WorldWideScience

Sample records for bonds clean development

  1. Cogeneration and Carbon bonds: clean development; Cogeneracion y bonos de carbono: desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Perez, Nidia [Facultad de Contaduria y Administracion, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The growing preoccupation for the environment in our country and its interest to ratify the Kyoto Protocol with respect to the contamination of the atmosphere, offers great opportunities for the cogeneration so that it fortifies the scientific and technological research and gives a good international image about the sustainable development and care of the environment, so that companies that invest in clean technology will be able to assign a monetary value to their environmental patrimony, this through the so called Green Bonds or Carbon Bonds, this opens a new dimension to finance projects by means of these bonds that can be negotiated at an international level; by means of the Clean of Energy Production the investment can be stimulated and revenues for projects that contribute to the sustainable development of the country and the power efficiency. At the moment the country has at least 13 projects in different analysis stages to enter the carbon bond market, which are presented as co-generation projects of energy, in addition to the formation of the Mexican Committee for Projects of Reduction and Capture of Gas Discharges of Greenhouse Effect. [Spanish] La creciente preocupacion por el medio ambiente en nuestro pais y su interes por ratificar el Protocolo de Kyoto en lo referente a la contaminacion de la atmosfera, ofrece grandes oportunidades para la cogeneracion de manera que fortalezca la investigacion cientifica y tecnologica y dar una buena imagen internacional en torno a temas de desarrollo sustentable y cuidado del medio ambiente, de manera que empresas que invierten en tecnologia limpia podran asignar un valor monetario a su patrimonio ambiental, esto a traves de los llamados Bonos Verdes o Bonos de Carbono, esto abre una dimension nueva para financiar proyectos por medio de estos bonos que pueden negociarse a nivel internacional; por medio de la Produccion Limpia de energia se puede estimular inversion y ganancias para proyectos que contribuyan al

  2. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  3. Mechanism of clean development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of clean development represents an opportunity to attract significant foreign investment for the realization of projects in a country like Colombia, characterized by its forest vocation and with enormous potential to reduce emissions in sectors of energy generation, industry, transport and agro-industry

  4. Malaysia : Bond Market Development

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This paper pertains to the bond market development in Malaysia, and provides an overview of the market scenario in the country. Malaysia has been successful in developing the capital markets, particularly bond markets, in the recent past. Now, it faces the challenge of how to improve broader access and efficiency of the bond market. A high degree of investor concentration, dominated by gov...

  5. Evaluation of cleaning procedures and bonding materials for TPX plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TPX plastic parts currently undergo a chromium trioxide acid etch and polyolefin primer application prior to being bonded to LX-17 explosive parts with Exlostik 473. This study evaluates Explostik 473 (epoxy), APC 2.5 (Silicone) and Hexcel Uralite 3121 S (urethane) adhesives and several surface treatments. These surface treatments include acid etch; acid etch and polyolefin primer; polyolefin primer; oxygen plasma clean; oxygen plasma clean and polyolefin primer. Results indicate that oxygen plasma cleaning is the best surface treatment. Plasma treatment times as short as 2.5 min do an adequate job. Plasma-treated parts remain clean and bondable for at least 16 days after treatment

  6. Chemical cleaning agents and bonding to glass-fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Gonçalves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chemical cleaning agents on the bond strength between resin cement and glass-fiber posts was investigated. The treatments included 10% hydrofluoric acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 50% hydrogen peroxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, isopropanol, and tetrahydrofuran. Flat glass-fiber epoxy substrates were exposed to the cleaners for 60 s. Resin cement cylinders were formed on the surfaces and tested in shear. All treatments provided increased bond strength compared to untreated control specimens. All failures were interfacial. Although all agents improved the bond strength, dichloromethane and isopropanol were particularly effective.

  7. Domestic Bond Market Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan A. Batten; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    A two-tiered approach to financial market development aimed at both bank and bond market reform would also be complementary to longer term economic development, provided services could be delivered through efficient financial and legal institutions (Chakraborty and Ray 2006) and there was strong protection for investors and sound fiscal and monetary policy management by government (Burger and Warnock 2006b). Historically, local issuers tend to issue in the major currencies (U.S. dollars, yen,...

  8. KNFC Fuel cleaning technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtration system to collect crud particles detached from the fuel assemblies was also developed. The fuel cleaning system connected with the filtration system was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant 2. Within several minutes detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device was connected with the filtration system during the cleaning operation. Crud samples were acquired from crud sampling device of fuel cleaning and fuel rod using sticky tape and steel knife analysis at two plants, respectively. Crud analysis in pie facility showed that 95wt% crud particles can be collected by a 0.5μm filtering system and major compositions were Ni, Fe, and Cr. KNFC constructed and qualified the complete fuel cleaning system

  9. Investigation of the impact of cleaning on the adhesive bond and the process implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GUESS,TOMMY R.; ADKINS,CAROL L. JONES; CURRO,JOHN G.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LOPEZ,EDWIN P.; LEMKE,PAUL A.

    2000-05-01

    While surface cleaning is the most common process step in DOE manufacturing operations, the link between a successful adhesive bond and the surface clean performed before adhesion is not well understood. An innovative approach that combines computer modeling expertise, fracture mechanics understanding, and cleaning experience to address how to achieve a good adhesive bond is discussed here to develop a capability that would result in reduced cleaning development time and testing, improved bonds, improved manufacturability, and even an understanding that leads to improved aging. A simulation modeling technique, polymer reference interaction site model applied near wall (Wall PRISM), provided the capability to include contaminants on the surface. Calculations determined an approximately 8% reduction in the work of adhesion for 1% by weight of ethanol contamination on the structure of a silicone adhesive near a surface. The demonstration of repeatable coatings and quantitative analysis of the surface for deposition of controlled amounts of contamination (hexadecane and mineral oil) was based on three deposition methods. The effect of the cleaning process used on interfacial toughness was determined. The measured interfacial toughness of samples with a Brulin cleaned sandblasted aluminum surface was found to be {approximately} 15% greater than that with a TCE cleaned aluminum surface. The sensitivity of measured fracture toughness to various test conditions determined that both interfacial toughness and interface corner toughness depended strongly on surface roughness. The work of adhesion value for silicone/silicone interface was determined by a contact mechanics technique known as the JKR method. Correlation with fracture data has allowed a better understanding between interfacial fracture parameters and surface energy.

  10. Clean development mechanism projects and portfolio risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to facilitate technology transfer from developed to developing countries as well as to economically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we explore effective institutions to activate CDM projects. For this purpose, we have estimated internal rate of return (IRR) and other indicators on profitability for 42 CDM or JI projects, taking account of volatilities in the price of certified emission reductions (CER). As a result of Monte Carlo simulations, expected values and standard deviations in the IRR of the projects were quantitatively shown. Then we evaluated various risks in CDM, concluding that diversification of investment is an effective way to suppress these risks. Therefore securitization of CDM finance is proposed as a means of facilitating the diversification of investment. Namely, we present the concept of a CDM bond, which is a project bond with CER. We also investigated the role of governments to suppress risks in CDM. Referring to CERUPT, initiated by the Netherlands' government, the institution of 'insured CERUPT' is proposed to suppress downside risks in the IRR of the projects. We concluded that it is possible to make CDM projects viable by the 'insured CERUPT' and CDM bond

  11. Clean development mechanism projects and portfolio risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Fujisawa, Sei [University of Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Frontier Science; Mitamura, Wataru; Momobayashi, Yutaka; Yoshida, Yoshikuni [University of Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    Clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to facilitate technology transfer from developed to developing countries as well as to economically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we explore effective institutions to activate CDM projects. For this purpose, we have estimated internal rate of return (IRR) and other indicators on profitability for 42 CDM or JI projects, taking account of volatilities in the price of certified emission reductions (CER). As a result of Monte Carlo simulations, expected values and standard deviations in the IRR of the projects were quantitatively shown. Then we evaluated various risks in CDM, concluding that diversification of investment is an effective way to suppress these risks. Therefore securitization of CDM finance is proposed as a means of facilitating the diversification of investment. Namely, we present the concept of a CDM bond, which is a project bond with CER. We also investigated the role of governments to suppress risks in CDM. Referring to CERUPT, initiated by the Netherlands' government, the institution of ''insured CERUPT'' is proposed to suppress downside risks in the IRR of the projects. We concluded that it is possible to make CDM projects viable by the ''insured CERUPT'' and CDM bond. (author)

  12. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  13. State Grid Contributes to Clean Energy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The development of clean energy is an inevitable choice for China to achieve sustainable development.The article presents the strategic thinking and measures for the promotion of clean energy development in grids, which shows that the company will bear its responsibilities for the development as a large state-owned enterprise.

  14. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  15. Effect of cleaning methods on bond strength of self-etching adhesive to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Delatorre Bronzato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cleaning methods to remove zinc oxide-eugenol-based root canal sealer (Endomethasone on the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin. Materials and Methods: Twenty crowns of bovine incisors were cut to expose the pulp chamber. A zinc oxide- and eugenol-based sealer was placed for 10 min in contact with the pulp chamber dentin. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the cleaning method of dentin used: G1, no root canal sealer (control; G2, 0.9% sodium chlorite (NaCl; G3, ethanol; and G4, followed by diamond drill. After cleaning, the teeth were restored with composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond. All specimens were sectioned to produce rectangular sticks and dentin/resin interface was submitted to microtensile bond testing. The mean bond strengths were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey (α = 0.05. Results: G3 and G4 showed bond strengths similar to the G1 (P > 0.05. A significant decrease in the bond strength in the G2 was observed (P < 0.05. G1, G3, and G4, the predominant failure mode was the mixed type. The prevalence of adhesive failure mode was verified in the G2. Conclusion: The cleaning methods affected the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin differently.

  16. Supporting Clean Energy Development in Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Swaziland, a country largely dependent on regional fossil fuel imports to meet power needs, is vulnerable to supply changes and price shocks. To address this challenge, the country's National Energy Policy and Implementation Strategy prioritizes actions to enhance energy independence through scaling up renewable energy and energy efficiency. With approximately 70 percent of the country lacking electricity, Swaziland is also strongly committed to expanding energy access to support key economic and social development goals. Within this context, energy security and energy access are two foundational objectives for clean energy development in Swaziland. The partnership between the Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority and the Clean Energy Solutions Center led to concrete outcomes to support clean energy development in Swaziland. Improving renewable energy project licensing processes will enable Swaziland to achieve key national objectives to expand clean energy access and transition to greater energy independence.

  17. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  18. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  19. Clean energy for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of energy in developing countries is now taking an increasingly significant place on the agenda of the major international forums. It is to be a central issue at the UN Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg next August. (author)

  20. Agriculture and the Clean Development Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F; Dinar, Ariel; Frisbie, J. Aapris

    2011-01-01

    Many experts believe that low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture are abundant and comparable in scale to those found in the energy sector. They are mostly located in developing countries and have to do with how land is used. By investing in projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), countries can tap these opportunities to meet their own Kyoto Protocol obligations. The...

  1. Preservation of atomically clean silicon surfaces in air by contact bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Francois; Ljungberg, Karin

    1997-01-01

    ordered atomic structure of the surfaces is protected from oxidation, even after the bonded samples have been in air for weeks. Further, we show that silicon surfaces that have been cleaned and hydrogen-passivated in UHV can be contacted in UHV in a similarly hermetic fashion, protecting the surface...... reconstruction from oxidation in air, Contact bonding opens the way to novel applications of reconstructed semiconductor surfaces, by preserving their atomic structure intact outside of a UHV chamber. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  2. Control of cavitation density through gas and acoustic uniformity in a proximity megasonic pre-bond cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Liebscher, E.; Fournell, F.; Dragoi, V.

    2013-05-01

    A pre-bond cleaning process was developed utilizing a unique, radially uniform, large area proximity type Megasonic transducer. In prior work this new cleaning method was investigated for PRE (particle removal efficiency) as well as particle neutrality. These tests yielded higher values than those achieved with the processes of record. Subsequently, this process was integrated into an industrial volume low temperature fusion bonding process and enabled higher bonding yields. In the above process flow the process fluid was dispensed to fill the gap between the Megasonic transducer surface and the substrate using an atmospheric free flow stream applied to the substrate. Current work describes development, testing and operational verification of a process fluid management device used in conjunction with the wide area proximity Megasonic transducer. The goals of this development were reduction of process fluid amount required, increase the operating substrate rotation speed, and provide better control of process fluid parameters. The design criteria and process flow as well as test results demonstrating the benefits of the new system are presented.

  3. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  4. Mechanism for a clean development (MDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of clean development (MDP) aims to favor the fight against the climatic change, by the implementing of activities, technologies and appropriate techniques emitting less greenhouse gases in south countries and by the possibility of reducing the greenhouse gases emissions for a more economical cost. This guide is a practical help for the project set-up: formalization, methodology and contract. (A.L.B.)

  5. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  6. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  7. WP/072 Is the Clean Development Mechanism Promoting Sustainable Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing; Tarp, Finn

    One of the dual objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is to promote sustainable development in the host countries. With different CDM indicators for 58 CDM host countries over 2005-10, this paper empirically assesses whether CDM project development fulfils this...

  8. Can the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) deliver?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol has played a significant role in the development of rural communities, specifically investigating uptake of small-scale renewable energy projects. The investigation involved an assessment of 500 registered small-scale CDM projects under the Kyoto Protocol in terms of their potential impact on the envisaged sustainable development goals for rural communities. Five case studies from the Indian subcontinent were also examined. The paper concludes that the CDM in its current state and design has typically failed to deliver the promised benefits with regard to development objectives in rural areas. Successful projects were found to have had good community involvement and such projects were typically managed by cooperative ventures rather than money making corporations. The paper puts forward a new framework for the assessment of such benefits in the hope that future projects can be better assessed in this regard. The key problem, however, remains on how to deal with the inherent contradiction between development and sustainability. - Research Highlights: → Role of CDM towards sustainable development of rural communities. → Assessment of 500 registered small-scale CDM projects. → CDM in its current state and design has typically failed to deliver. → A new framework for sustainable development assessment of small-scale CDM projects. → Inherent contradiction between development and sustainability.

  9. Financial contagion in developed sovereign bond markets

    OpenAIRE

    Metiu Norbert

    2011-01-01

    This paper implements a simultaneous equations model to test for international financial contagion among developed sovereign credit markets between May 1, 2000 and September 1, 2010. Two alternative measures are proposed that identify credit crises in the tails of bond yield distributions, which are derived from Extreme Value Theory and Value-at-Risk analysis. The findings show that the large-scale fluctuations in long term sovereign bond yields observed during episodes of financial distress ...

  10. Developing a Philippine Local Government Bond Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime C. Laya

    1995-01-01

    The 1991 Local Government has initiated comprehensive changes in Philippine public administration such as decentralization and greater local autonomy. However, the macroeconomic picture has been characterized by volatile inflation, foreign exchange and interest rate. Against this backdrop, this paper investigates issues that affect the market development for LGU bonds. It also identifies the constraints in the design of LGU bond issue and assesses its marketability.

  11. The Clean Development Mechanism. An African Delusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokona, Y; Nanasta, D. [ENDA-TM, Dakar (Senegal)

    2000-11-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the three flexible mechanisms introduced in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as a co-operative instrument to promote sustainable development in the developing countries along with cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation. It has emerged as one of the most attractive instruments for the African countries, which view this new mechanism as an opportunity to ensure long-term, sustainable and equitable development. The modalities and processes of the CDM have yet to be decided. However, it is predicted that there will be competition between countries at the launch of the mechanism. Considering the circumstances of African countries and the status of climate change-related activities implemented on the continent, it is questionable whether Africa is well enough prepared to benefit from the expected large investments from CDM projects. This paper attempts to highlight some of the key issues related to the prospects of CDM in Africa.

  12. Application of Sol Self-Clean Bonded Al2O3-SiC-C Castable for Iron Runner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guotao; ZHANG Honglei; CHEN Huasheng; WANG Yue; LI Huaiyuan; XIONG Yafei

    2006-01-01

    The properties and microstructure of sol self-clean bonded Al2O3-SiC-C castable in iron runner were studied, and the relation between the amount of sol selfclean binder and the properties of castable were discussed. It is believed that the addition of sol self-clean binder can improve the compressive strength, but has little effect on the bulk density and the apparent porosity,which enable the castable to be applicable in different conditions.

  13. Technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer is often mentioned as an ancillary benefit of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), but this claim has never been researched or substantiated. The question of technology transfer is important from two perspectives: for host countries, whether the CDM provides a corridor for foreign, climate-friendly technologies and investment, and for industrialised countries as it provides export potential for climate-friendly technologies developed as a consequence of stringent greenhouse gas targets. In order to better understand whether technology transfer from the EU and elsewhere is occurring through the CDM, and what is the value of the associated foreign investment, this paper examines technology transfer in the 63 CDM projects that were registered on January 1st, 2006. Technology originates from outside the host country in almost 50% of the evaluated projects. In the projects in which the technology originates from outside the host country, 80% use technology from the European Union. Technologies used in non-CO2 greenhouse gas and wind energy projects, and a substantial share of the hydropower projects, use technology from outside the host country, but biogas, agricultural and biomass projects mainly use local technology. The associated investment value with the CDM projects that transferred technology is estimated to be around 470 million Euros, with about 390 coming from the EU. As the non-CO2 greenhouse gas projects had very low capital costs, the investment value was mostly in the more capital-intensive wind energy and hydropower projects

  14. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  15. Strategies for development of clean energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Zhang Hongliang

    2008-01-01

    A development framework of clean energy in China is put forward based on core development strategy,technology support,and policy and laws support.In this framework,the priority development and strategic backup of clean energy are defined,and the technology support and policy and laws support are also presented.

  16. The clean development mechanism and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a summary of the issues presented and discussed at the African Regional Workshop on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM was introduced in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The objectives of CDM are to assist non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC to promote sustainable development, and to assist Annex I Parties to achieve compliance with their emission limitation and reduction commitments under the Convention. Africa contributes a very small proportion of the world`s greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time the continent is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change which may seriously impact on countries` development efforts. In order to set the background for the workshop and the deliberations of the participants, Chapter 2 presents a brief discussion of Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Africa. Chapter 3 further defines the context, aims and format of the workshop. This is followed in Chapter 4 by a summary of the papers presented during the four days. The papers covered activities in the energy, forestry, agriculture, industry and transport sectors, and addressed issues including: general perspectives on the CDM; institutions and governance of the CDM; baselines and additionality in the CDM; design of projects; project finance under the CDM. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the main issues discussed including modalities of the CDM, governance, equity, CDM projects, share of proceeds and capacity building. A number of areas of consensus emerged among workshop participants. These areas are described in Chapter 6. Finally a full list of participants is provided. (au)

  17. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  18. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  19. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  20. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The clean development mechanism in a globalized carbon market

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Bréchet; Yann Ménière; Picard, Pierre M

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the Clean DevelopmentMechanisms (CDM) on the market for carbon quotas and countries' commitments to reduce their carbon emission levels. We show that the CDM contributes to an efficient funding of clean technology investments in least developed countries. How- ever, the CDM is not neutral on the global level of carbon emissions as it entices countries to raise their emission caps. The CDM may also make inap- propriate the inclusion of any country that makes no...

  2. External sources of clean technology: evidence from the clean development mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Patrick; Urpelainen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    New technology is fundamental to sustainable development. However, inventors from industrialized countries often refuse technology transfer because they worry about reverse-engineering. When can clean technology transfer succeed? We develop a formal model of the political economy of North–South technology transfer. According to the model, technology transfer is possible if (1) the technology in focus has limited global commercial potential or (2) the host developing country does not have the ...

  3. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  4. Sustainable development benefits of clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is part of the global carbon market developing rapidly in response to global warming. It has the twin objective to achieve sustainable development (SD) in host countries and assist Annex-1 countries in achieving their emission reduction targets in a cost-efficient manner. However, research has shown that trade-offs between the two objectives exist in favour of cost-efficient emission reductions and that left to the market forces, the CDM does not significantly contribute to sustainable development. The main argument of the paper is the need for an international standard for sustainability assessment-additional to national definitions-to counter weaknesses in the existing system of sustainability approval by designated national authorities in host countries. The article develops a new methodology, i.e. a taxonomy for sustainability assessment based on text analysis of the 744 project design documents (PDDs) submitted for validation by 3 May 2006. Through analysis of the SD benefits of all CDM projects at aggregated levels, the strengths and limitations of the taxonomy are explored. The main policy implication of the research is to propose the taxonomy as the basis of an international verification protocol for designated operational entities (DOEs) for reporting, monitoring and verifying that potential SD benefits described in the PDDs are actually realized

  5. Is the Clean Development Mechanism Effective for Emission Reductions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    great challenges, given the wide divide between developed and developing nations. Against this background, comprehensive evaluations of the effectiveness of Kyoto market‐based mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in terms of mitigating human‐induced climate change are urgently needed...

  6. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 2: Effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Asuka; Matsumoto, Mariko; Higashi, Mami; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning on resin cement bonding to CAD/CAM resin blocks. One of two resin cements, PANAVIA V5 (PV5) or PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX (PSA), were bonded to one of 24 CAD/CAM blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK). Each cement group was divided into four subgroups: no cleaning (Ctl), ultrasonic cleaning (Uc), acid cleaning (Ac) and Uc+Ac. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBSs) were measured immediately and 1, 3, and 6 months after water storage. Block surfaces after each treatment were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (psandblasting was effective in removing residual alumina particles, it did not affect the long-term bonding durability with non-contaminated CAD/CAM resin blocks. PMID:26830822

  7. Effects of cleaning agents on bond strength to dentin Efeitos de agentes de limpeza na resistência adesiva à dentina

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Rosin; Victor Elias Arana-Chavez; Narciso Garone Netto; Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira Luz

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning of cavity walls aims to improve adhesive restorative procedures and longevity of restorations. This study has compared the effect of three cleaning agents - sodium bicarbonate jet (Profi II, Dabi Atlante, São Paulo, Brazil); pumice paste plus a biologic detergent (Tergestesim, Probem, São Paulo, Brazil); air water spray - on the bond strength between dentin and two different adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Kioto, Japan) and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (3M-ESPE, São...

  8. The Development of James Bond Through Time

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsen, Pernille Groth; Dreyer, Maria; Stepputat, Frida; Minssieux, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    Our main focus in the project is finding out how James Bond has changed through time and culture, while also investigating what an audience finds appealing in a character on screen. We have analyzed the character of James Bond using the method of characterization along with Anthony Giddens’ theory of globalization in order to prove the change in character we believe there is. We will discuss if and why an audience finds the character of James Bond appealing by using Identification and the ...

  9. Nuclear environment clean-up technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Jung, Chong Hun; Kim, Gye Nam; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Kim, Sung Kyun; Hong, Sang Bum; Choi, Wun Dong

    2012-03-15

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone. The chemical gel decontamination process with more effective drying, rheological and decontaminating properties than the existing commercial gel decontamination technology has been developed for a decontamination of the fixed contamination of extremely high radiation facilities. Its performance were verified for the in-situ large scale application through the demonstration test using the radioactive facilities in KNFC contaminated with uranium.

  10. Nuclear environment clean-up technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone. The chemical gel decontamination process with more effective drying, rheological and decontaminating properties than the existing commercial gel decontamination technology has been developed for a decontamination of the fixed contamination of extremely high radiation facilities. Its performance were verified for the in-situ large scale application through the demonstration test using the radioactive facilities in KNFC contaminated with uranium

  11. 75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... for the issuance of tax-exempt bonds by Indian ] tribal governments under Section 7871. See 71 FR... 54AA upon satisfaction of the additional eligibility requirements for Build America Bonds. See IRS... hotels or convention centers, as well as projects involving certain qualified private activities, to...

  12. Exchange Rate Policy and Sovereign Bond Spreads in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanwei Z. Yue; Samir Jahjah

    2004-01-01

    We test the hypothesis of a link between exchange rate policy and sovereign bonds. We analyze the effect of exchange rate policies on supply and credit spreads of sovereign bonds issued by developing countries. An exchange rate policy is captured by the de facto exchange rate regime and the real exchange rate misalignment. The main findings are: (1) real exchange rate overvaluation significantly increases sovereign bond issue probability and raises bond spreads; (2) spreads and the likelihood...

  13. The governance of clean energy in India: The clean development mechanism (CDM) and domestic energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the ways in which clean energy is being governed in India. It does so in order to improve our understanding of the potential and limitations of carbon finance in supporting lower carbon energy transitions, and to strengthen our appreciation of the role of politics in enabling or frustrating such endeavors. In particular we emphasize the importance of politics and the nature of India's political economy in understanding the development of energy sources and technologies defined as ‘clean’ both by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and leading international actors. By considering the broad range of institutions that exert formal and informal political influence over how the benefits and costs of the CDM are distributed, the paper highlights shortcomings in the narrow way in which CDM governance has been conceptualized to date. This approach goes beyond analysis of technocratic aspects of governance – often reduced to a set of institutional design issues – in order to appreciate the political nature of the trade-offs that characterize debates about India's energy future and the relations of power which will determine how, and on whose terms, they are resolved. - Highlights: • Clean energy governance in practice is shaped by political power and influence. • Governance of clean energy requires strong institutions from local to global levels. • Un-governed areas of energy policy are often as revealing of the exercise of power as areas where there explicit policy is in place. • Climate and carbon finance interventions need to better understand the landscape of political power which characterises India’s energy sector

  14. An analysis of key issues in the clean development mechanism based on the UNEP Risoe clean development mechanism pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Staun, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the analysis contained in the UNEP Risoe Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) pipeline not available on the site, some of the impacts/problems of the CDM and a way forward post-2012. The successful development of the CDM since it started in December 2003 is...

  15. Development of Megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A.

    1980-09-01

    The major goals to develop a cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three-in.-diameter wafers per hour and to reduce the process cost were achieved. The new system consists of an ammonia-hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32-in.-spaced, ion-implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of Megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room-temperature, high-velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis. The following factors contribute to the improved effectiveness of the process: (1) recirculation and filtration of the cleaning solution permit it to be used for at least 100,000 wafers with only a relatively small amount of chemical make-up before discarding; (2) uniform cleanliness is achieved because both sides of the wafer are Megasonically scrubbed to remove particulate impurities; (3) the novel dryer permits wafers to be dried in a high-velocity room-temperature air stream on a moving belt in their quartz carriers; and (4) the personnel safety of such a system is excellent and waste disposal has no adverse ecological impact. With the addition of mechanical transfer arms, two systems like the one developed will produce enough cleaned wafers for a 30-MW/year production facility. A projected scale-up well within the existing technology would permit a system to be assembled that produces about 12,745 wafers per hour; about 11 such systems, each occupying about 110 square feet, would be needed for each cleaning stage of a 500-MW/year production facility.

  16. Clean development mechanism and domestic policies and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to show in an axiomatic micro economic framework, the impacts of the clean development mechanism on the development. To illustrate the analysis, two main sectors of the control of the contribution level of developing countries to the CO2 rate increase in the atmosphere, have been chosen: the electric power sector in India and the forestry. The simulation, the experimental methodology and the results are presented. (A.L.B.)

  17. 26 CFR 1.103-7 - Industrial development bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts will be executed obligating any person other than Z to purchase any specified amount of the power...) Industrial development bonds—(1) Definition. For purposes of this section, the term “industrial development... which has taxing power and the bonds are general obligation bonds. Since both the trade or business...

  18. Uncertainty in Clean Development Mechanism Baselines: Sources, Ramifications, and Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Bushey, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Awarding Certified Emission Reductions to Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects under the Kyoto Protocol involves comparing the actual emissions of the project to a counterfactual “baseline” emissions level. The baseline of a project is intended to represent the emissions that would have occurred in the absence of the project. Accordingly, there is a high degree of uncertainty in determining CDM baselines. In the years since the emergence of the CDM, scientific and political debates h...

  19. Clean Development Mechanism: Et bæredygtig koncept?

    OpenAIRE

    Busck Lumholt, Louise Marie

    2014-01-01

    This project produces a critical discourse analysis of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The analysis consists of three parts. The first part investigates, on text level, the linguistic characteristics of various texts dealing with CDM. These involve the Kyoto-protocol, UNEP's introduction report for CDM, as well as three project-design documents. The articulation of the purpose regarding CDM represents a tendency to articulate environmental and climate activity in relation to terms of econo...

  20. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  1. Why China Needs To Develop A Bond Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Most Asian economies long have depended on bank financing,and to a lesser extent, on the equity markets, to fund investments. Except for countries like Singapore,Malaysia and a few other more developed Asian economies, corporate bonds are almost unheard of in the region. But bonds and bond markets are at least as important, if not more so, than stock markets, for the efficient allocation of a nation's resources. In major economies,

  2. Cleaning laser spark spectroscopy for online cleaning quality control method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutin, T. Y.; Smirnov, V. N.; Veiko, V. P.; Volkov, S. A.

    2011-02-01

    This work is dedicated to spectroscopic investigations of laser spark during the laser cleaning process. The goal is to proof its analytical possibilities for chemical composition determination for online cleaning quality control. Photographic recordings of laser spark were performed to estimate its parameters. Fiber spectrometer was used to analyze the emission of cleaning process established with fiber laser. Conclusions have been made about fiber laser radiation usability for spectroscopic purpose.

  3. The development of clean-burning, noncatalytic manufactured fireplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for the air quality of this country in general and the Western states in particular has brought sharp focus from regulators on the emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from all wood-burning appliances. This concern was a driving force which led to the development of a clean-burning fireplace. Many Western areas have begun to limit installation of wood-burning appliances in new construction. Some jurisdictions allow only Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified appliances. Currently no federal test methods or standards exist for fireplaces so the Manufactured Fireplace Industry, through the Hearth Products Association (HPA), set about to develop suitable test methods and standards for manufactured fireplaces

  4. Barriers to clean development mechanism renewable energy projects in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is not reaching its full potential to capture benefits from clean development mechanism (CDM) projects because of its limited market for independent power producers (IPPs) and the barriers imposed on these entities by the state-run electric utility that controls most of the country's generation and transmission. This state-run entity has pursued CDM revenues only in isolated cases where international financial assistance was given because it is bound by law to pursue the least-cost generation option for its customers. Recent changes in Mexican legislation that provide incentives for renewable energy development could open the marketplace for these types of projects. (author)

  5. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WADA Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Dept.of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology.Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile,electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot.These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles,i.e.,batteries and electric motors,does not deteriorate the environment.To drive motors for vehicle traveling,robotic technologies were applied.

  6. Degradation of Perfluorotrichlorosilane Antisticking Layers: The Impact on Mold Cleaning, Ultraviolet-Nanoimprinting, and Bonded Ultraviolet-Nanoimprint Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Robert; Teng, Lichao; Lu, Bo; Adolphi, Barbara; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2011-06-01

    A reduction of the adhesion between imprint resist and mold is crucial for defect free imprints and is commonly achieved by silane based antisticking layers. Highly stable antisticking layers are required for high throughputs and long imprint mold lifetimes. Hybrid nanoimprint molds avoid the imprint inherent residual polymer layer in UV-assisted nanoimprinting. Such hybrid molds have chemically heterogeneous surfaces of silica and, e.g., chromium oxide regions. The chemical stability of vapor-coated 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane antisticking layers against acetone, acidic piranha, reactive ion etching and UV-assisted nanoimprinting was investigated. To evaluate the behavior of hybrid mold surfaces, flat silica and antireflective chromium-oxynitride surfaces were used. The antisticking layer on both surfaces was highly chemical resistant against acetone. A continuous antisticking layer degradation with a surface free energy increase of 0.9 mN/m per 10 min piranha treatment and 1.2 mN/m per 10 subsequent UV-assisted imprints was found for silica surfaces. On the chromium surfaces, the antisticking layer quality was much lower than on fused silica and degraded much faster. The surface free energy of silane coated chromium surfaces was increased by 2.3 mN/m after 10 imprints and the antisticking layer was completely degraded after a single 10 min piranha cleaning step. The lower antisticking layer quality on antireflective chromium was attributed to the surface itself. Additionally, the high chemical resistance of the vapor coated silane was used to successfully protect the adhesive joints of cost-efficient, adhesively bonded nanoimprint molds from being degraded by acidic piranha during mold cleaning. This can significantly increase the life-time of such bonded molds.

  7. Turkey - Corporate Bond Market Development : Priorities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study is in response to a request by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey to assist them in developing the corporate bond market in line with best practices globally. The objective of this study is to carry out an assessment of the status of the corporate bond market in Turkey. The study identifies key impediments and solutions to sustainable development, and it presents a roadmap to ad...

  8. Principle-Based Ethics and the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Search for common values can go a long way resolving international political and social differences, and represents an area where ethical evaluation can offer an input to international legislation. This paper argues that a principle-based, normative approach should be applied to evaluation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and the goal of sustainable development (SD). Primafacie ethical principles to promote weil-being, dignity and justice can be defined and supported from international agreements on sustainable developments. To promote coherency, these principles should then be specifled according to particular CDM-projects, to produce a set of norms that covers: 1) the different dimension to sustainable development, 2) the distribution of costs and benefits across time and place, and 3) consequences for different affected parties, including future generations and the environment

  9. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj K. Mohanty

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

  11. Study on Clean Development Mechanism, Quantitative and Sustainable Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the system and market problem of clean development mechanism (CDM, this study is carried out to establish the feasibility of certified emission reduction (CER quantitative evaluation method and reserve mechanism in host country at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC level. After the introduction of CER quantitative and sustainable mechanism, the amount of CER that can enter the market was cut to a quarter, which reduces about 75% of the expected CER supply. Market CER from the technology types of higher CER market share and lower support for sustainable development appears to have different degrees of reduction. As for the technology types of lower CER market share and higher support for sustainable development, the amount of market CER is maintained in line with prevailing scenario, and market CER supply becomes more balanced.

  12. Further Developments in Gold-stud Bump Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Neher, C; Moskaleva, A; Pasner, J; Tripathi, M; Woods, M

    2012-01-01

    As silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments require increasingly complex assembly procedures, the availability of a wide variety of interconnect technologies provides more options for overcoming obstacles in generic R&D. Gold ball bonding has been a staple in the interconnect industry due to its ease of use and reliability. However, due to some limitations in the standard technique, alternate methods of gold-stud bonding are being developed. This paper presents recent progress and challenges faced in the development of double gold-stud bonding and 0.5 mil wire gold-stud bonding at the UC Davis Facility for Interconnect Technology. Advantages and limitations of each technique are analyzed to provide insight into potential applications for each method. Optimization of procedures and parameters is also presented.

  13. Further developments in gold-stud bump bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, C.; Lander, R. L.; Moskaleva, A.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; Woods, M.

    2012-02-01

    As silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments require increasingly complex assembly procedures, the availability of a wide variety of interconnect technologies provides more options for overcoming obstacles in generic R&D. Gold ball bonding has been a staple in the interconnect industry due to its ease of use and reliability. However, due to some limitations in the standard technique, alternate methods of gold-stud bonding are being developed. This paper presents recent progress and challenges faced in the development of double gold-stud bonding and 0.5 mil wire gold-stud bonding at the UC Davis Facility for Interconnect Technology. Advantages and limitations of each technique are analyzed to provide insight into potential applications for each method. Optimization of procedures and parameters is also presented.

