury of intestinal tract is essentially a direct effect of γ-ray and has not obvious relationship to the hemopoietic tissues

  19. Inflammatory response and bone healing capacity of two porous calcium phosphate ceramics in critical size cortical bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjea, Anindita; van der Stok, Johan; Danoux, Charlène B; Yuan, Huipin; Habibovic, Pamela; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Weinans, Harrie; de Boer, Jan

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, two open porous calcium phosphate ceramics, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and hydroxyapatite (HA) were compared in a critical-sized femoral defect in rats. Previous comparisons of these two ceramics showed significantly greater osteoinductive potential of β-TCP upon intramuscular implantation and a better performance in a spinal fusion model in dogs. Results of the current study also showed significantly more bone formation in defects grafted with β-TCP compared to HA; however, both the ceramics were not capable of increasing bone formation to such extend that it bridges the defect. Furthermore, a more pronounced degradation of β-TCP was observed as compared to HA. Progression of inflammation and initiation of new bone formation were assessed for both materials at multiple time points by histological and fluorochrome-based analyses. Until 12 days postimplantation, a strong inflammatory response in absence of new bone formation was observed in both ceramics, without obvious differences between the two materials. Four weeks postimplantation, signs of new bone formation were found in both β-TCP and HA. At 6 weeks, inflammation had subsided in both ceramics while bone deposition continued. In conclusion, the two ceramics differed in the amount of bone formed after 8 weeks of implantation, whereas no differences were found in the duration of the inflammatory phase after implantation or initiation of new bone formation.

  20. Foot Bone in Vivo: Its Center of Mass and Centroid of Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Lin, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies foot bone geometrical shape and its mass distribution and establishes an assessment method of bone strength. Using spiral CT scanning, with an accuracy of sub-millimeter, we analyze the data of 384 pieces of foot bones in vivo and investigate the relationship between the bone's external shape and internal structure. This analysis is explored on the bases of the bone's center of mass and its centroid of shape. We observe the phenomenon of superposition of center of mass and centroid of shape fairly precisely, indicating a possible appearance of biomechanical organism. We investigate two aspects of the geometrical shape, (i) distance between compact bone's centroid of shape and that of the bone and (ii) the mean radius of the same density bone issue relative to the bone's centroid of shape. These quantities are used to interpret the influence of different physical exercises imposed on bone strength, thereby contributing to an alternate assessment technique to bone strength.