  14. Further developments in gold-stud bump bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments require increasingly complex assembly procedures, the availability of a wide variety of interconnect technologies provides more options for overcoming obstacles in generic R and D. Gold ball bonding has been a staple in the interconnect industry due to its ease of use and reliability. However, due to some limitations in the standard technique, alternate methods of gold-stud bonding are being developed. This paper presents recent progress and challenges faced in the development of double gold-stud bonding and 0.5 mil wire gold-stud bonding at the UC Davis Facility for Interconnect Technology. Advantages and limitations of each technique are analyzed to provide insight into potential applications for each method. Optimization of procedures and parameters is also presented.

  15. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot bond rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) to stainless steel piping are required for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar transition joints made of stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot bond rolling process of clad bars and clad pipes, using a newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. This report presents the manufacturing process of dissimilar transition joints produced from the clad pipe with three layers by the hot bond rolling. First, the method of hot bond rolling of clad pipe is proposed. Then, the mechanical and corrosion properties of the dissimilar transition joints are evaluated in detail by carrying out various tests. Finally, the rolling properties in the clad pipe method are discussed. (author)

  16. Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

  17. Further Developments in Gold-stud Bump Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Neher, C.; Lander, R. L.; Moskaleva, A.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; Woods, M.

    2011-01-01

    As silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments require increasingly complex assembly procedures, the availability of a wide variety of interconnect technologies provides more options for overcoming obstacles in generic R&D. Gold ball bonding has been a staple in the interconnect industry due to its ease of use and reliability. However, due to some limitations in the standard technique, alternate methods of gold-stud bonding are being developed. This paper presents recent progress and...

  18. Global and Regional Impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is a serious concern worldwide. Policy research on climate change in the past decades has largely focused on applied modelling exercises. However, the implications of specific policy strategies such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) for global and regional economic and environmental developments has received relatively little attention. This is partly caused by the complexities of modelling an instrument like CDM. By using and modifying the GTAP-E modelling system (GTAP stands for Global Trade Analysis Project), this paper sets out to trace the combined economic and environmental impacts of CDM policies. Particular emphasis is placed on technology transfer induced by alternative CDM policies. Specific attention is devoted to the possible negative consequences of non-participation of the USA in the global coalition, and the associated distributional impacts world-wide.

  19. Global and Regional Impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shunli; De Groot, H.L.F.; Nijkamp, P.; Verhoef, E.T. [VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Climate change is a serious concern worldwide. Policy research on climate change in the past decades has largely focused on applied modelling exercises. However, the implications of specific policy strategies such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) for global and regional economic and environmental developments has received relatively little attention. This is partly caused by the complexities of modelling an instrument like CDM. By using and modifying the GTAP-E modelling system (GTAP stands for Global Trade Analysis Project), this paper sets out to trace the combined economic and environmental impacts of CDM policies. Particular emphasis is placed on technology transfer induced by alternative CDM policies. Specific attention is devoted to the possible negative consequences of non-participation of the USA in the global coalition, and the associated distributional impacts world-wide.

  20. PROJECT FEASIBILITY OF CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Andres Restrepo Giraldo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigation of the likelihood that the Kyoto Protocol provides for the development of projects of the Clean Development Mechanism, CDM forestry, river basin Ot´un, Risaralda department, Colombia. It also analyzes the feasibility of implementation in this area consists of several national parks and protected areas for wildlife, likewise, the investigation establishes what are the potential risk factors (political, economic or technical in the implementation of CDM projects and proposes guidelines for administration. The study concludes and recommends that these projects may well go ahead and be successful if clear policies by the State, if it has the support of environmental NGOs and if, fundamentally, is achieved by the active participation of local communities in the definition and ongoing assessment.

  1. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  2. CORPORATE BOND MARKET OF REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT COMPANIES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gostkowska-Drzewicka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article examines the features that determine the attractivenessof bonds as a financing instrument for real estate development projects in Poland, and the share of debt securities and bonds in the financing structure of real estate development companies. The implementation of such a formulated purpose required the application of methods of statistical description. Research was conducted on the basis of data from the statistics made by Fitch Ratings Polska, Catalyst, Narodowy Bank Polski, Związek Banków Polskich and the financial statements of bond issuers. The basic research period covers the years 1998-2012. However, due to the lack of published data about the structure of financing of development companies, interest rates, the nominal value, the bond structure by the buyers, the type, the purpose of issuance and the form of security, long-term studies were reduced to shorter periods. Results of the research indicate that the corporate bond market of development companies was in the phase of intensive growth in 2004-2012. Availability of funds obtained through the issuance of bonds increased by the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in 2009. The downturn in the real estate market initiated a series of structural changes in the financing of development companies in 2008- 2009. High margins and restrictive creditworthiness assessment brought on a search for alternative sources of financing. Due to restrictions imposed by the Act of 29th April 2012on the protection of the buyer of a dwelling or a single-family-house, it became important to provide flexible funding sources for development projects, including bond issuances.

  3. Development of beryllium bonds for plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns the techniques of bonding beryllium to both structural material (AISI 316 SS) and heat sink material (copper and DS-copper) plates, and the characterization of the bonding material obtained. Conventional bonding techniques for joining Be to SS and copper using brazing alloys were first investigated. The best result was obtained using a silver-copper eutetic alloy as a brazing alloy. However, the high-temperature capability of the materials prepared by this method is limited by the performance of brazing alloys at the operating temperature. To avoid this problem, we are developing a joining process known as solid-state reaction bonding that improves the capability at the operating temperature. (orig.)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARDOUS SLUDGE SIMULANTS FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2010-04-12

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) tank closure. After bulk waste removal, the ECC process can be used to dissolve and remove much of the remaining sludge from HLW tanks. The ECC process uses dilute oxalic acid (1 wt %) with in-line pH monitoring and control. The resulting oxalate is decomposed through hydroxylation using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). Minimizing the amount of oxalic acid used for dissolution and the subsequent oxidative destruction of oxalic acid will minimize the potential for downstream impacts. Initial efficacy tests by AREVA demonstrated that previous tank heel simulants could be dissolved using dilute oxalic acid. The oxalate could be decomposed by an AOP that utilized ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light, and the resultant metal oxides and hydroxides could be separated out of the process.

  5. Solar Energy and Nano materials for Clean Energy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special issue on Solar energy and nano materials for clean energy development is composed of selected, full-length versions of papers presented during the international Solar 09 conference that was held in the fascinating historical city of Luxon. The conference gathered scientists from 26 countries, to discuss outstanding research on a multitude of topics and disciplines. As was pointed out by Professor Paul Barbara from the University of Texas in Austin at the opening session of the conference, this medium-sized conference offered the unique opportunity to learn and exchange scientific issues from distinct disciplines that have one main thing in common, solar photons. This exceptional opportunity to learn about other fields of research not only required particular didactic skills form the speakers, but also demanded special attention and openness from the audience.

  6. The Clean Development Mechanism and neglected environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an institutional framework for developed countries to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Are the technologies promoted those most needed by the recipient countries? We address this question by first reviewing Technology Needs Assessments prepared by developing countries, and then comparing the stated needs to the technologies most frequently promoted via CDM. While there appears to be a good match between requested technologies and those used in CDM, desired technologies such as solar energy for remote locations, biofuels, improved cooking stoves, and efficient lighting appear “neglected” by CDM. Nonetheless, a review of costs for these technologies suggests that many could be cost effective for developing countries. For projects requiring wide dispersal of household items, such as cooking stoves or lighting, the administrative burdens of CDM provide a hurdle. In other cases, difficulties quantifying the ancillary benefits of these projects hinder the promotion of these technologies. We conclude with possible explanations for why these technologies are neglected and suggestions for future research. - Highlights: ► We identify technologies desired by developing countries but not provided via CDM. ► Solar PV is neglected due to high costs. ► The CDM process provides a hurdle for improved cooking stoves and efficient lighting. ► Implications for CDM and climate policy are discussed

  7. As if Kyoto mattered: The clean development mechanism and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most rapidly growing anthropogenic source. In the future, the developing world will account for the largest share of transport GHG increases. Four basic components drive transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions: activities (A), mode share (S), fuel intensity (I) and fuel choice (F) (ASIF). Currently, the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) serves as the main international market-based tool designed to reduce GHG emissions from the developing world. Theoretically, the CDM has the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve 'sustainable development' goals and industrialized countries meet their Kyoto emissions reduction commitments. This paper reviews overall CDM activities and transportation CDM activities to date and then presents findings from three case studies of transportation CDM possibilities examined with the ASIF framework in Santiago de Chile. The analysis suggests that bus technology switch (I) provides a fairly good project fit for the CDM, while options aimed at inducing mode share (S) to bicycle, or modifying travel demand via land use changes (ASI) face considerable challenges. The implications of the findings for the CDM and the 'post-Kyoto' world are discussed

  8. Clean Development Mechanism and Least Developed Countries: Changing the Rules for Greater Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Lopez, Thanakvaro Thyl; Tin, Ponlok; Iyadomi, Keisuke;

    2009-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is designed not only to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) but also to contribute locally to sustainable development. As a market-based mechanism, CDM has the potential to channel private investments into development activities with...

  9. The clean development mechanism's contribution to sustainable development: A review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of how to respond to climate change and ensure sustainable development are currently high on the political agenda among the world's leading nations. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is part of the global carbon market developing rapidly as part of the Kyoto response towards the...

  10. REDD+ and the Clean Development Mechanism: A comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovleen Bhullar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The program, ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation’ (REDD, which operates within the international climate change policy framework, is projected to emerge as one of the key climate change mitigation mechanisms for developing countries. The existing Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R mechanism, operating under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, may prove useful for drawing lessons for the emerging REDD program, since both mechanisms represent flexible means for developed countries to achieve compliance with their mitigation targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The possible means include CDM as the basis for a project-based approach for the implementation of REDD (if adopted or the inclusion of REDD within CDM. This article compares the features of A/R CDM and REDD, identifies similarities and differences, and analyses the extent to which the former can provide guidance for the development of a carbon governance mechanism for REDD.

  11. Clean development mechanism and electricity generation in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouko, L. [Nairobi, (Kenya)

    1999-08-01

    The `joint implementation` (JI) and `clean development mechanism` (CDM) provisions of the Kyoto Protocol as they affect developing countries such as Kenya, are discussed. One of the expectations with regard to joint implementation is that as an interim measure, developing countries can transfer `certified emission reductions` (CERs) within the framework of the CDM. The transfer of CERs is thus expected to generate a flow of financial and technological resources for African countries. One of the conditions for effective flow of these resources to be realized is for project hosts to provide some incentives to investors and to eliminate institutional constraints. How JI, CDM and the transfer of CERs is proceeding in Kenya is offered as a case study, which to a greater or lesser degree reflects the situation with respect to all African countries. The paper describes electricity generation in Kenya, existing problems (technical and economic) within the electricity sector, the potential areas for CDM application, the obstacles related to JI and CDM, the constraints to technology transfer (lack of equipment, lack of skilled specialists, lack of skilled experienced personnel, seasonal shortages of supplies, bureaucratic obstacles in approving technology transfer, lack of standards to enforce quality in technology, and inadequate research and development facilities to deploy transferred technology), and proposes some strategies and mitigation options for adaptation, of which capacity building and flow of additional financial resources are the most urgent. 8 refs.

  12. 75 FR 6180 - Mission Statement; Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; May 16-21, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Mission Statement; Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development... following sectors: clean energy, energy efficiency, and electric energy storage and transmission and... has made clean energy and energy efficiency strategic priorities. In the 11th Five- Year Plan,...

  13. The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable Development in China's Electricity Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul A. Steenhof

    2005-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism,a flexibility mechanism contained in the Kyoto Protocol, offers China an important tool to attract investment in clean energy technology and processes into its electricity sector. The Chinese electricity sector places centrally in the country's economy and environment, being a significant contributor to the acid rain and air pollution problems that plague many of China's cities and regions, and therefore a focus of many related energy and environmental policies.China's electricity sector has also been the subject of a number of economic analyses that have showed that it contains the highest potential for clean energy investment through the Clean Development Mechanism of any economic sector in China. This mechanism, through the active participation from investors in more industrialized countries, can help alleviate the environmental problems attributable to electricity generation in China through advancing such technology as wind electricity generation, dean coal technology, high efficient natural gas electricity generation, or utilization of coal mine methane. In this context, the Clean Development Mechanism also compliments a range of environmental and energy policies which are strategizing to encourage the sustainable development of China's economy.

  14. Climate policy - exploitation of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After intense negotiations, the industrialized countries with the exception of the U.S.A. reached an agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gases. One of the reasons that the U.S.A. would not sign the agreement was that there is no commitments on the part of the developing countries. It is important to increase the engagement of the developing countries in climate issues since otherwise the increase in the emission of greenhouse gases from these countries may be very large. One contribution can be to elucidate the fact that many measures to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases will also help to solve local and regional environmental problems. This is the so-called Clean Development Mechanism, which is also favourable for the industrialized countries, and which is further discussed in this article. The article discusses two studies in which so-called ancillary benefits were calculated for the reduction of CO2 emissions in Hungary and the Shanxi province of China

  15. Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New developments and applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Nguyen-Manh; D G Pettifor; D J H Cockayne; M Mrovec; S Znam; V Vitek

    2003-01-01

    The bond-order potentials (BOPs) idea employs the orthogonal two-centre tight-binding (TB) representation for the bond energy and the Harris–Foulkes approximation for the repulsive pairwise contribution. In the last ten years, although many efforts have been focused on theoretical calculations of the bond order expression, the BOPs still suffers from the uncertainty of how best to choose the semi-empirical TB parameters that enter the scheme. In this paper, we review recent developments to obtain the reliable and transferable BOPs which help to extend the accuracy and applicability to technologically important multicomponent systems. Firstly, we have found that a simple pair potential is unsuitable for describing the environmental screening effects due to the and orbital overlap repulsion in transition metal alloys and therefore the inability to reproduce the negative Cauchy pressures exhibiting in strong covalent systems. By adding the environmental dependent repulsive term, the Cauchy pressure problem has been removed and we are now able to get the BOPs for studying dislocations, extended defects and mechanical properties of hightemperature intermetallic Ti–Al alloys. In particular, new results on the core structures and possible dissociation of different type of dislocations will be discussed. Secondly, we present the first derivation of explicit analytic expressions for environmental dependence of , and bond integrals by inverting the non-orthogonal matrix. We illustrate the power of this new formalism by showing that it not only captures the transferability of bond integrals between Mo, Si and MoSi2 but also predicts the large discontinuities between first and second nearest neighbours for $pp\\sigma, pp\\pi$ and $dd\\pi$ even though absence of any discontinuity for the $dd\\sigma$ bond integral. A new environmentally dependent BOPs has been developed for bcc-Mo indicating that the core structure of 1/2$\\langle$111$\\rangle$ screw dislocations is

  16. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  17. Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism and Tradable Permits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.; Rose Olsen, K.

    2000-06-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The report describes the background for the international co-operation on reducing the greenhouse gases and the background for the instruments. How the instruments work in theory and what the practical problems may be. What agents' incentives are when they engage in JI or CDM, and how the initiation of the instruments can be organised. The institutional frameworks for JI, CDM and TP are discussed. The report describes how the Kyoto instruments and the Kyoto commitments interact with other instruments and describe distributive effects between countries. It is analysed how the use of CDM may influence the developing countries incentives to participate in the coalition of committed countries. In the concluding chapter some recommendations on the use of JI, TP and CDM are given. The recommendations are a kind of dialog with especially the Norwegian and Swedish reports on tradable permits. Some of the issues described in this main report are analysed in separate working papers. The working papers are collected in an appendix to the main report. (au)

  18. Diffusion bonding resistant valve development for sodium service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unanticipated functional failures occurred in valves undergoing containment integrity testing for liquid sodium service. The failures resulted from diffusion bonding of the Stellite 6B valve plug to the Type 316 stainless steel (SS) seat. As a result of these failures, a valve development program was undertaken. A modified valve incorporating a Tribaloy 800 plug showed significant improvement in resistance to diffusion bonding but still failed after long term exposure in a closed position. A second modified valve using Tribaloy 800 in both the valve plug and seat successfully resisted diffusion bonding failure. This paper reports the details of the testing and posttest valve examinations. The results of scanning electron microscopy, dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and metallography provide the characteristics of the valve failures. Limitations of the various valve designs are also discussed

  19. Development of an ultrasonic cleaning method for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all radiation buildup in light water reactors is the result of the deposition of activated corrosion and wear products in out-of-core areas. After operation, a significant quantity of corrosion and wear products is deposited on the fuel rods as crud. At refueling shutdowns, these activation products are available for removal. If they can be quickly and easily removed, buildup of radioactivity on out-of-core surfaces and individual exposure dose can be greatly reduced. After studying various physical cleaning methods (e.g., water jet and ultrasonic), the ultrasonic cleaning method was selected as the most effective for fuel assembly cleaning. The ultrasonic cleaning method is especially able to efficiently clean the fuel without removing the channel box. The removed crud in the channel box would be swept out to the filtration unit. Parameter survey tests were carried out to evaluate the optimum conditions for ultrasonic cleaning using a mock-up of a short section of fuel assembly with the channel box. The ultrasonic device used was a 600-W ultrasonic transducer operating at 26-kHz ultrasonic frequency

  20. Development of an ultrasonic cleaning method for fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heki, H.; Komura, S.; Kato, H.; Sakai, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki City (Japan)); Hattori, T. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Kashiwazaki-shi (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Almost all radiation buildup in light water reactors is the result of the deposition of activated corrosion and wear products in out-of-core areas. After operation, a significant quantity of corrosion and wear products is deposited on the fuel rods as crud. At refueling shutdowns, these activation products are available for removal. If they can be quickly and easily removed, buildup of radioactivity on out-of-core surfaces and individual exposure dose can be greatly reduced. After studying various physical cleaning methods (e.g., water jet and ultrasonic), the ultrasonic cleaning method was selected as the most effective for fuel assembly cleaning. The ultrasonic cleaning method is especially able to efficiently clean the fuel without removing the channel box. The removed crud in the channel box would be swept out to the filtration unit. Parameter survey tests were carried out to evaluate the optimum conditions for ultrasonic cleaning using a mock-up of a short section of fuel assembly with the channel box. The ultrasonic device used was a 600-W ultrasonic transducer operating at 26-kHz ultrasonic frequency.

  1. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  2. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  3. Promoting energy efficient building in China through clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the barriers which impede the promotion of Energy Efficient Building (EEB), and to propose solutions to alleviate these barriers by capturing the benefits from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in the context of China. Through comprehensive literature review, eight types of significant barriers are identified, including weak enforcement of government policies, market inefficiency, information barrier, small and scattering buildings, fragmentation of the construction industry, perceived high risk, higher initial cost, and difficulty in energy management. To overcome the barriers, the potential of CDM to facilitate EEB promotion is then discussed. These barriers are verified and potential solutions are tested with a questionnaire survey conducted among five professional groups in China, i.e. designers, project managers, quantity surveyors, marketing managers and property managers. The results suggest that they generally identified with the barriers. However, their limited awareness of CDM implies that corresponding policies should be formulated and implemented to improve their capability of providing more EEBs with CDM. - Highlights: ► Eight types of significant barriers to the implement of EEB are identified. ► The sources and roots of barriers are verified with the industry professionals. ► Benefits of CDM to EEB are discussed. ► There is limited awareness of CDM in building sector. ► Overcoming or alleviating these barriers through CDM and other sources are proposed

  4. Net climate change mitigation of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has allowed industrialized countries to buy credits from developing countries for the purpose of meeting targets under the Kyoto Protocol. In principle, the CDM simply shifts the location of emission reductions, with no net mitigation impact. Departing from this zero-sum calculus, the Cancun Agreements reached at the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010 called for “one or more market-based mechanisms” capable of “ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions”, an intention reiterated at COP 17 and COP 18. This article explores the extent to which the CDM may or may not already lead to such a “net decrease.” It finds that the CDM's net mitigation impact likely hinges on the additionality of large-scale power projects, which are expected to generate the majority of CDM credits going forward. If these projects are truly additional and continue to operate well beyond the credit issuance period, they will decrease global greenhouse gas emissions. However, if they are mostly non-additional, as research suggests, they could increase global greenhouse gas emissions. The article closes with a discussion of possible means to increase mitigation benefit. - Highlights: • The CDM's method for assessing additionality remains controversial and contested. • We develop two scenarios of the net emissions impact of the CDM. • The integrity of the CDM hinges on the emissions impact of power supply projects. • Additionality is hard to demonstrate with confidence for most power-supply projects. • A number of options are available to increase the mitigation benefit of the CDM

  5. Development and Application of Ultrasonic Cleaning System in Nuclear Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was started to develop an ultrasonic means for removing sludge deposit in steam generators. However, more steam generators is being replaced or planned to be replaced soon. Increasing cleaning efficiency has become not very important at this stage. Therefore, we studied various fields in nuclear industry where ultrasonic cleaning technology is applicable. Development of ultrasonic cleaning system for removing sludge deposit on tube-sheet of SG is completed. Transducers are modified to protect tubes from damage. Sludge processing system is designed to remove solid particles in removed sludge deposit. Application of ultrasonic cleaning system in three areas including fuel cleaning system, decommissioning system, and decontamination system is suggested. Ultrasonic fuel cleaning system is designed and applied for patent

  6. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  7. The Clean Development Mechanism: too flexible to produce sustainable development benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Charlene; Fankhauser, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol has a dual objective: to encourage low-cost emission reduction and to promote sustainable development in the host countries of CDM projects. The CDM has by and large delivered on the first objective but arguably not on the second. This paper assesses quantitatively the form and prevalence of co-benefits in CDM projects. Adopting a broad definition of sustainable development, the project design documents of 409 projects (10% of the Oc...

  8. Clean and sustainable? An evaluation of the contribution of the Clean Development Mechanism to sustainable development in host countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the Netherlands Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) projects implemented under the Netherlands pilot project programme of 1994-2000 and examines the 'expected' contribution to sustainable development of the portfolio of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects the Netherlands is currently engaged in. In order to answer the key questions set out in this report, three approaches were used: (1) 'Policy and literature assessment': Before focussing on the AIJ and CDM projects themselves, the international policy context of the projects is explained by presenting the history of the international climate regime and the role of sustainable development in this. This evaluation is based on literature research and analysis of policy documents. (2) 'AIJ project appraisal': The evaluation of the results achieved by five AIJ projects, which represent 90% of the total AIJ investment of the Netherlands Government, is typically case-study based and draws on a number of research methods. A literature review was used to develop specific sustainability indicators. The assessment method applied is mainly based on CDM-specific criteria of sustainable development developed by various organisations and networks, such as the CDM Gold Standard. The indicators were measured by analysing the content of project documents, interviewing stakeholders in the projects and making site visits. The assessments were conducted jointly with research teams from the host countries. (3) 'CDM project appraisal': The evaluation of the expected performance of the Netherlands portfolio of CDM projects is based on various documents developed during the projects' design stages: PINs, PCNs and PDDs. For the assessment, a set of 44 representative projects were selected from the portfolio. These projects were also assessed in terms of how the CDM host country DNAs perceive their contribution to local sustainable development. The latter assessment is based on interviews with representatives of

  9. The governance of clean energy in India:The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and domestic energy politics

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon; Newell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which clean energy is being governed in India. It does so in order to improve our understanding of the potential and limitations of carbon finance in supporting lower carbon energy transitions, and to strengthen our appreciation of the role of politics in enabling or frustrating such endeavors. In particular we emphasize the importance of politics and the nature of India’s political economy in understanding the development of energy sources and technologies def...

  10. Determinants of clean development mechanism activity: Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As regards the dual goals of additionality and sustainability, some clean development mechanism (CDM) projects were successfully registered while some were rejected by the Executive Board (EB). This paper focuses on two final statuses of these projects and aims to explore the potential determinants of CDM activities. Based on the Chinese samples of the rejections and registrations, we find that (1) according to the financial barrier analysis with the internal rate of return without CDM, the additionality is the most important and robust rule of CDM activities and the CDM projects successfully registered are more additional than the rejected ones in China; (2) the sustainability is another important determinant of CDM activities in China and Chinese CDM activities are sustainable in terms of size, while the EB is criticized for its selection of unsustainable CDM projects in terms of cost-effectiveness on emission reductions within a long period or in terms of hydropower plants; (3) some other factors including the prices of sale electricity and certified emission reductions, the generating capacity and installed capacity all tend to pose significant impacts on the final status of each project that features the CDM activities in local areas of China. - Highlights: • The final status of each project features the CDM activities in local areas. • Microeconomic factors have significant impacts on the final statuses. • The additionality is the most important and robust rule of CDM activities in China. • Chinese CDM activities are sustainable in terms of size. • Chinese unsustainable CDM projects were selected by the EB in terms of cost-effectiveness

  11. Development of HIP bonding procedure and mechanical properties of HIP bonded joints for reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural materials of blanket components in fusion DEMO reactors will receive a neutron wall load more than 3-5MW/m2 as well as exposed by surface heat flux more than 0.5MW/m2. A reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H has been developed by JAERI in collaboration with NKK from viewpoints of resistance for high temperature and neutron loads and lower radioactivity. This study intends to obtain basic performance of F-82H to establish the fabrication procedure of the first wall and blanket box by using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) bonding. Before HIP bonding tests, effects of heat treatment temperature and surface roughness on mechanical properties of joints were investigated in the heat treatment tests and diffusion bonding tests, respectively. From these results, the optimum HIP bonding conditions and the post heat treatment were selected. Using these conditions, the HIP bonding tests were carried out to evaluate HIP bondability and to obtain mechanical properties of the joints. Sufficient HIP bonding performance was obtained under the temperature of 1040degC, the compressive stress of 150MPa, the holding time of 2h, and the surface roughness ∼μ m. Mechanical properties of HIP bonded joints with these conditions were similar to those of as-received base metal. An oxide formation on the surface to be bonded would need to be avoided for sufficient bonding. The bonding ratio, Charpy impact value and fatigue performance of the joints strongly depended on the HIP conditions, especially temperature, while micro-structure, Vickers hardness and tensile properties had little dependence on the HIP temperature. The surface roughness strongly affected the bonding ratio and would be required to be in the level of a few μ m. In the HIP bonding test of the welded material, the once-melted surface could be jointed by the HIP bonding under the above-mentioned procedure. (J.P.N.)

  12. The Clean Development Mechanism in Africa: A Framework for the Design of Sustainable Development Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development mechanism (CDM) is one of the mechanism contained in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It is intended to to bring about cooperation in emissions reduction between industrial countries, for which emissions reduction is mandatory under thr Protocol, and developing countries, which for the time being are allowed to continue emitting. The author has elaborated on how clean mechanism projects in Africa are financed, the private sector participation in CDM, energy issues and the clean development mechanisms in Africa, projects focusing on land use, land-use change and forestry, opportunities for CDM projects in Africa's transport sector and adaptation projects and climate change in Africa to mention bit a few

  13. Techniques for laser spectroscopy of actinide elements: developments in the clean-up process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Configuration of an efficient laser clean-up process requires a large amount of basic atomic data provided by careful high resolution spectroscopic experiments involving one or several lasers, both pulsed and cw. Efforts in developing such sources for high resolution spectroscopy in the context of the clean-up process are discussed

  14. Neonatal handling affects durably bonding and social development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Henry

    Full Text Available The neonatal period in humans and in most mammals is characterized by intense mother-young interactions favoring pair bonding and the adaptation of neonates to their new environment. However, in many post-delivery procedures, human babies commonly experience combined maternal separation and intense handling for about one hour post-birth. Currently, the effects of such disturbances on later attachment and on the development of newborns are still debated: clearly, further investigations are required. As animals present good models for controlled experimentation, we chose domestic horses to investigate this issue. Horses, like humans, are characterized by single births, long lactating periods and selective mother-infant bonds. Routine postnatal procedures for foals, as for human babies, also involve intense handling and maternal separation. In the present study, we monitored the behavior of foals from early stages of development to "adolescence", in a normal ecological context (social groups with adults and peers. Experimental foals, separated from their mothers and handled for only 1 hour post-birth, were compared to control foals, left undisturbed after birth. Our results revealed short- and long-term effects of this unique neonatal experience on attachment and subsequent social competences. Thus, experimental foals presented patterns of insecure attachment to their mothers (strong dependence on their mothers, little play and impaired social competences (social withdrawal, aggressiveness at all ages. We discuss these results in terms of mother-young interactions, timing of interactions and relationships between bonding and subsequent social competences. Our results indicate that this ungulate species could become an interesting animal model. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that intervention just after birth affects bonding and subsequent social competences (at least until "adolescence". It opens new research directions for

  15. Clean development mechanism PDD guidebook: Navigating the pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S. (ed.)

    2005-11-01

    This guidebook is designed to help readers navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Project Design Document (PDD) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The purpose of a PDD is to prepare project information for relevant stakeholders. These stakeholders include the investment community, the Designated Operating Entity (DOE) performing validation of the project, the CDM Executive Board (EB), the Designated National Authorities (DNA) of the involved countries and the local population. The PDD, together with the validation report and the approval letter of the DNA, are the basis for the registration of the project and its recognition as a credible CDM project. The PDD is about the project's design that is, how the project intends to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below those levels that would otherwise have been emitted. Each and every CDM project is unique, from the project design to the application of even the simplest baseline methodology. Some of the projects submitted for validation may be very efficient in reducing emissions and score well in terms of economic, social and environmental benefits, but may still not qualify as CDM projects. Experience has shown that the information needed to judge a suitability of a project for the CDM is vast and can take months to assemble. Also, the time required to assemble relevant information increases with the number and diversity of stakeholders involved and the complexity of the information itself. This guidebook is based on a review of all PDDs submitted to DNV for validation. The advice given and the pitfalls described in this guidebook are, therefore, based on day-to-day, hands-on experience and real instances of mistakes made in submissions. In summary, then, this guidebook takes a practical stance: it is concerned with the practical issues of how to get projects through the validation process. It will help those submitting a PDD by: 1) Describing the most common and costly mistakes made in the process

  16. Clean Development Mechanism PDD Guidebook: Navigating the Pitfalls; 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    This guidebook is designed to help readers navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Project Design Document (PDD) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. This second edition also aims at helping project developers to navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Monitoring Report and be better prepared to face the verification process. The purpose of a PDD is to prepare project information for relevant stakeholders. These stakeholders include the investment community, the Designated Operating Entity (DOE) performing validation of the project, the CDM Executive Board (EB), the Designated National Authorities (DNA) of the involved countries and the local population. The PDD, together with the validation report and the approval letter of the DNA, are the basis for the registration of the project and its recognition as a credible CDM project. The PDD is about the project's design--that is, how the project intends to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below those levels that would otherwise have been emitted1. Each and every CDM project is unique, from the project design to the application of even the simplest baseline methodology. Some of the projects submitted for validation may be very efficient in reducing emissions and score well in terms of economic, social and environmental benefits, but may still not qualify as CDM projects. Experience has shown that the information needed to judge the suitability of a project for the CDM is vast and can take months to assemble. Also, the time required to assemble relevant information increases with the number and diversity of stakeholders involved and the complexity of the information itself. The objective of the verification of emissions reduction is the review and ex post determination of the monitored emission reductions that have occurred during a specified verification period. The verification is about the project's reality--that is, how the project has been implemented as described in the registered PDD and is

  17. Sustainable Energy Sources and Developing Clean Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, A. Heitor; Miguel, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    Energy and sustainability are issues in the global agenda. The concern for the impacts of energy use, which adds to the alarm for the scarcity of primary sources of energy has triggered new research on sustainable primary energy sources and on clean and efficient energy systems and processes. Due to the current global warming, the link between energy and environment becomes inescapable in such a way that researchers have to deal both with efficiency and environmental impacts.

  18. Puttable and Extendible Bonds: Developing Interest Rate Derivatives for Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Salih N. Neftci; Andre Santos

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the price stabilizing properties of puttable and extendible bonds, their potential to help develop interest-rate derivative markets, and their use by governments. Their stabilizing properties imply that, when bond prices fall, prices for puttable and extendible bonds fall by less. Their embedded options work as a cushion and replicate the trading gains from hedging long-term bonds with interest rate derivatives. These bonds can help develop interest-rate derivative markets...

  19. Clean Energy and Sustainable Development lab activity report, 2014-09-31 to 2015-12-31

    OpenAIRE

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Tran, Hoang Anh

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Energy and Sustainable Development laboratory – CleanED – was established in December 2014 with support from USTH and French Embassy in Hanoi. In September 2015, CleanED lab counted five researchers from France and Vietnam, five doctoral fellows and two internationally qualified staff. This international and interdisciplinary research team gets the mission to contribute to the green growth of the energy sector in Vietnam. Its expertise ranges from engineering to public policy on:Nat...

  20. How could developing countries participate in climate change prevention: The Clean Development Mechanism and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refusal of developing countries to commit themselves to the implementation of climate change agreements on the grounds that their cumulated emissions would have little impact on climate change, combined with their need for increase in energy consumption to meet their economic development needs, has been one of the stumbling blocks to agreement since the beginning of climate change negotiations. For these and a variety of other reasons the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is important for industrialized and developing countries alike since it has the promise of benefiting both parties: industrialized countries benefit from low cost emission reductions, while CDM will stimulate economic development in developing countries. This paper examines the rules of the Clean Development Mechanism in order to validate project additions (as yet unresolved), and its possible consequences on the effectiveness and the scope of the mechanism. Also examined are the three basic approaches to CDM implementation (bilateral, unilateral. multilateral), the different reactions of major developing country groups to the structure of the mechanism, and the possibilities of widening the scope of action of the CDM to include sectoral and program-based aspects. In this context, 'voluntary, non-binding' emission commitments, establishment of a reference scenario for developing countries, related concerns about sustainable development, national sovereignty issues, equity in funding and vulnerability, are some of the potential issues highlighted. 33 footnotes

  1. From joint implementation to a clean development mechanism : Have the African positions changed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic and political implications of the applications of the Kyoto United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change for African developing nations were discussed. The concepts of joint implementation, clean development mechanism, and ecological implications were presented. Also discussed were the African positions on these matters, and on the mechanism of Article 12 of the Kyoto protocol (the Clean Development Mechanism). 19 refs., 1 tab

  2. Development priorities and private investment in developing countries: clean development mechanism projects in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the relative weight of future greenhouse gases emissions of the Developing Countries (DCs) in the next decades, offering them the opportunity to participate to climate policies is a condition for achieving the goal of the Climate Convention. Thus, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) defined in art. 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, aims at reducing the cost of Annex 1 countries commitment in term of reduction of emissions, but also at limiting the risk that the DCs' unquestionable right to develop will offset the Annex 1 countries efforts: in order to be a win-win mechanism, the CDM should help to progress faster on a less polluting development path. Beyond political principles, there is the necessity to incorporate the decision making process of future CDM real actors. Regarding host country authorities, what is at stake is to bring in missing investment capacity to satisfy internal needs of goods and services, taking advantage of the additional inventive created by CDM certificates. For private investors, the objective is to maximize the global sum of commercial revenues plus CDM carbon income. The present paper examines potential CDM projects opportunities in the electric sector Quantified pre-simulations for the Tahumanu project, which consists in building a 3 x 2 200 kVA hydropower plant instead of subsidized diesel plants in the Bolivian Pando Province, and which is co financed by E7 as a CDM learning opportunity for seven large Annex 1 countries electricity companies, offer a realistic illustration possible CDM projects set up and arrangements with the host country. (authors)

  3. Clean development Mechanism (CDM) Policy and Implementation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Lei

    2006-01-01

    China is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world. Since 68% of its primary energy is from coal, China’s average energy intensity is 7.5 times higher than the EU and 4.3 times higher than the US (EU, 2003). Therefore, introducing advanced clean technologies and management to China represents opportunities for Annex I countries to obtain low-cost CERs through CDM projects, and access to one of the largest energy conservation markets in the world. The Chinese government...

  4. Exploring the clean development mechanism: Malaysian case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Rathmann

    2008-01-01

    During 2006 the CDM market in Malaysia became established and by December 2007 a total of 20 Malaysian projects had registered with the CDM Executive Board. The Kyoto Protocol defines the Annex I countries, as countries that are obliged to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the clean...... by the Executive Board. The broad knowledge of CDM in Malaysia and the number of successful projects are partly due to the well-functioning CDM institutional framework in Malaysia. As an illustration this article focuses on a Malaysian-Danish project and describes the implementation of CDM in...

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  6. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  7. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment and...

  8. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar I. Ayuya; Job K. Lagat; John M. Mironga

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group mem...

  9. Development of environmentally conscious cleaning process for leadless chip carrier assemblies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    A cross-functional team of process, product, quality, material, and design lab engineers was assembled to develop an environmentally friendly cleaning process for leadless chip carrier assemblies (LCCAs). Using flush and filter testing, Auger surface analysis, GC-Mass spectrophotometry, production yield results, and electrical testing results over an extended testing period, the team developed an aqueous cleaning process for LCCAs. The aqueous process replaced the Freon vapor degreasing/ultrasonic rinse process.

  10. The clean development mechanism and power sector reforms in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol is expected to result in a large role for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in electric power projects, including grid-based renewable energy generation. This paper contributes to the discussion on reforms in developing country electricity sector and on how they affect CDM investment potential in overcoming barriers to enhancing deployment of renewable. It reviews implications of power sector reforms for grid-based CDM renewable energy projects in Chile, Kenya and the Philippines, as examples of economics with high potential subject to removal of market entry barriers. (au)

  11. Development of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.; Krumweide, Duane; Gaddy, Edward; Katz, Ira

    2000-01-01

    The results of design, analysis, and qualification of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panel are described. The objective of the ECSA design is to provide an electrostatic environment that does not interfere with sensitive instruments on scientific spacecraft. The ECSA design uses large, ITO-coated coverglasses that cover multiple solar cells, an aperture grid that covers the intercell areas, stress-relieved interconnects for connecting the aperture grid to the coverglasses, and edge clips to provides an electromagnetically shielded enclosure for the solar array active circuitry. Qualification coupons were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic response, conductivity, and survivability to launch acoustic and thermal cycling environments simulating LEO and GEO missions. The benefits of reducing solar panel interaction with the space environment are also discussed.

  12. Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of clean coal and advanced nuclear technologies with implementation of energy conservation potential. The result shows that application of clean technologies gives energy security but not significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. When clean technologies apply with energy conservation a huge amount of CO2 can be reduced and also economically viable. Three scenarios including base case scenario have been developed to estimate the resource allocations and CO2 mitigation. The clean technologies with maximum savings potential shows 70% CO2 reduction in the year 2045.

  13. The political economy of clean development in India:CDM and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Peter; Phillips, Jon; Purohit, Pallav

    2011-01-01

    Global policies and instruments to tackle climate change look very different once translated into domestic programmes of action, reflecting varied institutional capacity, competing priorities, and diverse political cultures and political economies. In light of these variations, this article analyses how clean energy is governed in India, both through and beyond the Clean Development Mechanism. Governance processes are assessed across a number of scales, including various actors involved in mo...

  14. Financing Public Sector Projects with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds; Fact Sheet Series on Financing Renewable Energy Projects, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Couglin, J.

    2009-12-01

    Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing a tax credit to the bondholder in lieu of interest payments from the issuer. Because CREBs are theoretically interest free, they may be more attractive than traditional tax-exempt municipal bonds. In February 2009, Congress appropriated a total of $2.4 billion for the "New CREBs" program. No more than one-third of the budget may be allocated to each of the eligible entities: governmental bodies, electric cooperatives, and public power providers. Applications for this round of "New CREBs" were due to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) on August 4, 2009. There is no indication Congress will extend the CREBs program; thus going forward, only projects that are approved under the 2009 round will be able to issue CREBs. This factsheet explains the CREBs mechanism and provides guidance on procedures related to issuing CREBs.

  15. The CDM [Clean Development Mechanism]: implications for renewable energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fear of the effects of global warming as a result of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases resulted in a conference in Kyoto, Japan in which all countries were invited to attend and discuss the problem. The conference produced the ''Kyoto Protocol'' in which the participants agreed to a policy which would reduce their greenhouse gas emission and prevent climatic change. The developing countries felt this was fine for the developed countries but left them at a disadvantage since they would not be able to raise their standard of living by increasing industrialization. This paper describes the effects of one of the mechanisms of the ''Kyoto Protocol'' Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] which would enable technology transfer to developing countries allowing their economies to expand without an inordinate increase in greenhouse gas emissions

  16. Development of High Erosivity Well Scale Cleaning Tools; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Build up of scale deposits on the walls of geothermal wells can occur rapidly due to the high dissolved solids content of geothermal fluids. Scale formation is a significant problem for both the well and for surface heat transfer equipment. Geothermal brines contain a wide variety if dissolved salts including carbonates, silicates, sulfates, and metal sulfides. One technology recently proposed for scale removal is the use of an ultrasonic device. In the present effort we apply cavitation in a more direct manner by the use of acoustically enhanced cavitating water jets which can be made to be much more efficient and aggressive than ultrasonic devices. Cavitating and self-resonating jet technologies have been proven to enhance the erosive power of liquid jets in a number of cutting, cleaning, and drilling applications. In this study we investigated two related technologies - one that employs cavitation and one that breaks the jet up into a series of slugs that produce water hammer type pressures upon impact. These technologies enable operation in both submerged and nonsubmerged conditions

  17. Development of the Automated Bonding Robot for Space Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yue-xin; ZHAO Yan-zheng; FU Zhuang; ZHAO Hui; LUO Zhen

    2007-01-01

    The bonding process of space solar cells is a very complicated task undertaken by manual labor before. An automatic approach based on robot technology is presented to deal with the difficult problem. The architecture of the bonding robot for space solar cells is described. The two processes carried out by the robot, adhesive dispensing and cover-glass bonding, are studied. Based on the mechanical model, the flow velocity field of the adhesive in needles is obtained and the cover-glass bonding theory is interpreted. According to the studies, the thickness of the adhesive can be controlled accurately by robot and bubbles can be avoided coming about inside the adhesive.

  18. A data support infrastructure for Clean Development Mechanism forestry implementation: an inventory perspective from Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minang, Peter A.; McCall, Michael K.; Skutsch, Margaret M.; Verplanke, Jeroen J.

    2007-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) forestry project development requires highly multi-disciplinary and multiple-source information that can be complex, cumbersome and costly to acquire. Yet developing countries in which CDM projects are created and implemented are often data poor environments and una

  19. Effects of cleaning agents on bond strength to dentin Efeitos de agentes de limpeza na resistência adesiva à dentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Rosin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning of cavity walls aims to improve adhesive restorative procedures and longevity of restorations. This study has compared the effect of three cleaning agents - sodium bicarbonate jet (Profi II, Dabi Atlante, São Paulo, Brazil; pumice paste plus a biologic detergent (Tergestesim, Probem, São Paulo, Brazil; air water spray - on the bond strength between dentin and two different adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Kioto, Japan and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (3M-ESPE, São Paulo, Brazil. Six groups (n:10 of dental fragments obtained from young adult extracted teeth were prepared, and each one received one of the listed surface cleaning techniques. After the adhesive application, a cone-shaped test body was built with AP-X (Kuraray, Kioto, Japan or Z100 (3M-ESPE, São Paulo, Brazil composite resins, using a Teflon matrix. The specimens were tested for tensile bond strength after one-week storage in distilled water at 37°C. Two pairs of fractured specimens of each group were randomly chosen and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. ANOVA test of the bond strength values showed no statistical differences among the cleaning agents and neither between their interactions with the bonding systems. Upon SEM analysis, most surfaces showed mixed fractures of adhesive and cohesive failures in bonding resin to dentin. Based on statistical and SEM analysis, it was concluded that the cleaning agents studied did not interfere with the bond strength of the adhesive systems used to dentin.A limpeza das paredes cavitárias é um passo importante na clínica odontológica e visa otimizar os procedimentos adesivos e a longevidade das restaurações. O presente estudo comparou o efeito de três agentes de limpeza cavitária - jato abrasivo de bicarbonato de sódio/ar/água (Profi II, Dabi Atlante, São Paulo, Brasil; pasta de pedra-pomes e água, somada a um detergente biológico (Tergestesim, Probem, São Paulo, Brasil; e

  20. Development of clean environment conservation technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is aim to develop the technology for environmental conservation by radiation. It is consisted of two research parts. One is development of wastewater disinfection technology by radiation and the other is development of livestock waste treatment technology by radiation. For the development of wastewater disinfection technology disinfect ion process, technology for treatment of toxic organic chemicals and assessment of ecological toxicity, technology for treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and assessment of genetic safety were developed. For the development of livestock waste treatment technology, process for simultaneous removal of nutrients, technology for disinfection and quality enhancement of livestock waste compost, technology for reduction of composting periods, monitoring of toxic organic compounds, pretreatment technology for organic toxic chemicals and enhancement of biological treatment efficiencies were developed. Based on basic research, advanced livestock wastewater treatment process using radiation was established

  1. Development of an advanced bond coat for solid oxide fuel cell interconnector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, An-Chou; Chen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chien-Kuo; Shong, Wei-Ja

    2015-11-01

    An advanced bond coat has been developed for solid oxide fuel cell interconnector applications; a low thermal expansion superalloy has been selected as the substrate, and the newly developed bond coat is applied between the substrate and the LSM top coat. The bond coat composition is designed to be near thermodynamic equilibrium with the substrate to minimize interdiffusion with the substrate while providing oxidation protection for the substrate. The bond coat exhibits good oxidation resistance, a low area specific resistance, and a low thermal expansion coefficient at 800 °C; experimental results indicate that interdiffusion between the bond coat and the substrate can be hindered.

  2. Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-07-01

    12. Other advances in QNDE and related topics: Preferred Session Laser-ultrasonics Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference QNDE Conference July 20-25, 2014 Boise Centre 850 West Front Street Boise, Idaho 83702 James A. Smith, Jeffrey M. Lacy, Barry H. Rabin, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID ABSTRACT: The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) which is assigned with reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU. The new LEU fuel is based on a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to complete the fuel qualification process, the laser shock technique is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being investigated to characterize interface strength in fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on specimen’s surface is intractably complex. The shock wave energy is inferred from the velocity on the backside and the depth of the impression left on the surface from the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses and strengths at the interface, a finite element model is being developed and validated by comparing numerical and experimental results for back face velocities and front face depressions with experimental results. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop a finite element model for laser

  3. Sweet carbon: An analysis of sugar industry carbon market opportunities under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagasse power generation projects provide a useful framework for evaluating several key aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. On the positive side, our analysis, which draws in part from a data set of 204 bagasse electricity generation projects at sugar mills, indicates that these projects provide Annex I country investors with a cost-effective means to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Our analysis also confirms that the marketplace for Clean Development Mechanism-derived offsets is robust and competitive. Moreover, bagasse projects appear to provide a positive example in a 'new wave' of clean energy investment that has replaced the earlier industrial gas projects. At the same time, we also identify two aspects of the CDM that demand improvement. First, the additionality standard needs to be tightened and made more transparent and consistent. Financial additionality should be required for all projects; however, any financial additionality test applied by the Clean Development Mechanism's Executive Board must be informed by the significant barriers faced by many projects. Second, the administrative processes for registration and verification of offsets need to be streamlined in order to prevent long registration time lags from chilling clean energy investment.

  4. Infrastructure finance in developing countries—the potential of sub-sovereign bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Platz

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the potential of sub-sovereign bonds in financing infrastructure in developing countries. Taking into account the historical experience of the US, it develops a supply and demand side framework for analysis of the market for sub-sovereign bonded debt in developing countries and applies this framework to Mexico, India and South Africa. Finally, it draws lessons for countries seeking to promote markets for sub-sovereign bonds. Evidence suggests that the regulatory...

  5. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement

  6. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  7. Development of novel adsorbents for environmental cleaning by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve our amenity spaces, the demand of non-odorous atmosphere is needed. Toxic gases such as trimethylamine and ammonia have been treated as the pollutant of the atmosphere. The development of an excellent and effective adsorbent for the toxic gases has been performed here and there all over the world. However, the development of the adsorbent with the consideration for conservation of environment must be made as one of the requisites. Therefore, we proposed the use of radiation for the preparation of toxic-gas-adsorbing materials. On the other hand, in our daily life, the large amount of calcium and magnesium contained in our drinking water has hindered the removal of a trace amount of pollutant such as lead. As a result, the development of the metal-ion-adsorbing material is very indispensable indeed. (J.P.N.)

  8. Community capacity for implementing clean development mechanism projects within community forests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minang, Peter A; McCall, Michael K; Bressers, Hans Th A

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of "community capacity" to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  9. The Clean Development Mechanism as a Vehicle for Technology Transfer and Sustainable Development - Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Cox

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the clean development mechanism (CDM established under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol in terms of its effectiveness as a vehicle for technology transfer to developing countries, a specific commitment under the UNFCCC. Fundamentally, the paper poses the question of whether technology transfer as part of the CDM is a myth or a reality in the broader context of sustainable development. Technology transfer between countries of the North and South is explored in a historical context and the emergence of technology transfer obligations is traced in multilateral environmental agreements. The architecture of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol are examined in relation to technology transfer obligations. Empirical studies are reviewed to gain an understanding of how CDM operates in practice, with a closer examination of a small number of recent CDM projects. There is an update on the Technology Mechanism being established under the Copenhagen Accord. The paper concludes with a summary of the benefits of CDM to date and its current limitations in achieving the scaling-up of affordable environmentally sound technology transfer envisaged in the Bali Action Plan. The conclusion is that technology transfer must be a much more explicit objective of CDM with better targeting of projects in order to achieve locally sustainable equitable outcomes. Furthermore, the link between CDM and technology transfer needs to be much more explicitly made in order that, in the long run, such interventions will lead to viable low emission development pathways in developing countries.

  10. Sustainable Development and the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Endress

    2013-01-01

    The connection between the emerging field of sustainability science and the economics of sustainable development has motivated a line of interdisciplinary research inspired by the notion of oppositive sustainability.Ó This notion is founded on three principles or pillars: (1) adopting a complex systems approach to modeling and analysis, integrating natural resource systems, the environment, and the economy; (2) pursuing dynamic efficiency, that is, efficiency over both time and space in the m...

  11. India’s Carbon Governance: The Clean Development Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Moniz, Maria da Graça Canto

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Governance systems – institutional arrangements in place for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions – are different in emerging countries. Indeed, carbon is the same everywhere but Carbon Governance isn’t: in Brazil, the financial community is actively interested in carbon trading, but Chinese banks have hardly any interest in it; and while the Chinese government takes an active interest in providing capacity to project developers, the Brazilian authorities see their role uniquely as guar...

  12. Recent developments in novel sorbents for flue gas clean up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Bisson, Teresa M.; Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Coal combustion is one of the most important energy sources for electricity generation, but also produces airborne pollutants. The amount of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} for example, is in the order of hundreds to thousands of ppm, and tens to hundreds of ppm, respectively, while Hg in flue gases could be up to tens to hundreds of ppb. Flue gas desulphurization technology is already in place for SO{sub 2} removal, and new sorbents such as zeolites are being investigated for such an application. NO{sub x} can be removed by selective catalytic reduction with various catalysts. Mercury is the hardest to remove due to its persistent nature and relatively low concentration in flue gases. New sorbents have also been developed for mercury removal applications. A current trend in flue gas emission control is to remove Hg, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} simultaneously. Various catalytic sorbents have been investigated to remove two or more of these pollutants concurrently. This article reviews recent developments made for emission control of coal-fired power plant flue gases using novel sorbents to target individual or multiple pollutants. (author)

  13. Solar energy for buildings: clean energies utilisation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The move towards a de-carbonized world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilization level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and provides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. This article presents a comprehensive review of energy sources, and the development of sustainable technologies to explore these energy sources. It also includes potential renewable energy technologies, efficient energy systems, energy savings techniques and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate changes. The article concludes with the technical status of the ground source heat pumps (GSHP) technologies. (full text)

  14. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  16. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  17. Development of Public Market of Corporate Bonds in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Prewysz-Kwinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2010, corporate bonds had not been very popular in Poland. Most of the issues were not public, which limited their volume and value, and mainly resulted from the lack of a proper public market for trading. The situation changed in September 2009 when the Warsaw Stock Exchange launched the bond market Catalyst that is a public market for trading in debt instruments. The aim of this work is to analyse corporate bonds available on Catalyst to prove that this market has become a significant place for raising capital by companies and has influenced popularity of bonds as a source of financing business activity. The primary methods used during the preparation of this work included: analysis of legal acts and papers on the Catalyst market. The author also conducted an analysis of statistical data on, for example, number of issuers as well as the volume and value of issues over the whole period of Catalyst operations, i.e. from September 2009 until the end of the first half of 2014.The analysis allowed achieving the aim and confirmed that launching the Catalyst market encouraged companies to raise funding through issues of bonds.

  18. Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework : Progress Report on the World Bank Group Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    During the 2007 spring meetings, the development committee endorsed the World Bank Group's action plan on the Clean Energy Investment Framework (CEIF). This progress report is a response to the committee's request for an update on the implementation of the action plan for the annual meetings in October 2007. It summarizes accomplishments in the three areas of the action plan: 1) energy for...

  19. Implementing CDM projects. A guidebook to host country legal issues; CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curnow, P. (Baker and McKenzie, London (United Kingdom)); Hodes, G. (UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) continues to evolve organically, and many legal issues remain to be addressed in order to maximise its effectiveness. This Guidebook explains through case studies how domestic laws and regulatory frameworks in CDM Host Countries interact with international rules on carbon trading, and how the former can be enhanced to facilitate the implementation and financing of CDM projects. (author)

  20. Joint implementation, clean development mechanism and tradable permits. International regulation of greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.; Olsen, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The...

  1. A Medium-Scale 50 MW fuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MW fuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  2. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  3. Effect of rebar cover and development length on bond and slip in high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite behavior of reinforced concrete requires adequate bond between concrete and steel reinforcement that can transfer stresses between them. The bond strength is influenced by cover to the reinforcement and development length. Experimental investigation was carried out and twisted steel bars conforming to BS 4461 were used in high strength concrete to study bond strength characteristics. The post peak bond behavior was studied by using displacement controlled universal testing machine. The results of this experimentation confirmed that by increasing the cover/bar diameter ratio, bond strength increased and slip decreased for both small and large diameter twisted steel bars. This increased confinement reduced the uneven bond stress distribution along the development length. Stress concentration on the front key (concrete between two ribs) was reduced due to its continuity along the twisted steel bar. Hence it offered maximum possible resistance to bond failure and the bond strength increased. Similarly by increasing the development length, bond strength and corresponding slip both increased. Another fact visible from all figures and observed in all samples, is that as the first concrete key failed there was a sudden drop in bond strength due to the formation of longitudinal splitting cracks. These cracks are visible from the surface of the cylinder. Once a key is failed, failure propagated immediately. (author)

  4. Understanding the Clean Development Mechanism and its dual aims : the case of China's projects

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qie

    2011-01-01

    Having been running for over 10 years, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is considered an innovative and successful mitigation initiative. CDM has the dual aims of helping industrialised countries achieve compliance with their emission limitation and reduction commitments in a cost-effective way, while simultaneously assisting developing countries in sustainable development. This thesis does a comprehensive analysis of the dual aims of CDM and is intended to assist in discussions about th...

  5. A data support infrastructure for Clean Development Mechanism forestry implementation: an inventory perspective from Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Minang, Peter A.; McCall, Michael K.; Skutsch, Margaret M.; Verplanke, Jeroen J.

    2007-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) forestry project development requires highly multi-disciplinary and multiple-source information that can be complex, cumbersome and costly to acquire. Yet developing countries in which CDM projects are created and implemented are often data poor environments and unable to meet such complex information requirements. Using Cameroon as an example, the present paper explores the structure of an enabling host country data support infrastructure for CDM forestry im...

  6. Study of diffusion bond development in 6061 aluminum and its relationship to future high density fuels fabrication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokofiev, I.; Wiencek, T.; McGann, D.

    1997-10-07

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium alloys and silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the RERTR program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. Testing is done with miniplate-type fuel plates to simulate standard fuel with cladding and matrix in plate-type configurations. In order to seal the dispersion fuel plates, a diffusion bond must exist between the aluminum coverplates surrounding the fuel meat. Four different variations in the standard method for roll-bonding 6061 aluminum were studied. They included mechanical cleaning, addition of a getter material, modifications to the standard chemical etching, and welding methods. Aluminum test pieces were subjected to a bend test after each rolling pass. Results, based on 400 samples, indicate that at least a 70% reduction in thickness is required to produce a diffusion bond using the standard rollbonding method versus a 60% reduction using the Type II method in which the assembly was welded 100% and contained open 9mm holes at frame corners.

  7. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic–inorganic hybrid sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    show the best self-cleaning performance both before and after mechanical abrasion. The developed coating process is simple and can be easily scaled-up for large surfaces that require self-cleaning function

  8. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic–inorganic hybrid sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Divya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wu, Xinghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Fu, Qitao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ho, Jeffrey Weng Chye [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Kanhere, Pushkar D. [Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Li, Lin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: ASZChen@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)

    2015-07-30

    show the best self-cleaning performance both before and after mechanical abrasion. The developed coating process is simple and can be easily scaled-up for large surfaces that require self-cleaning function.

  9. Clean-Development Investments: An Incentive-Compatible CGE Modelling Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Thomas F. Rutherford; Springmann, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established under the Kyoto Protocol allows industrialized Annex I countries to offset part of their domestic emissions by investing in emissionsreduction projects in developing non-Annex I countries. We present a novel CDM modelling framework which can be used in computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to quantify the sector-specific and macroeconomic impacts of CDM investments. Compared to conventional approaches that mimic the CDM as sectoral emiss...

  10. Territorial Distribution Analysis of Projects of the Clean Development Mechanism: The Case of the Mexican States

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel Cruz Ramos; Alfredo Flores Delgado; Homar Zamorano Cervantes; Alejandro Ibarra-Yúnez

    2012-01-01

    This investigation classifies Mexican states according to their strength for attracting clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, as a means to promote economic development from donating Annex I countries of the Kyoto Protocol. We calculated that 46.5 per cent of all CDM projects are concentrated in the states of Jalisco, Coahuila, Puebla, Durango and Veracruz. The study classifies the 32 Mexican states using cluster analysis, based on three dimensions: potential to achieve gas reductions, ...

  11. Development of ITER shielding blanket prototype mockup by HIP bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype (∼900H x 1700W x 350T mm) of the ITER shielding blanket module has been fabricated following the previous successful fabrication of a small-scale (∼500H x 400W x 150T mm) and mid-scale (∼800H x 500W x 350T mm) mock-ups. This prototype incorporates most of key design features essential to the fabrication of the ITER shielding blanket module such as 1) the first wall heat sink made of Al2O3 dispersion strengthened Cu (DSCu) with built-in SS316L coolant tubes bonded to a massive SS316LN shield block, 2) toroidally curved first wall with a radius of 5106 mm while straight in poloidal direction, 3) coolant channels oriented in poloidal direction in the first wall and in toroidal direction in the shield block, 4) the first wall coolant channel routing to avoid the interference with the front access holes, 5) coolant channels drilled through the forged SS316LN-IG shield block, and 6) four front access holes of 30 mm in diameter penetrated through the first wall and the shield block. For the joining method, especially for the first wall/side wall parts and the shield block, the solid HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) process was applied. It is difficult to apply conventional joining methods such as field welding, brazing, explosion bonding and mechanical one-axial diffusion bonding to a wide area bonding because sufficient mechanical strengths can not be obtained and excessive deformations occurs. In order to solve these fabrication issues, HIP bonding was applied. The first wall stainless steel (SS) coolant tubes of 10 mm in inner diameter and l mm in thickness were sandwiched by semi-circular grooved DSCu plates at the first wall and the front region of the side wall, and by semi-circular grooved SS plates at the back region of the side wall. After assembling of these first wall/side wall parts with the shield block, they were simultaneously bonded by single step HIP in order to minimize thermal effects on the mechanical properties and to reduce the number

  12. Development of underwater robot for cleaning cooling water intake channels in thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the long intake channels for seawater in thermal and nuclear power stations, marine organisms adhere and grow, and cause resistance to the flow, separate and enter into condensers to cause the clogging or corrosion erosion of cooling tubes. At present, the regular cleaning of the channels is carried out by man power, which requires much cost and many days. The underwater robot developed recently performs this cleaning work by remote control from on the ground. The performance and endurance tests of the robot were carried out in an actual channel, and it was able to be successfully put in practical use with good results. The features of this robot are as follows. It achieves the work safely without anyone entering a channel. It can clean all surfaces including ceiling without any additional structure. It can easily move. It can remove shells of 10 cm thickness. It does not require external power source. The system comprises a robot, a power unit, a hose reel, a control wagon and an underwater monitor. The robot is powered by oil hydraulic motors, and controlled through oil hoses. Cleaning is performed with rotary brushes, while it adheres to a wall by water jet power. The construction and performance of the main components and the results of trial operation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  14. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  15. Company’s Competitiveness Enhancement for Thai Agribusiness through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    OpenAIRE

    Amornwan Resanond; Thanwa Jittsanguan; Damrong Sriphraram

    2011-01-01

    Ratification to the Kyoto Protocol allows Thailand to voluntarily participate in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). CDM not only promotes environmental integrity but also offers business sustainability, which will be then able to enhance company’s competiveness. Due to these enthusiastic impressions, number of CDM registered projects in Thailand has been increased from 5 to 40 projects between 2005 and 2010, respectively. Several business sectors in Thailand have been moving their p...

  16. Sustainable forestry investment under the clean development mechanism : the Malaysian case

    OpenAIRE

    Dutschke, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Vor dem Hintergrund der Entwicklung des malaysischen Forstsektors in den letzten Jahren gibt der vorliegende Aufsatz einen Überblick über die aktuellen Diskussionen um die Einbeziehung biologischer Kohlenstoffsenken in den Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) des Kyoto-Protokolls. Stichwörter sind Forstdefinitionen, Zusätzlichkeit, Baselines und Permanenz. Der Autor unterbreitet in diesem Zusammenhang einige neue Vorschläge, deren Details Gegenstand künftiger Studien sein werden. Zusammenfassend...

  17. Towards an effective implementation of clean development mechanism projects in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    2004-01-01

    With the already huge and growing amount of greenhouse gas emissions and a great deal of low-cost abatement options available, China is widely expected as the world’s number one host country of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. But, making this potential a reality represents a significant challenge for China, because there has been a general lack of awareness by both the Chinese government and business communities, clear institutional structure, and implementation strategy. This has...

  18. COSTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ABATEMENT UNDER THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Larson, Donald F.; ARIEL DINAR

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the costs of emissions abatement through various types of projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Using project data, cost functions are estimated applying alternative functional forms. Results show that the average cost of abatement decreases with the volume of abatement, showing economies of scale and suggesting that reducing emissions through small projects is relatively expensive. Results also show significant variation in t...

  19. The role of international business in clean technology transfer and development

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    While research has generated very useful insights, usually at the macro level, regarding the multifaceted nature of environmental innovation and regulation, the characteristics and drivers peculiar to international companies have remained underexposed in the policy-related literature on clean technology transfer and development. This article aims to help open the ‘black box’ of business, also as input for future policy making, by discussing aspects that influence corporate responses: sector-s...

  20. CDM. Information and guidebook - Developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'[Clean development nedianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.)

    2003-12-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was defined at Conference of the Parties 3 in Kyoto 1997, it took the international community another 4 years to reach the Marrakesh Accords in which the modalities and procedures to implement the CDM was elaborated. Even if more detailed rules, procedures and modalities have to be further developed a general framework to implement the CDM and other Kyoto mechanisms are now in place. This guidebook is produced to support the UNEP project 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism'. Focus is on the CDM project cycle, the Project Design Document (PDD), and related issues such as sustainable development goals, financing and market intelligence. The appendices present frequently asked questions and answers, a short overview of existing guidelines and a possible future list of eligible CDM projects categories. (BA)

  1. Clean Plate Movement and Empowerment of Civil Leadership for Developing Sustainable Life Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Soo; Kim, Seung Woo; Jung, Sin Yeong; Choi, Byeong Dae; Mun, Sung Joo; Lee, Dong Ho

    This paper describes the backgrounds, process, outcomes, and characteristics of "Clean plate" movement carried out in Korea. That was aimed at the reduction of food waste production as well as developing and disseminating a sustainable life style. Excessive foods are wasted every year in Korea and it reaches to 270 g/day/capita. Clean plate movement was started 2004 and over 1.5 million peoples, which is 3% of the population, did pledge for 15 months. Over one million students participated in the pledge campaign and they became conscious about the importance of food and get sustainable eating habit in which they don't leave any food behind. While the campaign carried out successfully, civil volunteers of a Buddhist NGO EcoBuddha, who were the housewives mainly, were in charge of the whole processes and were trained as civil leaders for sustainable development. They awakened to the interrelationship between human being and the nature, based on a series of Buddhist lectures and self practicing asceticism. Clean plate movement as an educational program for sustainable development has various factors in three pillars of environmental, economical and socio-cultural aspects for EfSD.

  2. Applications and development of BitClean technology including selective nanoparticle manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tod; Brinkley, David; White, Roy; LeClaire, Jeff; Archuletta, Michael; Bozak, Ron; Yi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The technology to selectively remove nanoparticles from a photomask surface by adhering it to an AFM tip (BitClean) first introduced with the Merlin® nanomachining mask repair platform has been successfully integrated in numerous mask house production centers across the globe over the last two years. One outstanding request for development from customers has been to develop the capability to not only selectively remove nanoparticles from a target surface, but to also redeposit in another target region. This paper reviews the preliminary work done to develop this capability with particular emphasis on its potential applications in creating realistic nanoparticle inspection sites for KLA systems at critical pattern print locations as well as the accumulation of trace amounts of contaminates for better compositional and print-impact analysis. There is also a feasibility study of new ultra-high aspect ratio (AR > 1.5) NanoBits for future BitClean process applications. The potential for these capabilities to be adapted for new applications will be examined for future work as well as a detailed parametric process analysis with the goal of showing how to make significant improvements in BitClean PRE.

  3. The African example. The clean development mechanism confronted to the African priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto protocol has given the bases of a clean development mechanism devoted to finance actions of a sparing with greenhouse gases emissions development, in the South countries, to receive in exchange credit of emission for the north countries in order to allow to reach their objective of emission reduction. The programming and the start-up of a such mechanism supposes the confrontation of development priorities of concerned countries with these ones of the fight against the greenhouse gases emissions in these same countries. (N.C.)

  4. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by laser pulsed and mechanical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Arrigoni, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; CNRS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bond without any mechanical contact. The resulting damage has been quantified using different method such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test since it has often fixed parameters. That is why mechanical impacts bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the tensile stresses generated by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The observations made prove that the optimization of the technique is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock wave have been identified.

  5. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by pulsed laser and mechanical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecault, R.; Boustie, M.; Touchard, F.; Arrigoni, M.; Berthe, L.

    2014-05-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims to the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bonds. The resulting damage has been quantified using different methods such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test because of often fixed settings. That is why mechanical impacts on bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the generated tensile stresses by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The made observations prove that the technique optimization is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock waves have been identified.

  6. Toward the development of erosion-free ultrasonic cavitation cleaning with gas-supersaturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In ultrasonic cleaning, contaminant particles attached at target surfaces are removed by liquid flow or acoustic waves that are induced by acoustic cavitation bubbles. However, the inertial collapse of such bubbles often involve strong shock emission or water hammer by re-entrant jets, thereby giving rise to material erosion. Here, we aim at developing an erosion-free ultrasonic cleaning technique with the aid of gas-supersaturated water. The key idea is that (gaseous) cavitation is triggered easily even with low-intensity sonication in water where gases are dissolved beyond Henry's saturation limit, allowing us to buffer violent bubble collapse. In this presentation, we report on observations of the removal of micron/submicron-sized particles attached at glass surfaces by the action of gaseous cavitation bubbles under low-intensity sonication.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  9. Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Special Roundtable to Develop a Regional Action Plan for Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2011-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Second Annual Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation, the Special Roundtable to Develop a Regional Plan of Action for Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation was held on 24 June 2011 at the Asian Development Bank. This publication provides (i) overviews of the key development strategies on clean energy policy and regulatory priorities for Asia and the Pacific discussed during the roundtable, and (ii) discussions and commitmen...

  10. Developing and validating a chemical bonding instrument for Korean high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Nak Han

    The major purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument designed to collect and investigate on Korean high school students' understanding about concepts regarding chemical bonding. The Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Test (CBDT) was developed by the procedure by previously relevant researches (Treagust, 1985; Peterson, 1986; Tan, 1994). The final instrument consisted of 15 two-tier items. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha) for the whole test was 0.74. Also, the range of values for the discrimination index was from 0.38 to 0.90 and the overall average difficulty index was 0.38. The test was administered to 716 science declared students in Korean high school. The 37 common misconceptions on chemical bonding were identified through analysis of the items from the CBDT. The grade 11 students had slightly more misconceptions than the grade 12 students for ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and hydrogen bonding while the grade 12 students had more misconceptions about octet rule and hydrogen bonding than the grade 11 students. From the analysis of ANCOVA, there was no significant difference in grades, and between grade levels and gender on the mean score of CBDT. However, there was a significant difference in gender and a significant interaction between grade levels and chemistry preference. In conclusion, Korean high school students had the most common misconception about the electron configuration on ionic bonding and the water density on hydrogen bonding. Korean students' understanding about the chemical bonding was dependent on the interaction between grade levels and the chemistry preference. Consequently, grade 12 chemistry-preferred students had the highest mean scores among student groups concerned by this study.

  11. Catalyzing Gender Equality-Focused Clean Energy Development in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center), the African Development Bank and other institutions to develop a Situation Analysis of Energy and Gender Issues in ECOWAS Member States. Through a systematic approach to assess interlinked gender and energy issues in the region, the report puts forth a number of key findings. This brochure highlights ECREEE's partnership with the Solutions Center and key findings from the report.

  12. Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) - Interactive Webinars for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, M.; Ledley, T. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will have far reaching impacts that the citizens of tomorrow will need to be prepared to address. In order for the citizens of tomorrow to be prepared, there is a clear need to support teachers in improving their understanding of the climate system and give them the resources to help their students develop that understanding. CLEAN (http://cleanet.org) is a National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) project that is stewarding a collection of resources for teaching climate and energy science in grades 6-16. The collection contains classroom activities, lab demonstrations, visualizations, simulations, videos, and more. We have implemented a series of nine interactive webinars (iWebinars), each of which focuses on an aspect of the Essential Principles of Climate Science, pairs a scientist and a teacher to convey the science and how to teach that science using the vetted resources in the CLEAN collection, and gives the participants the opportunity to ask questions and discuss with the presenters and each other how they would use the resources in their classrooms and what else they would need to effectively teach the topic under discussion. The iWebinars were recorded and posted to the CLEAN portal (http://cleanet.org/clean/community/webinars/index.html) so that the participants and others can view them in the future. In this presentation, we will describe the scope and structure of the iWebinars; how the scientist's and teacher's presentations were coordinated to most effectively help the participants learn both the science and how to best convey it to their students; and how we involved the teachers in discussions to deepen their engagement and learning.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. [Paste deposition and chip bonding process development]. IBM, Endicott tenth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The scope of Endicott activity during this quarter includes: paste deposition process development and chip bonding process development. It was discovered that small voids exist in the photobumps. These are typically at the base of the bump and are believed to have always been present. Although the reliability test results have been positive and no failure is attributed to voids, the process development work during the last quarter has focused on understanding how these form and how to reduce them. High feed pressure, slow nozzle speed and lower viscosity reduce void formation. Nozzle design changes have been identified. One change will increase the shearing of the paste during feed, thus reducing the viscosity, a second change will allow higher feed pressures. Chip bonding process development has focused on correlating bonding results between the IBM in-house chip bonder made by Research Devices, Inc. and the Universal development bond tool. Two variables have been identified that correlate with poor bond results. The report describes more detail of the activity during the tenth quarter for paste deposition and chip bonding in each of these areas.

  15. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  16. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as a funding opportunity for development: A macroeconomic CGE analysis of the Peruvian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Montaud, Jean-Marc; Pécastaing, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol constitutes a major tool in the fight against climate change; it is also an important foreign direct investment funding opportunity for Southern countries. Yet, few studies have focused on the economic impact of CDM on host countries. This study attempts such an assessment in Peru, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that accounts for both the productive and regional dualism of the national economy. The numerical si...

  17. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  18. Development of metal-bonded Langevin transducer using LiNbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Jimbo, Hikaru; Shiotani, Koichi; Sakai, Nagahide

    2016-07-01

    We newly developed a metal-bonded Langevin transducer using LiNbO3 in order to realize a practical high-power LiNbO3 Langevin transducer. It utilizes metal bonding with a lead-free solder as an assembly method for a Langevin transducer, instead of a bolt as used in a conventional bolt-clamped Langevin transducer. The newly developed metal-bonded LiNbO3 Langevin transducer achieved a high vibration velocity of over 1.5 m/s and stable operation. Because of rigid metal bonding, it does not show nonlinear phenomena such as a jump phenomenon and/or a resonant frequency shift.

  19. Impacts of Sovereign Rating on Sub-Sovereign Bond Ratings in Emerging and Developing Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Sanket; Nose, Manabu; Ratha, Dilip

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores bond-level, issuer-level, and macro-level conditions that affect the distance between sovereign credit rating and sub-sovereign debt ratings. Over three-quarters of rated foreign-currency sub-sovereign bonds issued during 1990–2013 in 47 emerging and developing countries were rated at or below the corresponding sovereign rating, thus confirming the prevalence of a sover...

  20. Transition to Clean Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  1. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  2. Development and validation of a tool for diagnosing conceptual knowledge of chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayon, Malka

    Chemical bonding knowledge is fundamental and essential to the understanding of almost every topic in chemistry, but it is very difficult to learn. This study describes the development of an automatic on-line tool that diagnoses basic conceptual knowledge of chemical bonding among high school students. While many studies have characterized and diagnosed some of the central concepts of this topic, these concepts have not been systematically organized nor tested at a fine grain size. The design of the tool consisted of two main stages: A) the systematic characterization of the canonical conceptual knowledge of chemical bonding deemed relevant for high school chemistry majors in the form of a matrix, and B) the design of items and tests, their online version, and automatic feedback for two topics in chemical bonding, that represent the student's conceptual knowledge of chemical bonding compared with and linked to the matrix. The matrix contains three strands: the structure of matter at the nanoscopic level, electrostatic interactions between charged entities, and energy aspects related to bonding. In each strand there are hierarchically ordered cells that contain fine grain concepts. The matrix represents what Reif called the "Final performance (Sf)" - what a student should know after learning high school chemistry. The tests were designed to assess the student's knowledge of this canon at different stages along the learning trajectory. In this way, representing the student's knowledge with the matrix can show changes from the "Initial performance (Si)" as learning is taking place. Understanding of chemical bonding is more than just knowledge of the basic concepts, but without these basic concepts, a deep understanding of chemical bonding is impossible. Therefore, a diagnostic tool that can pinpoint the concepts that are used correctly, incorrectly, or not at all could be a helpful instructional and research tool. The development process described herein could serve

  3. The Clean-Development Mechanism, stochastic permit prices and energy investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the impact on energy investments stemming from different emission permit classes, by considering permits that are allocated inside the European Emission Trading Scheme and secondary Certified Emission Reduction (sCER) permits originating from the Clean Development Mechanism. One price taking firm which is subject to emission regulation has the choice to invest in gas or wind power plant. The firm faces uncertainty regarding stochastically evolving permit prices, while it receives a premium on the electricity price for wind energy. As a first step, we determine the value of the option to invest into a gas power plant over time. Then, we calculate the investment probability of a gas power investment in a range of policy scenarios. We find that allowing the usage of sCER permits in the present policy framework has a positive impact on gas power investment. Decoupling the price processes has a similar effect. If the quota of sCER permits is doubled, the decrease in the investment probability for wind power is large. We carry out sensitivity tests for different parameter values, and find that investment behavior changes significantly with differing interest rates, the wind energy premium and volatility. - Highlights: • We model the impact of two CO2 permit classes on energy investments. • We present a real-options framework accounting for uncertainty. • Clean Development Mechanism permits have a negative influence on investment into renewable energy. • Interest rate and volatility values have a strong impact on the results

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group membership, existence of tree farming and contact with extension services was found to influence awareness level of smallholder forest Carbon projects. To assist the community to adapt to climate change and produce sufficiently on a sustainable basis and achieve the desired food security under climate change challenges, the study recommends policies to increase awareness of such agro-environmental initiatives and that of extension providers should distinguish their clientele anchored on vital demographic characteristics such as age and gender. If the probability of younger farmers to be aware this initiative is higher, extension communications should be directed to such age group, particularly during initial stages project information dissemination.

  5. Case Studies of Rural Development and Clean Agriculture in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachika Hirokawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the kind of actors and resources that empower small-scale farmers to promote sustainable agriculture. It also analyzes the reasons given by farmers who changed their farming methods. In 2004, the Department of Agriculture launched a project for the Promoting Organic Farming and Marketing in Lao PDR (PROFIL. PROFIL tried to develop market opportunities for Lao’s organic products and supported the local organic farmers. I conducted field researches at Nonte village in Vientiane Capital twice in 2008. The researches indicated that “Clean Agriculture” is one of the new challenges for farmers. Thus, this research focuses on the observation of how local organic farmers adapt to a new method and cope with problems. Information as knowledge from community groups and external actors such as local institutions and experts might help villagers to have choices in terms of farming methods, which gave them positive choices in terms of health and an agricultural environment. Since the government has the recognition of comparative advantages of clean agriculture, farmers may have the opportunity to gain a large market of organic farm products if they can develop distribution channels. This study encourages the positive contributions of challenges of sustainable agriculture in Lao PDR.

  6. Development of an on-line process for steam generator chemical cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, J.; Guzonas, D.A.; Rousseau, S.C.; Snaglewski, A.P.; Chenier, M.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    An on-line, preventative chemical cleaning process for the removal of secondary side oxides from steam generators is being developed. An on-line chemical cleaning process uses a low concentration of a chelant ({approx}1-10 mg L{sup -1}) to partially dissolve and dislodge the secondary side oxides while the steam generator is in operation. The dissolved and dislodged oxides can then be removed by blowdown. Feasibility tests were carried out in which the operating conditions of a CANDU steam generator were simulated in an autoclave containing either loose powdered magnetite or sintered magnetite on Alloy 800 (I-800) steam generator tube surfaces. The extent of magnetite dissolution in on-line solvent formulations containing either ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenedinitrilo-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA) at temperatures of 256 and 263 degrees C were measured. Powdered magnetite dissolved faster than sintered magnetite using both types of chelant. Dissolution continued as fresh chelant was added. The half-life (t{sup 1/2}) of Fe-EDTA complexes at 256 degrees C was approximately 3 h, sufficient to allow removal by blowdown. Hydrazine and morpholine were equally effective as oxygen scavengers. Increased dissolved oxygen concentration was found to result in chelant decomposition, reduced solvent capacity and increased carbon steel corrosion. Total corrosion of several materials relevant to CANDU stations were measured in 96-h tests. To minimize corrosion, low concentration of chelant and a high concentration of an oxygen scavenger should be used. The results from these feasibility tests are currently being used to define the application conditions for large-scale tests of on-line chemical cleaning in a model steam generator. (author)

  7. Development of an on-line process for steam generator chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-line, preventative chemical cleaning process for the removal of secondary side oxides from steam generators is being developed. An on-line chemical cleaning process uses a low concentration of a chelant (∼1-10 mg L-1) to partially dissolve and dislodge the secondary side oxides while the steam generator is in operation. The dissolved and dislodged oxides can then be removed by blowdown. Feasibility tests were carried out in which the operating conditions of a CANDU steam generator were simulated in an autoclave containing either loose powdered magnetite or sintered magnetite on Alloy 800 (I-800) steam generator tube surfaces. The extent of magnetite dissolution in on-line solvent formulations containing either ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenedinitrilo-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA) at temperatures of 256 and 263 degrees C were measured. Powdered magnetite dissolved faster than sintered magnetite using both types of chelant. Dissolution continued as fresh chelant was added. The half-life (t1/2) of Fe-EDTA complexes at 256 degrees C was approximately 3 h, sufficient to allow removal by blowdown. Hydrazine and morpholine were equally effective as oxygen scavengers. Increased dissolved oxygen concentration was found to result in chelant decomposition, reduced solvent capacity and increased carbon steel corrosion. Total corrosion of several materials relevant to CANDU stations were measured in 96-h tests. To minimize corrosion, low concentration of chelant and a high concentration of an oxygen scavenger should be used. The results from these feasibility tests are currently being used to define the application conditions for large-scale tests of on-line chemical cleaning in a model steam generator. (author)

  8. Clean Production and Ecological Industry: A Key to Eco-city Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulussen Juergen; Wang Rusong

    2005-01-01

    Eco-city development is a healthy process towards sustainable development, within the carrying capacity of local ecosystem through changing production mode, consumption behavior and decision instrument based on ecological economics and system engineering. The key to its planning is an ecological integration to make trade-offbetween economic wealth and environmental health, between material and spiritual civilization, between natural and human eco-cybemetics. Integration, demonstration, citizens'participation and scientists' and technician's catalyzing are the key instruments for the implementation of the ecocity plan. "Clean production" and "ecological industry" are key elements in comprehensive development towards an eco-city. Beyond the technical and management questions, how to interlink production, consumption and reduction at the local and regional level, the spatial and urban dimension should be considered in order to perform an integrative urban eco-space.

  9. Guidelines for the Presentation of Clean Development Mechanism Projects in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, M.E.; Peres, A.; Jauregui, S.; Lorini, N.; Gonzales, J.; Sol Bagur, M. [National Climate Change Program, Clean Development Mechanism Office, La Paz (Bolivia)

    2004-03-01

    Bolivia ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1994 with its National Law Nr. 15761. The Kyoto Protocol (KP) was approved, and Bolivia ratified it through its National Law Nr. 1988 on 22nd July, 1999. The KP quantifies emission reductions of GHG for developed countries and countries with economies in transition (Annex I countries). The KP establishes that these reductions must be real, measurable, and long-term and that they should be achieved primarily through domestic efforts. However, the KP creates three flexibility mechanisms to mitigate climate change in a cost effective way: Joint Implementation allows claim credits for the emission reductions generated in projects between Annex I countries; GHG Emissions Trading allows the sale and purchase of emission certificates by Annex I countries; and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contemplates to undertake projects of emissions reduction/offset of GHG in developing countries agreed that these projects support the sustainable development of host countries. The CDM gives Bolivia an opportunity to attract clean foreign investment to the forestry, energy, industrial and transport sectors as well as an entry channel to the GHG emission allowances market. To take advantage of these windows of opportunity, the National Climate Change Program established the National Clean Development Office (NCDMO) in March 2002. The NCDMO has, among its main purposes, the promotion, evaluation, operation and negotiation of climate change mitigation projects (in the CDM or in other schemes) in addition to the capacity building for social actors. The present guidelines define the criteria for submitting potential CDM projects to the Bolivian NCDMO, for the approval of the Designated National Authority (DNA), the Vice ministry for Natural Resources and the Environment, and their subsequent submission to the Executive Board of the CDM. This document has seven sections. The first three sections define the

  10. Development of an assembled camshaft by mechanical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Egami, Yasuyoshi; Shimizu, Koichi

    1996-09-01

    Design of valve train systems for recent automotive diesel engines trends towards four-valve and roller-follower type. Accordingly, camshafts to be used in these engines are required to ensure higher contact pressure due to rolling contact which is accompanied by occasional sliding. This paper describes composite type assembled camshafts which have successfully been developed with excellent results of light weight, reduced cost and superior durability.

  11. Development of high pressure rinsing set up for 650 MHz, 5- cell superconducting RF cavity cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High pressure rinsing (HPR) is an ultra-cleanliness process for the surface preparation of high field superconducting RF cavities. Any dust particle or chemical residue on the interior of cavity causes field emission. Jets of high pressure (80-100 bar) ultra pure water dislodge surface contaminants that normally resist removal with conventional rinsing procedures, leading to substantial reduction in field emission and better cavity performance. For cleaning of 650 MHz, 5-cell SRF cavities, a high pressure rinsing set up has been developed at RRCAT. The HPR tool has a rotating wand coaxial with the vertically mounted SRF cavity that is moving up and down. Fan style spray nozzles are attached to the end of the rotating wand and the water jets emerging from spray nozzles scan the entire internal surface of the cavity. The set-up was installed in a specially built clean area meeting cleanliness class 100 standards. The ultrapure water with resistivity 2 ≥ 18 MΩ-cm required for rinsing is obtained from a dedicated water purification system installed for this purpose. The paper describes the salient design and constructional details of the high pressure rinsing set up. Characterization of water jet parameters based on the momentum transfer between the water jet and a load cell is also presented. (author)

  12. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-01

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required. PMID:17868819

  13. Wall-lesion development in gaps: The role of the adhesive bonding material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagner, A.F.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the caries wall lesion development in different composite-dentin interfaces to investigate if the presence and location of two bonding materials in the gaps influence wall caries lesion development. METHODS: Fourteen volunteers wore a modified occlusal splint contain

  14. Emission Baselines for Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Residential Heating Case in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To explore emission baseline, technically the most difficult issue for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project development, as well as to examine whether CDM is a possible way to help Beijing restructure its heating energy consumption, this paper conducts a CDM baseline case study on residential heating in Beijing. Based on investigation, energy consumption forecast and economic analysis of future technology options, the technology benchmark and site-specific baselines for both retrofit projects and new heating projects have been discussed. The results indicate that fuel switching from coal to natural gas can meet the additionality criteria in many cases and will be the main type of CDM project. In addition, it also proves that the technology benchmark and the case-by-case baseline setting approach are applicable for future CDM cooperation projects on heating in Beijing.

  15. ''Developing a clean electrical matrix''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinadel, E. [Argentine Wind Energy Association, Florida, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Power provision agreements are appropriate for developing grid connected wind farms in association with hydraulic generation backup. These PPAs can provide certainty in power supply prices at competitive and sustainable investment return levels, beyond the evolution of hydrocarbons. There are two main points in this commercial agreement. First only clean energy can provide a long term fixed price to the market as it is not tied to the evolution of conventional fuels. Therefore the user is certain about the price of its future electricity supply, giving investors the needed security, and providing selective incentives for diversification of the energy matrix. This kind of strategy is perfectly possible in other markets and countries, especially those with a considerable wind resource and a non diversified matrix, like South Africa, Chile and others. Each case must be considered by itself. We have developed the know how. (orig.)

  16. Renewable Energy Investment in Emerging Markets: Evaluating Improvements to the Clean Development Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Tang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, industrialized countries have invested in or financed numerous renewable energy projects in developing countries, primarily through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol. However, critics have pointed to its bureaucratic structure, problems with additionality and distorted credit prices as ill-equipped to streamline renewable energy investment. In this paper, we simulate the impact of policy on investment decisions on whether or not to invest in wind energy infrastructure in India, Brazil and China. Data from 2,578 past projects as well as literature on investor behaviour is used to inform the model structure and parameters. Our results show that the CDM acts differently in each country and reveal that while streamlining the approval process and reconsidering additionality can lead to non-trivial increase in total investment, stabilizing policy and decreasing investment risk will do the most to spur investment.

  17. Financing clean energy development in the emerging economies: the need for innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Energy Council's Commission ''Energy for Tomorrow's World'' points out that the emerging economies (the developing countries and the economies in transition) face increasingly daunting challenges in meeting their energy service requirements and in ensuring their energy needs are met in an environmentally-sustainable manner. Rising to the environmental challenge will require the diffusion of cleaner and more efficient energy production, transportation and end-use technologies. Greater efficiency is required if only to reduce growing shortages in meeting national power requirements. Against this backdrop, this article will examine: whether or not the funding needs of clean energy development in the emerging economies are being met; and what kinds of financial innovation might be required to accelerate the diffusion of cleaner energy technologies. (author)

  18. Influence of steel fibres on bond and development length of deformed bars in normal strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzey, Ugyen

    Transverse reinforcement (stirrups) plays an important role in improving bond and anchorage of deformed bars in reinforced concrete structures. Steel fibres or steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) can be used in lieu of stirrups to provide a similar beneficial effect. The application of steel fibres in lieu of stirrups is not recognized in codes of practice for concrete structures because of limited research for this type of application. The results of this study are based on 18 large scale test beams (250 mm wide by 300 mm high and 3.4 m long). Control cylinders and flexure prisms are used to obtain the required concrete material properties together with tension tests of the steel rebar. The focus of this research is to investigate the influence of steel fibres to enhance bond and development of deformed reinforcing bars in normal strength reinforced concrete beams. An attempt is also made to develop an understanding and rationale of the effect SFRC has on improving bond. Longitudinal reinforcement in most of the beams is lap spliced with different types of confinement in the spliced region (plain concrete, plain concrete with stirrups, SFRC, and SFRC with stirrups), and evaluated under third point loading to ensure the spliced bars are subjected to a constant tensile force in the region of constant moment. All of the beams with spliced reinforcement failed in bond before yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement. The SFRC mix uses steel fibres at an 80 kg/m3 dosage (1% by volume). The plain concrete beams without any transverse reinforcement failed suddenly without any warning. The presence of steel fibres did not affect the flexural cracking load of the specimens, but did provide a consistent increase in the load capacity at bond failure and ensure a more controlled failure. The spliced beams with SFRC exhibited a 22.5% increase in the bond failure load capacity compared with the plain concrete beams. The combined effect of fibres and transverse reinforcement

  19. Metabolic Engineering to Develop a Pathway for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a biochemical pathway for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. Specifically a novel biochemical pathway will be developed for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in carbazole. The cleavage of the first C-N bond in carbazole is accomplished by the enzyme carbazole dioxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of carbazole to 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol. The genes encoding carbazole dioxygenase were cloned from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 and from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. The selective cleavage of the second C-N bond has been challenging, and efforts to overcome that challenge have been the focus of recent research in this project. Enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating bacterial cultures that can metabolize 2-aminobiphenyl, but no enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the C-N bond in 2-aminobiphenyl has been identified. Aniline is very similar to the structure of 2-aminobiphenyl and aniline dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of aniline to catechol and ammonia. For the remainder of the project the emphasis of research will be to simultaneously express the genes for carbazole dioxygenase and for aniline dioxygenase in the same bacterial host and then to select for derivative cultures capable of using carbazole as the sole source of nitrogen.

  20. CDM (Clean development mechanism) like instrument for sustainable development?; MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) como instrumento para o desenvolvimento sustentavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar Silva; Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduaco em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: kamyla@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The intensification of the greenhouse effect, caused mainly by the anthropogenic activities, such as the intensive use of fossil fuels, reveals itself as a challenge to governments and international organizations. The institution of an international legal framework, resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is allowing the development of some mitigation instruments, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article's purpose is to assess the social and economic aspects that are leading to the climate change process and to analyze the instruments foreseen in the international legal system to face this global concern, in special, the CDM as a tool to achieve sustainable development practices. In this way, the authors aims to demonstrate the connection and interdependence between those instruments and the sustainable development. (author)

  1. Development of a Standardized Procedure for Cleaning Glass Apparatus in Analytical Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson C. Polonini; LíVIA DO NASCIMENTO GROSSI; ANDERSON DE OLIVEIRA FERREIRA; MARCOS ANTONIO BRANDãO

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adequate cleaning of analytical glassware is an essential procedure that determines the reliability of assays and tests carried out in laboratories, keeping the glassware free of interference from residues left by previous tests. In the present paper, standard cleaning procedures are proposed for laboratory glassware, which were tested on cyanocobalamin as a marker contaminant. A spectrophotometric method was used for quantitative determination of both residual marker and cleaning pr...

  2. A multicriteria approach to identify investment opportunities for the exploitation of the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the prospects for the exploitation of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Greece. The paper is addressing 3 questions: in which country, what kind of investment, with which economic and environmental return? The proposed approach is based on a multicriteria analysis for identifying priority countries and interesting investment opportunities in each priority country. These opportunities are then evaluated through a conventional financial analysis in order to assess their economic and environmental attractiveness. To this purpose, the IRR of a typical project in each investment category is calculated by taking into account country-specific parameters, such as baseline emission factors, load factors, costs, energy prices etc. The results reveal substantial differences in the economic and environmental return of different types of projects in different host-countries and show that for the full exploitation of the CDM a multifaceted approach to decision-making is necessary

  3. Development of an emergency air-cleaning system for liquid-metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel air cleaning concept has been developed for potential use in venting future commercial liquid metal fast breeder reactor containment buildings in the unlikely event of postulated core disruptive accidents. The passive concept consists of a submerged gravel bed to collect the bulk of particulate contaminates carried by the vented gas. A fibrous scrubber could be combined with the submerged gravel scrubber to enhance collection efficiencies for the smaller sized particles. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow through the packed bed is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the packed bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter

  4. The possibility of clean development mechanism in a nuclear power expansion in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Alexandre G., E-mail: alexandre.paris@br.pwc.co [PricewaterhouseCoopers - Sustainable Business Solutions, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Wagner S., E-mail: wagner@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The nuclear power expansion is a very controversial topic in Brazil, which needs to be carefully addressed, especially because the national energy supply system is becoming more carbon-intensive. Although most of the electricity generated in Brazil is by hydropower plants, the country's electricity matrix expansion is moving towards a larger participation of fossil fuel thermo power generation which is contrarily the global objects of climate change mitigation. Climate change is a reality and the choice facing this problem is between action and delay. There will be needed a huge international mobilization, associated with a great amount of financial, political and engineering resources interested for preventing the aggravation of the greenhouse effect. This article analyses, in the possibility of including nuclear power in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) criteria, the revenue that could be generated from the trading of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) in different scenarios of nuclear power expansion in Brazil. (author)

  5. The possibility of clean development mechanism in a nuclear power expansion in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power expansion is a very controversial topic in Brazil, which needs to be carefully addressed, especially because the national energy supply system is becoming more carbon-intensive. Although most of the electricity generated in Brazil is by hydropower plants, the country's electricity matrix expansion is moving towards a larger participation of fossil fuel thermo power generation which is contrarily the global objects of climate change mitigation. Climate change is a reality and the choice facing this problem is between action and delay. There will be needed a huge international mobilization, associated with a great amount of financial, political and engineering resources interested for preventing the aggravation of the greenhouse effect. This article analyses, in the possibility of including nuclear power in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) criteria, the revenue that could be generated from the trading of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) in different scenarios of nuclear power expansion in Brazil. (author)

  6. Explaining the differential distribution of Clean Development Mechanism projects across host countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol represents an opportunity to involve all developing countries in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while also promoting sustainable development. To date, however, the majority of CDM projects have gone to emerging markets such as China, India, Brazil, and Mexico, while very few least developed countries have hosted projects. This paper investigates the differential distribution of CDM activities across countries. We develop a conceptual model for project profitability, which helps to identify potential country-level determinants of CDM activity. These potential determinants are employed as explanatory variables in regression analysis to explain the actual distribution of projects. Human capital and greenhouse gas emission levels influenced which countries have hosted projects and the amount of certified emission reductions (CER) created. Countries that offered growing markets for CDM co-products, such as electricity, were more likely to be CDM hosts, while economies with higher carbon intensity levels had greater CER production. These findings work against the least developed countries and help to explain their lack of CDM activity. - Research Highlights: → Regression models are used to explain the inter-country distribution of CDM projects. → Emissions and human capital are significant for hosting projects and CER creation. → An economy's emissions intensity is significant in determining CERs created. → Capacity building and electricity sector growth are significant in hosting projects. → The experience level for host countries in the CDM is significant for CER creation.

  7. Development of membrane technology for production of concentrated fertilizer and clean water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud

    membranes, it was observed that 99% of the fouling resistance could be removed by flushing the membrane with water, suggesting that most fouling might be due to a transient gel layer. Furthermore, water flux could be recovered in more than 98% by using alkaline cleaning alone (NaOH), alkaline cleaning with...... anionic surfactants (SDS) or alkaline cleaning with chelating agents (EDTA). This suggests that NaOH could be a good and cheap strategy for cleaning RO membranes. Membrane soaking further helped in increasing the membrane water flux recovery. Forward osmosis (FO) was done using aquaporin based membranes...

  8. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4 double-prime thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler's equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 μm DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) opportunities for the oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Joana Chiavari [FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy). Eni/Agip Group

    2004-07-01

    Due to the broad impact of legislation limiting greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing public awareness concerning the environment, the oil industry has been currently incorporating climate change considerations in its corporate strategy. However, compliance in the carbon constrained economy does not merely represent a cost issue; it also represents an opportunity. Projects developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in particular represent an incentive both for companies and governments to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries and earn carbon credits, while promoting sustainable development. The oil industry is characterized by a high emission reduction potential and is able to deliver to the market an amount of credits which is by far higher than the amount that most projects developers are able to offer. However some critical issues, such as the current interpretation of the additionally concept, may represent a barrier for the full utilization of such mechanism, particularly regarding petroleum-sector projects, thus reducing the benefits the CDM can actually produce. Considering that a very large number of CDM projects may be needed for the implementation of a successful climate policy, the engagement of the oil industry on the Kyoto mechanisms is very important and auspicial. (author)

  11. CO2 emissions mitigation potential of solar home systems under clean development mechanism in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of India has taken several initiatives for promotion of solar energy systems in the country during the last two decades. A variety of policy measures have been adopted which include provision of financial and fiscal incentives to the potential users of solar energy systems however, only 0.4 million solar home systems (SHSs) have been installed so far that is far below their respective potential. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized (Annex-I) countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing (non-Annex-I) countries to achieve a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. SHSs could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. In this study an attempt has been made to estimate the CO2 mitigation potential of SHSs under CDM in India.

  12. How to make the clean development mechanism sustainable-The potential of rent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) should foster sustainable development and greenhouse gas emission reductions. The design of the CDM and first experience suggest that it may not achieve these goals. Developing countries hosting CDM projects may lose cheap emission reduction possibilities for their own future use, and sustainable development and technology transfer may not take place. On the other hand, the CDM has the potential to generate considerable rents if permit prices are high or costs low. To account for equity and distributional issues, a deliberate decision on how to distribute these rents could be taken and the potential failure of the CDM in meeting its goals calls for some further regulation. I suggest to combine these two issues and to extract the rents by a profit tax. Ideally, the tax revenues could contribute to national sustainable development strategies, to offset external costs imposed by CDM projects and to extract part of the resource rent they may generate. The international character of the CDM could offer a frame for internationally coordinated tax design. This would hedge against a potential race to the bottom

  13. Companion Animal Bonding, Children's Home Environments, and Young Children's Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poresky, Robert H.; Hendrix, Charles

    These exploratory studies focused on child-pet bonding and the effect of the quality of chldren's home environments on the social development of preschoolers. Survey data from 88 parents regarding the parents, their homes, and their preschool child provided empirical support for the hypothesis that young children derive developmental benefits from…

  14. A real option-based model for promoting sustainable energy projects under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) provides a way of assisting sustainable development in developing countries for developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Despite its intended benefits, the primary CDM market decreased from US$5.8 billion in 2006 to US$1.5 billion in 2010. One of the primary reasons for the reduction of market size is that developed countries as investors have a high level of risks caused by the volatility of the market price for certified emission reductions (CERs). Another issue to be resolved is that developing countries as host countries cannot claim any right to the CERs produced on their own land. This paper presents a real option-based model for both parties (developed and developing countries) to have their fair share of profits and risks by controlling the uncertainty associated with the future value of CERs. A case study illustrated that the proposed model can effectively attract investors to CDM projects leading to mitigation of climate change. - Highlights: ► This study focused on the risks associated with the uncertainty of future CER value in CDM projects. ► A real option-based model was developed for both parties in CDM to have fair share of profit and risk. ► Key variables and boundary conditions were identified for application of real option to CDM. ► The model allowed both parties to own options, which have an identical value. ► Hydropower plant projects in Indonesia were used to illustrate the implementation of the model

  15. Development of a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water is proposed. A model that captures the dynamics well is valuable for the optimization of the cleaning process. The proposed model is based on component balances and contains three parameters that can be de

  16. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  17. Nuclear power for greenhouse gas mitigation under the Kyoto protocol: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 43rd regular session of the IAEA General Conference, Member States requested the IAEA to help countries in assessing nuclear power's role in light of global environmental challenges and energy needs. Such assistance should include support for implementing national case studies, and facilitating access to relevant information about nuclear power's role in achieving sustainable development in developing countries and in mitigating GHG emissions. The dissemination of information on CDM is of particular importance to developing countries, so as to enable Member States interested in the mechanism to take an active and informed role in the debate regarding the Kyoto Protocol and eligible CDM technologies. Therefore, the Secretariat organized a series of information seminars, workshops and training courses for Member States on the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading with particular emphasis on the potential role of nuclear power for GHG mitigation. On request, the Secretariat also provided training and assistance to several Member States in the preparation of national case studies that explore the potential role of nuclear power as a CDM technology. These case studies will be presented by the respective national study teams during this side event at the 44th IAEA General Conference. Within the general criteria included in the Kyoto Protocol, the decision on which technologies are eligible for GHG mitigation under the flexibility mechanisms is a sovereign decision of each country

  18. How can the Clean Development Mechanism contribute to better air quality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, S.J.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Air pollutants and greenhouse gases are to a large extent emitted by the same sources, notably in the industry, transport and residential sectors. However, climate change mitigation is a global issue and is mostly driven by national and international policy. Local governments are in general more interested in improving urban air quality, which is posing serious health hazards across the globe. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, helping industrialised countries to achieve their targets under the Kyoto Protocol while contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. As of January 2009 over 4000 projects are in the pipeline. The CDM could be used by local governments and the private sector to finance projects that contribute to both climate change mitigation and better air quality. However, CDM projects in particularly the transport sector face a number of barriers. We identify the most important issues for such projects, as well as the lessons learnt and some recommendations based on four case studies in Asian cities related to biofuels and bus rapid transit systems. The main conclusions is that successful implementation of CDM projects beneficial for urban air quality depends on the applicability of approved CDM methodologies, the strong cooperation between project developers and local authorities, and the availability of data.

  19. Small hydro power projects under clean development mechanism in India: A preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides Annex-I countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in non-Annex-I countries to achieve a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Small hydro power (SHP) projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. An attempt has been made to estimate the CDM potential of SHP projects in India. The preliminary estimates indicate that, there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of SHP projects in India. On the basis of available literature, the gross potential of SHP projects is more than 15 GW. The annual CER potential of technically feasible SHP projects in India could theoretically reach 24 million tons. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of SHP projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 7-20 and 13-24 million by 2020. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential of SHP projects more rapidly as compared with the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  20. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  1. New progresses in safe, clean and efficient development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In China, there are a lot of high-sulfur gas reservoirs with total proved reserves of over 1 trillion m3, most of which were discovered in the Sichuan Basin. Most high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, distributed in marine carbonate zones, are characterized by great buried depths, complex geologic conditions, high temperatures, high pressures, high H2S and CO2 content, presenting various challenges in gas field development engineering and production safety. Since the development of Sinian high-sulfur gas reservoirs in the Weiyuan area of the Sichuan Basin started in the 1960s, Wolonghe, Zhongba and other medium to small-scale gas reservoirs with medium to low sulfur content have been developed. Ever since 2009, successful production of Longgang and Puguang in the Sichuan Basin, together with some other high-sulfur gas reservoirs highlighted the breakthroughs in development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China. This paper reviews the progress made in gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, gas production, pipeline transportation, corrosion control, natural gas purification, HSE and other aspects with consideration of specific requirements related to safe, clean and high-efficient development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs since the “12th Five-Year Plan” period. Finally, considering the challenges in the development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, we summarized the trend in future technological development with the following goals of reducing risks, minimizing environmental damages, and enhancing the efficiency of high-sulfur gas reservoir development.

  2. Final report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system primary cleaning development testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Developmental testing of the primary cleaning station for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and canisters is reported. A primary clean machine will be used to remove the gross sludge from canisters and fuel while maintaining water quality in the downstream process area. To facilitate SNF separation from canisters and minimize the impact to water quality, all canisters will be subjected to mechanical agitation and flushing with the Primary Clean Station. The Primary Clean Station consists of an outer containment box with an internally mounted, perforated wash basket. A single canister containing up to 14 fuel assemblies will be loaded into the wash basket, the confinement box lid closed, and the wash basket rotated for a fixed cycle time. During this cycle, basin water will be flushed through the wash basket and containment box to remove and entrain the sludge and carry it out of the box. Primary cleaning tests were performed to provide information concerning the removal of sludge from the fuel assemblies while in the basin canisters. The testing was also used to determine if additional fuel cleaning is required outside of the fuel canisters. Hydraulic performance and water demand requirements of the cleaning station were also evaluated. Thirty tests are reported in this document. Tests demonstrated that sludge can be dislodged and suspended sufficiently to remove it from the canister. Examination of fuel elements after cleaning suggested that more than 95% of the exposed fuel surfaces were cleaned so that no visual evidence of remained. As a result of testing, recommendations are made for the cleaning cycle. 3 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. The implementation of clean development mechanism (CDM) in the construction and built environment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to human activities are the main contributors to global climate change, a problem that should not be ignored. Through the clean development mechanism (CDM) introduced under the Kyoto Protocol, developing countries are able to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits through a myriad of emission reduction projects. This study aims to explore the potential of implementing CDM projects in the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry, which has been criticized for not only consuming an enormous amount of resources, but also for contributing to adverse environmental health. In this research, we limit the boundary of the C and BE industry to include the planning, procurement, construction, occupation and refurbishment/demolition phases of a project's life cycle. Surveys and in-depth follow-up interviews with experts have generated useful insights pertaining to CDM potential and its adaptation into the C and BE industry. From this foundation, this paper evaluates the current obstacles to CDM and presents feasible suggestions to increase CDM projects related to the C and BE industry. - Highlights: • We review the development and limitation of CDM relates to the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry. • We obtain experts' opinions on the feasibility of CDM in the C and BE industry. • Validation, monitoring, verification and additionality of CDM projects are crucial. • Experts agreed that most of our suggestions are feasible in principle

  4. Development of small size wall cleaning machine : SPIDER; Genshiryoku hatsudenshoyo kogatahekimen josenki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi; Fujita, Takaaki; Sakakishi, Koji

    1999-02-15

    An attempt has been made to examine the development of a relatively small size cleaning machine for application in the narrow space in reactor walls. At nuclear power stations, the wall surfaces of reactor pools are decontaminated to ensure safe for the workers etc., during scheduled outage periods. We would have to use a gondola or scaffold which could result in falls during the work because of the height and size of the wall of the reactorwell. Furthermore, hard physical work would be demanded as well as possibly a greater exposure to radiation than work. Under the circumstances, ATOX has been developing various kinds of wall cleaners for over 20 years to cope with these problems. In this paper we shall introduce the process and the design concept of Small Wall Cleaner, SPIDER, developed for narrow areas and/or areas with obstacles to which conventional bigger type wall cleaners couldn't be applied. In addition, we report the results of a hot test conducted on real contaminated walls in a nuclear power station. (author)

  5. FEASIBILITY AND FINANCIAL ISSUES OF CLEAN PROJECT DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Fronti, Inés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to determine the current status and perspectives presented in Argentina in 2011 for different stakeholders regarding the development, execution and implementation of projects of clean development mechanism (CDM under the Kioto Protocol, with emphasis on the analysis of accounting issues.In the Argentinean research there is an analysis of the accounting issues under discussion and -taking as theirtory the Brazilian study mentioned- has surveyed and interviewed stakeholders belonging to government agencies, professional bodies such as councils accounting professionals in economics from different jurisdictions, academics, consultants and companies that deal or CDM projects plan to address issues relating to general and their views on potential regulations from bodies of the accounting profession and/or governmental and motivation of business and accounting issues of CDM projects such as moments of recognition of accounting entries and the different forms of the same recognition. The results showed that knowledge on the subject of stakeholders is initial but is possible an important increase in the future, accompanied by the development in Argentina of such projects.

  6. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered. PMID:26497761

  7. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project was focused on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate deaminase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative C-N bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments resulted in the isolation of microbial cultures that utilize aromatic amides as sole nitrogen sources, several amidase genes were cloned and were included in directed evolution experiments to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. During the second year of the project (October, 2003-September, 2004) enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating a mixed bacterial culture that can utilize 2-aminobiphenyl as a sole nitrogen source, directed evolution experiments were focused on the aniline dioxygenase enzyme that is capable of deaminating aniline, and expression vectors were constructed to enable the expression of genes encoding C-N bond cleaving enzymes in Rhodococcus hosts. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the

  8. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane III

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project will focus on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate amidase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative CN bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. The project is on schedule and no major difficulties have been encountered. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments have resulted in the isolation of promising cultures that may be capable of cleaving C-N bonds in aromatic amides, several amidase genes have been cloned and are currently undergoing directed evolution to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. Future research will address expression of these genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis. Enrichment culture experiments and directed evolution experiments continue to be a main focus of research activity and further work is required to obtain an appropriate amidase that will selectively cleave C-N bonds in aromatic substrates. Once an appropriate amidase gene is obtained it must be combined with genes encoding an enzyme capable of converting carbazole to 2'aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol: specifically carA genes. The carA genes from two sources have been cloned and are ready for construction of C-N bond cleavage

  9. Reaching sustainability: Combining sustainable development with emission reductions in the Clean Development Mechanism. A study of the sustainability contributions in the CDM projects with Norwegian investment

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsen, Marie Koksvik

    2014-01-01

    Revised version: Acknowledgements added This thesis investigates how projects of The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contribute to sustainable development. These are projects with the dual objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to sustainable development. As these projects' contributions to sustainable development vary considerably, this thesis investigates combinations of factors in order to explain these variations. Which factors are decisive for obtaining substa...

  10. Improving or Disproving Sustainable Development in the Clean Development Mechanism in the Midst of a Financial Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Macdonald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol is a dual purpose mechanism aiming to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable development. However the CDM, as a market mechanism, seems incapable of fulfilling this latter purpose. Bui lding on the dichotomy between market liberalism and sustainable development as identified by D.M. Driesen, this paper argues that the CDM has become a schizophrenic mechanism trying to achieve two mutually exclusive aims. The paper discusses options for improving sustainable development in the CDM, but concludes these options are either impractical or impossible to pursue. The 'development dividend' (as per A. Cosbey, et al is likely to forever be in arrears. The CDM should explicitly acknowledge its sustainable development failings. This brings into question the CDM's very existence. The paper also comments on the effect the financial crisis might have on the carbon market, so crucial for the CDM. The article suggests that the financial crisis will make it even more difficult for the CDM to pursue its sustainable development aim.

  11. How to use the clean development mechanism in the residential sector? The case of Brazilian refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of simple and reliable emission baselines is crucial to foster clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. This paper assesses a project methodology that could boost large-scale energy-efficiency projects in the sector of domestic appliances. The baseline appliance is defined a priori in a 'conservative' manner as the design option minimizing life-cycle social costs. The project methodology consists in a program which rebates new appliances according to their emission savings compared to the baseline. Is the proposed baseline acceptable? What could be the impact of such project on emissions? To address these questions, we look for insights from a hypothetical case on Brazilian refrigerators. A rational choice model is developed which assumes that households select design options minimizing life-cycle private costs. Results suggest that electricity tariff distortions and financial constraints might hamper project performances and allow significant free-riding. Low income households remain trapped into low-efficiency choices and high income households adopt outperforming appliances, whether rebated or not. However, simple solutions likely to improve the project methodology do exist

  12. Environmental Rights for Administering Clean and Healthy Environment towards Sustainable Development in Malaysia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is one of the environmentally rich and developing countries in the globe which is in fact, very attractiveand charming to all. But her bounty has been degrading gradually due to environmental pollution and therefore,the people’s rights are not maintained & ensured properly as guaranteed by their constitution which is also partof the environmental rights in the light of the international environmental laws. Meanwhile, the Government ofMalaysia passed some important environmental laws including ‘the Environmental Quality Act 1974; theEnvironmental Quality Regulations 1989 and the Environmental Quality Order 1989 etc; along with theinternational environmental laws in order to keep the clean and healthy environment but not yet been properlydone in compliance with the above laws. Consequently, sustainability may not be made possible. It may alsoaffect the biodiversities in flora and fauna. Moreover, it is observed that the existing legal mechanisms are notfriendly with the environment and development due to absence of environmental governance including theinsufficient environmental provisions, inadequate penal provisions, lack of political commitment, lack ofresources, unawareness, short term planning etc.

  13. Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism. Lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforestation is currently the source of about 20% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Avoided deforestation has, nonetheless, been ruled out as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) category in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period, because several methodological issues were considered too difficult to resolve. This paper explores whether CDM issues such as (1) carbon quantification, (2) additionality and baseline setting, (3) leakage risks, (4) non-permanence risks, and (5) sustainable development can be adequately dealt with in large, diversified forest conservation projects. To this aim, it studies the case of the Costa Rican Protected Areas Project (PAP), an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project which was meant to consolidate the national park system to avoid deforestation, promote the growth of secondary forests and regenerate pastures on an area that, in total, covers 10% of the national territory. The case study examines how the issues mentioned above have been addressed in the project design and in the certification process. It is found that baseline uncertainties are the major problem in this case. Nonetheless, the case suggests the possibility to address CDM issues by specific requirements for project design and very conservative and temporary crediting. Provided that other case studies support this conclusion, eligibility of well-designed forest conservation projects under the CDM in the second commitment period may be worth considering, given the secondary benefits of avoided deforestation

  14. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  15. Development of electro-optic systems for self cleaning concentrated solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jeremy W.

    The current demand for energy usage in the world is increasing at a rapid pace; in China alone, the electricity usage has increased by 12% per year from 2006-2010, where more than 75% of electrical power is produced by coal burning facilities. Numerous studies have shown the effects of carbon dioxide emissions on global climate change, and even showing the permanence of high carbon dioxide levels after emissions cease. Current trends away from carbon emitting power facilities are pushing solar energy into a position for many new solar power plants to be constructed. Terrestrial solar energy at AM1.5 is generally given at 1kW/m2, which is a vast free source of energy that can be be harvested to meet the global demand for electricity. Aside from some areas receiving intermittent levels of solar insolation, one of the largest hindrances to large scale solar power production is obscuration of sunlight on solar collectors caused by dust deposition. In areas with the highest average solar insolation, dust deposition is a major problem for maintaining a constant maximum power output. The southern Negev desert in Israel receives on average 17g/m2 per month in dust deposition on solar installations, which in turn causes losses of a third of the total power output of the installation. In these areas, water is a scarce commodity, which can only be used to clean solar installations at a prohibitive cost. To resolve this problem, a cost effective solution would be the application of electrodynamic screens (EDS), which can be implemented by embedding a set of parallel electrodes into the sun facing surface of solar collectors, including concentrating mirrors or photovoltaic (PV) modules, and applying a low frequency pulsed voltage to these electrodes. Three major contributions made in the course of this research in advancing (EDS) for self-cleaning solar mirrors are: (1) development of non-contact specular reflectometer for solar mirrors that allows measurement of reflectance

  16. The e7 guide to implementing projects under the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The e7 was formed in 1992 to play an active role in global electricity issues and to promote sustainable development. It consists of nine leading electricity companies: American Electric Power (United States), Electricite de France (France), ENEL (Italy), Hydro-Quebec (Canada), The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. (Japan), Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (Canada), RWE (Germany), ScottishPower (United Kingdom), and Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan). This report provides a guide to help develop projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which is an instrument that allows public or private entities to invest in greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigating activities in developing countries and earn credits in an emission trading system. The dual objectives of the CDM, one of three mechanisms set out in the Kyoto Protocol, are the reduction of global GHG emissions and a contribution to sustainable development in the host country. The guidelines and procedures detailed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and the related Protocols and Accords, were followed in the preparation of this document. Recommendations based on e7 experience were also included. The criteria for success were stated, and additionality was discussed. Additionality refers to the reductions of emissions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence of the certified project activity. The baseline methodology was described. Project Design Document (PDD) is the format that must be used for presenting the information pertaining to a project and its evaluation. PDD contents include: general description of the project activity, baseline methodology, identification of crediting period, monitoring methodology and plan, calculation of GHG emissions by sources, environmental impacts, and stakeholder comments. Third party verification, and project risk and transaction costs were also addressed. refs., tabs., figs

  17. 26 CFR 17.1 - Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER 26 U.S.C. 103(c) § 17.1 Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules. 17.1 Section 17.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  18. Research and development of Ro-boat: an autonomous river cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aakash; Bhardwaj, Prashant; Vaibhav, Bipul; Mohommad, Noor

    2013-12-01

    Ro-Boat is an autonomous river cleaning intelligent robot incorporating mechanical design and computer vision algorithm to achieve autonomous river cleaning and provide a sustainable environment. Ro-boat is designed in a modular fashion with design details such as mechanical structural design, hydrodynamic design and vibrational analysis. It is incorporated with a stable mechanical system with air and water propulsion, robotic arms and solar energy source and it is proceed to become autonomous by using computer vision. Both "HSV Color Space" and "SURF" are proposed to use for measurements in Kalman Filter resulting in extremely robust pollutant tracking. The system has been tested with successful results in the Yamuna River in New Delhi. We foresee that a system of Ro-boats working autonomously 24x7 can clean a major river in a city on about six months time, which is unmatched by alternative methods of river cleaning.

  19. Research and development on air cleaning system of reprocessing plant in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present status in Japan of R and D on air cleaning systems, especially of the fuel reprocessing plant is summarized. The description is centered on the R and D and experience of Tokai-reprocessing plant, which covers the plant air cleaning system, effort carried out for decreasing I2 effluence in the actual vented off-gas, and R and D for recovery of Kr and 3H. Some experimental results for the evaluation of HEPA filter are also described

  20. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  1. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO2eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects

  2. Policies for the design and operation of the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourcade, J.Ch. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED-CNRS/EHESS), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Toman, M. [Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington D.C. (United States)

    2003-07-01

    On September 24-25 1999, CIRED and RFF held a workshop at CIRED to explore a number of key policy issues surrounding the design and operation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This mechanism, created as part of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), has been the subject of much ongoing negotiation and debate. The multinational participants assembled not to seek consensus but to promote better understanding of commonalties and differences in views in a non politicized setting, as well as to see what new ideas and understandings might emerge from the discussions. The meetings were informal and ''off the record'' to promote frank exchange. This document is a summary of the discussions as seen through the eyes of the two co-organizers. We have tried to reflect as well as possible the range and diversity of the thoughts expressed at the meeting, and we have circulated this summary to other participants for their comments. But we alone are responsible for its content. (author)

  3. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufoni, André Luiz, E-mail: bufoni@facc.ufrj.br [Energy Planning Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro PPE/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luciano Basto [International Virtual Institute of Global Changes IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Energy Planning Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro PPE/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects.

  4. Dynamics of technology shifts in the household sector-implications for clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper attempts to analyse the dynamics of energy end-use technology shifts in the household sector in India. The technology shifts can be categorized as naturally occurring shifts (with increasing household incomes and availability of energy carriers) and policy-induced shifts (by creating a favourable environment). Initially, the households energy usage patterns, types of energy carriers and the technologies in use are analysed using the data from the National Sample Survey (1999-2000). The energy consumption is disaggregated according to end-use activity and by income groups for rural as well as urban households. It is observed that large variations in energy use exist across different sections of households-urban/rural, low/high-income groups, etc. Further, the paper provides a methodological framework for the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies, and the implications of such diffusions for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It analyses the reasons for the gap between possible and practical implementation of energy-efficient measures, study the reasons for households not using the cost-effective technologies available to them, the benefits of innovation of energy efficiency, and the required policies and specific proposals for government intervention to achieve the potential for the CDM

  5. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2015-09-01

    This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the 'waste handling and disposal sector' (13) over the past ten years (2004-2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO2eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves 'not financially attractive' without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects. PMID:26123976

  6. Development of Hydrocracking Catalyst to Produce High Quality Clean Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    A novel hydrocracking Ni-W binary catalyst was tentatively designed and prepared by means of impregnation on mixed supports of modified Y zeolite and amorphous aluminosilicate. The structure and properties of catalyst were extensively characterized by XRD, NH3-TPD, IR and XRF techniques. The performance of catalyst was evaluated by a 100-ml hydrogenation laboratory test unit with two single-stage fixed-bed reactors connected in series. The characterization results showed that the catalyst has a developed and concentrated mesopores distribution, suitable acid sites and acid strength distribution, and uniform and high dispersion of metal sites. Under a high conversion rate of 73.8% with the >350℃ feedstock, a 98. 1m% of C5+yield and 83.5% of middle distillates selectivity were obtained. The yield of middle distillates boiling between 140℃and 370℃ was 68.70m% and its quality could meet the WWFC category Ⅲ specification. It means that this catalyst could be used to produce more high quality clean middle distillates derived from heavy oil hydrocracking. The potential aromatic content of heavy naphtha from 65℃ to 140℃ was 37.5m%. The BMCI value of >370℃ tail oil was 6.6. The heavy naphtha and tail oil are premium feedstocks for catalytic reforming and steam cracker units.

  7. Renewable energy projects under the clean development mechanism : myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the fate of Renewable Energy (RE) in Canada. The importance of RE is now increasing from both an environmental and energy security perspective, and has been projected as a key solution to climate change problems. RE is also one of the key greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options to be considered under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Canada possesses more than 100 GW of technical potential for RE resources, including wind, solar and small hydro. Less than 10 per cent of this potential has been exploited to date. A number of programs have been developed to facilitate the deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs), including financial incentives, renewable portfolio standards and green power procurement policies. However, Canadian policies are less aggressive than those of other countries. This study showed that the supply of certified emission reductions (CERs) resulting from negative and low cost CDM options, such as energy efficiency improvements, afforestation and reforestation, could surpass the total demand for CERs during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Implementation of RE projects under the CDM could be undermined. It was recommended that increased support of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), use of the Special Climate Change Fund, and special attention to RE from both host and investing countries should become mandatory as alternative strategies to promote RE. In addition, it should be acknowledged that the development of RETs faces a number of barriers and challenges, including competition from conventional energy technologies; lack of customer and investor confidence; regulatory and institutional barriers; and technical barriers such as transmission access. 19 refs., 1 tab

  8. Development of a novel plasma scanning technique for high-quality anodic bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jim-Wei; Yang, Chii-Rong; Huang, Che-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Anodic bonding is a type of nonintermediate wafer bonding technique that has been widely used in microelectromechanical systems for sealing devices or assembling microstructures. However, the conventional anodic bonding method has a limitation. The specimens being bonded must typically be in contact with the anode and cathode electrodes during the bonding process. In general, the initial bonding position corresponds to the contact area of the two electrodes; subsequently, the bonded region gradually extends to cover the entire target region. Nevertheless, the traditional diffuse bonding method provides limited bonding efficiency in industrial applications. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel plasma bonding technique for 2D scanning anodic bonding. In this technique, the plasma is positioned to simultaneously heat and bond specimens. We conducted an experiment that entailed bonding 4-inch silicon/glass wafers by using N2 plasma. The results revealed that an almost bubble-free bonded interface and an average bonding strength exceeding 37 MPa were achieved for a bonding time of 15 min 53 s, bonding voltage of 2 kV, noncontact distance (between the cathode electrode and the bonding specimens) of 3 mm, variable raster scan path, scan speed of 3 mm s-1, and continuous scan steps of 2.5 mm in the x- and y-axes. A comprehensive series of experiments were performed to validate the bonding performance of the proposed technique.

  9. Development of a novel plasma scanning technique for high-quality anodic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodic bonding is a type of nonintermediate wafer bonding technique that has been widely used in microelectromechanical systems for sealing devices or assembling microstructures. However, the conventional anodic bonding method has a limitation. The specimens being bonded must typically be in contact with the anode and cathode electrodes during the bonding process. In general, the initial bonding position corresponds to the contact area of the two electrodes; subsequently, the bonded region gradually extends to cover the entire target region. Nevertheless, the traditional diffuse bonding method provides limited bonding efficiency in industrial applications. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel plasma bonding technique for 2D scanning anodic bonding. In this technique, the plasma is positioned to simultaneously heat and bond specimens. We conducted an experiment that entailed bonding 4-inch silicon/glass wafers by using N2 plasma. The results revealed that an almost bubble-free bonded interface and an average bonding strength exceeding 37 MPa were achieved for a bonding time of 15 min 53 s, bonding voltage of 2 kV, noncontact distance (between the cathode electrode and the bonding specimens) of 3 mm, variable raster scan path, scan speed of 3 mm s−1, and continuous scan steps of 2.5 mm in the x- and y-axes. A comprehensive series of experiments were performed to validate the bonding performance of the proposed technique. (paper)

  10. Application and development of quantum chemical methods. Density functional theory and valence bond theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Fuming

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with two disjoint subdiciplines of quantum chemistry.  One isthe most used electronic structure method today, density functional theory(DFT), and the other one of the least used electronic structure methods,valence bond theory (VB).  The work on DFT is based on previous developments inthe department in density functional response theory and involves studies ofhyperfine coupling constants which are measured in electron paramagneticresonance experiments.  The method employed i...

  11. FACTORS THAT IMPEDE VIABLE BOND MARKET DEVELOPMENT IN ONE HYPERINFLATIONARY ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Sibanda; Job Dubihlela

    2013-01-01

    This study offers an assessment of the viability of the fixed income securities market for one hyperinflationary economy since 1997 when its financial market took a volatile shape. The financial sector (banks) continues to grapple in trying to address inflationary pressures, while long term lending for capital development (bond market) including the secondary market is struggling to take off the ground. The combined effects of short-term interest rate volatility, political instability and hyp...

  12. Enabling clean access into Subglacial Lake Whillans: development and use of the WISSARD hot water drill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Frank R

    2016-01-28

    Clean hot water drill systems (CHWDSs) are used with clean access protocols for the exploration of subglacial lakes and other subglacial aquatic environments (e.g. ice-shelf cavities) in Antarctica. A CHWDS developed for the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project by the Science Management Office at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL-SMO), USA, was specifically designed for use in West Antarctica, where the US Antarctic Program's South Pole Traverse could assist with logistical support. The initial goal was to provide clean access holes through ice up to 1000 m thick following environmental stewardship guidelines; however, the existing design allows this CHWDS to be used for ice thicknesses up to 2000 m following modifications to accommodate longer hose lengths. In January 2013, the WISSARD CHWDS successfully provided for the first time a clean access borehole through 800 m of ice into Subglacial Lake Whillans beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for the deployment of scientific instruments and sampling tools. The development and initial use of the WISSARD CHWDS required the project team to address a number of constraints while providing contingencies to meet the defined project scope, schedule and budget. PMID:26667915

  13. Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Restoration Using the Clean Development Mechanism: A Case Study from Humbo, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas R.; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa

    2011-08-01

    Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation—the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits—facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project—empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands.

  14. Development of test protocols for effectiveness testing and working mechanisms for shoreline cleaning agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstad, S.; Hansen, B.H.; Daling, P.; Frenzel, M.; Oksenvag, J.H.C. [SINTEF Marine Environmental Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Merlin, F. [Cedre, Brest Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    One major spill and smaller accidental spills have occurred off the Norwegian Coast since the petroleum industry began operation in the area over 50 years ago. To date, no oil from these offshore spills has reached the coastal area, but with the expansion of the oil industry on the Norwegian continental shelf, there is a need for an effective shoreline cleanup response contingency. In general, shoreline cleanup operations are performed over a very long time period with rather low efficacy and generation of large quantities of waste materials. For these reasons, there is a need to develop and implement new and more cost-effective shore line protection, cleanup techniques and strategies. The primary purpose of this work was to develop test protocols for effectiveness quantification of shoreline cleaning agents (SCAs) to better understand their working mechanisms and effectiveness in treating oil-contaminated shorelines. A stepwise test regime was recommended to the Norwegian Climate and Pollution Agency. The test regime considers product ecotoxicology along with dispersibility and effectiveness. Its aim is to contribute to a better understanding for tactical use of these products in different spill scenarios. The paper reviewed non-mechanical in-situ shoreline cleanup techniques; shoreline washing and dispersing agents; bioremediation agents; ecotoxicity testing; dispersibility testing of SCAs; Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) test of shoreline dispersants; wash-out effectiveness testing of shoreline dispersants on oil-contaminated bedrock using the simulated shoreline system (SSS); wave energy; oil type and soak time; and exposure period. Guidelines for the effective use of the proposed products were recommended based on data from these studies. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Suppressed Demand and the Carbon Markets: Does development have to become dirty before it qualifies to become clean?

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaldão, Marina; Battye, William; Grapeloup, Mathieu; François, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Suppressed Demand refers to a situation where Minimum Services Levels (MSL) necessary for human development are unavailable to people or only available to an inadequate level. Numerous barriers, such as low income levels or lack of infrastructure and skills prevent access to MSLs, such as potable water, cooking energy, lighting and electrification. We investigate the concept of suppressed demand as it applies to Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and market based incentives for GHG emission re...

  16. Toward an effective implementation of clean development mechanism projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the already huge and growing amount of greenhouse gas emissions and a great deal of low-cost abatement options available, China is widely expected as the world's number one host country of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. But, making this potential a reality represents a significant challenge for China, because there has been a general lack of awareness by both the Chinese government and business communities, clear institutional structure, and implementation strategy. This has raised great concern about China's ability to compete internationally for CDM projects and exploit fully its CDM potential. This paper aims to address how CDM projects will be effectively implemented in China by examining the major CDM capacity building projects in China with bilateral and multilateral donors, the treatment of low-cost, non-priority CDM projects, and how a system for application, approval, and implementation of CDM projects is set up in China and what roles the main institutional actors are going to play in the system. We conclude that these capacity building assistances, the establishment of streamlined and transparent CDM procedures and sound governance, and the lessons learned and experience gained from the implementation of the CDM project in Inner Mongolia and the two Prototype Carbon Fund' projects will help China to take advantage of CDM opportunities. Moreover, in order to further capitalize on its CDM potential, there is a pressing need for the Chinese government to amend its current interim CDM regulations, in particular those controversial provisions on the eligibility to participate in CDM projects in China and the distribution of the revenues derived from CDM project between the project developer and the Chinese government. We believe that taking these capacity building projects and the recommended actions to clearly define the sustainable development objective of the CDM and disseminate CDM knowledge to local authorities and project developers as

  17. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  18. Optimal sampling plan for clean development mechanism lighting projects with lamp population decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A metering cost minimisation model is built with the lamp population decay to optimise CDM lighting projects sampling plan. • The model minimises the total metering cost and optimise the annual sample size during the crediting period. • The required 90/10 criterion sampling accuracy is satisfied for each CDM monitoring report. - Abstract: This paper proposes a metering cost minimisation model that minimises metering cost under the constraints of sampling accuracy requirement for clean development mechanism (CDM) energy efficiency (EE) lighting project. Usually small scale (SSC) CDM EE lighting projects expect a crediting period of 10 years given that the lighting population will decay as time goes by. The SSC CDM sampling guideline requires that the monitored key parameters for the carbon emission reduction quantification must satisfy the sampling accuracy of 90% confidence and 10% precision, known as the 90/10 criterion. For the existing registered CDM lighting projects, sample sizes are either decided by professional judgment or by rule-of-thumb without considering any optimisation. Lighting samples are randomly selected and their energy consumptions are monitored continuously by power meters. In this study, the sampling size determination problem is formulated as a metering cost minimisation model by incorporating a linear lighting decay model as given by the CDM guideline AMS-II.J. The 90/10 criterion is formulated as constraints to the metering cost minimisation problem. Optimal solutions to the problem minimise the metering cost whilst satisfying the 90/10 criterion for each reporting period. The proposed metering cost minimisation model is applicable to other CDM lighting projects with different population decay characteristics as well

  19. Development of a Systematic Approach to Post-Operation Clean Out at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) relates to the activities undertaken directly after commercial operations cease to remove residual activity and facilitate decommissioning of a nuclear facility. Historically the transition of Sellafield facilities has proved sub-optimal resulting in loss of critical plant knowledge, additional cost and protracted delivery timelines. The move from reprocessing in Magnox and Thorp to POCO is a significant transition facing the site, with a large number of diverse facilities scheduled to cease operations over the next 15 years. In order to ensure that the facilities are dealt with in a consistent manner, that supports both Site and Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) strategies, the POCO programme has been established across the Sellafield Operations Division. Primary aims of the POCO programme are: - Risk and Hazard Reduction; - Enabling redeployment of resource and capability; - Life-cycle cost reduction; - Enhanced Reputation. Transition preparations will cover process, organisation, technology and information. Knowledge is a key output of POCO: the creation of records of the plant configuration and status to enable and support the safe and effective eventual decommissioning of the plant. The consistent approach that has been developed will: - Ensure the smooth transition from operations into POCO, and then into surveillance and maintenance. - Maximise the potential of facilities to support other site activities prior to POCO. - Optimise the facility schedules within the overall POCO programme, to ensure timely decoupling. - Define and manage the resource demands and capabilities prior to and during POCO. - Provide a baseline configuration for each facility at the end of the POCO phase. - Encourage and enable knowledge management to ensure that subsequent decommissioning activities are informed and supported. - Look for opportunities to progress housekeeping and co-processing activities so as to reduce inventory and make best

  20. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  1. 滤料清洗剂的研制与应用%Development and application of the filter cleaning agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱成华; 侍路勇; 王富来; 孙文山; 杨立

    2012-01-01

    The filter of oilfield waste water filtration systems mainly adsorbs the surface contaminants from the oil, suspended impurities, bacteria and their products, ferrous sulfide,iron oxide, scale, and EOR polymer and other chemical agents,it's difficult to do filter cleaning with low temperature,the former cleaning agent degreasing rate is too low to meet the needs of on-site production. For cleaning filter of oilfield waste water filtering system, based on surface active agent cleaning principle, developed through experiments and screening, filter cleaning agent formulations, with a low temperature, low foaming, efficient degreasing,good matching, economic, environment protection and so on. The de-greasing rate is greater than 95%,entirely suitable for on- site operation requirements.%油田污水过滤系统的滤料表面主要吸附的污物有油污、悬浮杂质、细菌及其产物、硫化亚铁、氧化铁、水垢及三次采油用聚合物等,滤料清洗温度低、难度大,以往的清洗剂除油率低,难以满足生产现场需要.针对油田污水过滤系统中滤料的清洗,依据表面活性剂清洗原理,通过实验与筛选,研制出的滤料清洗剂配方,具有低温低泡沫、高效除油、良好的配套性、经济环保等特点,除油率大于95%,经油田现场应用完全符合生产要求.

  2. Effect of Metal Bond-Pad Configurations on the Solder Microstructure Development of Flip-Chip Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y. J.; Hsu, Y. C.; Huang, T. S.; Lu, C. T.; Wu, Albert T.; Liu, C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Various microstructural zones were observed in the solidified solder of flip-chip solder joints with three metal bond-pad configurations (Cu/Sn/Cu, Ni/Sn/Cu, and Cu/Sn/Ni). The developed microstructures of the solidified flip-chip solder joints were strongly related to the associated metal bond pad. A hypoeutectic microstructure always developed near the Ni bond pad, and a eutectic or hypereutectic microstructure formed near the Cu pad. The effect of the metal bond pads on the solder microstructure alters the Cu solubility in the molten solder. The Cu content (solubility) in the molten Sn(Cu) solder eventually leads to the development of particular microstructures. In addition to the effect of the associated metal bond pads, the developed microstructure of the flip-chip solder joint depends on the configuration of the metal bond pads. A hypereutectic microstructure formed near the bottom Cu pad, and a eutectic microstructure formed near the top Cu pad. Directional cooling in the flip-chip solder joint during the solidification process causes the effects of the metal bond-pad configuration. Directional cooling causes the Cu content to vary in the liquid Sn(Cu) phase, resulting in the formation of distinct microstructural zones in the developed microstructure of the flip-chip solder joint.

  3. Low-carbon innovation and technology transfer in latecomer countries: Insights from solar PV in the clean development mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lema, Rasmus; Lema, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational arrangements for technology supply in solar photovoltaic projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It shows that while lower middle-income countries typically import solar PV equipment into CDM projects, China, India and Thailand have begun to use new organizational arrangements for technology transfer which reflect the overall industry maturity in the solar PV sectors in these countries. This has great potential for long-term climate change mit...

  4. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  5. Development of a Standardized Procedure for Cleaning Glass Apparatus in Analytical Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUDSON C. POLONINI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adequate cleaning of analytical glassware is an essential procedure that determines the reliability of assays and tests carried out in laboratories, keeping the glassware free of interference from residues left by previous tests. In the present paper, standard cleaning procedures are proposed for laboratory glassware, which were tested on cyanocobalamin as a marker contaminant. A spectrophotometric method was used for quantitative determination of both residual marker and cleaning product. Beakers, volumetric flasks and volumetric pipettes were successfully cleaned with a 2% detergent solution, with several rinses in water. Vials were cleaned adequately in an ultrasonic bath. These procedures utilize non-toxic and cheap reagents, factors of paramount importance for their application in routine laboratory analysis. Keywords: Validation Studies. Detergents. Laboratory Techniques and Procedures. Glassware Cleaning. RESUMO Desenvolvimento de procedimento padronizado para a lavagem de vidraria em laboratórios analíticos A lavagem da vidraria analítica é um procedimento essencial e determinante na confiabilidade dos resultados de testes e ensaios, a despeito da interferência dos resíduos de análises anteriores. Neste trabalho, foram propostos procedimentos de limpeza de vidrarias utilizando cianocobalamina como um marcador da eficiência de limpeza. Foi utilizado método espectrofotométrico para determinação dos resíduos do marcador e também do agente de limpeza. Béqueres, balões volumétricos e pipetas volumétricas foram comprovadamente limpos com detergente a 2% e múltiplos enxágues. Vials e seringas foram apropriadamente limpos utilizando-se banho ultrassônico. Esses procedimentos de limpeza fazem uso de reagentes baratos e não tóxicos, parâmetros de suma importância para sua aplicação em rotina laboratorial de análises físico-químicas. Palavras-chave: Estudos de Validação. Detergentes. Técnicas e

  6. A new method for development of bond-order potentials for transition bcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new development of numerical bond-order potentials (BOPs) for the non-magnetic transition metals V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W is presented. The principles on which the BOPs have been set up are the same as in earlier developments (Aoki et al 2007 Prog. Mater. Sci. 52 154). However, the bond integrals are based on the recently advanced method of parametrization of tight-binding from DFT calculations (Madsen et al 2011 Phys. Rev. B 83 4119, Urban et al 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 155119) and do not require any screening. At the same time, the functional form of the environmentally dependent repulsion is identified with the functional form of the repulsion arising from the overlap of s and p electrons in argon as proposed in Aoki and Kurokawa (2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 136228). This is justified by the same physical origin of the environment dependent repulsion, which in transition metals arises from the overlap of s electrons that are being squeezed into the ion core regions under the influence of the strong covalent d bonds. The testing of the developed BOPs involves investigation of alternative higher energy structures, transformation paths connecting the bcc structure with other structures via continuously distorted configurations, evaluation of the vacancy formation energy and calculation of phonon spectra. In all cases, the BOP calculations are in more than satisfactory agreement with either DFT calculations and/or available experimental data. The calculated γ-surfaces for {1 0 1} planes all suggest that the core of 1/2〈1 1 1〉 screw dislocations is non-degenerate in the transition metals. This is also in full agreement with available calculations that account fully for the quantum-mechanical nature of the d electrons that provide the bulk of the bonding in transition metals. The testing of developed BOPs clearly demonstrates that they are transferable to structures well outside the regime of the ideal bcc lattice and are suitable for investigating the

  7. Multivariate Analysis of Short and Long-Impact Indicators for Corporate Bond Market Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Astrauskaitė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An additional instrument or established access to the capital market funding would increase business opportunities for performance, development, growth, channeling financing for sustainable and long-term economic growth and job creation. Capital market and its level of development or further development opportunities are exposed to different factors. Clear identification of them mobilizes the attention of accurate and useful decisions or actions influencing the expected results, their adoption and implementation, monitoring. With the purpose to identify a set of factors influencing the capital market deve lopment as well as to introduce a model of their short term and long term impact projections, the ARDL model for the US and Lithuanian cases is introduced. The concluding remarks state on different legal and regulatory framework, banking sector and ICT measures exposures to the different stages of the corporate bond market development.

  8. Credit ratings and cross-border bond market spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Böninghausen, Benjamin; Zabel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies spillovers across sovereign debt markets in the wake of sovereign rating changes. We compile an extensive dataset covering all announcements by the three major agencies (Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, Fitch) and daily sovereign bond market movements of up to 73 developed and emerging countries between 1994 and 2011. To cleanly identify the existence of spillover effects, we perform an explicit counterfactual analysis which pits bond market reactions to small revisions in ratin...

  9. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  10. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  11. Application of Commercial Sorbent into Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field for Clean Coal technologies Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, H.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced applications of producer gas (e.g. fuel cells, catalytic processes for liquid fuels production) require deep gas cleaning. Dry desulfurization technologies of fuel gas select appropriate sorbents according to material’s physical and chemical properties like sulfur capacity, attainable sulphur concentration in gas, price, etc.. The properties of a commercial sorbent were determined by means of XRD, ICP-OES, SEM and surface area measurement. The main components of the sorbent were ZnO,...

  12. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  13. Going Clean - The Economics of China's Low-carbon Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallding, Karl; Thai, Helen; Han, Guoyi; Olsson, Marie; Kartha, Sivan (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)); Eklund, Klas (SEB, Stockholm (Sweden)); SU Ming (Peking Univ. (China)); Cao Jing (Tsinghua Univ. (China)); Luderer (Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact (Germany))

    2009-11-15

    -scale abatement. Carbon pricing mechanisms can also assist clean technology objectives, as anticipation of higher carbon prices sets an incentive to develop low-carbon technology and products, and can thus steer investments in this direction. In addition, we propose a new international finance mechanism - the Inter-country Joint Mitigation Plan - as a broader and more efficient way of financing technology transfers. There needs to be a substantial, stable and predictable source of international finance, accompanied by market reform and regulatory mechanisms that can recognise, support and deepen domestic mitigation and adaptation efforts. International assistance will fuel and accelerate China's shift to a knowledge-based economy. China faces a monumental challenge and a historic opportunity. The transition to a low-carbon society will require large investments but also bring about substantial benefits, not only to China but to the entire world

  14. Enrichment Planting in Secondary Forests: a Promising Clean Development Mechanism to Increase Terrestrial Carbon Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Potvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations, afforestation and reforestation (A/R projects are being implemented under the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM and under the voluntary carbon (C market. The specific objective of A/R C projects is to enhance terrestrial sinks. They could also provide low-income communities in developing countries with a source of revenue, as well as a number of ecological and social services. However, feasibility issues have hindered implementation of A/R CDMs. We propose enrichment planting (EP in old fallow using high-value native timber species as a land-use alternative and a small-scale C projects opportunity. We present EP in the context of ongoing work in a poor indigenous community in eastern Panama. We consider economic risks and advantages and concordance with existing modalities under the compliance market. The potential storage capacity for EP at the site of our study was ~113 Mg C ha-1, which is comparable to other land uses with high C storage, such as industrial teak plantations and primary forest. Because secondary forests show high aboveground biomass production, C projects using EP could harness large amounts of atmospheric C while improving diversity. Carbon projects using EP can also provide high levels of social, cultural, and ecological services by planting native tree species of traditional importance to local communities and preserving most of the secondary forest’s ecological attributes. Therefore, EP planting could be considered as a way to promote synergies between two UN Conventions: climate change and biodiversity. SÍNTESIS Con la necesidad apremiante de reducción de los gases de efecto invernadero, proyectos de aforestación y reforestación (A/R pueden implementarse bajo el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio del Protocolo de Kyoto (MDL o en el contexto del mercado voluntario. El objetivo especifico de los mercados de carbono, voluntario o de compromiso, es de

  15. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  16. Costs of certified emission reductions under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the cost structure of certified emission reductions (CERs) through various types of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Using the CDM project data, the costs of CERs and their variation across technology and over time and space are estimated by applying alternative functional forms and specifications. Results show that the average cost of CERs decreases with the project scale and duration, scale and duration effects significantly vary across project types, and there is an upward trend in costs. The results also show that the distribution of the projects in the CDM portfolio or a given location does not strictly follow the relative cost structure, nor does the distribution of the CDM projects in different host countries follow the principle of comparative advantage. More than 84% of the CDM portfolio consists of various energy projects with substantially higher costs of CERs than afforestation and reforestation, industrial and landfill gas reduction, and methane avoidance projects, which are only 12% of all projects. While per unit cost of abatement plays an important role in the bottom-up and top-down models to evaluate emission reduction potential and analyze policy alternatives, the findings contradict the presumption of such models that project investors seek out low-cost opportunities. At the aggregate level, the cost of CER by the projects in Asia and Europe is similar but higher than those hosted in Africa, Americas, and Oceania. Yet more than 83% of the projects in the CDM portfolio are located in Asia; more than 69% of the projects are in China and India alone. China appears to have a comparative advantage (i.e., lowest opportunity cost) in energy efficiency projects, while India has a comparative advantage in hydro power projects and Brazil has a comparative advantage in wind power projects. In contrast, energy efficiency category accounts for only 8% of the CDM projects in China, hydro power

  17. Development of a Stable TiO2 Nanocomposite Self-Cleaning Coating for Outdoor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Madidi, F.; G. Momen; Farzaneh, M.

    2016-01-01

    A convenient and low-cost approach for the elaboration of a stable superhydrophobic coating is reported, involving the use of TiO2 nanoparticles via the spray coating method. This method can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings on large areas for different kinds of substrates. The synergistic effect of the micro/nanobinary scale roughness was produced by a multilayer RTV SR/TiO2 composite. The influence of the nanofiller concentration in a specific frequency range (40...

  18. Polymerisation shrinkage versus layer thickness of a dentine bonding resin: Method development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarzadeh T

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Dentine bonding systems are usually unfilled, and so their shrinkage may be significant. High"nshrinkage may cause internal stress at the interface between resin-composite restoration and the dentine"nsubstrate. Failure of the adhesive interface may be observed due to the interna! stress. The aims of this"nstudy were:"nA To obtain a suitable method for measuring the kinetics of polymerisation shrinkage in unfilled resm at different thicknesses, particularly for thin films."nB Consideraing the effect of thickness on shrinkage."nScotchbond Multipurpose (3M adhesive bond resin was used. To overcome the particular challenges presented by thin films, a filled-ring measurement procedure was used. Also, a non-contact laser analogue displacement sensor system was developed and applied to measure polymerisation shrinkage. Regression analysis was performed on a complete data set. Non-linear regression analysis established a logarithmic relationship between polymerisation shrinkage and layer thickness. The method applied in this study was found to be sensitive and accurate procedure for determining photo-polymerisation shrinkage of thin films. Polymerisation shrinkage increased with logarithmic of the adhesive thickness.

  19. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  20. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing

  1. Trading carbon tradable offsets under Kyoto's clean development mechanism. The economic advantages to buyers and sellers of using call options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism, developed countries may purchase or trade for emission reduction units or greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets originating either from excess quota allocations or from developing countries' projects. Selling emission reduction units before a market has actually developed presents pricing problems for both sellers and buyers. In the case of sequestered carbon and in the example of a Costa Rican project, it may be economically beneficial to both buyer and seller alike for the buyer to purchase the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a carbon tradable offset (CTO). It is shown by valuing purchases and sales of CTO options that advantages from such an instrument are possible to both seller and buyer at least until a true market in GHG offset trading develops. 16 refs

  2. Sustainable Development Impacts of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the Clean Development Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed to...... assess the SD impacts of NAMAs. This paper argues for a new integrated approach to asses NAMAs' SD impacts that consists of SD indicators, procedures for stakeholder involvement and safeguards against negative impacts. The argument is based on a review of experience with the CDM’s contribution to SD...

  3. Development and application of a new software tool for the basic design of flue gas cleaning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schausberger, P.; Friedl, A. [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Group of Thermal Process Engineering and Simulation, Vienna (Austria); Wieland, A.; Reissner, H. [AE and E Austrian Energy and Environment AG, Flue Gas Cleaning Div., Raaba/Graz (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    The development of a new software tool designed for improvement of the basic engineering of flue-gas cleaning processes and its specific application is presented. The tool is based on the commercially available simulation tool IPSEpro originating from the field of power engineering. Here, a modelling environment enables the enhancement of the existing content: substances, streams and unit operations to be included are structured in an object-oriented manner, the according steady mass and heat balances are setup to yield a system of equations to be solved simultaneously. (orig.)

  4. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick

  5. Development and applications of rectangular box-type explosively bonded structures for high-heat-load beamline components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosive bonding technology is a good choice to join dissimilar materials, such as 304L stainless steel and GlidCop AL-15, and is used extensively in making the advanced photon source (APS) high-heat-load beamline and front-end components. It is a bonding method in which the controlled energy of a detonating explosive is used to create a metallurgical bond between two or more similar or dissimilar materials. In recent years, special explosive bonding units with rectangular box-type joints were developed for the APS new high-heat-load beamline components. Based on this new technique, the box form of the component could be built in two halves first, then welded together. Therefore, beamline designers have more freedom to optimize the cooling surface geometry

  6. The energy efficiency and renewable energy market and the potential for clean development mechanism projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a market overview of the energy efficiency and renewable energy market in Malaysia, and also examines the potential for clean development mechanism projects in that country. As a result of a steadily growing economy, Malaysia's net energy demand is increasing. It is expected that Malaysia will become a net importer of oil by 2008 and that the nation's gas supplies will be completely depleted by 2040. It has forced the government to look for sources of renewable energy and to improve energy efficiency. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified by Malaysia in September 2002. Programs aimed at promoting energy efficiency in the industrial sector and small renewable energy power plants were implemented with help from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the private sector. It offers opportunities for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in that country. Energy efficiency (EE) activities have been allocated $120 million while renewable energy initiatives have been allocated another $120 million in the eighth Malaysia Plan (2001-2005). Opportunities exist for Canadian companies to participate in the Malaysian Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project (MIEEIP) and some building recommissioning projects. Expertise in biomass fuel power and solar power technologies is sought after under the umbrella of the Biogen programme. It was suggested that interested Canadian companies enter the market as an energy service company. Consultation and management services are also required, as are environmental technologies. 14 refs., 1 fig

  7. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  8. Development of Thermoelectric and Permanent Magnet Nanoparticles for Clean Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phi-Khanh

    The global trend towards energy efficiency and environmental sustainability has generated a strong demand for clean energy technologies. Among the many energy solutions, the work in this dissertation contributes to two strategic goals: the reduction of fuel consumption in the transportation sector, and the increase of domestic wind power capacity. The key barriers to achieving these goals are materials challenges. Automobiles can be made more efficient by thermoelectric conversion of waste heat from the engine into electricity that can be used to power electrical components in the vehicle. Vehicles can forego petroleum fuel altogether by using electric or hybrid motors. Unfortunately, the conversion efficiency of current thermoelectric technology is too low to be considered economically feasible, and the permanent magnets used in electric vehicle motors and wind turbine generators require critical rare-earth elements that are economically unstable (often referred to as the "rare-earth crisis"). In order to combat these challenges, a "spark erosion" technique was utilized for producing nanoparticles that improve thermoelectric efficiency and contribute to the development of electromotors that do not require rare-earths. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, I describe the utilization of spark erosion for producing high-quality thermoelectric nanoparticles at a remarkably high rate and with enhanced thermoelectric properties. The technique was employed to synthesize p-type bismuth-antimony telluride (BST) and n-type skutterudite nanoparticles, using a relatively small laboratory apparatus, with low energy consumption. The compacted BST nanocomposite samples made from these nanoparticles exhibit a well-defined, 20--50 nm size nanograin microstructure, and show an enhanced Figure of merit, ZT, of 1.36 at 360 K due to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity. The skutterudite nanocomposites also show reduced thermal conductivity but still require enhancement in the

  9. Development of an Indium bump bond process for silicon pixel detectors at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high-energy physics experiments currently under construction use a vertical connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100μm, required in these applications, cannot be fulfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflowed indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R and D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflowed afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a second reflow is performed for self-alignment and obtaining high mechanical strength. For the placement of the chips a manual and an automatic machine were constructed. The former is very flexible in handling different chip and module geometries but has a limited throughput while the latter features a much higher grade of automatization and is therefore much more suited for producing hundreds of modules with a well-defined geometry. The reliability of this process was proven by the successful construction of the PILATUS detector. The construction of PILATUS 6M (60 modules) and the CMS pixel barrel (roughly 800 modules) has started in early 2006

  10. Development and characterization of carbon-bonded carbon fiber insulation for radioisotope space power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Robbins, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), an improved radioisotope heat source, employs a unique thermal insulation material, carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF), to protect the fuel capsule and to help achieve the highest possible specific power. The CBCF insulation is made from chopped rayon fiber about 10 ..mu..m in diameter and 250 ..mu..m long, which is carbonized and bonded with phenolic resin particles. The CBCF shapes, both tubes and plates, are formed in a multiple molding facility by vacuum molding a water slurry of the carbonized chopped-rayon fiber (54 wt %) and phenolic resin (46 wt %). The molded shapes are subsequently dried and cured. Final carbonization of the resin is at 1600/sup 0/C. Machining to close tolerances (+-0.08 mm) is accomplished by conventional tooling and fixturing. The resulting material is an excellent lightweight insulation with a nominal density of 0.2 Mg/m/sup 3/ and a thermal conductivity of 0.24 W(m.K) in vacuum at 2000/sup 0/C. Several attributes that make CBCF superior to other known high-temperature insulation materials for the GPHS application have been identified. It has the excellent attributes of light weight, low thermal conductivity, chemical compatibility, and high-temperature capabilities. The mechanical strength of CBCF insulation is satisfactory for the GPHS application; it has passed vibration tests simulating launch conditions. The basic fabrication technique was refined to eliminate undesirable large pores and cracks often present in materials fabricated by earlier techniques. Also, processing was scaled up to incease the fabrication rate by a factor of 10. The specific properties of the CBCF were tailored by adjusting material and processing variables to obtain the desired results. We report here how work on CBCF characterization and development conducted at ORNL from 1978 through 1980 has contributed to the GPHS program to meet the requirements of both the Galileo and Ulysees Missions.

  11. The role of the clean development mechanism in facilitating the application of biomass renewable energy technologies in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Malaysian Government's move to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in September 2001 reaffirms the country's support to combat global climate change. Although Malaysia is not bound by any commitments to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, the opportunities that exist through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be two-fold: to contribute to the country's sustainable development objectives and to improve the energy supply security through the application of clean energy technologies such as renewable energy technologies. Malaysia is very dependent on fossil fuel based technologies for electricity generation and energy production. In 2001 almost 90% of the total energy input to power stations was derived from fossil fuels. Although the energy mix will continue to be predominantly based on fossil fuels, indigenous renewable energy resources may come to play a noticeable role in complementing the depleting fossil fuels. This paper focuses on how best to utilize the oil palm residues for electricity generation and energy production as these residues are the 'low hanging fruits' that are readily available. It compares the use of two different technological uses of residues: distributes power generation and co-firing with coal in large-scale power plants. The paper analyses the financial, economic and environmental impacts of these technologies, and it discusses the relative benefits of the technologies. In addition, the paper look into the barriers associated with each of the technologies, and it suggests possible policy interventions to be adopted in order to promote a viable and environmentally efficient use of the limited biomass resources. (au)

  12. Development of a thin film vitreous bond based composite ceramic coating for corrosion and abrasion services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPC has been involved with the Alberta Research Council in developing a vitreous bond (VB) - based composite ceramic fluoropolymer coating technology. Compared to the present state of the art which is based on a hard discontinuous phase (ceramic particles) suspended in a soft continuous matrix (fluoropolymer mix) the novelty of our approach consists of designing a composite system in which both the ceramic and the fluoropolymer phases are continuous. The ceramic matrix will provide the strength and the erosion resistance for the fluoropolymer matrix even at high temperatures. The ceramic formulation employed is not affected by temperatures up to 500 oF while the fluoropolymer matrix provides a corrosion protection seal for the ceramic matrix. The inherent flexibility of the polymer matrix will protect against brittle fractures that may develop by handling or impact. Therefore the composite coating is able to withstand the deformation of the substrate without chipping or disbanding. The fluoropolymer matrix also provides dry lubrication properties further enhancing the erosion resistance of the ceramic phase. The thickness of the coating is very thin, in the 25 to 100 micron range. In summary, the coating technology is able to provide the following features: Corrosion protection levels similar to those of fluoropolymer coatings; Erosion resistance similar to that of ceramic coatings; Price comparable to that of polymer coatings; Exceptional wear resistance properties; and Capability for coating complicated shapes internally or externally or both. This paper will discuss the theory and development of this new technology and the resultant coating and potential properties. (author)

  13. The improvement of control rod in experimental fast reactor JOYO. The development of a sodium bonded type control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, T.; Miyakawa, S.; Mitsugi, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai Engineering Center, Irradiation Center, Irradiation and Administration Section, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Currently, the lifetime of control rods in JOYO is limited by Absorber-Cladding Mechanical Interaction (ACMI) due to swelling of B{sub 4}C(boron carbide) pellets accelerated by relocation of pellet fragments. A sodium bonded type control rod was developed which improves the thermal conductivity by means of charging sodium into the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding and by utilizing a shroud which wraps the pellet fragments in a thin tube. This new design will be able to enlarge the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding, without heating B{sub 4}C or fragment relocation, thus extending the life of the control rod. The sodium bonded type will be fabricated as the ninth reload control rods in JOYO. (1) The specification of a sodium bonded type control rod was determined with the wide gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding. In the design simulation, main component temperature were below the maximum limit. And the local heating by helium bubble generated from B{sub 4}C in the sodium gap, was not a serious problem in the analysis which was considered. (2) A structural design for the sodium entrance into the pin was determined. A formula was developed which the limit for sodium charging given physical dimension of the structure and sodium property. Result from sodium out-pile experiments validated the theoretical formula. (3) The analysis of ACMI indicated a lifetime extension of the sodium bonded type by 4.6% in comparison with lifetime of the helium bonded type of 1.6%. This is due to the boron10 burn-up rate being three times higher in the sodium bonded type than in the helium bonded type. To achieve a target burn-up 10% in the future, it will be necessary to modify design based on irradiation data which will be obtained by practical use of the sodium bonded control rods in JOYO. (4) The effects due to Absorber-Cladding Chemical Interaction (ACCI) were reduced by controlling the cladding temperature and chromium coating to the cladding's inner surface. It was confirmed

  14. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  15. Development for ultra-trace analysis method of U and Pu in safeguards environmental samples at the clean facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the strengthen safeguard program of the IAEA to detect undeclared nuclear activities and nuclear materials, the method of precise and accurate isotope ratio determination for uranium and plutonium in the environmental samples (cotton swipes) has been developed at JAERI. The samples should be treated in clean environment in order to secure the analytical reliability by eliminating external contamination from the samples containing trace amount of uranium and plutonium. Since the measurement by ICP-MS is favorable to bulk analysis from view points of analytical capacity and operation simplicity, we have studied sample preparation procedures for the trace amount of uranium and plutonium to be applied to ICP-MS. Up to the present, interfering factors involved during analytical processes and the ICP-MS measurement of uranium and plutonium were examined. As a result, uranium isotope measurement more than 100 pg became possible at JAERI clean facility by diminishing uranium blank introduced in the entire sample treatment procedure. And also, the estimation of plutonium recovery yield and uranium decontamination factor suggested the possibility in plutonium isotope measurement more than 100 fg. (author)

  16. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  17. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  18. Development and Characterization of the Bonding and Integration Technologies Needed for Fabricating Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig,Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding technology, titanium interlayers (coatings and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness, and processing time were investigated. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases. In the diffusion bonds, an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner interlayers of pure titanium and/or longer processing times resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  19. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  20. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  1. 发展清洁能源的若干思考%Thoughts on the Development of Clean Energy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪涛; 舒思齐

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic development in our country, the high consumption of fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, could produce more air pollution, and has been a serious threat to people's health. Based on the investigate on the clean energy industry such as natural gas, coal-bed methane , shale gas, wind energy, and solar energy, this paper analyses the development trend of energy supply and demand at home and abroad, studies on the industrial policy, short-term surplus phenomenon, independent technical bottleneck for developing clean energy. It is argued that we must consider the national conditions for energy consumption, respect science and knowledge, speed up the restructuring of energy industry, and improve the non-fossil energy consumption ratio. For development and utilization of clean energy, we can neither haste, nor passivity;but rely on science and technology, make overall arrangements, integrate long-term development goals with recent work adjustment, as well as unswervingly promote the development and utilization of clean energy. From the ultimate goal of China's economic and social sustainable development, the road to low carbon economy is the choice of China.%随着我国经济快速发展,石油、煤炭等化石能源的高消费加重了空气污染,人民健康受到了严重威胁。基于对天然气、煤层气、页岩气、天然气水合物、风能、太阳能等清洁能源产业的调研,分析了国内外能源供需的发展趋势,对发展清洁能源的产业政策、短期过剩现象、自主技术瓶颈等深层次问题作了实事求是的研究,提出我国能源消费必须考虑到国情,尊重科学知识和规律,加快能源结构调整,提高非化石能源消费比例。对于开发、利用清洁能源,既不能操之过急,也不能消极等待,而是依靠科技,统筹兼顾,把长期发展目标与近期工作调整有机结合,坚定不移地推进清洁能源的开发和利用。从中

  2. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  3. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  4. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2 is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR, vertical roller mills (VRM, gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and

  5. Mechanisms of microstructure development at metallic-interlayer/ceramic interfaces during liquid-film-assisted bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Sugar, Joshua D.

    2003-01-01

    Alumina has been bonded via copper/niobium/copper interlayers, and correlations have been made between various processing conditions (applied load, processing temperature, copper film thickness, surface roughness, etc.) and strength. Four-point bend strengths and micrographs of fracture surfaces have been used to determine the relationship between processing, microstructure, and properties. Transparent sapphire substrates bonded with copper/niobium/copper interlayers were used in model ...

  6. Characterization and Development of General Material Models for use in Modeling Structures Bonded with Ductile Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Cassino, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Structural adhesives are materials that are capable of bearing significant loads in shear, and sometimes tension, over a range of strains and strain rates. Adhesively bonded structures can dissipate large amounts of mechanical energy and can be lighter and more efficient than many bolted or vibration welded parts. The largest barrier to using structural adhesives in more applications is the many challenges engineers are presented with when designing and analyzing adhesively bonded structures....

  7. Development of Be/Glidcop joint obtained by hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding for high in-service temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, F.; Bucci, P.; Burlet, H.; Le Marois, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France); Barberi, D.; Laille, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some aspects of the beryllium-Glidcop joining by Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion Bonding. The quality of a joint is mainly dependent on the interface microstructure. Thus, as Be/copper direct bonding is not recommended, the choice of interlayers is a critical point. The joining process parameters, i.e. temperature, pressure and time, must take into account the in-service requirements, the mechanical and metallurgical properties of each material. The Be/Glidcop joining process developed at CEA/Grenoble is presented here. (author)

  8. Estimation and diminution of CO2 emissions by clean development mechanism option at power sector in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmal Singh Solanki, Venkateswara Sarma Mallela, Chengke Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.

  9. Estimation and diminution of CO2 emissions by clean development mechanism option at power sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal; Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.

  10. Development of environmental sample analysis technique in KAERI. Bulk analysis and establishment of clean laboratory facility (CLASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of analytical methods for environmental samples in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is discussed. An analysis scheme for environmental samples has been established with an MCICP-MS based bulk analysis with adopting UTEVA resin for chemical separation and a particle analysis using FTTIMS and SIMS. A clean laboratory facility called CLASS (class 100∼ class 1000) was also established in order to prevent any cross contamination of the samples. The amount of U and Pu in the process blank sample prepared in the CLASS facility was estimated as 20 pg and less than 0.005 pg, respectively. The control chart of the analytical performance for the uranium standard sample of 100 ppt (NBL U030) indicated that the analytical performance of KAERI in CLASS is within 5 % of the certified values. (author)

  11. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business and Technology Cooperation Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; PRICE Lynn; Kumar, Satish; DE LA RUE DU CAN Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Development and poverty eradication are urgent and overriding goals internationally. The World Summit on Sustainable Development made clear the need for increased access to affordable, reliable and cleaner energy and the international community agreed in the Delhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development on the importance of the development agenda in considering any climate change approach. To this end, six countries (Australia, China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea and...

  12. On the new principle for wet aerosol cleaning and its place in developing industrial radwaste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condensation wet cleaning method based on adiabatic chamber principle is considered. Its advantages, implementation scheme and place in creating an integrated radwaste management system are evaluated

  13. Cryogenic evaluation of epoxy bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, N.; Young, W.

    The purpose of the work presented here was to determine methods of optimizing the adhesion of a particular epoxy (CTD-101K, Composite Technology Development Inc.) to a particular nickel-based alloy substrate (Incoloy ® 908, Inco Alloys International) for cryogenic applications. Initial efforts were focused on surface preparation of the substrate material via various mechanical and chemical cleaning techniques. Test samples, fabricated to simulate the conduit-to-insulation interface, were put through a mock heat treat and vacuum/pressure impregnation process. Samples were compression/shear load tested to compare the bond strengths at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. The resulting data indicate that acid etching creates a higher bond strength than the other tested techniques and that the bond formed is stronger at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. A description of the experiment along with the resulting data is presented here.

  14. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Anil V; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  15. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  16. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences bet

  17. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  18. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SPREADING COVARIANT RISK INTO INTERNATIONAL RISK MARKETS: SUBSIDISED CATASTROPHE BONDS OR REINSURANCE, OR DISASTER ASSISTANCE?

    OpenAIRE

    Tse-Ling Teh; Alan Martina

    2008-01-01

    Poor developing countries, faced with high levels of covariant risk ideally should spread this risk into the international risk market. How might this best be done - given that through diversification this market will tend to gain from absorbing this risk? Conglomerates of intermediate financial institutions may need to be formed in developing countries to acquire risk-transfer financial instruments. The preferred instrument is subsidised catastrophe bonds and not reinsurance or lump-sum fore...

  19. Community Capacity for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects Within Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minang, Peter A.; McCall, Michael K.; Bressers, Hans Th.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in exp

  20. Influence of Regional Development Policies and Clean Technology Adoption on Future Air Pollution Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hixson, Mark; Mahmud, Abdullah; Hu, Jianlin; Bai, Song; Niemeier, Debbie A.; Susan L Handy; Gao, Shengyi; Jay R. Lund; Sullivan, Dana C; M. J. Kleeman

    2010-01-01

    Future air pollution emissions in the year 2030 were estimated for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in central California using a combined system of land use, mobile, off-road, stationary, area, and biogenic emissions models. Four scenarios were developed that use different assumptions about the density of development and level of investment in transportation infrastructure to accommodate the expected doubling of the SJV population in the next 20 years. Scenario 1 reflects current land-use patter...

  1. Suitability of hyperspectral imaging technique to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning of a crustose lichen developed on granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Antonio, J. S.; Fiorucci, M. P.; Rivas, T.; López, A. J.; Ramil, A.; Barral, D.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser cleaning of a complex biogenic patina, a crustose lichen, by means of hyperspectral imaging techniques. Samples of a Hercynian granite from NW Spain colonised by an endolithic crustose lichen ( Pertusaria amara) were collected and cleaned following three procedures: a scalpel, the third harmonic of a Nd:YVO4 ns laser and the scalpel followed by the laser. The suitability of the hyperspectral camera as a non-destructive, online, fast and in situ monitoring technique to assess the effectiveness of the cleaning was evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and colour measurements in CIELAB space. The hyperspectral imaging technique allowed us to measure the reflectivity variations of the cleaned surfaces in a non-invasive way, allowing the identification of the cleaning effectiveness of each procedure. Nevertheless, the results of the hyperspectral imaging technique must be validated by conventional techniques.

  2. Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean. After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding.

  3. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  4. Determinants of the development of corporate bond markets in Argentina: One size does not fit all

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Roque B.; Pernice, Sergio; Streb, Jorge M.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional theory leads to expect bonds to be a financing vehicle for large firms because of economies of scale and contracting costs. We find both in our econometric evidence for firms quoted on Latin American stock exchanges, and in our survey results for Argentina, that size of assets is a robust determinant of the use of bond finance. This result, together with the fact that there are few firms that are large in terms of market value, can help understand why Argentina, as well as Latin ...

  5. Estonian energy sector and its potentials for developing clean energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The starting year for the transition period in the Estonian energy sector can be considered 1994 when Estonia signed Charter Treaty and recognised the European energy co-operation principles. The process in the energy sector reached its peak in 1998 when the Energy Act was enforced and the Estonian Parliament approved the Long-Term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy Sector. Reaching the goals in the development plan to the year 2005 must foster Estonia to be fully prepared for joining the European Union. In the article an overview of the development trends in the Estonian energy sector is given and the principal energy policy measures required for reaching the goals are described. Thereby special attention is focused on analysing the legislative process in the Estonian energy sector and the potentials for improving efficiency in energy generation, energy conservation and mitigation of environmental impact from the energy sector. (author)

  6. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  7. A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…

  8. Project development: testing of heat exchange of cooling system and cleaning fuel pool of NPP Cofrentes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat exchanger tests were carried out and data in the thermodynamic models developed, turned and can verify that the efficiency of heat exchange met the requirements. The work concluded complying at all times with the technical specifications and quality proposals by the Department of engineering at the Central Nuclear de Cofrentes.

  9. Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Final Report for Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Number ORNL93-0237 Adhesive Bonding Technologies for Automotive Structural Composites; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. The research undertaken under this CRADA addresses the following areas of importance: bulk material characterization, structural fracture mechanics, modeling/characterization, process control and nondestructive evaluation (PC/NDE), manufacturing demonstration, and advanced processing. For the bulk material characterization task, the individual material properties of the adherends and adhesives were characterized. This included generating a database of mechanical and physical properties, after identifying and developing standard test methods to obtain properties. The structural fracture mechanics task concentrated on test development to characterize the fracture toughness of adhesively bonded joints subjected to Mode I, Mode II and mixed-mode conditions. Standard test procedures for quantifying an adhesive/adherend system's resistance to crack growth were developed for use by industry. In the modeling/characterization task, fracture mechanics-based design guidelines and predictive methodologies have been developed which will facilitate iteration on design concepts for bonded joints while alleviating the need for extensive testing

  10. Promoting Bioethanol Production through Clean Development Mechanism: Findings and lessons learnt from ASIATIC project

    OpenAIRE

    Gnansounou, E.; Bedniaguine, D.; Dauriat, A.

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change mitigation policies call for increasing use of biomass fuels as renewable substitutes to fossil energy resources. Quantified targets for biofuels introduction in to the market exist in the United States, the European Union, and a number of developing countries. In this context, mixing biologically produced ethanol with conventional gasoline represents an attractive technical option allowing for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and lessening the dependence on non-re...

  11. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  12. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business andTechnology Cooperation Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can,Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-08-22

    Development and poverty eradication are urgent andoverriding goals internationally. The World Summit on SustainableDevelopment made clear the need for increased access to affordable,reliable and cleaner energy and the international community agreed in theDelhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development on theimportance of the development agenda in considering any climate changeapproach. To this end, six countries (Australia, China, India, Japan,Republic of Korea and the United States) have come together to form theAsia Pacific Partnership in accordance with their respective nationalcircumstances, to develop, deploy and transfer cleaner, more efficienttechnologies and to meet national pollution reduction, energy securityand climate change concerns consistent with the principles of the U.N.Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The APP builds on thefoundation of existing bilateral and multilateral initiativescomplements.APP has established eight public-private sector Task Forcescovering: (1) cleaner fossil energy; (2) renewable energy and distributedgeneration; (3) power generation and transmission; (4) steel; (5)aluminium; (6) cement; (7) coal mining; and (8) buildings and appliances.As a priority, each Task Force will formulate detailed action plansoutlining both immediate and medium-term specific actions, includingpossible "flagship" projects and relevant indicators of progress by 31August 2006. The partnership will help the partners build human andinstitutional capacity to strengthen cooperative efforts, and will seekopportunities to engage the private sector. The APP organized An OutreachWorkshop: Business&Technology Cooperation Opportunities forIndustry on August 26, 2006, New Delhi. This paper was prepared toprovide background information for participants of the Conference. Ithighlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and climate technologies,barriers, and partnerships that are being implemented in the US, Indiaand other selected

  13. "I Owe Her So Much; Without Her I Would Be Dead": Developing a Model of Mother-Infant Bonding Following a Maternal Antenatal HIV Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Kate; Evangeli, Michael; Anderson, Jane; Zetler, Sarah; Scourse, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Women can face a period of psychological vulnerability following antenatal HIV diagnosis, affecting feelings about both the pregnancy and motherhood. Our study explored the impact of being diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy on mother-infant bonding. Grounded Theory was used to assess perceived challenges and facilitating factors for mother-infant bonding for 10 mothers given an HIV diagnosis during pregnancy. Data analysis led to a model of mother-infant bonding composed of four theoretical codes: (a) facing barriers to bonding, (b) feeling disconnected from the baby, (c) developing a special bond, and (d) strengthening and moving on. Challenges with bonding emerged primarily during early stages after diagnosis and birth, with maternal resilience and positivity about the future developing as the infant HIV testing process progressed. Study recommendations include more timely information regarding vertical transmission and more targeted psychological support along with greater promotion of services to support women diagnosed with HIV antenatally. PMID:26382253

  14. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  15. Conversion of carbon dioxide to valuable petrochemicals:An approach to clean development mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnaz Tahriri Zangeneh; Saeed Sahebdelfar; Maryam Takht Ravanchi

    2011-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global warming due to its greenhouse effect resulted in worldwide concerns. On the other hand, carbon dioxide might be considered as a valuable and renewable carbon source. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions could be its capture and recycle via transformation into chemicals using the technologies in C1 chemistry. Despite its great interest, there are difficulties in CO2 separation on the one hand, and thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide molecule rendering its chemical activity low on the other hand. Carbon dioxide has been already used in petrochemical industries for production of limited chemicals such as urea.The utilization of carbon dioxide does not necessarily involve development of new processes, and in certain processes such as methanol synthesis and methane steam reforming, addition of CO2 into the feed results in its utilization and increases carbon efficiency. In other cases,modifications in catalyst and/or processes, or even new catalysts and processes, are necessary. In either case, catalysis plays a crucial role in carbon dioxide conversion and effective catalysts are required for commercial realization of the related processes. Technologies for CO2 utilization are emerging after many years of research and development efforts.

  16. Development of a personal computer code for fire protection analysis of DOE facility air-cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored development of a computer code to aid analysts performing fire hazards analyses for DOE facilities. The code selected for this application was the FIRAC code developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The original code has been modified by the Westinghouse-Hanford Company. The FIRAC code simulates fire accidents in nuclear facilities and predicts effects of a hypothetical fire within a compartment and its effect throughout the rest of the facility, particularly the air-cleaning systems. The FIRAC code was designed to run on Cray supercomputers. The input format is difficult to use. For this code to be useful to the DOE fire protection community, it had to be converted to run on an IBM PC and couple with a menu-driven pre-processor that would make preparation of the input easy to use for fire protection engineers. In addition, a graphical display of the analysis results was required. In this paper the authors describe the pre-processor, the PC version of FIRAC, and the post-processor graphics package. In the presentation, a demonstration of how to set up a problem and use the code is made. 4 figs

  17. Development And Implementation Of A Strategic Technical Baseline Approach For Nuclear Decommissioning And Clean Up Programmes In The UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NDA mission as set out within the Energy Act 2004 and stated in the NDA strategy is clear: - 'to deliver a world class programme of safe, cost-effective, accelerated and environmentally responsible decommissioning of the UK's civil nuclear legacy in an open and transparent manner and with due regard to the socio-economic impacts on our communities. Critical to achieving the NDA main objective and overall mission is to accelerate and deliver clean-up programmes through the application of appropriate and innovative technology. The NDA remit also requires us to secure good practice by contractors and carry out and promote research into matters relating to the decommissioning and clean up of nuclear installations and sites. NDA have defined a strategic approach for the underpinning of operational and decommissioning activities where each nuclear site is required to write within the Life Time Plans (LTP) the proposed technical baseline for those activities. This enables the robustness of the activities to be assessed, the gaps and opportunities and accompanying Research and Developments (R and D) requirements to be highlighted and investment to be targeted at key technical issues. NDA also supports the development of a commercial framework where innovation is encouraged and improvements can be demonstrated against the technical baseline. In this paper we will present NDA's overall strategic approach, the benefits already realised and highlight the areas for continued development. In conclusion: The development and implementation of a strategic approach to robustly underpin the technical components of the lifetime plans for operational and decommissioning activities on NDA sites has been extremely successful. As well as showing how mature technology assumptions are and where the key gaps and risks are it has also provided a method for highlighting opportunities to improve on that baseline. The use of a common template across all NDA LTPs has enabled direct comparison

  18. New Developments in Charge Transfer Multiplet Calculations: Projection Operations, Mixed-Spin States and pi-Bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Groot, F.M.F.; /Utrecht U.; Hocking, R.K.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.; Piamonteze, C.; /LBL, Berkeley; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Solomon, E.I.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.

    2007-01-02

    This paper presents a number of new additions to the charge transfer multiplet calculations as used in the calculation of L edge X-ray absorption spectra of 3d and 4d transition metal systems, both oxides and coordination compounds. The focus of the paper is on the consequences of the optimized spectral simulations for the ground state, where we make use of a recently developed projection technique. This method is also used to develop the concept of a mixed-spin ground state, i.e. a state that is a mixture of a high-spin and low-spin state due to spin-orbit coupling combined with strong covalency. The charge transfer mechanism to describe {pi}-bonding uses the mixing of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) channel in addition to the normal CT channel and allows for the accurate simulation of {pi}-bonding systems, for example cyanides.

  19. The clean development mechanism (CDM) an international perspective and implications for the LAC region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses activity a) an analysis of international CDM experiences and its potential contribution to the LAC region. The paper begins with a section describing the basic principles of the CDM and retrieves the lessons learned from the first two years of the CDM operation. This is followed by a more detailed review in section 2 of the on-going baseline and monitoring methodology approval process. In section 3, the development value of the CDM is explored. Section 4 describes the current CDM markets, while section 5 reviews the response of host countries to the CDM outside the LAC region. Section 6 describes the various capacity building programs established by Annex 1 countries to support the CDM. In each of the first 6 sections, implications for the LAC region are identified. Section 7 brings these conclusions together into a concise summary. (The author)

  20. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  1. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  2. 世界城市清洁能源发展模式及借鉴%Development Model and Reference of Clean Energy in World Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫世刚

    2013-01-01

    清洁能源是低碳经济发展的重要保证,是带动北京市经济增长、推动世界城市建设的必然选择.北京市清洁能源产业目前仍处于起步阶段,在技术创新、融资、标准体系建设等方面存在一定制约.基于纽约、伦敦、东京等世界城市清洁能源发展模式,从政策环境支持、产业集群建设、服务体系发展、投融资机制和人才建设、国际合作等五个方面,提出北京市清洁能源产业可持续健康发展的建议和措施.%Clean energy is important to the development of low-carbon economy.The development of clean energy industry is an inevitable choice for Beijing to achieve economic growth and promote to be one of the world cities.The development of clean energy industry in Beijing will face the challenges from technology innovation,financing mechanism and standard system.Based on the development models of clean energy in New York,London and Tokyo,the paper puts forward several suggestions in promoting the development of clean energy industry in Beijing,which consists of policy insistence,industry cluster,socialized service system,investing and financing system,talented development international cooperation.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  4. Achieving global environmental benefits through local development of clean energy? The case of small hilly hydel in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and development are closely intertwined. Yet, increasing fossil fuel-based energy consumption contributes significantly to environmental problems both locally and globally. This article explores the interlinkages between local livelihood and environmental benefits from the provision of energy to remote rural households through small hydropower development. The analysis is based on research carried out around a large development project designed to assist the Government of India in the optimum utilization of small hydropower resources in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions. There are about 100,000 villages in India that are not connected to electricity supply, many of them in the hilly regions with ample hydropower potential. The project aimed to demonstrate the utility of and options for providing electricity to such villages through clean mini-hydro. The article addresses the nature of the impacts of the demonstration small hydel schemes on the local communities, to what extent they translate into environmental benefits both locally and globally, and the perceptions and participation of the local communities in these small hydro schemes. The study explores the impacts of the schemes on financial capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, human capital, and gender equity in the local communities. It further provides a discussion on the links between local and global environmental benefits. Overall, it is found that the schemes' impacts both on the local communities and the environment are mostly marginally positive or neutral, although achieving clearly demonstrable benefits would require major upscaling of the effort involving broader changes than possible under this project. Furthermore, it is argued that some of the assumptions behind the project design were faulty. Involvement of the local communities and direct livelihood benefits to them are essential for the long-term sustainability of the small hydro schemes. The discussion and

  5. Experimental techniques for the characterization and development of thermal barrier coating bond coat alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert J.

    Thermal barrier coatings, commonly used in modern gas turbines and jet engines, are dynamic, multilayered structures consisting of a superalloy substrate, an Al-rich bond coat, a thermally grown oxide, and a ceramic top coat. Knowledge of the disparate material properties for each of the constituents of a thermal barrier coating is crucial to both better understanding and improving the performance of the system. The efforts of this dissertation quantify fundamental aspects of two intrinsic strain mechanisms that arise during thermal cycling. This includes measurement of the thermal expansion behavior for bond coats and superalloys as well as establishing specific ternary compositions associated with a strain-inducing martensitic phase transformation, which is known to occur in Ni-rich bond coat alloys. In order to quantify the coefficient of thermal expansion for a number of actual alloys extracted from contemporary thermal barrier coating systems, this work employs a noncontact high temperature digital image correlation technique to nearly 1100°C. The examined materials include: two commercial superalloys, two as-deposited commercial bond coat alloys, and three experimental bond coat alloys. The as-deposited specimens were created using a diffusion aluminizing and a low pressure plasma spray procedure to thicknesses on the order of 50 and 100 mum, respectively. For the plasma sprayed bond coat, a comparison with a bulk counterpart of identical composition indicated that deposition procedures have little effect on thermal expansion. An analytical model of oxide rumpling is used to show that the importance of thermal expansion mismatch between a commercial bond coat and its superalloy substrate is relatively small. Considerably higher expansion values are noted for a Ni-rich bond coat alloy, however, and modeling which includes this layer suggests that it may have a substantial influence on rumpling. Combinatorial methods based on diffusion multiples are also

  6. Developing density functional theory for Bose-Einstein condensates. The case of chemical bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the nowadays growing interest in Bose-Einstein condensates due to the expanded experimental evidence on various atomic systems within optical lattices in weak and strong coupling regimes, the connection with Density Functional Theory is firstly advanced within the mean field framework at three levels of comprehension: the many-body normalization condition, Thomas-Fermi limit, and the chemical hardness closure with the inter-bosonic strength and universal Hohenberg-Kohn functional. As an application the traditional Heitler-London quantum mechanical description of the chemical bonding for homopolar atomic systems is reloaded within the non-linear Schrödinger (Gross-Pitaevsky) Hamiltonian; the results show that a two-fold energetic solution is registered either for bonding and antibonding states, with the bosonic contribution being driven by the square of the order parameter for the Bose-Einstein condensate density in free (gas) motion, while the associate wave functions remain as in classical molecular orbital model

  7. Developing density functional theory for Bose-Einstein condensates. The case of chemical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putz, Mihai V., E-mail: mvputz@cbg.uvt.ro [Laboratory of Physical and Computational Chemistry, Chemistry Department, West University of Timisoara, Str. Pestalozzi No. 16, 300115 Timisoara, Romania and Theoretical Physics Institute, Free University Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-22

    Since the nowadays growing interest in Bose-Einstein condensates due to the expanded experimental evidence on various atomic systems within optical lattices in weak and strong coupling regimes, the connection with Density Functional Theory is firstly advanced within the mean field framework at three levels of comprehension: the many-body normalization condition, Thomas-Fermi limit, and the chemical hardness closure with the inter-bosonic strength and universal Hohenberg-Kohn functional. As an application the traditional Heitler-London quantum mechanical description of the chemical bonding for homopolar atomic systems is reloaded within the non-linear Schrödinger (Gross-Pitaevsky) Hamiltonian; the results show that a two-fold energetic solution is registered either for bonding and antibonding states, with the bosonic contribution being driven by the square of the order parameter for the Bose-Einstein condensate density in free (gas) motion, while the associate wave functions remain as in classical molecular orbital model.

  8. Development of a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive loaded with carbon nanotubes, for aluminium – polymer bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Ruiz , Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the formulation of a ternary thermosetting adhesive which consists of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured with 3,3’-diamino diphenyl sulphone (3,3’-DDS) hardener and modified through the addition of carboxyl- terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Processing implications of the novel adhesive in the film form are considered in order to manufacture bonded specimens for characteris...

  9. Development of improved polypropylene adhesive bonding by abrasion and atmospheric plasma surface modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas, N.; Abenojar, J.; Martínez, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with the problematic adhesive bonding of substrates with low surface energy. Different approaches have been explored with the aim of creating adequate adhesive joints based on polyolefinic substrate and polyurethane adhesive. The selected material under study was polypropylene (PP) as adherend, and a commercial Sikaflex®-252 polyurethane one component based structural adhesive (PU) as joint fluid. Among the diverse pre-treatments typically used to prepare surfaces prior...

  10. Investing in project bonds to support infrastructure development may help to return the Eurozone to growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hellowell, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although costly for public authorities, construction projects undertaken through the private finance initiative (PFI) tend to be well-managed on the private sector side, delivering predictably high returns to investors. Against this background, and despite the desire of policy-makers to invest in infrastructure, the sector is facing a severe credit crunch. Mark Hellowell argues that, while EU-backed project-bonds may offer a solution by allowing projects to be funded by institu...

  11. Clean development mechanism and domestic policies and measures; Mecanisme de developpement propre et politiques et mesures domestiques. Version synthetique du rapport final, fevrier 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsenty, A

    2002-02-15

    The study aims to show in an axiomatic micro economic framework, the impacts of the clean development mechanism on the development. To illustrate the analysis, two main sectors of the control of the contribution level of developing countries to the CO{sub 2} rate increase in the atmosphere, have been chosen: the electric power sector in India and the forestry. The simulation, the experimental methodology and the results are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill. PMID:22482288

  13. method development for extraction, cleaning -up and separation of organic pollutant in extract of contaminated environmental sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    separation and determination of organic contaminants in waste is of great importance, where, it is very harmful for the radioactive wastes treatment plant. therefore, direct, versatile and efficient simulation of an analytical method was developed and established for extraction , cleaning-up and separation of some organic pollutants such as; poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorohexane (HCH) either from each other and/or from environmental sample, sediment and/or liquid . the method combines extraction and separation processes of the organic compound from the matrix media using partition chromatography through alumina and silica columns. the used extraction chromatographic system is consisted of 12.5% deactivated alumina column serially connected with 2% deactivated silica bed column. the extraction method was applied for analysis of mixed standard of PCB and HCH in different types of simulated contaminated sample, fortified seas sand samples and deutated soil samples. this method allows the measurements of these contaminants in sediments at trace levels as low as 1.0 μg/g for PCB and HCH with a percent recovery rang 99% ±1.0. HCHs was fully isolated from the PCBs using different eluent . for gas chromatography attached with electron capture detector, determination of PCB and HCH in environmental samples, pre-treatment steps are strongly recommended before measurements

  14. Development of methods for remediation of artificial polluted soils and improvement of soils for ecologically clean agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research: Development of methods for the remediation of artificial polluted soils and the improvement of polluted lands to ecologically clean agricultural production.The following tasks will be implemented in this project to achieve viable practical solutions: - To determine the priority pollutants, their ecological pathways, and sources of origin. - To form a supervised environmental monitoring data bank throughout the various geo system conditions. - To evaluate the degree of the bio geo system pollution and the influence on the health of the local human populations. - To establish agricultural plant tolerance levels to the priority pollutants. - To calculate the standard concentrations of the priority pollutants for main agricultural plant groups. - To develop a soil remediation methodology incorporating the structural, functional geo system features. - To establish a territory zone division methodology in consideration of the degree of component pollution, plant tolerance to pollutants, plant production conditions, and human health. - Scientific grounding of the soil remediation proposals and agricultural plant material introductions with soil pollution levels and relative plant tolerances to pollutants. Technological Means, Methods, and Approaches Final proposed solutions will be based upon geo system and ecosystem approaches and methodologies. The complex ecological valuation methods of the polluted territories will be used in this investigation. Also, laboratory culture in vitro, application work, and multi-factor field experiments will be conducted. The results will be statistically analyzed using appropriate methods. Expected Results Complex biogeochemical artificial province assessment according to primary pollutant concentrations. Development of agricultural plant tolerance levels relative to the priority pollutants. Assessment of newly introduced plant materials that may possess variable levels of pollution tolerance. Remediation

  15. Fabrication of imitative stress corrosion cracking using diffusion bonding for the development of nondestructive testing and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports a method to fabricate imitative stress corrosion cracking suitable for the development of nondestructive testing and evaluation methods. The method is to embed a partially-bonded region, which simulates the characteristics of stress corrosion cracking, inside a material by bonding together surfaces having artificial grooves. Since the sizes of the grooves are smaller than the spatial resolution of nondestructive testing method applied, the material property realized can be regarded as uniform as the actual stress corrosion cracking. The grooves are introduced using mechanical machining, which enables one to control the characteristics of the simulated flaw. Four specimens made of type 316L austenitic stainless steel are fabricated. The method is demonstrated by visual and eddy current examinations. (author)

  16. Silicon carbide wafer bonding by modified surface activated bonding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Tadatomo; Mu, Fengwen; Fujino, Masahisa; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakazawa, Haruo; Iguchi, Kenichi

    2015-03-01

    4H-SiC wafer bonding has been achieved by the modified surface activated bonding (SAB) method without any chemical-clean treatment and high temperature annealing. Strong bonding between the SiC wafers with tensile strength greater than 32 MPa was demonstrated at room temperature under 5 kN force for 300 s. Almost the entire wafer has been bonded very well except a small peripheral region and few voids. The interface structure was analyzed to verify the bonding mechanism. It was found an amorphous layer existed as an intermediate layer at the interface. After annealing at 1273 K in vacuum for 1 h, the bonding tensile strength was still higher than 32 MPa. The interface changes after annealing were also studied. The results show that the thickness of the amorphous layer was reduced to half after annealing.

  17. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. ► Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH4/m2 hr, respectively. ► At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. ► The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH4 flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 ± 0.014, 0.224 ± 0.012 and 0.237 ± 0.008 l CH4/m2 hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m2 hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06–0.89 l/m2 hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42–2.46 l/m2 hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L0) values in the range of 19.8–102.6 m3/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  18. On clean ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Miaosen Chen; Huanyin Chen

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.

  19. LensClean revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...

  20. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-01-01

    An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan) gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible ...

  1. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  2. 净化网络环境及其机制%On Cleaning up Network Environment and Developing its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛剑锋; 余凌

    2011-01-01

    我国互联网规模的高速发展给人们的工作、学习与生活带来了便利,但互联网的虚拟性、开放性和交互性等特征,使网络也成为一些人从事违法活动的场所。依法采取监管措施,规范净化网络环境,已成为世界各国的共识。我国在借鉴国外经验与方法的基础上,应结合我国国情,在开展打击整治网络色情等专项行动的同时,要不断完善网络立法、技术监控、行业自律、社会监督、国际合作等措施,建立健全防范和查处的长效管理机制。%With China's rapid development of the Internet in its scale, people's work, study and life are made easier, but the Internet is likely to be a venue for illegal activities because it is virtual, open and interactive. It has been a common practice in all the countries to take regulatory measures to regulate and clean up the network environment according to law. We need to borrow foreign practices and methods, and combine them with China's actual conditions. In the special campaign to crack down on the online pornography, we must constantly improve our work at the network legislation, technical monitoring, self-discipline of the network trades, social supervision, and international cooperation to establish a long-acting management mechanism for a sound prevention and investigation.

  3. Research document no. 21 bis. How could developing countries participate in climate change prevention: the clean development mechanism and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agreement on CDM rules is important both for industrialized and developing countries. As a flexibility mechanism, it will allow industrialized countries to benefit from low cost emission reductions but the CDM, as a main goal, should also stimulate a more sustainable economic development in DCs. The CDM is the sole instrument, with GEF, proposed for DCs participation into climate change prevention. This situation satisfies a majority of DCs, but CDM may not offer sufficient perspectives for some countries with rapid industrialization given the huge economic stakes linked to the creation of a carbon credits market between Annex I countries. The operationality of the CDM is not yet established and important questions, as environmental additionality, are still unresolved. Here we first examine the rules in order to validate project additionality and their possible consequences on the effectiveness and the scope of the mechanism. The different reactions of major DCs groups on the structure of the mechanism will then be analysed. This will lead us to examine the possibilities to enlarge participation of DCs in climate change prevention according to the apparent wish of semi-industrialized countries. (author)

  4. Development of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit for air breathing PEMFC stack using silicone adhesive bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkook; Lee, Dai Gil

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) exhibit a wide power range, low operating temperature, high energy density and long life time. These advantages favor PEMFC for applications such as vehicle power sources, portable power, and backup power applications. With the push towards the commercialization of PEMFC, especially for portable power applications, the overall balance of plants (BOPs) of the systems should be minimized. To reduce the mass and complexity of the systems, air-breathing PEMFC stack design with open cathode channel configuration is being developed. However, the open cathode channel configuration incurs hydrogen leakage problem. In this study, the bonding strength of a silicon adhesive between the Nafion membrane and the carbon fiber/epoxy composite bipolar plate was measured. Then, an anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit which was bonded with the silicone adhesive was developed to solve the hydrogen leakage problem. The reliability of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was estimated under the internal pressure of hydrogen by the FE analysis. Additionally, the gas sealability of the developed air breathing PEMFC unit cell was experimentally measured. Finally, unit cell performance of the developed anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was tested and verified under operating conditions without humidity and temperature control.

  5. Development of Formulations for a-SiC and Manganese CMP and Post-CMP Cleaning of Cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagudu, Uma Rames Krishna

    We have investigated the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of amorphous SiC (a-SiC) and Mn and Post CMP cleaning of cobalt for various device applications. During the manufacture of copper interconnects using the damascene process the polishing of copper is followed by the polishing of the barrier material (Co, Mn, Ru and their alloys) and its post CMP cleaning. This is followed by the a-SiC hard mask CMP. Silicon carbide thin films, though of widespread use in microelectronic engineering, are difficult to process by CMP because of their hardness and chemical inertness. The earlier part of the SiC work discusses the development of slurries based on silica abrasives that resulted in high a-SiC removal rates (RRs). The ionic strength of the silica dispersion was found to play a significant role in enhancing material removal rate, while also providing very good post-polish surface-smoothness. For example, the addition of 50 mM potassium nitrate to a pH 8 aqueous slurry consisting of 10 wt % of silica abrasives and 1.47 M hydrogen peroxide increased the RR from about 150 nm/h to about 2100 nm/h. The role of ionic strength in obtaining such high RRs was investigated using surface zeta-potentials measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Evidently, hydrogen peroxide promoted the oxidation of Si and C to form weakly adhered species that were subsequently removed by the abrasive action of the silica particles. The effect of potassium nitrate in increasing material removal is attributed to the reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the abrasive particles and the SiC surface because of screening of surface charges by the added electrolyte. We also show that transition metal compounds when used as additives to silica dispersions enhance a-SiC removal rates (RRs). Silica slurries containing potassium permanganate gave RRs as high as 2000 nm/h at pH 4. Addition of copper sulfate to this slurry further enhanced the RRs to ˜3500 nm/h at pH 6

  6. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible site suitable for reforestation in accordance with the CDM international scheme is a large plateau (more than 5000 hectares 600 meters high on the sea level far from the Cannabis crops area. The evaluation of the project costs and of the social benefits for the population consider (using different species the indigenous communities necessity. The evaluation of carbon sequestration show the small scale of the reforestation project on behalf of the Kyoto Protocol, but give also an idea about the people rights and necessities. The normal afforestation and reforestation projects, under the Kyoto Protocol, try to maximize the CO2 sequestration in a short time, than business laws usually require. A small scale project could be self-managing, less expensive (international certification costs and more interesting for local communities.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE THE SELECTION OF LOW POLLUTING SURFACE CLEANING OPTIONS, SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    FY03 Task Description: This is not a new task; only a newly assigned number to split SAGE from the other tools task. SAGE is interactive PC-based expert software system that recommend low polluting surface cleaning options and process costs. SAGE is used by Federal, State, and ...

  8. Development and Application of a Diagnostic Instrument to Evaluate Grade-11 and -12 Students' Concepts of Covalent Bonding and Structure Following a Course of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Raymond F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Outlines a procedure used to develop a written diagnostic instrument to identify misconceptions and misunderstandings of the chemistry topic. Reports the characteristic data for the instrument, and student understanding of covalent bonding and structure. (Author/YP)

  9. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  10. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  11. Climate change and the tourism sector: the clean development mechanism, a market instrument under the Kyoto Protocol to achieve multiple objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Violetti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to demonstrate that the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), an instrument created under a global international treaty, can achieve multiple objectives beyond those for which it has been established. As such, while being already a powerful tool to contribute to the global fight against climate change, the CDM can also be successful if applied to different sectors not contemplated before. In particular, this research aimed at demonstrating that a wider util...

  12. Including Additional Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry-activities under the Clean Development Mechanism : Discussions in the United Nations Climate Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Lina

    2011-01-01

      Land use, land use change and forestry activities (LULUCF) can help mitigate climate change by creating a terrestrial carbon sink, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, while at the same time help increasing adaptive capacity and reduce poverty. Still, carbon stored in biomass or soils are only stored temporary since natural or human induced disturbances can cause a total or partial loss of stored carbon. LULUCF-activities under the clean development mechanism (CDM),  one of the flex...

  13. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  14. Metallurgical Bonding Development of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomics (GA), in conjunction with the Department of Energy's (DOE) DIII-D Program, is carrying out a plan to utilize a vanadium alloy in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected in the U.S. as the leading candidate vanadium alloy for fusion applications. This alloy will be used for the divertor fabrication. Manufacturing development with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is a focus of the DIII-D RD Program. The RD structure, part of which will be fabricated from V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, will require many product forms and types of metal/metal bonded joints. Metallurgical bonding methods development on this vanadium alloy is therefore a key area of study by GA. Several solid state (non-fusion weld) and fusion weld joining methods are being investigated. To date, GA has been successful in producing ductile, high strength, vacuum leak tight joints by all of the methods under investigation. The solid state joining was accomplished in air, i.e., without the need for a vacuum or inert gas environment to prevent interstitial impurity contamination of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

  15. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  16. Microbial aldolases as C-C bonding enzymes--unknown treasures and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, Anne K; Sprenger, Georg A

    2006-07-01

    Aldolases are a specific group of lyases that catalyze the reversible stereoselective addition of a donor compound (nucleophile) onto an acceptor compound (electrophile). Whereas most aldolases are specific for their donor compound in the aldolization reaction, they often tolerate a wide range of aldehydes as acceptor compounds. C-C bonding by aldolases creates stereocenters in the resulting aldol products. This makes aldolases interesting tools for asymmetric syntheses of rare sugars or sugar-derived compounds as iminocyclitols, statins, epothilones, and sialic acids. Besides the well-known fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, other aldolases of microbial origin have attracted the interest of synthetic bio-organic chemists in recent years. These are either other dihydroxyacetone phosphate aldolases or aldolases depending on pyruvate/phosphoenolpyruvate, glycine, or acetaldehyde as donor substrate. Recently, an aldolase that accepts dihydroxyacetone or hydroxyacetone as a donor was described. A further enlargement of the arsenal of available chemoenzymatic tools can be achieved through screening for novel aldolase activities and directed evolution of existing aldolases to alter their substrate- or stereospecifities. We give an update of work on aldolases, with an emphasis on microbial aldolases. PMID:16614860

  17. Development of high toughness, high strength aluminide-bonded carbide ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, P.F.; Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Cemented carbides are widely used in applications where resistance to abrasion and wear are important, particularly in combination with high strength and stiffness. In the present case, ductile aluminides have been used as a binder phase to fabricate dense carbide cermets by either sintering of mixed powders or a melt-infiltration sintering process. The choice of an aluminide binder was based on the exceptional high temperature strength and chemical stability exhibited by these alloys. For example, TiC-based composites with a Ni{sub 3}Al binder phase exhibit improved oxidation resistance, Young`s moduli > 375 GPa, high fracture strengths (> 1 GPa) that are retained to {ge} 900{degrees}C, and fracture toughness values of 10 to 15 MPa{radical}m, identical to that measured in commercial cobalt-bonded WC with the same test method. The thermal diffusivity values at 200{degrees}C for these composites are {approximately} 0.070 to 0.075 cm{sup 2}/s while the thermal expansion coefficients rise with Ni3Al content from {approximately} 8 to {approximately}11 x 10{sup {minus}6}/{degrees}C over the range of 8 to 40 vol. % Ni{sub 3}Al. The oxidation and acidic corrosion resistances are quite promising as well. Finally, these materials also exhibit good electrical conductivity allowing them to be sectioned and shaped by electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Bonding Strength Enhancement Using Metal "Wicking" Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes grown from a surface typically have poor bonding strength at the interface. A process has been developed for adding a metal coat to the surface of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) through a wicking process, which could lead to an enhanced bonding strength at the interface. This process involves merging CNTs with indium as a bump-bonding enhancement. Classical capillary theory would not normally allow materials that do not wet carbon or graphite to be drawn into the spacings by capillary action because the contact angle is greater than 90 degrees. However, capillary action can be induced through JPL's ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and through the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. A reflow and plasma cleaning process has also been developed and demonstrated to remove indium oxide, and to obtain smooth coatings on the CNT bundles.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-11-04

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  1. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  2. On the selection of financing instruments to push the development of new technologies: Application to clean energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving climate policy goals requires mobilizing public funds to bring still immature clean technologies to competitiveness and create new technological options. The format of direct public support must be tailored to the characteristics of technologies addressed. Based on the experience accumulated with innovation programs, we have identified those features of innovation that should directly condition the choice of direct support instruments. These include the funding gap between the cost of innovation activities and the amount of private funds leveraged; the ability of technologies targeted to compete for public funds in the market; the probability that these technologies fail to reach the market; and the type of entity best suited to conduct these activities. Clean innovation features are matched to those of direct support instruments to provide recommendations on the use to be made of each type of instrument. Given the large financing gap of most clean energy innovation projects, public grants and contracts should finance a large part of clean pre-deployment innovation. However, public loans, equity investments, prizes and tax credits or rebates can successfully support certain innovation processes at a lower public cost. Principles derived are applied to identify the instrument best suited to a case example. - Highlights: ► Public financing instruments must be tailored to the features of supported innovation. ► Instruments should trigger desired innovation at the lowest public cost possible. ► They should strike the right balance between technology selection and competition. ► Public funds mobilized through them should reach the innovating entity. ► Public loans, equity investments, prizes, and rebates should be used in specific cases.

  3. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2015-01-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean developmen...

  4. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  5. 高效路面油污清洗剂的研制%Development of road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 蔡卫权; 李玉军; 涂文辉

    2013-01-01

    A new weakly alkaline road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency was developed by choosing appropriate surfactants, auxiliary solvent and alkaline auxiliaries via analysis of the composition, properties and forming process of the road surface grease. Based on orthogonal experiment, the best ingredients and their percentage contents of AES 6%, LAS 1%, APG 4%, AEO-9 1%, mandarin oil 1.5%, triethanolamine 4% and trisodium citrate 3% were determined b further experiments of performance optimization, and its decontamination rate could reach 99.8% at dry temperature of 150℃. Comparison study of the cleaning performance between commercial multipurpose cleaning agent "Mr Muscle" for kitchen and the as-prepared road grease cleaning agent showed that the latter cleaning agent had higher comprehensive decontamination capacity, and also broad application prospect in the field of thick road grease cleaning.%通过对美食街路面油污组成、性质及形成过程进行分析,选择合适的表面活性剂、辅助溶剂和碱性助剂等原料成功地复配成弱碱性高效路面油污清洗剂.在正交实验的基础上,对所选配方进行性能优化实验,确定最佳实验配方组成分别为脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚硫酸钠6%、直链烷基苯磺酸钠1%、烷基糖苷4%、脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚1%、桔子油1.5%、三乙醇胺4%和柠檬酸三钠3%,在150℃的干燥温度下其去污力可达99.8%.与市售厨房多用清洗剂“威猛先生”清洗性能的对比研究表明,该清洗剂的综合去污能力更强,在路面稠油垢清洗领域显示出广阔的应用前景.

  6. Improved clean development mechanism and joint implementation to promote holistic sustainable development - an integrated policy and methodology for international energy collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kua Harn Wei

    2007-07-01

    The current Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation framework does not emphasize on wholistic sustainability of energy projects. The Golden Standard was a good example of how this framework can be fine-tuned. However, it does not explicitly incentivize the adoption of the sustainability standards it outlines. A 4-element integrated policy strategy is proposed. A Sustainability Assessment Matrix is constructed to evaluate project proposals' sustainability performance. The Probational Sustainability Performance Demand requires continual monitoring of this performance of approved projects throughout a designated probation period. The involved countries will be awarded Sustainability Credits (measured with the matrix) in installments according to their performance within this period. The Probational Emission Reduction Demand requires investing countries to meet moderated emission reduction targets in order for them to claim the certified emission reductions/ emission reduction credits and their share of Sustainability Credits. These credits are converted into Sustainability Assistance Funds, which can be channeled back to finance either the approved projects or independent renewable energy projects in the involved countries. The MIT Energy Cost Model is used to estimate the required amount and identify the forms of such assistance package. Finally, an integrated policymaking framework is suggested to execute and monitor these interconnected policy elements. (auth)

  7. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  9. Cleaning services in local authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Klungseth, Nora Johanne

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses cleaning services in local authorities and is a response to calls for new knowledge on public facility management (FM). The research was financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (KRD). The aim is to describe and explore cleaning in order to provide new knowledge which may contribute to developing and improving FM in local authorities. The research undertaken was based on a descriptive and exploratory mixed-method approach consisting...

  10. P-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Weixing Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CLEANING PROCEDURE OF MIXING EQUIPMENT USED FOR MANUFACTURING CIPROFLOXACIN HCL AND TINIDAZOLE TABLET BY USING UV SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansari Sneha K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and economical methods were developed for the estimation of Ciprofloxacin HCl and tinidazole in two components tablet dosage form. First method is based on the simultaneous equation and second method is based on Q-analysis (absorbance ratio method. Ciprofloxacin HCl has absorbance maxima at 279.0 nm and tinidazole has absorbance maxima at 317 nm in Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile (80:20 solvent. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1-13 μg/ml for Ciprofloxacin HCl and 1.2-15.6 µg/ml for tinidazole. In the first method, the concentrations of the drugs were determined by using simultaneous equations and in second method, the concentration of the drugs were determined by using ratio of absorbance at isoabsorptive point and at the λ-max of one of the drug. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. This paper presents a useful UV spectroscopic method for validating equipment cleaning procedures and verifying cleaning in a pharmaceutical plant. The study summarizes the initial steps that should be taken into account and focuses particularly on the solutions to some of the most critical considerations (e.g., detection and quantification limits, recovery. Cleaning procedure validation offers low detection capability and rapid sample analysis time. The accurate recovery values with method precision less than 2% RSD of precision, UV method is applicable for determining residual of powder mixer on pharmaceutical equipment surfaces and will be useful for cleaning validation.

  12. Toward Clean Green Sustainable Development to Prevent the First Food World War, Changing Authoritative-Public Extension to Literalized-Partnership Extension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Malakmohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main purpose in this study is to provide a more rational platform in extension modeling to respond to the very recent world-wide warnings calling up for global revision of the present extension practices to put the appropriate science and technology to application to securing Clean-Green Sustainable Development (CGSD. Approach: To achieve this purpose, extension education was reconsidered through a new view lens of community empowerment. Results: The basic concern though, is based on CSD, self-sufficiency, food security and safety and entrepreneurship development in the agricultural sector and affiliated sub sectors. Fostering the development of catalytic leaders, researchers and educators who approach issues and challenges in research, education and extension from multiple perspectives and seeking to construct an integrated knowledge base upon which the practice of teaching, learning and human development is based are two other major concerns in this paper. Conclusion: Investigating factors that contribute to, anticipating rather than mitigating integrative extension education engineering, human potentials, human capital development, qualitative as well as, quantitative Clean Development Functional Literacy (CDFL and evolution in science-push community-poll, techno-science extension practices are covered in this paper through an analytical qualitative research method.

  13. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  14. Intensive post operation clean out (Poco) in AREVA NC Cadarache dismantling projects: economic value and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After fabricating plutonium fuels for 40 years (Fast Breeder Reactor, MOX), commercial operations at the AREVA NC Cadarache plant ended in 2003 and post operation clean out of its production buildings and laboratory started. AREVA objective is to achieve IAEA level 2 cleanup of the process facilities and transfer them to their owner, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). There are two main opposite dismantling scenarios: very limited cleanup to optimize man power, or intensive cleanup of the facilities to optimize the quantity of long lived level waste as much as possible. Economic and environmental considerations lead the choice between these two options. (author)

  15. Hydrogen mobility. In the German clean energy partnership (CEP) strong partners are jointly developing the fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    The Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) - a German alliance of currently fifteen leading companies - has set itself the goal of establishing hydrogen as the ''fuel of the future''. With Air Liquide, Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), BMW, Daimler, Ford, GM/Opel, Hamburger Hochbahn, Honda, Linde, Shell, Statoil, Total, Toyota, Vattenfall Europe and Volkswagen, the ground-breaking future project includes technology, oil and utility companies as well as most of the major car manufacturers and two leading public transport companies. The CEP is devoted to testing hydrogen- und fuel-cell technology for everyday use in transport and traffic. (orig.)

  16. Building bonds for migration and development. Diaspora engagement policies of Ghana, India and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzoli, Simona; Lacroix, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Origin countries' governments are increasingly adopting policies to attract the resources of their migrants and their communities to stimulate development. These policies, sometimes referred to as 'diaspora engagement policies', range from securing the rights and protection of migrants while they are abroad, to strengthening the migrants' sense of national identity and their linkages to the origin country and promoting remittances, financial investments and contributions to development. This ...

  17. Developments in sovereign bond issuance in the Central and Eastern European region after the Lehman collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Kiss M.; István Mák

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of the financial and economic crisis of 2008–2009 on the issuance of sovereign debt in the Central and Eastern European region and other developing countries. As a result of the fiscal rescue packages, the financing requirement of both developed and emerging countries has increased significantly since 2007, giving rise to substantial changes in risk appetite as well as considerable shifts in demand for the securities of various issuers operating in the global ...

  18. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements

  19. Clean Energy for Development: The Environmental and Socioeconomic Benefits of Ethanol as a Household Cooking Fuel In Ethiopia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debebe, M.; Lambe, F. (Gaia Association, Bole Subcity, P.O.Box 13493, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)). e-mail: gaiaassociation@ethionet.et

    2008-10-15

    The overwhelming dependence of the household sector on traditional fuels (solid biomass) and kerosene for cooking is having a hugely negative impact on health, the environment and the economy in Ethiopia. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and deforestation associated with harvesting biomass for cooking, are contributing to climate change and environmental degradation. Moreover, indoor air pollution from the burning of traditional fuels indoors causes numerous serious health problems for those exposed - in most cases, women and children. Ethiopian families cook using these fuels because they have no alternatives. Gaia Association, an Ethiopian NGO, and its partners are working to increase access to ethanol fuelled cooking stoves for households at all income levels and have conducted an extensive pilot study to assess the impact of the ethanol fuelled CleanCook stove on Ethiopian homes in a variety of locations. The favourable study results were used to inform a detailed business plan outlining the strategies for local commercialisation of the stove and fuel. Adoption of this alternative clean cooking technology has been shown to address the health, environmental and socioeconomic problems associated with heavy reliance on traditional cooking fuels.

  20. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A. P., E-mail: APKuznetsov@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Buzinskij, O. I. [State Research Center Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Gubsky, K. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tarasov, B. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Tugarinov, S. N. [State Research Center Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements.

  1. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  2. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  3. Low-carbon economy development trend and clean and effective utilization of coal%低碳经济与煤的清洁高效利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2011-01-01

    煤炭是中国的主要能源,实现低碳经济的关键是煤的清洁高效利用.提出煤炭洗选、煤制合成天然气和煤基多联产作为短、中、长期的对策建议.%Coal is the main source of energy in China, clean and effective utilization of coal determines the development trend of low-carbon economy. Provide coal washing, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal, coalbased co-production respectively serving as short-term, mid-term,long-term developmental tasks.

  4. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  5. Europe's clean technology investment challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of clean-energy technologies is crucial if climate targets are to be met cost-effectively. The European Union already has a plan that deals with these issues: the Strategic Energy Technology Plan, which has become central to the achievement of the EU's ambitions. In a period of constrained public finances, if governments want to leverage the necessary private innovation for clean-energy technologies, they will have to provide well-designed time-consistent policies, ...

  6. Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described

  7. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  8. r-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Nasibi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \\in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \\in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.

  9. Prototype of a new tip developed to be coupled to dental light-curing units for optimizing bonding of orthodontic brackets and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Mota Júnior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: development of a new device to be coupled to light-curing units for bonding orthodontic brackets and accessories, and test its efficacy in an in vitro mechanical trial. The inner surface of the device is mirrored and is based on physical concepts of light refraction and reflection. The main advantage of such device is the reduced clinical time needed for bonding and the low possibility of contamination during the process. METHODS: One hundred and twenty specimens were used for testing the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with the device. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI was also determined. The sample was divided into 2 groups. In group 1 a halogen light-curing unit was used while in group 2 a led light-curing unit was used. Each group was then subdivided. In subgroups H1 and L1, a conventional light guide rod was used while in subgroups H2 and L2 bonding was performed with the mirrored device coupled to the tip of the guide light rod. RESULTS: The values obtained for the shear bond strength and the ARI in the subgroups were compared. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference for the shear strength (p > 0.05 and the ARI (p > 0.05 between the subgroups. CONCLUSION: The tests of mechanical trials and the ARI analysis showed that the new device fulfilled the requirements for bonding orthodontic accessories, and that the time for bonding was reduced to half, being necessary only one light exposure.

  10. Institutional Guidance of Affective Bonding: Moral Values Development in Brazilian Military Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmeyer, Daniela Schmitz; Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2016-09-01

    In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment. Following a brief discussion on how social institutions try to promote changes in personal values, we provide an overview of values present in the military culture and socialization. Finally, the text focuses on the education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers, describing how practices related to different levels of affective-semiotic experience combine in order to promote the internalization and externalization of specific moral values. We conclude suggesting issues for future investigation. PMID:26960934

  11. Developing a New Teaching Approach for the Chemical Bonding Concept Aligned with Current Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Tami Levy; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Krajcik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a…

  12. Reaction Development on π- and σ-Conjugated Bonds and Creation of Innovative Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Monocarba-closo-dodecaborate (1; [closo-CB11H12](-), or C1-carborane anion) is a symmetrical, stable anionic cluster, which possesses low nucleophilicity/basicity and exhibits three-dimensional aromaticity. In contrast to the rich applications of C2-carborane molecules (C2B10H12), the chemistry of the C1-carborane anion as a platform for functional molecules has not been thoroughly studied thus far due to the lack of its efficient functionalization. In particular, no efficient general methods are available for the introduction of aryl and sp(2)/sp-carbon groups at the carbon vertex of the C1-carborane anion. The unique electronic structure and potential applications of the C1-carborane anion prompted us to investigate methods to functionalize it. We developed a general, efficient C-C cross-coupling reaction of 1 under palladium catalysis which yields a variety of 1-C-functionalized C1-carborane derivatives. The use of copper(I) or lithium species as a transmetalating partner facilitated the cross-coupling process of the sterically hindered C1-carborane anion. The potential application of 1-C-arylated C1-carborane anion derivatives thus obtained were explored, some of which showed potential as pharmacophores and ionic liquid crystal behavior. Furthermore, conjugation between σ- and π-aromatic moieties in 1-C-arylated monocarba-closo-dodecaborate anion derivatives was identified by means of kinetic experimental studies combined with theoretical calculations. PMID:27252066

  13. Doseringsutrustningen SafeBond Electronic

    OpenAIRE

    Bodegren, Patrik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis for the Master of Science degree was performed at Oppunda Electronics AB. The assignment was to further develop an existing prototype of a dispensing equipment. The dispensing equipment doses a kind of glue, bonding which dentist use to mend teeth. The dispensing equipment is adjusted to dose 12 micro litres of bonding. With the dispensing equipment SafeBond Electronic the user can reduce the bonding consumption with approximately 50 percent. Furthermore will the handling of the b...

  14. EU climate change policy 2013-2020: Using the Clean Development Mechanism more effectively in the non-EU-ETS Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under European Union proposals for CO2 emission reduction between 2013 and 2020, a Member State can transfer to another Member State the right to use its unused Clean Development Mechanism ('CDM') credits. The paper addresses three issues in relation to these CDM Warrants ('CDMW'). First, how should the Member State treat the CDMW in making decisions concerning emission reduction? The price of the property right is an important signal for a Member State in deciding the level of domestic abatement compared to trading in CDMWs. In other words, a shadow price for CDMWs should be used in formulating the emission strategy in order to determine whether or not a Member State is a buyer or seller of CDMWs. Second, what mechanism should be used to facilitate the exchange of CDMWs? The preferred mechanism depends on the market size, over which there appears to be some ambiguity: market intermediaries such as Over-the-Counter trades and exchanges are preferred if market size is small; auctions if the market size is large. Third, who should realise the value of CDMWs-the State, existing polluters, etc.? The value of CDMWs should accrue to the State. - Research highlights: →Clean Development Mechanism Warrants (CDMw) reduce the costs of emission reduction. →Member States should explicitly take into account the value of the CDMws. →Appropriate market mechanisms - exchanges or auctions - should be created. →The value of CDMws should accrue to government.

  15. Development of sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plants by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction combined with molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuling; Li, Yuanwen; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2011-04-01

    A novel sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plant samples was developed by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) followed by molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure. The method was based on two steps. In the first one, conventional solvent extraction was replaced by VMAE for extraction of auxins from plant tissues. This step provided efficient extraction of 3-indole acetic acid (IAA) from plant with dramatically decreased extraction time, furthermore prevented auxins from degradation by creating a reduced oxygen environment under vacuum condition. In the second step, the raw extract of VMAE was further subjected to a clean-up procedure by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads. Owing to the high molecular recognition ability of the magnetic MIP beads for IAA and 3-indole-butyric acid (IBA), the two target auxins in plants can be selectively enriched and the interfering substance can be eliminated by dealing with a magnetic separation procedure. Both the VMAE and the molecularly imprinted clean-up conditions were investigated. The proposed sample preparation method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatogram and fluorescence detection for determination of IAA and IBA in peas and rice. The detection limits obtained for IAA and IBA were 0.47 and 1.6 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation were 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The IAA contents in pea seeds, pea embryo, pea roots and rice seeds were determined. The recoveries were ranged from 70.0% to 85.6%. The proposed method was also applied to investigate the developmental profiles of IAA concentration in pea seeds and rice seeds during seed germination. PMID:20953778

  16. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen,and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time.How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow.

  17. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen, and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time. How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the ShanghaiSecuritiesJournal. Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Repellent materials. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications. PMID:25745169

  19. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  20. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress.

  1. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress

  2. Development and characterisation of a new anti-slip glaze with smooth texture and easy-cleaning for porcelain stoneware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since conventional anti-slip enamels show some disadvantages, directly related to the surface roughness which prevents the adequate surface cleaning of tile, an anti-slip enamel exhibiting glass-ceramic nature has been designed, characterized by being stain-resistant and presenting a smooth texture and touch soft. To do this, new matte frits and raw materials with similar nature have been used, refractory enough to be suitable in enamel compositions for porcelain stoneware. The glass-ceramic glaze thus prepared was characterized by various instrumental techniques (X-ray fluorescence [XRF], scanning electron microscopy [SEM], X-ray diffraction [XRD], mechanical profilometry and microhardness measurements), in order to check the nature of crystallized phases, their morphology, surface roughness and microhardness of the finished tile. In addition, the quality of the glazed piece has been evaluated by the regulations of chemical resistance, stain-resistance and slipperiness. The enamel obtained has devitrified in crystals of silicoaluminates of calcium and barium and complies with standards of anti-slip and stain-resistence, as it has a surface roughness similar to a non-slip enamel. (Author)

  3. Process development studies on recovery of clean coal from ultra fine hardcoal tailings using enhanced gravity separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, S.; Turksoy, V.O.; Sabah, E.; Oruc, F. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-10-15

    Gravity-based processing methods were used to process and recover clean coal from ultra-fine hardcoal tailings at a site in Turkey. The coal samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. A hydrocyclone was used to conduct classification tests and to separate the clay minerals from the coal. The effects of various operating parameters were also investigated. Regression analysis was used to characterize the relationship between the ash content and coal recovery rate and the feed solid, inlet pressure, diameter of vortex, and diameter of apex variables of the hydrocyclone. The effects of feed pressure were also investigated. The study showed that coal can be economically recovered from hardcoal tailings containing clay minerals. It was concluded that a coal sample with 6.98 per cent ash content and a net calorific value of 28,778 kJ was obtained with a weight recovery of 61.73 per cent. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 18 figs.

  4. The Future of Nuclear Energy As a Primary Source for Clean Hydrogen Energy System in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited availability of fossil fuels compared to the increasing demand and the connected environmental questions have become topics of growing importance and international attention. Many other clean alternative sources of energy are available, but most of them are either relatively undeveloped technologically or are not yet fully utilized. Also, there is a need for a medium which can carry the produced energy to the consumer in a convenient and environmentally acceptable way. In this study, a fission reactor as a primary energy source with hydrogen as an energy carrier is suggested. An assessment of hydrogen production from nuclear energy is presented. A complete nuclear-electro-hydrogen energy system is proposed for a medium size city (population of 500,000). The whole energy requirement is assessed including residential, industrial and transportation energies. A preliminary economical and environmental impact study is performed on the proposed system. The presented work could be used as a nucleus for a feasibility study for applying this system in any newly established city

  5. On Perfectly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Halicioglu, S.; Kose, H.

    2013-01-01

    An element $a$ of a ring $R$ is called perfectly clean if there exists an idempotent $e\\in comm^2(a)$ such that $a-e\\in U(R)$. A ring $R$ is perfectly clean in case every element in $R$ is perfectly clean. In this paper, we investigate conditions on a local ring $R$ that imply that $2\\times 2$ matrix rings and triangular matrix rings are perfectly clean. We shall show that for these rings perfect cleanness and strong cleanness coincide with each other, and enhance many known results. We also ...

  6. Weak Nil Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Basnet, Dhiren Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$, for which $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner r...

  7. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens;

    2005-01-01

    condition based cleaning. This paper describes how a novel sensor, developed for the purpose, and algorithms for classification and learning are combined with a commercial robot to obtain an autonomous system which meets the necessary quality attributes. These include features to make selective cleaning...... where dirty areas are detected, that operator assistance is called only when cleanness hypothesis cannot be made with confidence. The paper describes the design of the system where learning from experience maps and operator instructions are combined to obtain a smart and autonomous cleaning robot.......Cleaning of livestock buildings is the single most health-threatening task in the agricultural industry and a transition to robot-based cleaning would be instrumental to improving working conditions for employees. Present cleaning robots fall short on cleanness quality, as they cannot perform...

  8. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  9. Economic and Environmental Performances of Small-Scale Rural PV Solar Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: The Case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen De Schepper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The two core objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM are cost-effective emission reduction and sustainable development. Despite the potential to contribute to both objectives, solar projects play a negligible role under the CDM. In this research, the greenhouse gas mitigation cost is used to evaluate the economic and environmental performances of small-scale rural photovoltaic solar projects. In particular, we compare the use of absolute and relative mitigation costs to evaluate the attractiveness of these projects under the CDM. We encourage the use of relative mitigation costs, implying consideration of baseline costs that render the projects profitable. Results of the mitigation cost analysis are dependent on the baseline chosen. To overcome this drawback, we complement the analysis with a multi-objective optimization approach, which allows quantifying the trade-off between economic and environmental performances of the optimal technologies without requiring a baseline.

  10. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  11. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market

  12. Distinguishing Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald

    2016-03-23

    The energy change per electron in a chemical or physical transformation, ΔE/n, may be expressed as Δχ̅ + Δ(VNN + ω)/n, where Δχ̅ is the average electron binding energy, a generalized electronegativity, ΔVNN is the change in nuclear repulsions, and Δω is the change in multielectron interactions in the process considered. The last term can be obtained by the difference from experimental or theoretical estimates of the first terms. Previously obtained consequences of this energy partitioning are extended here to a different analysis of bonding in a great variety of diatomics, including more or less polar ones. Arguments are presented for associating the average change in electron binding energy with covalence, and the change in multielectron interactions with electron transfer, either to, out, or within a molecule. A new descriptor Q, essentially the scaled difference between the Δχ̅ and Δ(VNN + ω)/n terms, when plotted versus the bond energy, separates nicely a wide variety of bonding types, covalent, covalent but more correlated, polar and increasingly ionic, metallogenic, electrostatic, charge-shift bonds, and dispersion interactions. Also, Q itself shows a set of interesting relations with the correlation energy of a bond. PMID:26910496

  13. The clean development mechanism for joint implementation of nuclear power projects in developing countries : a win-win strategy for climate-friendly development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high energy use per capita that characterized most developed countries evolved almost free of constraints external to the market-place. Now, driven by concerns about global climate change and environmental degradation, these countries are being forced to seek climate friendly ways to preserve their enviable quality of life. Success will not come without considerable cost, but there is growing awareness that failure to act will be even more expensive. This recognition has already begun to focus increased attention and investment on conservation and efficiency measures, and on the development of renewable, non- Co2 emitting energy sources (wind, solar electric etc.). At present, it is an open question whether gains in efficiency and expansion of renewable energy sources will suffice. The answer depends in part on developing better models of how the global climate will respond to various levels of GHG in the atmosphere. Another ten years or so may suffice to get the picture clear. But whatever the details, few would argue in favour of additional large increases in GHG emissions, or of severely curtailing development plans of the less-well-off nations. The Climate Convention attests to the world-wide recognition that action on some scale will be obligatory. As we get the problem in better focus, it is important to put all choices on the table for discussion, and to keep all options open. Solving the problem will cost money, probably a lot of it, and finding the most cost-effective approach will be important

  14. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  15. An automated cleaning system for hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient hygienic practices in Irish hospitals coupled with one of the highest number of reported cases of MRSA in Europe have highlighted the need for solutions to aid in the task of cleaning. This automated cleaning system consisted of two robots: a core robot developed separately with navigational and task scheduling capabilities integrated. The cleaning task was carried out by making use of a commercially available Roomba vacuum cleaner which had been adapted to operate in conju...

  16. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  17. Dilute chemical cleaning of PWR steam generators off-line cleaning process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project evaluated the feasibility of using a low-concentration (approx. 0.5 wt %) chemical cleaning process to remove corrosion product deposits from steam generator surfaces and magnetite from tube-to-support plate crevices of PWR steam generators. The primary objective was to develop a dilute process that could be safely applied at scheduled intervals, such as during normal refueling outages, to maintain a clean operating condition in the steam generator. The dilute chemical cleaning process developed in this project was demonstrated successfully on two model generators which were operated on faulted chemistry by DOE/CRC at Commonwealth's State Line Facility. Unit 5 was cleaned after 48 days of operation with 1% seawater fouling, and Unit 6 was cleaned after 112 days of operations with Lake Michigan water. This report describes work leading to the model generator cleaning demonstrations and provides details of the cleaning operation for each model steam generator

  18. Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable Development : a discussion on the link between the CDM and Sustainable Development, an analysis of the current status of the CDM portfolio, and an multicriteria evaluation of the effects of additional incentives in order to foster broad local Sustainable Development dividends from the CDM projects

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaumer, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Exosomatic energy, although not an unconditional human requirement per se, is present in many aspects of Human Development. The introductory section of this study presents an analysis of the link between Energy and Development, highlighting common points of and contradictions between Climate and Development measures. It presents also a discussion about Sustainable Development and the potential role that the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could play in this regard. The goal of the CDM, as d...

  19. Diagnosis of social and environmental evaluation of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects; Diagnostico da sustentabilidade socioambiental nas atividades de projetos candidatos ao MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziliotto, Marco Aurelio B.; Villa, Alessandra T.; Padilha, Simone L. Vieira; Canaverde, Patricia Margue [Instituto Ecoplan, PR (Brazil); Sanqueta, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contributes to sustainability and to sustainable development in those countries where CDM projects are developed and helps the countries from Annex I to achieve their reduction targets to Greenhouse Gases. This paper presents a proposal of a social and environmental sustainability diagnosis making use of a tool called Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix - MADSA{sup R}. Its purpose is to establish and measure appropriate sustainable indicators to evaluate projects to ensure development benefits of CDM projects in host countries in consistency with Annex I countries developmental goals. MADSA{sup R} methodology allows a definition of a social and environmental baseline to MDL projects, and provides information to any interested group of people, from stockholders to local community; showing its results. It allows a greater clients', stockholders' and investor's trust as it measures the development so it makes possible the diagnosis and the comparison between all phases of the project. It also contributes to a continuous improvement through the participation of benefit groups in the diagnosis. Besides being an evaluation method and a management tool, this proposal looks for being a reference as an indicator pattern that evaluates the sustainable social and environmental development of CDM projects. (author)

  20. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De;

    2002-01-01

    Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based on...... detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de...

  1. EU climate change policy 2013-2020: Using the Clean Development Mechanism more effectively in the non-EU-ETS Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorecki, Paul K., E-mail: paul.gorecki@esri.i [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Lyons, Sean [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Tol, Richard S.J. [Economic and Social Research Institute, Institute for Environmental Studies (Ireland); Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    Under European Union proposals for CO{sub 2} emission reduction between 2013 and 2020, a Member State can transfer to another Member State the right to use its unused Clean Development Mechanism ('CDM') credits. The paper addresses three issues in relation to these CDM Warrants ('CDM{sub W}'). First, how should the Member State treat the CDM{sub W} in making decisions concerning emission reduction? The price of the property right is an important signal for a Member State in deciding the level of domestic abatement compared to trading in CDM{sub W}s. In other words, a shadow price for CDM{sub W}s should be used in formulating the emission strategy in order to determine whether or not a Member State is a buyer or seller of CDM{sub W}s. Second, what mechanism should be used to facilitate the exchange of CDM{sub W}s? The preferred mechanism depends on the market size, over which there appears to be some ambiguity: market intermediaries such as Over-the-Counter trades and exchanges are preferred if market size is small; auctions if the market size is large. Third, who should realise the value of CDM{sub W}s-the State, existing polluters, etc.? The value of CDM{sub W}s should accrue to the State. - Research highlights: {yields}Clean Development Mechanism Warrants (CDMw) reduce the costs of emission reduction. {yields}Member States should explicitly take into account the value of the CDM{sub w}s. {yields}Appropriate market mechanisms - exchanges or auctions - should be created. {yields}The value of CDM{sub w}s should accrue to government.

  2. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  3. Gas bubbling cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)

  4. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  5. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  6. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Building Social Capital : A Field Study of the Active, Beautiful and Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tovatt, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a field study examining the effect of the Active, Beautiful and Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme in Singapore on social capital. Based on a multi-disciplinary approach and following the theoretical framework of bonding and bridging social capital developed by Robert Putnam and others, three different cases of the ABC Programme were compared, looking particularly at the level of blue-green landscape integration. The three cases comprised the ABC flagship project ‘Bishan...

  8. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  9. Deforestation in the tropics: after the exclusion from Clean Development Mechanisms new opportunities for the Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The 11th Conference of Parties (Montreal 2005 has favoured initiatives for reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. This issue was discussed at a workshop, organised in Bad Blumau (Austria, 10-12 May 2006 to provide a timely forum for assessment of different methodological and policy approaches. This paper reports the main workshop conclusions, underlining the political and methodological issues of deforestation in developing countries, with Brazil as a specific example.

  10. EVALUATION OF WILLINGNESS TO ACCEPT AND ADOPT CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS AMONG SMALLSCALE FARMERS IN NJORO DISTRICT, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuya, Oscar Ingasia

    2010-01-01

    Carbon markets are developing world wide with the major aim of environmental protection and poverty alleviation in developing countries. Some carbon sequestration projects have been started in Kenya though it is still not yet a vibrant investment in spite of the available suitable biophysical land. Njoro district has no such project regardless of being affected by deforestation. One inevitable result has been the unpredictable rainfall pattern constituting overall climate change, increased su...

  11. Diffusion bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  12. High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant and Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion NiAl-Base Bond Coat Developed for a Turbine Blade Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Many critical gas turbine engine components are currently made from Ni-base superalloys that are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC). The TBC consists of a ZrO2-based top coat and a bond coat that is used to enhance the bonding between the superalloy substrate and the top coat. MCrAlY alloys (CoCrAlY and NiCrAlY) are currently used as bond coats and are chosen for their very good oxidation resistance. TBC life is frequently limited by the oxidation resistance of the bond coat, along with a thermal expansion mismatch between the metallic bond coat and the ceramic top coat. The aim of this investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center was to develop a new longer life, higher temperature bond coat by improving both the oxidation resistance and the thermal expansion characteristics of the bond coat. Nickel aluminide (NiAl) has excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and can sustain a protective Al2O3 scale to longer times and higher temperatures in comparison to MCrAlY alloys. Cryomilling of NiAl results in aluminum nitride (AlN) formation that reduces the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the alloy and enhances creep strength. Thus, additions of cryomilled NiAl-AlN to CoCrAlY were examined as a potential bond coat. In this work, the composite alloy was investigated as a stand-alone substrate to demonstrate its feasibility prior to actual use as a coating. About 85 percent of prealloyed NiAl and 15 percent of standard commercial CoCrAlY alloys were mixed and cryomilled in an attritor with stainless steel balls used as grinding media. The milling was carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The milled powder was consolidated by hot extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing. From the consolidated material, oxidation coupons, four-point bend, CTE, and tensile specimens were machined. The CTE measurements were made between room temperature and 1000 C in an argon atmosphere. It is shown that the CTE of the NiAl-AlN-CoCrAlY composite bond coat

  13. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  14. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  15. Partnership for a Clean Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  16. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  17. Credit default swaps, bond spreads and the bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Meicheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the credit default swap (CDS) market, the issue of how the introduction of CDSs affects the corporate bond market has been of particular interest to researchers and policy makers. This has been investigated in the literature from two perspectives. One is to examine the relationship between the CDS and the bond markets in price discovery, and the other is concerned with researching the CDS trading effects on bond spreads. Referring to the former approach, most rel...

  18. New chromogenic and fluorogenic reagents and sensors for neutral and ionic analytes based on covalent bond formation--a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Gerhard J

    2006-11-01

    To date, hydrogen bonding and Coulomb, van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions are the major contributors to non-covalent analyte recognition using ionophores, ligands, aptamers and chemosensors. However, this article describes recent developments in the use of (reversible) covalent bond formation to detect analyte molecules, with special focus on optical signal transduction. Several new indicator dyes for analytes such as amines and diamines, amino acids, cyanide, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, organophosphates, nitrogen oxide and nitrite, peptides and proteins, as well as saccharides have become available. New means of converting analyte recognition into optical signals have also been introduced, such as colour changes of chiral nematic layers. This article gives an overview of recent developments and discusses response mechanisms, selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:17039383

  19. BIONICOL. Development of a bionic solar collector with an aluminium roll-bond absorber; BIONICOL. Entwicklung eines bionischen Solarkollektors mit Aluminium-Rollbond-Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Michael; Lunz, Karin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Hillerns, Frank [TYFOROP Chemie GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the development of a bionic solar collector with an aluminum roll-bond absorber. As part of the EU research project BIONICOL experiments and simulations are performed with respect to fluid mechanics, internal pressure stability and corrosion. First absorbers with a size of 1,060 mm x 1,820 mm are manufactured. The measured pressure loss is lower than the pressure loss of the hydraulically optimized volumetric absorber according to TREIKAUSKAS. Several studies suggest that adequate corrosion protection is achieved under conditions of stagnation, if TYFOCOR {sup registered} L in an aluminum roll bond-absorbers is used. Measurements at collectors (efficiency curve and stagnation behaviour) as well as the further development of the collector to prototypes for demonstration plants are planned as next steps.

  20. Clean energy and hydrogen for oil sands development with CANDU SCWR nuclear reactors and Cu-Cl cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the unique capabilities and advantages of SCWR technology for cleaner oil sands development are discussed from two perspectives: lower temperature steam generation by supercritical water for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), and hydrogen production for oil sands upgrading by coupling SCWR with the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. The heat requirements for bitumen extraction from the oil sands and the hydrogen requirements for bitumen upgrading are evaluated. A conceptual layout of SCWR coupled with oil sands development is presented. The reduction of CO2 emissions due to the use of SCWR and thermo chemical hydrogen production cycle is also analyzed. (author)

  1. Development of a hot heat exchanger and a cleaning system for a 35 kW hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for solid biomass fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Marinitsch, Gerald; Schöch, Martin;

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, a small-scale CHP technology based on hermetic Stirling engines has been developed and two prototype plants with a 35 kWel four cylinder and a 70 kWel eight cylinder Stirling engine have been erected in Austria. The prototype plant with a 35 kWel Stirling engine has already...... been operated for more than 9,000 hours. Operating experiences gained from these plants formed the basis for the further development of this technology. The experiences showed that the efficiency of the Stirling hot gas heat exchanger and of the hot gas heat exchanger cleaning system have to be further......H, Austria. The new design of the Stirling hot gas heat exchanger has been developed in order to optimise the performance of the engine and simplify the geometry. In this respect, an equal distribution of the heat transfer across each tube in the hot gas heat exchanger, the reduction of the internal Helium...

  2. Systematic Contradiction Between Heritage Conservation and Tourism Development: Cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Degang; Sun Wanzhen

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the tourist industry, world heritage sites become more and more popular among tourists from home and abroad. Therefore, heritage tourism has become a new hotspot. However, while world heritage sites are making obvious economic benefit from tourism,they also bring various problems and contradictions, of which the most troublesome one is the contradiction between heritage conservation and tourism development. To discuss and analyze the root and the essence of the above contradiction and find a way to bring about harmony between them is an important program faced by our national heritage management practice and academic research. Based on the case of cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu, this paper analyzes the reasons why our national world cultural heritage sites bring about the above contradiction in the process of tourism development and points out that the improper system and stakeholders' benefit imbroglio are respectively the root and the essence of the contraction. Then, it also puts forward corresponding solutions.

  3. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  4. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  5. Development of a multi-tube axial flow cyclone separator system for use in nuclear gas cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axial flow cyclone separators have been used typically to protect gas turbine and Diesel engines and control systems from abrasive airborne contaminants. The axial flow cyclone system provides a permanent, high efficiency, non-clogging separator with no moving parts and minimum maintenance requirements. In this paper the development, testing and application of separator panels using multiple 2-stage separators are described. Several nuclear application concepts are discussed, and details are given of a specific installation at Dungeness B nuclear power station. The design objectives for the separator system were: (a) to develop the dust separation efficiency to a level above that of existing units and (b) to minimize dust hold-up within the separator assembly so as to minimize the exposure of maintenance personnel to radioactive debris. The multi-tube separator assembly achieved an efficiency of separation of 98.5% and a dust hold-up of 162 g when tested with AC coarse test dust

  6. Renewable Energy Resources Impact on Clean Electrical Power by developing the North-West England Hydro Resource Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, P; Aggidis, George A.; Howard, D; Rothschild, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sequential decision support system to promote hydroelectric power in North-West England. The system, composed of integrated models, addresses barriers to the installation of hydroelectric power schemes. Information is linked through an economic assessment which identifies different turbine options, assesses their suitability for location and demand; and combines the different types of information in a way that supports decision making. The system is s...

  7. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  8. Development of sintering materials by sea sediments and TiO/sub 2/ for the cleaning teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solar decontamination process for water was developed using photocatalysts supported on sea bottom sediments with sodium silicate. The supported catalysts were systematically optimized with respect to TiO/sub 2/ dosages, calcinations temperature and binder dosages. The Young's Modulus value (compressed strength) was found 12.5 kN/mm/sub 2/ of optimized supported catalyst which would not mixed with the water of real samples during the photocatalysis. The composition of the optimized catalyst was selected as sediments 82%, TiO /sub 2/ 15% and Na/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/ 3%, where the sintering temperature was 750degreeC. Humic acid as a model compound was used to evaluate the degradation efficiency of the developed sintering material. The complete mineralization of humic acid was achieved by 40 h sunlight irradiation. About 100 ml of (15 mg/L) of humic acid was successfully degraded with 15 g sintering materials under sunlight irradiation. The solar photocatalytical degradation treatment is simple, easy handling and cheap. Therefore, since the artificial lamp devices, for example Hg-Xe lamp, are particularly expensive in the local and nonexclusive areas, the optimized developed sintering material appears to be very suitable treatment method for humic acid in those area

  9. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  10. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  11. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... design suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while...... others filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  12. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  13. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  14. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  15. Impacts on CO2 emission allowance of EU emission trading scheme (ETS) in a Swedish steel plant by clean development mechanism (CDM). Paper no. IGEC-1-058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) started on January 1st 2005 according to national plans for allocating emissions rights. The steel industry is one of the industrial sectors included in this scheme. The objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the optimum solution(s) in the steel mills to meet their emission allowance with low reduction cost. An optimization model is developed and used for a case study in a Swedish steel plant. Three scenarios were created in the model, i.e. internal changes within the steel plant, ETS, and the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM). For the last scenario, China was selected as a country of the non-Annex I Party for the emission trading by CDM. The modeling results show that the studied plant will face an emission gap between allowed and calculated emissions in the near future. Compared to the ETS, the implementation of CDM projects will make the plant reduce CO2 emission at a lower cost. The internal changes within the plant will also play an important role for the solution of low abatement cost. (author)

  16. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  17. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  18. 40 CFR 35.936-22 - Bonding and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... erection of treatment works or sewer system rehabilitation must furnish performance and payment bonds, each... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-22 Bonding and insurance. (a) On contracts for the building and erection of treatment works or contracts...

  19. Doppler Imaging with a Clean-Like Approach - Part One - a Newly Developed Algorithm Simulations and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurster, M.

    1993-07-01

    A newly developed method for the Doppler imaging of star spot distributions on active late-type stars is presented. It comprises an algorithm particularly adapted to the (discrete) Doppler imaging problem (including eclipses) and is very efficient in determining the positions and shapes of star spots. A variety of tests demonstrates the capabilities as well as the limitations of the method by investigating the effects that uncertainties in various stellar parameters have on the image reconstruction. Any systematic errors within the reconstructed image are found to be a result of the ill-posed nature of the Doppler imaging problem and not a consequence of the adopted approach. The largest uncertainties are found with respect to the dynamical range of the image (brightness or temperature contrast). This kind of uncertainty is of little effect for studies of star spot migrations with the objectives of determining differential rotation and butterfly diagrams for late-type stars.

  20. Testing of toxicity based methods to develop site specific clean up objectives - phase 1: Toxicity protocol screening and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to develop a cost-effective and practical protocol for using bio-assay based toxicity assessment methods for remediation of decommissioned oil and gas production, and processing facilities. The objective was to generate site-specific remediation criteria for contaminated sites. Most companies have used the chemical-specific approach which, however, did not meet the ultimate land use goal of agricultural production. The toxicity assessment method described in this study dealt with potential impairment to agricultural crop production and natural ecosystems. Human health concerns were not specifically addressed. It was suggested that chemical-specific methods should be used when human health concerns exist. . Results showed that toxicity tests will more directly identify ecological stress caused by site contamination than chemical-specific remediation criteria, which can be unnecessarily protective. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs