WorldWideScience

Sample records for bonds clean development

  1. Cogeneration and Carbon bonds: clean development; Cogeneracion y bonos de carbono: desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Perez, Nidia [Facultad de Contaduria y Administracion, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The growing preoccupation for the environment in our country and its interest to ratify the Kyoto Protocol with respect to the contamination of the atmosphere, offers great opportunities for the cogeneration so that it fortifies the scientific and technological research and gives a good international image about the sustainable development and care of the environment, so that companies that invest in clean technology will be able to assign a monetary value to their environmental patrimony, this through the so called Green Bonds or Carbon Bonds, this opens a new dimension to finance projects by means of these bonds that can be negotiated at an international level; by means of the Clean of Energy Production the investment can be stimulated and revenues for projects that contribute to the sustainable development of the country and the power efficiency. At the moment the country has at least 13 projects in different analysis stages to enter the carbon bond market, which are presented as co-generation projects of energy, in addition to the formation of the Mexican Committee for Projects of Reduction and Capture of Gas Discharges of Greenhouse Effect. [Spanish] La creciente preocupacion por el medio ambiente en nuestro pais y su interes por ratificar el Protocolo de Kyoto en lo referente a la contaminacion de la atmosfera, ofrece grandes oportunidades para la cogeneracion de manera que fortalezca la investigacion cientifica y tecnologica y dar una buena imagen internacional en torno a temas de desarrollo sustentable y cuidado del medio ambiente, de manera que empresas que invierten en tecnologia limpia podran asignar un valor monetario a su patrimonio ambiental, esto a traves de los llamados Bonos Verdes o Bonos de Carbono, esto abre una dimension nueva para financiar proyectos por medio de estos bonos que pueden negociarse a nivel internacional; por medio de la Produccion Limpia de energia se puede estimular inversion y ganancias para proyectos que contribuyan al

  2. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  3. Investigation of the impact of cleaning on the adhesive bond and the process implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GUESS,TOMMY R.; ADKINS,CAROL L. JONES; CURRO,JOHN G.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LOPEZ,EDWIN P.; LEMKE,PAUL A.

    2000-05-01

    While surface cleaning is the most common process step in DOE manufacturing operations, the link between a successful adhesive bond and the surface clean performed before adhesion is not well understood. An innovative approach that combines computer modeling expertise, fracture mechanics understanding, and cleaning experience to address how to achieve a good adhesive bond is discussed here to develop a capability that would result in reduced cleaning development time and testing, improved bonds, improved manufacturability, and even an understanding that leads to improved aging. A simulation modeling technique, polymer reference interaction site model applied near wall (Wall PRISM), provided the capability to include contaminants on the surface. Calculations determined an approximately 8% reduction in the work of adhesion for 1% by weight of ethanol contamination on the structure of a silicone adhesive near a surface. The demonstration of repeatable coatings and quantitative analysis of the surface for deposition of controlled amounts of contamination (hexadecane and mineral oil) was based on three deposition methods. The effect of the cleaning process used on interfacial toughness was determined. The measured interfacial toughness of samples with a Brulin cleaned sandblasted aluminum surface was found to be {approximately} 15% greater than that with a TCE cleaned aluminum surface. The sensitivity of measured fracture toughness to various test conditions determined that both interfacial toughness and interface corner toughness depended strongly on surface roughness. The work of adhesion value for silicone/silicone interface was determined by a contact mechanics technique known as the JKR method. Correlation with fracture data has allowed a better understanding between interfacial fracture parameters and surface energy.

  4. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  5. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  6. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  7. Cleaning of diffusion bonding surface by argon ion bombardment treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airu; Ohashi, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Norio; Aoki, Masanori; Higashi, Yasuo; Hitomi, Nobuteru

    2003-05-01

    The specimens of oxygen-free high conductivity copper, SUS304L stainless steel and pure iron were treated by argon ion bombardment and then were bonded by diffusion bonding method. The effects of argon ion bombardment treatment on faying surface morphology, tensile strength of bonding joints and inclusions at the fracture surface were investigated. The results showed that argon ion bombardment treatment was effective to remove the oxide film and contamination at the faying surface and improve the quality of joints. The tensile strength of the bonded joints was improved, and minimum bonding temperature to make the metallic bonding at the interface was lowered by argon ion bombardment treatment. At the joints with argon ion bombardment treatment, ductile fractured surface was seen and the amount of inclusions was obviously decreased.

  8. The effect of dentin-cleaning agents on resin cement bond strength to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Duygu; Bulucu, Bilinc; Saraç, Y Sinasi; Kulunk, Safak

    2008-06-01

    Provisional cement remnants on dentin affect the bond strength of resin cements to dentin. The authors investigated the effects of dentin-cleaning agents and etching systems on the bond strength of adhesive resin cement. The authors removed the provisional cement from the dentin surfaces of the specimens and then cleaned the surfaces with the dentin-cleaning agents Sikko Tim (VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany), Cavity Cleanser (Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill.) or Consepsis Scrub (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah). They used adhesive resin cement after applying the different etching adhesive systems. Then they examined the dentin surfaces by using scanning electron microscopy. The authors analyzed data by means of a two-way analysis of variance with Tukey honestly significant difference tests (alpha= .05). They found that specimens cleaned with Sikko Tim and Consepsis Scrub had higher shear bond strength values than did those in the no-treatment control group or the group cleaned with Cavity Cleanser. The specimens treated with the total-etching adhesive system had higher shear bond strength than did those treated with the self-etching adhesive systems. Sikko Tim and Consepsis Scrub were effective in removing provisional cement. Adhesive resin cement showed higher bond strength when used in conjunction with the total-etching adhesive system. The use of an effective dentin cleaner before cementation with resin cement can increase bond strength.

  9. Effect of Intraoral Mechanical Cleaning Techniques on Bond Strength of Cast Crowns to Metal Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZain, Sahar; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; AlHelal, Abdulaziz; Alqahtani, Ali

    2017-11-30

    To evaluate the effect of cleaning of metal cores from provisional cement, using an intraoral airborne-particle abrasion method, on the bond strength of permanent resin cement with cast crowns to cores. Thirty stainless steel models of a standard complete crown tooth preparation were fabricated. Thirty Type III gold crowns were fabricated. Each cast crown corresponded to one stainless steel crown preparation model. All crowns were cemented with noneugenol zinc oxide cement and stored for 7 days at 37°C. All crowns were debonded, and the cement was cleaned with airborne-particle abrasion using 50 μm aluminum oxide at 4.1 bar (0.41 MPa) followed by ultrasonic cleaning. Based on the mechanical cleaning technique of the remaining provisional cement on surfaces of cast cores, specimens were equally divided into 3 groups: hand cleaning (HC) with a dental excavator, hand cleaning followed by polishing using a brush and pumice (BP), and hand cleaning followed by intraoral airborne-particle abrasion (APA). All crowns were then cemented to their corresponding cores using universal resin cement. All crowns were stored for 7 days at 37°C. An Instron universal testing machine was used to record the bond strength of crowns. Airborne-particle abrasion method for intraoral mechanical cleaning revealed a statistically significantly higher bond strength compared to the other two methods. When comparing the three methods of provisional cement cleaning from metal cores, airborne-particle abrasion resulted in the highest bond strength for cast crowns. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  11. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  12. Low-temperature wafer direct bonding of silicon and quartz glass by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Xu, Jikai; Zeng, Xiaorun; Tian, Yanhong; Wang, Chunqing; Suga, Tadatomo

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile bonding process for combining silicon and quartz glass wafers by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning. After a post-annealing at 200 °C, strong bonding interfaces with no defects or microcracks were obtained. On the basis of the detailed surface and bonding interface characterizations, the bonding mechanism was explored and discussed. The amino groups terminated on the cleaned surfaces might contribute to the bonding strength enhancement during the annealing. This cost-effective bonding process has great potentials for silicon- and glass-based heterogeneous integrations without requiring a vacuum system.

  13. Preservation of atomically clean silicon surfaces in air by contact bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Francois; Ljungberg, Karin

    1997-01-01

    When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find that the or......When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find...... that the ordered atomic structure of the surfaces is protected from oxidation, even after the bonded samples have been in air for weeks. Further, we show that silicon surfaces that have been cleaned and hydrogen-passivated in UHV can be contacted in UHV in a similarly hermetic fashion, protecting the surface...

  14. The Clean Development Mechanism and Technology Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the transfer of clean technology in India. The reason this study is unique is because firstly, it adopts an outcome-oriented approach to define ‘technology transfer’, which means that technology transfer occurs if firms...... are able to upgrade their ‘dynamic capabilities’. It uses three indicators of firms’ dynamic capabilities: R&D expenditures to sales ratio, fuel consumption to sales ratio and total factor productivity growth. Secondly, it moves away from the analysis of technology transfer claims made in either Project...

  15. Clean Development Mechanism: Core of Kyoto Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Kyun [United Nations Environment Programme (Denmark)

    2000-06-01

    Kyoto protocol is a foundation for achieving an ultimate goal of UNFCCC, which is to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration in the air. The clean development system is a core element for successful implementation of Kyoto protocol with other Kyoto mechanisms. While UNFCCC requires a new paradigm changing to sustainable development considering demand and future environment from the past supply-oriented resource consumption, the clean development system will be used as a means of successful establishment of a new paradigm in 21st century. As environmental problem is integrated with economic problem and each country is thriving for securing its own economic benefit in the issue of environmental conservation, Korea should do its best to have both of global environmental conservation and economic benefit for its own. 1 tab.

  16. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  17. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  18. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  19. New clean energy enterprises and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, Eric [United Nations Environment Programme, Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED), Paris (France); Xiaodong Wang [United Nations Foundation, Climate Change Program, Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Though hundreds of billions of dollars have been invested, past development efforts have been largely unable to break the cycle of poverty - a cycle that is directly linked to the provision of energy. Too often, the potential of local enterprises to provide essential energy services has been ignored. Yet such an enterprise is one of the most potent engines for shifting towards a local human capacity to produce and distribute modern energy services. This recognition lies at the heart of REED, an approach to developing new sustainable energy enterprises that use clean, efficient and renewable energy technologies to meet the energy needs of underserved populations. (Author)

  20. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and randomly assigned to four groups of dentin cleaning protocols (n = 9). Group 1 (control): Provisional cements were mechanically removed with a dental explorer. Group 2: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning brush with pumice Group 3: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning bur. Group 4: The provisional cements were removed by an Er:YAG laser. Self-adhesive luting cement was used to bond ceramic discs to dentin surfaces. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.05 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed using a Kolmogorov Smirnov, One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests to perform multiple comparisons (α=0.05). RESULTS The dentin cleaning methods did not significantly affect the SBS of ceramic discs to dentin as follows: dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, and Er:YAG laser. CONCLUSION The use of different cleaning protocols did not affect the SBS between dentin and ceramic surfaces. PMID:23236570

  1. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and randomly assigned to four groups of dentin cleaning protocols (n = 9). Group 1 (control): Provisional cements were mechanically removed with a dental explorer. Group 2: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning brush with pumice Group 3: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning bur. Group 4: The provisional cements were removed by an Er:YAG laser. Self-adhesive luting cement was used to bond ceramic discs to dentin surfaces. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.05 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed using a Kolmogorov Smirnov, One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests to perform multiple comparisons (α=0.05). THE DENTIN CLEANING METHODS DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE SBS OF CERAMIC DISCS TO DENTIN AS FOLLOWS: dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, and Er:YAG laser. The use of different cleaning protocols did not affect the SBS between dentin and ceramic surfaces.

  2. The Clean Development Mechanism Re-engineered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) remains the only instrument that has been capable of delivering cash flow at scale to investments with emissions reduction benefits in developing countries. Although cash flows have largely dried up, the need for earning operational premiums on assets...... with lower emission profiles than their traditional investment alternatives is intact. Cash flows must not be confused with financing, and although sometimes labeled 'results-based financing' (which in isolation is a contradiction in terms as finance is ex ante while results are ex post), the CDM experience...... emissions reduction benefits on the basis of prospective revenues from emissions reduction: one introduces up-front securitization of the emissions reductions; the other builds on a defined value of the CERs without the need for a carbon price or a market for trading. Most of us use simple heuristics...

  3. WP/072 Is the Clean Development Mechanism Promoting Sustainable Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing; Tarp, Finn

    One of the dual objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is to promote sustainable development in the host countries. With different CDM indicators for 58 CDM host countries over 2005-10, this paper empirically assesses whether CDM project development fulfils...

  4. Can the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) deliver?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, Srikanth; Lloyd, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol has played a significant role in the development of rural communities, specifically investigating uptake of small-scale renewable energy projects. The investigation involved an assessment of 500 registered small-scale CDM projects under the Kyoto Protocol in terms of their potential impact on the envisaged sustainable development goals for rural communities. Five case studies from the Indian subcontinent were also examined. The paper concludes that the CDM in its current state and design has typically failed to deliver the promised benefits with regard to development objectives in rural areas. Successful projects were found to have had good community involvement and such projects were typically managed by cooperative ventures rather than money making corporations. The paper puts forward a new framework for the assessment of such benefits in the hope that future projects can be better assessed in this regard. The key problem, however, remains on how to deal with the inherent contradiction between development and sustainability. - Research Highlights: → Role of CDM towards sustainable development of rural communities. → Assessment of 500 registered small-scale CDM projects. → CDM in its current state and design has typically failed to deliver. → A new framework for sustainable development assessment of small-scale CDM projects. → Inherent contradiction between development and sustainability.

  5. The clean development mechanisms. Ensuring its climate and development benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, L.; Volpi, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) potentially offers a major opportunity for catalysing technology leapfrogging in the South. A CDM which delivers genuine incentives for investment in clean energy technologies and innovative energy solutions could become the first step in shifting towards a development model based on the delivery of sustainable energy services. Conversely, according to a recent analysis for WWF, a CDM regime which allows easy credits for conventional technologies will merely serve to reinforce the current trend towards increased carbon dependency in the South, at the same time as it allows industrialised countries to continue to increase greenhouse gas emissions at home

  6. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and...

  7. Influence of Using Clinical Microscope as Auxiliary to Perform Mechanical Cleaning of Post Space: A Bond Strength Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo; Prado, Maíra; de Jesus Soares, Adriana; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using a clinical microscope while performing mechanical cleaning of post space walls on the bond strength of a fiberglass post to dentin. Forty-five bovine roots were used. After preparation, roots were filled using gutta-percha and Pulp Canal Sealer (SybronEndo, Orange, CA). Subsequently, for post space preparation, the roots were divided into 3 groups: control (only heat condenser + specific bur of the post system); cleaning without a microscope, mechanical cleaning (after the procedure described in the control group, round burs were used to improve cleaning); and cleaning with a microscope, mechanical cleaning performed with round burs visualized under a clinical microscope. Then, fiberglass posts were cemented. The roots were prepared and evaluated by the push-out test. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (P microscope (cervical 1.66 ± 2.3, middle 0.65 ± 1.1, apical 0.79 ± 1.2, and total1.04 ± 1.7), and cleaning with a microscope (cervical 3.26 ± 2.8, middle 1.97 ± 3.5, apical 1.85 ± 4.1, and total 2.37 ± 3.5). In the cleaning with a microscope group, the bond strength values were significantly higher than those in the other groups. In all groups, the main failure pattern was adhesive between cement and dentin. The use of a clinical microscope while performing mechanical cleaning during post space preparation improved the bond strength of a fiberglass post to dentin. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ROLE OF DIASPORA BONDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bunyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the bond issue for the Diaspora as a source of financing of the national economy and a factor of development. We reveal the following factors driving demand in the diaspora bond market: targeting at a project, channels, audience and marketing. The paper shows international experience to attract migrants’ savings and use them to issue bonds. Investors consider diaspora bonds because: firstly, people who have disposable income, who can commit that income or that excess income to a long term investment should look at diaspora bonds: secondly, people who really want to participate in transforming the home country should look at diaspora bond specifically diaspora bonds related to projects: and last but not least, if there are incentives around diaspora bonds for example whether there’s tax incentive and other kinds of incentive, that also should be taken into account. Also we disclosed the possibility of using this type of securities in Ukraine and its expedience.

  9. Technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Haake, F.; Van der Linden, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    Technology transfer is often mentioned as an ancillary benefit of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), but this claim has never been researched or substantiated. The question of technology transfer is important from two perspectives: for host countries, whether the CDM provides a corridor for foreign, climate-friendly technologies and investment, and for industrialised countries as it provides export potential for climate-friendly technologies developed as a consequence of stringent greenhouse gas targets. In order to better understand whether technology transfer from the EU and elsewhere is occurring through the CDM, and what is the value of the associated foreign investment, this paper examines technology transfer in the 63 CDM projects that were registered on January 1st, 2006. Technology originates from outside the host country in almost 50% of the evaluated projects. In the projects in which the technology originates from outside the host country, 80% use technology from the European Union. Technologies used in non-CO2 greenhouse gas and wind energy projects, and a substantial share of the hydropower projects, use technology from outside the host country, but biogas, agricultural and biomass projects mainly use local technology. The associated investment value with the CDM projects that transferred technology is estimated to be around 470 million Euros, with about 390 coming from the EU. As the non-CO2 greenhouse gas projects had very low capital costs, the investment value was mostly in the more capital-intensive wind energy and hydropower projects

  10. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  11. Atomic configuration of hydrogenated and clean tantalum(111) surfaces: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment and electron polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Maolin; Li, Lei; Guo, Yongling; Yao, Chuang; Peng, Cheng; Sun, Chang Q.

    2018-01-01

    By studying the tantalum (Ta)(111) surface with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, we determined binding energy values for the clean Ta(111) (+3.068 eV) and hydrogenated Ta(111) (+3.421 eV) surfaces with an isolated atom level of 18.977 eV. Using the bond-band barrier and zone-selective electron spectroscopy correlation, we investigated the mechanism of hydrogenation adsorption on the Ta(111) surface. We found the local densities of states of the first layer of Ta atoms in the reconstructed structure, which formed on the adsorbent hydrogen of the surface chemical bond contracts and dipole polarization. Moreover, we showed that on the Ta(111) surface, the hydrogen-induced surface core level shifts are dominated by quantum entrapment and are proportional to the calculated hybridized orbitals of the valence band. The latter is therefore correlated to the local surface chemical reactivity and is useful for other adsorbate systems on transition metals.

  12. The clean development mechanism and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a summary of the issues presented and discussed at the African Regional Workshop on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM was introduced in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The objectives of CDM are to assist non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC to promote sustainable development, and to assist Annex I Parties to achieve compliance with their emission limitation and reduction commitments under the Convention. Africa contributes a very small proportion of the world`s greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time the continent is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change which may seriously impact on countries` development efforts. In order to set the background for the workshop and the deliberations of the participants, Chapter 2 presents a brief discussion of Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Africa. Chapter 3 further defines the context, aims and format of the workshop. This is followed in Chapter 4 by a summary of the papers presented during the four days. The papers covered activities in the energy, forestry, agriculture, industry and transport sectors, and addressed issues including: general perspectives on the CDM; institutions and governance of the CDM; baselines and additionality in the CDM; design of projects; project finance under the CDM. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the main issues discussed including modalities of the CDM, governance, equity, CDM projects, share of proceeds and capacity building. A number of areas of consensus emerged among workshop participants. These areas are described in Chapter 6. Finally a full list of participants is provided. (au)

  13. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  14. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  15. Development of Self-Cleaning Denim Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğur, Ş. S.; Sarıışık, A. M.; Çavuşlar, E.; Ertek, M.

    2017-10-01

    Denim fabrics coated with TiO2 nanolayers for self-cleaning properties by using a continuous layer-by-layer method. Nanolayer coated denim fabrics washed with an enzyme process for aging affect. Fabrics were analyzed with SEM-EDX and XPS measurements. Self-cleaning properties of the nanolayer deposited denim fabrics were tested according to red wine stain against to Suntest visible light irradiation after 72 h. And also, some physical (air permeability, tensile strength) and color (color difference and rubbing fastness) properties were evaluated.

  16. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  18. Is the Clean Development Mechanism Effective for Emission Reductions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    with great challenges, given the wide divide between developed and developing nations. Against this background, comprehensive evaluations of the effectiveness of Kyoto market‐based mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in terms of mitigating human‐induced climate change are urgently needed...

  19. Sustainable development benefits of clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Fenhann, Jorgen

    2008-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is part of the global carbon market developing rapidly in response to global warming. It has the twin objective to achieve sustainable development (SD) in host countries and assist Annex-1 countries in achieving their emission reduction targets in a cost-efficient manner. However, research has shown that trade-offs between the two objectives exist in favour of cost-efficient emission reductions and that left to the market forces, the CDM does not significantly contribute to sustainable development. The main argument of the paper is the need for an international standard for sustainability assessment-additional to national definitions-to counter weaknesses in the existing system of sustainability approval by designated national authorities in host countries. The article develops a new methodology, i.e. a taxonomy for sustainability assessment based on text analysis of the 744 project design documents (PDDs) submitted for validation by 3 May 2006. Through analysis of the SD benefits of all CDM projects at aggregated levels, the strengths and limitations of the taxonomy are explored. The main policy implication of the research is to propose the taxonomy as the basis of an international verification protocol for designated operational entities (DOEs) for reporting, monitoring and verifying that potential SD benefits described in the PDDs are actually realized

  20. An Investigation into Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CDM) as a transition mechanism to Kenya's green economy and the contribution of CDM projects towards sustainable development in Kenya. Accordingly, a positive checklist approach to sustainable development indicators was applied as ...

  1. Bonding as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of bonding as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. The goals are fourfold. First, theoretical perspectives of bonding are delineated. Secondly, the relationships among bonding to caregivers, friends, romantic partners, as well as teachers, and adolescents’ positive developmental outcomes are reviewed. Thirdly, with theoretical and empirical support, a discussion on how to promote bonding among adolescents is offered. Finally, a critical review on the cultural issues of bonding is provided.

  2. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address these tar related problems a cleaning and cooling system has been developed in house that facilitates tar removal to acceptable levels tolerated by the internal combustion (IC) engine and meets emission standards as well. The main objective of the present work is to reduce tar level and develop control ...

  3. The governance of clean energy in India: The clean development mechanism (CDM) and domestic energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jon; Newell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which clean energy is being governed in India. It does so in order to improve our understanding of the potential and limitations of carbon finance in supporting lower carbon energy transitions, and to strengthen our appreciation of the role of politics in enabling or frustrating such endeavors. In particular we emphasize the importance of politics and the nature of India's political economy in understanding the development of energy sources and technologies defined as ‘clean’ both by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and leading international actors. By considering the broad range of institutions that exert formal and informal political influence over how the benefits and costs of the CDM are distributed, the paper highlights shortcomings in the narrow way in which CDM governance has been conceptualized to date. This approach goes beyond analysis of technocratic aspects of governance – often reduced to a set of institutional design issues – in order to appreciate the political nature of the trade-offs that characterize debates about India's energy future and the relations of power which will determine how, and on whose terms, they are resolved. - Highlights: • Clean energy governance in practice is shaped by political power and influence. • Governance of clean energy requires strong institutions from local to global levels. • Un-governed areas of energy policy are often as revealing of the exercise of power as areas where there explicit policy is in place. • Climate and carbon finance interventions need to better understand the landscape of political power which characterises India’s energy sector

  4. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  5. 7 CFR 1980.488 - Guaranteed industrial development bond issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. 1980... Program § 1980.488 Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. (a) Loans to public bodies will be... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 of the taxability of the proposed bond issue. ...

  6. Development of Megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A.

    1980-09-01

    The major goals to develop a cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three-in.-diameter wafers per hour and to reduce the process cost were achieved. The new system consists of an ammonia-hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32-in.-spaced, ion-implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of Megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room-temperature, high-velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis. The following factors contribute to the improved effectiveness of the process: (1) recirculation and filtration of the cleaning solution permit it to be used for at least 100,000 wafers with only a relatively small amount of chemical make-up before discarding; (2) uniform cleanliness is achieved because both sides of the wafer are Megasonically scrubbed to remove particulate impurities; (3) the novel dryer permits wafers to be dried in a high-velocity room-temperature air stream on a moving belt in their quartz carriers; and (4) the personnel safety of such a system is excellent and waste disposal has no adverse ecological impact. With the addition of mechanical transfer arms, two systems like the one developed will produce enough cleaned wafers for a 30-MW/year production facility. A projected scale-up well within the existing technology would permit a system to be assembled that produces about 12,745 wafers per hour; about 11 such systems, each occupying about 110 square feet, would be needed for each cleaning stage of a 500-MW/year production facility.

  7. Clean development mechanism and domestic policies and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsenty, A.

    2002-02-01

    The study aims to show in an axiomatic micro economic framework, the impacts of the clean development mechanism on the development. To illustrate the analysis, two main sectors of the control of the contribution level of developing countries to the CO 2 rate increase in the atmosphere, have been chosen: the electric power sector in India and the forestry. The simulation, the experimental methodology and the results are presented. (A.L.B.)

  8. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD ampersand E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design

  9. Pacifier cleaning practices and risk of allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmar, Bill; Sjöberg, Fei; Saalman, Robert; Aberg, Nils; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E

    2013-06-01

    Immune stimulation through exposure to commensal microbes may protect against allergy development. Oral microbes may be transferred from parents to infants via pacifiers. We investigated whether pacifier cleaning practices affected the risk of allergy development. A birth-cohort of 184 infants was examined for clinical allergy and sensitization to airborne and food allergens at 18 and 36 months of age and, in addition, promptly on occurrence of symptoms. Pacifier use and pacifier cleaning practices were recorded during interviews with the parents when the children were 6 months old. The oral microbiota of the infants was characterized by analysis of saliva samples collected at 4 months of age. Children whose parents "cleaned" their pacifier by sucking it (n = 65) were less likely to have asthma (odds ratio [OR] 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.99), eczema (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and sensitization (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.10-1.27) at 18 months of age than children whose parents did not use this cleaning technique (n = 58). Protection against eczema remained at age 36 months (hazard ratio 0.51; P = .04). Vaginal delivery and parental pacifier sucking yielded independent and additive protective effects against eczema development. The salivary microbiota differed between children whose parents cleaned their pacifier by sucking it and children whose parents did not use this practice. Parental sucking of their infant's pacifier may reduce the risk of allergy development, possibly via immune stimulation by microbes transferred to the infant via the parent's saliva.

  10. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied.

  11. An analysis of key issues in the clean development mechanism based on the UNEP Risoe clean development mechanism pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Staun, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the analysis contained in the UNEP Risoe Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) pipeline not available on the site, some of the impacts/problems of the CDM and a way forward post-2012. The successful development of the CDM since it started in December 2003 is docum......This paper provides a description of the analysis contained in the UNEP Risoe Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) pipeline not available on the site, some of the impacts/problems of the CDM and a way forward post-2012. The successful development of the CDM since it started in December 2003...... is documented. The CDM pipeline includes calculation of the investment in the CDM projects. The total investment in the 2171 registered CDM projects is approximately US$60 billion. It is shown that programmatic CDM gives hope for an increased share of projects in Africa, since 16% of the programmatic CDM...

  12. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business... completed on-line at the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/Clean... (202-482-1360 or CleanEnergy[email protected] ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday...

  13. Assessing technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara Lena Yri

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an operational definition of technology transfer, to be applied in studies of technology transfer in projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Although the CDM has never been given an explicit mandate for transferring technologies, its contribution in this respect has both been hoped for and exacted. The discussions of technology transfer in CDM projects are however blurred by widely varying conceptions of what technology transfer is. Qu...

  14. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  15. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 2: Effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Asuka; Matsumoto, Mariko; Higashi, Mami; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning on resin cement bonding to CAD/CAM resin blocks. One of two resin cements, PANAVIA V5 (PV5) or PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX (PSA), were bonded to one of 24 CAD/CAM blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK). Each cement group was divided into four subgroups: no cleaning (Ctl), ultrasonic cleaning (Uc), acid cleaning (Ac) and Uc+Ac. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBSs) were measured immediately and 1, 3, and 6 months after water storage. Block surfaces after each treatment were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (p<0.001, F=40), 'resin cement' (p<0.001, F=696) and 'water aging' (p<0.001, F=71). The PV5 group exhibited higher µTBS values than the PSA group. Although cleaning after sandblasting was effective in removing residual alumina particles, it did not affect the long-term bonding durability with non-contaminated CAD/CAM resin blocks.

  16. Monetary policy and bond market development: A case of Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Doojav, Gan-Ochir; Damdinsuren, Batnyam; Baasansuren, Lkhagvajav

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have three principal objectives. First, we measure the bond market development in Mongolia. Second, we analyse in some detail the stock markets response to monetary policy actions using VAR (vector autoregression) analysis. Third, we study determinants (include monetary policy variables and other macro economic variables) of Mongolian bond market development using VAR analysis. We find that bond market in Mongolia remain underdeveloped compared to markets in Latin America, Ea...

  17. The development of clean-burning, noncatalytic manufactured fireplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    Concern for the air quality of this country in general and the Western states in particular has brought sharp focus from regulators on the emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from all wood-burning appliances. This concern was a driving force which led to the development of a clean-burning fireplace. Many Western areas have begun to limit installation of wood-burning appliances in new construction. Some jurisdictions allow only Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified appliances. Currently no federal test methods or standards exist for fireplaces so the Manufactured Fireplace Industry, through the Hearth Products Association (HPA), set about to develop suitable test methods and standards for manufactured fireplaces

  18. The Clean Development Mechanism and Dynamic Capabilities of Implementing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the dynamic capabilities of implementing firms in India. While doing so, it uses three indicators of firms' dynamic capabilities: R&D expenditures to sales ratio, fuel consumption to sales ratio and total factor productivity...... growth. It moves away from the analysis of technology transfer claims made in either Project Development Documents or primary surveys to use actual information on firms' performance for the analysis. A difference-in-difference design is used by defining CDM-implementing firms as the treatment group...

  19. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  20. Principle-Based Ethics and the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bay, Ingrid; Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Search for common values can go a long way resolving international political and social differences, and represents an area where ethical evaluation can offer an input to international legislation. This paper argues that a principle-based, normative approach should be applied to evaluation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and the goal of sustainable development (SD). Primafacie ethical principles to promote weil-being, dignity and justice can be defined and supported from international agreements on sustainable developments. To promote coherency, these principles should then be specifled according to particular CDM-projects, to produce a set of norms that covers: 1) the different dimension to sustainable development, 2) the distribution of costs and benefits across time and place, and 3) consequences for different affected parties, including future generations and the environment

  1. Determinants and outcome of a Clean Development Mechanism in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Zainuddin, Zainorfarah Binti; Zailani, Suhaiza

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) enables transferring technology from developed countries to developing countries, such as Malaysia, and simultaneously promotes sustainable growth. Although this has been proven, the contribution of Malaysian companies in CDM projects is low. Therefore......, this study has been aimed at investigating the determinants of CDM adoption and its impact on companies' performances. Data were gathered by surveying 91 companies in the energy, agriculture, and forestry sectors in Malaysia implementing CDM projects. The data were analysed using the partial least squares...... technique. The results show that environmental regulations, competitiveness, and financial benefits have a positive impact on CDM implementation. Additionally, this study reported a significant positive effect of CDM implementation on economic performance. This paper extends the knowledge...

  2. Clean development mechanism: an incentive for waste management projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöchl, Clemens; Wetzer, Wolfgang; Ragossnig, Arne

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was introduced by the Kyoto Protocol to provide a financial incentive to establish project activities in developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions while also fostering sustainable development. This article shows that waste management project activities play an important role in achieving the aims of the CDM. It describes how these activities have to prove additionality, how the emission reductions must be calculated and monitored in order to be eligible and in order to lead to Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). The article further provides an analysis about the various challenges that are involved in applying the CDM scheme to waste management project activities, which require a new specific set of technical skills and regulatory standards.

  3. Development of contaminated concrete removing system 'Clean cut method'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Takehiko; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Funakawa, Naoyoshi; Idemura, Hajime; Sakashita, Fumio; Tajitsu, Yoshiteru

    1989-01-01

    In the case of decommissioning nuclear facilities such as nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel facilities and RI handling facilities and carrying out reconstruction works, if there is radioactive contamination on the surfaces of concrete structures such as the floors and walls of the buildings for nuclear facilities, it must be removed. Since concrete is porous, contamination infiltrates into the inside of concrete, and the wiping of surfaces only or chemical decontamination cannot remove it, therefore in most cases, contaminated concrete must be removed. The removal of concrete surfaces has been carried out with chipping hammers, grinders and so on, but many problems arise due to it. In order to solve these problems, the mechanical cutting method was newly devised, and clean cut method (CCRS) was completed. The depth of cutting from concrete surface is set beforehand, and the part to be removed is accurately cut, at the same time, the concrete powder generated is collected nearly perfectly, and recovered into a drum. The outline of the method and the constitution of the system, the features of the clean cut method, the development of the technology for cutting concrete and the technology for recovering concrete powder, and the test of verifying decontamination are reported. (K.I.)

  4. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy.... Applications can be completed on-line at the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or can be obtained by contacting the U.S. Department of Commerce Office of...

  5. Micro-shear bond strength and surface micromorphology of a feldspathic ceramic treated with different cleaning methods after hydrofluoric acid etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINHAUSER, Henrique Caballero; TURSSI, Cecília Pedroso; FRANÇA, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; do AMARAL, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; BASTING, Roberta Tarkany

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feldspathic ceramic surface cleaning on micro-shear bond strength and ceramic surface morphology. Material and Methods Forty discs of feldspathic ceramic were prepared and etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes. The discs were randomly distributed into five groups (n=8): C: no treatment, S: water spray + air drying for 1 minute, US: immersion in ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes, F: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, followed by 1-minute rinse, F+US: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, 1-minute rinse and ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes. Composite cylinders were bonded to the discs following application of silane and hydrophobic adhesive for micro-shear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Stereomicroscopy was used to classify failure type. Surface micromorphology of each treatment type was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy at 500 and 2,500 times magnification. Results One-way ANOVA test showed no significant difference between treatments (p=0.3197) and the most common failure types were cohesive resin cohesion followed by adhesive failure. Micro-shear bond strength of the feldspathic ceramic substrate to the adhesive system was not influenced by the different surface cleaning techniques. Absence of or less residue was observed after etching with hydrofluoric acid for the groups US and F+US. Conclusions Combining ceramic cleaning techniques with hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect ceramic bond strength, whereas, when cleaning was associated with ultrasound, less residue was observed. PMID:24676577

  6. Clean Cities Roadmap : A resource for developing, implementing, and sustaining your clean cities program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    This roadmap explains how your community can join forces with the nationwide network of Clean Cities to increase the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). You will learn how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) can help your c...

  7. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-21

    rinse adhesive together with a low‑viscosity resin composite. This multistep application is complex and precise and contains many critical and. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering materials between ...

  8. Success Factors for Clean Development Mechanism Implementation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Say Keat Ooi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, established under the Kyoto Protocol, is one of the market-based mechanisms developed to assist industrialized countries mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, achieve emission reduction targets, and at the same time promote sustainable development in developing countries. The CDM, which provides flexibility and costeffectiveness in meeting GHG emission reduction targets, has captured interest globally. CDM implementation is expected to generate benefits, give developing countries a sense of ownership, and share the global load in tackling global warming and climate change. However, CDM implementation faces several complications. The successful participation of developing countries in emission reduction projects presents ongoing challenges, which inhibit their drive towards sustainable development goals. Through a comprehensive review of the literature and theoretical analysis, several factors have been identified as significant to successful CDM implementation in Malaysia. These success factors, which include regulation and a legal framework, competitive advantage, green supply chain, ethical values, financial benefits, and technology transfer, are presented and the importance of each factor is discussed.

  9. Turkey - Corporate Bond Market Development : Priorities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study is in response to a request by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey to assist them in developing the corporate bond market in line with best practices globally. The objective of this study is to carry out an assessment of the status of the corporate bond market in Turkey. The study identifies key impediments and solutions to sustainable development, and it presents a roadmap to ad...

  10. The Clean Development Mechanism and neglected environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Popp, David; Prag, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an institutional framework for developed countries to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Are the technologies promoted those most needed by the recipient countries? We address this question by first reviewing Technology Needs Assessments prepared by developing countries, and then comparing the stated needs to the technologies most frequently promoted via CDM. While there appears to be a good match between requested technologies and those used in CDM, desired technologies such as solar energy for remote locations, biofuels, improved cooking stoves, and efficient lighting appear “neglected” by CDM. Nonetheless, a review of costs for these technologies suggests that many could be cost effective for developing countries. For projects requiring wide dispersal of household items, such as cooking stoves or lighting, the administrative burdens of CDM provide a hurdle. In other cases, difficulties quantifying the ancillary benefits of these projects hinder the promotion of these technologies. We conclude with possible explanations for why these technologies are neglected and suggestions for future research. - Highlights: ► We identify technologies desired by developing countries but not provided via CDM. ► Solar PV is neglected due to high costs. ► The CDM process provides a hurdle for improved cooking stoves and efficient lighting. ► Implications for CDM and climate policy are discussed

  11. As if Kyoto mattered: The clean development mechanism and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Zegras, P.

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most rapidly growing anthropogenic source. In the future, the developing world will account for the largest share of transport GHG increases. Four basic components drive transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions: activities (A), mode share (S), fuel intensity (I) and fuel choice (F) (ASIF). Currently, the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) serves as the main international market-based tool designed to reduce GHG emissions from the developing world. Theoretically, the CDM has the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve 'sustainable development' goals and industrialized countries meet their Kyoto emissions reduction commitments. This paper reviews overall CDM activities and transportation CDM activities to date and then presents findings from three case studies of transportation CDM possibilities examined with the ASIF framework in Santiago de Chile. The analysis suggests that bus technology switch (I) provides a fairly good project fit for the CDM, while options aimed at inducing mode share (S) to bicycle, or modifying travel demand via land use changes (ASI) face considerable challenges. The implications of the findings for the CDM and the 'post-Kyoto' world are discussed

  12. Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

  13. REDD+ and the Clean Development Mechanism: A comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovleen Bhullar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The program, ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation’ (REDD, which operates within the international climate change policy framework, is projected to emerge as one of the key climate change mitigation mechanisms for developing countries. The existing Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R mechanism, operating under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, may prove useful for drawing lessons for the emerging REDD program, since both mechanisms represent flexible means for developed countries to achieve compliance with their mitigation targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The possible means include CDM as the basis for a project-based approach for the implementation of REDD (if adopted or the inclusion of REDD within CDM. This article compares the features of A/R CDM and REDD, identifies similarities and differences, and analyses the extent to which the former can provide guidance for the development of a carbon governance mechanism for REDD.

  14. Analysis of the partnership network in the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Moon Jung; Park, Jihyoun

    2013-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a global collaborative action proposed at the Kyoto Protocol in response to climate change issues. The CDM contributes to cost-efficient reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in industrialized countries and promotes sustainable development in developing countries. Its fundamental framework is based on partnerships between industrialized and developing countries. This study employs social network analysis to investigate the dynamics of the partnership networks observed in 3816 CDM projects registered in the database of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change over the period of 2005 to 2011. Our three main findings can be summarized as follows. First, the CDM partnership network is a small world; however, its density tends to decrease as the number of participants for a CDM project decreases. Second, the partnership networks’ leading groups tend to shift from partner countries into host countries. Third, a host country that pursues more partnership-based projects takes better control of resources and knowledge-flow in the ego-network formed around that country, and can thus better utilize global resources for its CDM projects. - Highlights: ► We investigate dynamics of the international partnership networks of CDM projects. ► The density of CDM networks tends to decrease by time. ► The partnership networks’ leading groups tend to shift into host countries. ► A host country with more partnerships better utilizes global knowledge resources.

  15. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot bond rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Kajimura, Haruhiko; Nagai, Takayuki; Takeda, Seiichiro.

    1997-01-01

    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) to stainless steel piping are required for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar transition joints made of stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot bond rolling process of clad bars and clad pipes, using a newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. This report presents the manufacturing process of dissimilar transition joints produced from the clad pipe with three layers by the hot bond rolling. First, the method of hot bond rolling of clad pipe is proposed. Then, the mechanical and corrosion properties of the dissimilar transition joints are evaluated in detail by carrying out various tests. Finally, the rolling properties in the clad pipe method are discussed. (author)

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  17. Foreign bond markets and financial market development: International perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Hogan, Warren P.; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    The domestic bond markets of the Asia and Pacific region have grown considerably since the Asian financial crisis of 1997, although they remain undeveloped relative to the region's weight in the world economy. This paper proposes that in order to encourage further development of these markets, regulators should make them more accessible to foreign borrowers. To that end we offer insights into the nature and mechanics of foreign bond issuance by investigating the key characteristics of 3,132 f...

  18. The clean development mechanism's contribution to sustainable development: A review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of how to respond to climate change and ensure sustainable development are currently high on the political agenda among the world's leading nations. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is part of the global carbon market developing rapidly as part of the Kyoto response towards...

  19. Surface Analytics in Support of the Development of Static AutoClean - an In-Situ Cleaning Process for Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stawasz, Michele; Yedave, Sharad; Hiscock, Laura; Sweeney, Joseph; Kaim, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Static AutoClean is a new in-situ cleaning strategy in development at ATMI registered that enables increased process efficiency and safety in the ion implantation process. Like the Dynamic in-situ AutoClean technology previously introduced and released by ATMI, Static AutoClean utilizes XeF 2 chemistry for in-situ cleaning of hazardous contaminants and deposits. Static AutoClean, however, is targeted towards cleaning areas of the beam-line (like electrode insulators or source bushings) where cleaning efforts using Dynamic AutoClean may not be sufficient. An explanation of this cleaning strategy and results showing its effectiveness will be presented in a separate paper at this conference (S. Yedave et al.). This paper presents the surface analytical data and methods used to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of Static AutoClean in removing contaminants from surfaces within the source vacuum chamber. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to track the magnitude and spatial distribution of contaminants present on the surfaces within various regions in the source chamber space of an implanter following ion source operation with a commonly used dopant gas. After in-situ cleaning, these same components and surfaces were re-evaluated by EDS to quantitatively determine the reduction in surface contaminants present within the chamber. Learnings regarding the distribution of implant process contamination within the source chamber as well as Static AutoClean's effectiveness in removing it will be presented.

  20. Development of recycling processes for clean rejected MOX fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khot, P.M.; Singh, G.; Shelke, B.K.; Surendra, B.; Yadav, M.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry and wet (MWDD) methods were developed for 100% recycling of CRO (0.4–44% PuO 2 ). • Dry method showed higher productivity and comparable powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches demonstrated improved powder/product characteristics to that of virgin. • Second/multiple recycling is possible with MWDD with better powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches prepared by little milling showed better macroscopic homogeneity to that of virgin. - Abstract: The dry and wet recycling processes have been developed for 100% recycling of Clean Reject Oxide (CRO) generated during the fabrication of MOX fuel, as CRO contains significant amount of plutonium. Plutonium being strategic material need to be circumvented from its proliferation issues related to its storage for long period. It was difficult to recycle CRO containing higher Pu content even with multiple oxidation and reduction steps. The mechanical recycling comprising of jaw crushing and sieving has been coupled with thermal pulverization for recycling CRO with higher Pu content in dry recycling technique. In wet recycling, MicroWave Direct Denitration (MWDD) technique has been developed for 100% recycling of CRO. The powder prepared by dry and wet (MWDD) recycling techniques was characterized by XRD and BET techniques and their effects on the pellets were evaluated. (U,21%Pu)O 2 pellets fabricated from virgin powder and MWDD were characterized using optical microscopy and α-autoradiography and the results obtained were compared

  1. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  2. Development of beryllium bonds for plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconi, E. (Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R.E. Frascati (Italy)); Ceccotti, G.C.; Magnoli, L. (ENEA, Dipt. Processi Chimici e Materiali Ceramici, C.R.E. Saluggia (Italy))

    1992-09-01

    This study concerns the techniques of bonding beryllium to both structural material (AISI 316 SS) and heat sink material (copper and DS-copper) plates, and the characterization of the bonding material obtained. Conventional bonding techniques for joining Be to SS and copper using brazing alloys were first investigated. The best result was obtained using a silver-copper eutetic alloy as a brazing alloy. However, the high-temperature capability of the materials prepared by this method is limited by the performance of brazing alloys at the operating temperature. To avoid this problem, we are developing a joining process known as solid-state reaction bonding that improves the capability at the operating temperature. (orig.).

  3. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  4. Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism and Tradable Permits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.; Rose Olsen, K.

    2000-06-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The report describes the background for the international co-operation on reducing the greenhouse gases and the background for the instruments. How the instruments work in theory and what the practical problems may be. What agents' incentives are when they engage in JI or CDM, and how the initiation of the instruments can be organised. The institutional frameworks for JI, CDM and TP are discussed. The report describes how the Kyoto instruments and the Kyoto commitments interact with other instruments and describe distributive effects between countries. It is analysed how the use of CDM may influence the developing countries incentives to participate in the coalition of committed countries. In the concluding chapter some recommendations on the use of JI, TP and CDM are given. The recommendations are a kind of dialog with especially the Norwegian and Swedish reports on tradable permits. Some of the issues described in this main report are analysed in separate working papers. The working papers are collected in an appendix to the main report. (au)

  5. ARPEL's approach : Kyoto Protocol: Clean Development Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocanegra, J. [PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    ARPEL's (Regional Association of Oil and Natural Gas Companies in Latin America and the Carribean) interest in clean development mechanisms is described. Several uncertainties related to the Kyoto Protocol and the CDM were addressed, such as the science behind the climate change phenomena, the impact on oil demand, the cost of emission reduction to the oil industry and the 'additionality' criteria. Relative benefits of participating in CDM projects by member companies of ARPEL were examined, with due regard to the fact that Latin American countries are not now required to reduce emissions. Some actions that individual companies in ARPEL could take to consider investing in CDM projects were also reviewed. With reference to PEMEX (Petroleos Mexicanos), the speaker explained the PEMEX view of the climate change issue, how it is integrated into the company's sustainable development strategy, and how CDM could become an important means to accessing the financial and technology support needed to implement CDM projects. An industrial prototype project that PEMEX could implement to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions was also described as an indication of PEMEX's capacity to contribute towards mitigating global climate change.

  6. Promoting energy efficient building in China through clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lu; Li, Jing; Chiang, Yat Hung

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the barriers which impede the promotion of Energy Efficient Building (EEB), and to propose solutions to alleviate these barriers by capturing the benefits from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in the context of China. Through comprehensive literature review, eight types of significant barriers are identified, including weak enforcement of government policies, market inefficiency, information barrier, small and scattering buildings, fragmentation of the construction industry, perceived high risk, higher initial cost, and difficulty in energy management. To overcome the barriers, the potential of CDM to facilitate EEB promotion is then discussed. These barriers are verified and potential solutions are tested with a questionnaire survey conducted among five professional groups in China, i.e. designers, project managers, quantity surveyors, marketing managers and property managers. The results suggest that they generally identified with the barriers. However, their limited awareness of CDM implies that corresponding policies should be formulated and implemented to improve their capability of providing more EEBs with CDM. - Highlights: ► Eight types of significant barriers to the implement of EEB are identified. ► The sources and roots of barriers are verified with the industry professionals. ► Benefits of CDM to EEB are discussed. ► There is limited awareness of CDM in building sector. ► Overcoming or alleviating these barriers through CDM and other sources are proposed

  7. Decentralized enforcement, sequential bargaining, and the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2001-07-01

    While there is a vast literature both on international bargaining and on how international agreements can be enforced, very little work has been done on how bargaining and enforcement interact. An important exception is Fearon (1998), who models international cooperation as a two-stage process in which the bargaining process is constrained by a need for decentralized enforcement (meaning that the agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves rather than a third party, such as a court). Using the Clean Development Mechanism as an example, the present paper proposes a different model of this kind of interaction. The model follows Fearon's in so far as we both use the infinitely repeated Prisoners' Dilemma to capture the enforcement phase of the game. However, while Fearon depicts the bargaining stage as a War of Attrition, the present model sees that stage as a sequential bargaining game of the Staahl-Rubinstein type. The implications of the present model are compared both to those of the Staahl-Rubinstein model and to those of the Fearon model. A surprising conclusion is that a need for decentralized enforcement tends to make the bargaining outcome more symmetrical than otherwise. Thus, the impact of bargaining power is actually smaller when the resulting agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves than it is if enforcement is taken care of by a third party. (author)

  8. Sovereign bonds in developing countries: Drivers of issuance and spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Presbitero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been a new wave of sovereign bond issuances in Africa. What determines the ability of developing countries to issue bonds in international capital and what explains the spreads on these bonds? This paper examines these questions using a dataset that includes 105 developing countries during the period 1995–2014. We find that a country is more likely to issue a bond when, in comparison with non-issuing peers, it is larger in economic size, has higher per capita GDP, a lower public debt, and a more effective government. Spreads on sovereign bonds are lower for countries with strong external and fiscal positions, as well as robust economic growth and government effectiveness. We also find that primary spreads for the average Sub-Saharan African issuer are higher than in other regions. With regard to global factors, our results confirm the existing evidence that issuances are more likely during periods of global liquidity and high commodity prices, especially for Sub-Saharan African countries, and spreads are higher in periods of higher market volatility.

  9. Development of clean soil technology using coals as oily/tarry contaminant removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.; Carson, D.; Ignasiak, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Clean Soil Process for the treatment of oil/tar contaminated soils has been developed. The mechanics, of the clean-up process that utilizes coal as a cleaning medium is described. The experience and results obtained in the batch-scale testing as well as in the 250 kg/hr continuous facility have been applied for a conceptual design of a 200 t/day mobile plant

  10. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF DRY-CLEANING SOLVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Soljačić, Ivo; Pušić, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY: In the early stages of the development of dry-cleaning methods, environment protection was an issue of no concern. By the end of the 19th century, soap products were introduced into gasoline solvents in order to improve the bath conductivity and reduce electrostatic charge in the cleaned textiles and the associated risk of fire. The cleaning efficiency was also improved. In the 20th century halogenated inflammable solvents were introduced. All but perchlorethylene were withdrawn and ...

  11. Determinants of clean development mechanism activity: Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Huiming; Shen, Manhong; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    As regards the dual goals of additionality and sustainability, some clean development mechanism (CDM) projects were successfully registered while some were rejected by the Executive Board (EB). This paper focuses on two final statuses of these projects and aims to explore the potential determinants of CDM activities. Based on the Chinese samples of the rejections and registrations, we find that (1) according to the financial barrier analysis with the internal rate of return without CDM, the additionality is the most important and robust rule of CDM activities and the CDM projects successfully registered are more additional than the rejected ones in China; (2) the sustainability is another important determinant of CDM activities in China and Chinese CDM activities are sustainable in terms of size, while the EB is criticized for its selection of unsustainable CDM projects in terms of cost-effectiveness on emission reductions within a long period or in terms of hydropower plants; (3) some other factors including the prices of sale electricity and certified emission reductions, the generating capacity and installed capacity all tend to pose significant impacts on the final status of each project that features the CDM activities in local areas of China. - Highlights: • The final status of each project features the CDM activities in local areas. • Microeconomic factors have significant impacts on the final statuses. • The additionality is the most important and robust rule of CDM activities in China. • Chinese CDM activities are sustainable in terms of size. • Chinese unsustainable CDM projects were selected by the EB in terms of cost-effectiveness

  12. Canada's potential role in the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape-Salmon, A.

    2000-01-01

    The role that Canada might play in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is discussed. The CDM prescribes the way in which industrialized countries could create emission reduction credits for greenhouse gas emission reduction projects in developing countries which, in turn they could use to meet their own commitments and possibly reduce their cost of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. While Canada does not see itself as a CDM project investor, it strongly supports private sector involvement in the CDM and believes that it has a role to play in assisting CDM investments by the Canadian private sector by facilitating desirable outcomes via international negotiations on the rules and modalities for the CDM which would minimize transaction costs; give prominence to aspects that Canada recognizes as necessary precursors to mobilizing private sector involvement in CDM activities; maximize the flexibility for use of the CDM; allow for conversion of credits between different Kyoto Mechanisms; allow for the certification of emissions sequestration from sinks; and maximize the environmental and sustainable development benefits of CDM projects. Canada also supports, along with the other members of the 'Umbrella group', the fewest possible restrictions and significant autonomy to the private sector to implement a variety of project activities in developing countries. This report provides a detailed examination of the Canadian government's views on the CDM, Canada's participation in international emission reduction projects, the factors that drive Canadian demand for greenhouse gas emission reduction offsets and the potential demand for CDM offsets, Canada's greenhouse gas emission inventory and projections, the approach of Canadian corporate investors in the CDM and Canadian technology and expertise in greenhouse gas emission reductions. Various appendices to the report contain further details on a number of cooperation agreements between Canada and other

  13. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Energy from biomass based gasifier-engine integrated systems are becoming more popular for power generation applications in rural and urban driven societies. ... waste land, it will be able to fulfil the demand to some extent. As conventional biomass .... and cleaning system is made of. 1 inch flexible heat resistant pipe.

  14. Failed bonded interfaces submitted to microcosm biofilm caries development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagner, A.F.; Maske, T.T.; Opdam, N.J.; de Soet, J.J.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the dentin wall carious lesion development of different composite-dentin interfaces in the presence of two adhesive bonding materials in the gaps, using a microcosm biofilm model. Methods: Dentin samples were prepared (10.4 mm2) and restored with a composite

  15. Failed bonded interfaces submitted to microcosm biofilm caries development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagner, A.F.; Maske, T.T.; Opdam, N.J.; Soet, J.J. de; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the dentin wall carious lesion development of different composite-dentin interfaces in the presence of two adhesive bonding materials in the gaps, using a microcosm biofilm model. METHODS: Dentin samples were prepared (10.4mm(2)) and restored with a composite

  16. Development of bonding techniques for cryogenic components. 1. HIP bonding tests between Ti and cryogenic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Ouchi, Nobuo; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Hideo

    2002-05-01

    Around the super conducting (SC) coils of SC linear accelerator or fusion reactor, several kinds of dissimilar material joints will be needed. In case of fusion reactor, pure titanium has been proposed as jacket material of SC coil. Pure titanium has many advantages, for instance, almost same thermal expansion with Nb 3 Sn SC coil, non-magnetivity and good workability. However, it is difficult to bond Ti and cryogenic stainless steels by welding. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new bonding techniques and we started the development of the bonding technology by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond titanium with stainless steels. In this experiments, optimization of HIP bonding condition and evaluation of bonding strength were performed by metallurgical observation, mechanical property tests and heat cycle test. (author)

  17. Clean development mechanism PDD guidebook: Navigating the pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S. (ed.)

    2005-11-01

    This guidebook is designed to help readers navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Project Design Document (PDD) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The purpose of a PDD is to prepare project information for relevant stakeholders. These stakeholders include the investment community, the Designated Operating Entity (DOE) performing validation of the project, the CDM Executive Board (EB), the Designated National Authorities (DNA) of the involved countries and the local population. The PDD, together with the validation report and the approval letter of the DNA, are the basis for the registration of the project and its recognition as a credible CDM project. The PDD is about the project's design that is, how the project intends to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below those levels that would otherwise have been emitted. Each and every CDM project is unique, from the project design to the application of even the simplest baseline methodology. Some of the projects submitted for validation may be very efficient in reducing emissions and score well in terms of economic, social and environmental benefits, but may still not qualify as CDM projects. Experience has shown that the information needed to judge a suitability of a project for the CDM is vast and can take months to assemble. Also, the time required to assemble relevant information increases with the number and diversity of stakeholders involved and the complexity of the information itself. This guidebook is based on a review of all PDDs submitted to DNV for validation. The advice given and the pitfalls described in this guidebook are, therefore, based on day-to-day, hands-on experience and real instances of mistakes made in submissions. In summary, then, this guidebook takes a practical stance: it is concerned with the practical issues of how to get projects through the validation process. It will help those submitting a PDD by: 1) Describing the most common and costly mistakes made in the process

  18. Recent development in bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, B.M.; Herchenroeder, J.W.; Smith, B.; Suda, M.; Brown, D.N.; Chen, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic properties of isotropic NdFeB powders used for bonded magnets are compared. The characteristics of two newly developed powders, namely MQP-13-9 and MQP-S-9-8 were compared with respect to existing powders. The advantages of spherical powders for injection molding were highlighted. Development targets for the 180 deg. C application and NdFeB nanocomposites were also discussed

  19. Clean Development Mechanism PDD Guidebook: Navigating the Pitfalls; 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    This guidebook is designed to help readers navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Project Design Document (PDD) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. This second edition also aims at helping project developers to navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Monitoring Report and be better prepared to face the verification process. The purpose of a PDD is to prepare project information for relevant stakeholders. These stakeholders include the investment community, the Designated Operating Entity (DOE) performing validation of the project, the CDM Executive Board (EB), the Designated National Authorities (DNA) of the involved countries and the local population. The PDD, together with the validation report and the approval letter of the DNA, are the basis for the registration of the project and its recognition as a credible CDM project. The PDD is about the project's design--that is, how the project intends to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below those levels that would otherwise have been emitted1. Each and every CDM project is unique, from the project design to the application of even the simplest baseline methodology. Some of the projects submitted for validation may be very efficient in reducing emissions and score well in terms of economic, social and environmental benefits, but may still not qualify as CDM projects. Experience has shown that the information needed to judge the suitability of a project for the CDM is vast and can take months to assemble. Also, the time required to assemble relevant information increases with the number and diversity of stakeholders involved and the complexity of the information itself. The objective of the verification of emissions reduction is the review and ex post determination of the monitored emission reductions that have occurred during a specified verification period. The verification is about the project's reality--that is, how the project has been implemented as described in the registered PDD and is

  20. Typology of Clean Development Mechanism project in the nuclear power generation sector; Tipologia de projeto de CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) no setor nucleoeletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Everton de Almeida [Industrias Nucleares Brasileiras (INB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This work, facing the Brazilian energetic conditions under the government directives, and the electric sector, suggests a typology of nuclear Clean Development Mechanism, of international cooperation, in the frame of the efforts susceptible to be developed reaching the reduction of the gaseous emissions responsible for the global heating. Other aspects related to technical, legal and market aspects are analysed and proposed.

  1. Development of beryllium bonds for plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconi, E.; Ceccotti, G.C.; Magnoli, L.

    1991-10-01

    The use of graphite as a plasma facing surface is limited due to strong erosion produced by a combination of physical and chemical sputtering, self-sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. The most promising alternative material appears to be beryllium which offers a number of potential advantages over graphite: oxygen impurities abatement, reduced tritium retention and reduced sputtering erosion. The greatest advantage seems to be the rapid and economical repair of the surfaces by means of spray deposition. However, a number of questions remain to be answered concerning the use of beryllium in high power tokamaks. Foremost amongst these are melting of the facing during disruptions, controversial data on self-sputtering yields, neutron irradiation effects, high operational thermal stresses and potential safety problems. This paper focuses on the techniques used to bond beryllium to structural and heat sink materials, and the characterization of the bonding material obtained. In tests of Be bonding to stainless steel and copper by the use of brazing alloys, best results were obtained with a silver-copper eutectic alloy. It was noted that the high temperature capability of the materials prepared by this method is limited by the performance of the brazing alloys at the operating temperature. To avoid this problem, a joining process known as solid state reaction bonding is being developed.

  2. Clean Development Mechanism and Least Developed Countries: Changing the Rules for Greater Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Lopez, Thanakvaro Thyl; Tin, Ponlok; Iyadomi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is designed not only to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) but also to contribute locally to sustainable development. As a market-based mechanism, CDM has the potential to channel private investments into development activities...... with economic, social, and environmental benefits. Unfortunately, investments have tended to flow where CDM activities provide higher returns with limited economic and political risks, that is, outside of least developed countries (LDCs). To date, only a handful of LDCs have been able to participate in the CDM...

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  4. Addressing the need for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) specific project management strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotz, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects have additional technical, financial and regulatory requirements that are not fully addressed by classic project management approaches. Research has been done on individual novel concepts of the CDM, like...

  5. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  6. Development of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.; Krumweide, Duane; Gaddy, Edward; Katz, Ira

    2000-01-01

    The results of design, analysis, and qualification of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panel are described. The objective of the ECSA design is to provide an electrostatic environment that does not interfere with sensitive instruments on scientific spacecraft. The ECSA design uses large, ITO-coated coverglasses that cover multiple solar cells, an aperture grid that covers the intercell areas, stress-relieved interconnects for connecting the aperture grid to the coverglasses, and edge clips to provides an electromagnetically shielded enclosure for the solar array active circuitry. Qualification coupons were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic response, conductivity, and survivability to launch acoustic and thermal cycling environments simulating LEO and GEO missions. The benefits of reducing solar panel interaction with the space environment are also discussed.

  7. Development of laser bonding as a manufacturing process for inner-lead bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, James D.

    1991-12-01

    The conventional thermo-compression bonding processes for bonding tape-automated-bonding (TAB) leadframes to silicon die has inherent reliability drawbacks due to the high pressures and temperatures necessary to produce a good metallurgical joint. Whether tin- or gold-plated tape is used, the bonding process can cause damage to the underlying structure of the device which results in device failures. The use of a laser source for inner lead bonding (ILB) has the advantage of providing a very localized temperature input to the bonding site with minimal contact force. The resulting mechanical stresses on the device are consequently low and the overall temperature extreme to which the device is subjected is similarly low. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., has undertaken a program to qualify a gold/tin laser bonded ILB process as a viable manufacturing alternative to thermo-compression bonding. The initial evaluation has defined thresholds for laser input energy necessary to produce a good fillet around the TAB beam and a void-free interface. This is the first necessary step to provide the degree of gold/tin alloying necessary to prevent Kirkendall voiding during subsequent high temperature storage. Among the parameters critical to the bonding process is the wafer bump surface topography. The quality of the bonding process has been monitored using bond strength data and visual examination before and after high temperature storage and temperature cycling tests. The test samples used were 154 and 160 lead production TAB tape and device designs with approximately equals 200 (mu) lead pitch and a 410 lead experimental tape with 102 (mu) lead pitch.

  8. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase I: solvent and process development. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Paasch, R.A.; Hall, T.M.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1979-01-01

    A program to demonstrate chemical cleaning methods for removing magnetite corrosion products from the annuli between steam generator tubes and the tube support plates in vertical U-tube steam generators is described. These corrosion products have caused steam generator tube ''denting'' and in some cases have caused tube failures and support plate cracking in several PWR generating plants. Laboratory studies were performed to develop a chemical cleaning solvent and application process for demonstration cleaning of the Indian Point Unit 2 steam generators. The chemical cleaning solvent and application process were successfully pilot-tested by cleaning the secondary side of one of the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Although the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators do not have a tube denting problem, the pilot test provided for testing of the solvent and process using much of the same equipment and facilities that would be used for the Indian Point Unit 2 demonstration cleaning. The chemical solvent selected for the pilot test was an inhibited 3% citric acid-3% ascorbic acid solution. The application process, injection into the steam generator through the boiler blowdown system and agitation by nitrogen sparging, was tested in a nuclear environment and with corrosion products formed during years of steam generator operation at power. The test demonstrated that the magnetite corrosion products in simulated tube-to-tube support plate annuli can be removed by chemical cleaning; that corrosion resulting from the cleaning is not excessive; and that steam generator cleaning can be accomplished with acceptable levels of radiation exposure to personnel

  9. Development of High Erosivity Well Scale Cleaning Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. M. Kalumuck; G. L. Chahine; G. S. Frederick; P. D. Aley

    1999-07-01

    Build up of scale deposits on the walls of geothermal wells can occur rapidly due to the high dissolved solids content of geothermal fluids. Scale formation is a significant problem for both the well and for surface heat transfer equipment. Geothermal brines contain a wide variety if dissolved salts including carbonates, silicates, sulfates, and metal sulfides. One technology recently proposed for scale removal is the use of an ultrasonic device. In the present effort we apply cavitation in a more direct manner by the use of acoustically enhanced cavitating water jets which can be made to be much more efficient and aggressive than ultrasonic devices. Cavitating and self-resonating jet technologies have been proven to enhance the erosive power of liquid jets in a number of cutting, cleaning, and drilling applications. In this study we investigated two related technologies - one that employs cavitation and one that breaks the jet up into a series of slugs that produce water hammer type pressures upon impact. These technologies enable operation in both submerged and nonsubmerged conditions.

  10. Vapour-induced solid-state C-H bond activation for the clean synthesis of an organopalladium biothiol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monas, Andrea; Užarević, Krunoslav; Halasz, Ivan; Kulcsár, Marina Juribašić; Ćurić, Manda

    2016-10-27

    Room-temperature accelerated aging in the solid state has been applied for atom- and energy-efficient activation of either one or two C-H bonds of azobenzene and methyl orange by palladium(ii) acetate. Organopalladium complexes are prepared in quantitative reactions without potentially harmful side products. Dicyclopalladated methyl orange is water-soluble and is a selective chromogenic biothiol sensor at physiologically-relevant micromolar concentrations in buffered aqueous media.

  11. Effect of dentin-cleaning techniques on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting cement to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M J M C; Bapoo, H; Rizkalla, A S; Santos, G C

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the influence of different cleansing techniques on the bond strength of self-adhesive cement to dentin. A total of 33 noncarious human molars were sectioned mesiodistally and embedded in chemically cured resin with the buccal or lingual surfaces facing upward. Superficial dentin was exposed and resin disk provisional restorations were cemented to the dentin surfaces with noneugenol provisional cement and were stored in distilled water at 37°C. After seven days, the provisional restorations were removed and 13 specimens were randomly assigned to each of the five groups (n=13), according to the following cleansing treatments: G1-excavator (control); G2-0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate; G3-40% polyacrylic acid; G4-mixture of flour pumice and water; and G5-sandblasting with 50 μm aluminum oxide particles at a pressure of 87 psi. Resin composite disks (Filtek Supreme Plus, 3M ESPE Dental Products, St Paul, MN, USA) 4.7 (±0.1) mm in diameter and 3.0 (±0.5) mm in height were cemented with self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE), photocured, and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength testing was conducted using a universal test machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-B rank order test. Sandblasting with aluminum oxide (11.32 ± 1.70 MPa) produced significantly higher shear bond strength values compared with any other treatment groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between G1-control (7.74 ± 1.72 MPa), G2-chlorhexidine (6.37 ± 1.47 MPa), and G4-pumice (7.33 ± 2.85 MPa) (p<0.05).

  12. WP/073 Is the Clean Development Mechanism Effective for Emission Reductions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing; Tarp, Finn

    This research studies whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol achieves its objective of emission reductions in the host countries. It empirically investigates the impacts of CDM projects on CO2 emission reductions for 60 CDM host countries over 2005-10. This research m...... developing countries’ efforts towards low-carbon development via CDM projects....

  13. The influence and ethics of interest groups on policy incentives for clean energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mariana C.

    The clean energy revolution in the United States is not going to happen until diverse stakeholders in the coalition of clean energy proponents strengthen their cohesion and influence—two critical tools for interest group's to be successful in driving the formulation of public policy. Currently, clean energy technology and resource development is supported by a highly diverse coalition of interest groups such as environmental groups, health organizations, industry, and the Defense Department, whose primary goals are often unrelated. Yet their objectives are increasingly well served by pursuing clean energy development by pushing lawmakers for supportive policies. However, characteristics of this ad hoc coalition can hinder its influence and cohesion. Whereas, fossil fuel interests—exemplified by the coalition of oil proponents—are highly cohesive and influential. This thesis will analyze whether there is a correlation between public policies on clean energy, and the strength of interest group influence over those policy decisions. It will begin with an analysis of interest group theories. Next it will analyze the histories of the oil industry as the model opponent of clean energy policies, and the biofuels, wind energy, and solar energy industries as the model proponents of clean energy policies. The composition of the respective coalitions will reveal if they are diverse or similar, with broad or narrow goals, and other important characteristics. Their respective policy positions and messages will show what values are important to them, and the presidential support each coalition has been achieved, or failed to achieve, will provide further insight into their effectiveness. This thesis will then apply interest group theories to the supporter and opponent coalitions. Results obtained indicate that the coalition of oil interests is large, yet very cohesive and influential, while the coalition for clean energy is large, generally diffuse but with some important

  14. Development of clean environment conservation technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myunjoo; Kim, Tak Hyun; Jung, In Ha

    2012-04-01

    This report is aim to develop the technology for environmental conservation by radiation. It is consisted of two research parts. One is development of wastewater disinfection technology by radiation and the other is development of livestock waste treatment technology by radiation. For the development of wastewater disinfection technology disinfect ion process, technology for treatment of toxic organic chemicals and assessment of ecological toxicity, technology for treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and assessment of genetic safety were developed. For the development of livestock waste treatment technology, process for simultaneous removal of nutrients, technology for disinfection and quality enhancement of livestock waste compost, technology for reduction of composting periods, monitoring of toxic organic compounds, pretreatment technology for organic toxic chemicals and enhancement of biological treatment efficiencies were developed. Based on basic research, advanced livestock wastewater treatment process using radiation was established

  15. Sweet carbon: An analysis of sugar industry carbon market opportunities under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNish, Tyler; Jacobson, Arne; Kammen, Dan; Gopal, Anand; Deshmukh, Ranjit

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse power generation projects provide a useful framework for evaluating several key aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. On the positive side, our analysis, which draws in part from a data set of 204 bagasse electricity generation projects at sugar mills, indicates that these projects provide Annex I country investors with a cost-effective means to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Our analysis also confirms that the marketplace for Clean Development Mechanism-derived offsets is robust and competitive. Moreover, bagasse projects appear to provide a positive example in a 'new wave' of clean energy investment that has replaced the earlier industrial gas projects. At the same time, we also identify two aspects of the CDM that demand improvement. First, the additionality standard needs to be tightened and made more transparent and consistent. Financial additionality should be required for all projects; however, any financial additionality test applied by the Clean Development Mechanism's Executive Board must be informed by the significant barriers faced by many projects. Second, the administrative processes for registration and verification of offsets need to be streamlined in order to prevent long registration time lags from chilling clean energy investment.

  16. Joint implementation, clean development mechanism and tradable permits. International regulation of greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.; Olsen, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The rep......This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP...

  17. Development of construction specifications to attain clean rooms for the NOVA laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedix, C.P.

    1980-02-01

    This paper describes the process of defining technical requirements for a major Department of Energy Research and Development Facility and subsequent development of construction specifications for the clean spaces in that facility. The organizational interactions between technical client, Engineering and Construction elements are described. The importance of an interdisciplinary team approach is stressed. A brief description of the SHIVA Laser and NOVA Laser Clean Spaces is included to indicate the scope of the facility undertaking. A number of potential pitfalls are discussed that may be helpful to designers of new facilities

  18. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  19. Developments of integrated laser crystals by a direct bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Katsumata, Masaki; Tanaka, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Yukikatu

    2003-01-01

    Laser crystal integration using a neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (or orthovanadate) laser crystal, and non-doped yttrium vanadate crystals that function as cold fingers has been demonstrated. A newly developed dry etching process was adopted in the preparation for contact of mechanically polished surfaces. In the heat treatment process, temperature optimization was essential to get rid of precipitation of vanadic acid caused by the thermo-chemical reaction in a vacuum furnace. The bonded crystal was studied via optical characteristics, magnified inspections, laser output performances pumped by a CW laser diode. From these experiments, it was clear that the integrated Nd:YVO 4 laser crystal, securing the well-improved thermal conductivity, can increase laser output power nearly twice that of the conventional single crystal which was cracked in high power laser pumping of 10 W due to its intrinsic poor thermal conductivity. (author)

  20. Developments of a bonding technique for optical materials by a surface activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Oda, Tomohiro; Abe, Tomoyuki; Kusunoki, Isao

    2005-01-01

    We started developing the laser crystal bounding by the surface activation method which can splice crystals together without using hydrogen bonding. For the surface activation, neutral argon beams were used for irradiation of specimens. In the bonding trials with sapphire crystals, we recognized possibility of the bonding method for optical elements. (author)

  1. Community capacity for implementing clean development mechanism projects within community forests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minang, Peter A; McCall, Michael K; Bressers, Hans Th A

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of "community capacity" to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework.

  2. Development of the EU Ecolabel Criteria and Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Cleaning Services

    OpenAIRE

    DE ALMEIDA FERREIRA NETO BELMIRA; WOLF Oliver; FIELD Bethany; JENKIN Nicola; TAM Max; BENJAMIN Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new EU Ecolabel and revise the existing EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria for professional cleaning services (hereafter referred to as cleaning services). This preliminary report investigates the market, operational and sustainability aspects of cleaning services, with a goal to develop a robust evidence base and prioritise key environmental and social issues to support the development of EU Ecolabel criteria and the revision of the EU GP...

  3. Estimation of interface resistivity in bonded Si for the development of high performance radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Onabe, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance radiation detectors, direct bonding of Si wafers would be an useful method. Previously, p-n bonded Si were fabricated and they showed diode characteristics. The interface resistivity was, however, not investigated in detail. For the study of interface resistivity, n-type Si wafers with different resistivities were bonded. The resistivity of bonded Si wafers were measured and the interface resistivity was estimated by comparing with the results of model calculations. (author)

  4. Demand for Clean Energies Efficient Development in Buildings Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Purpose: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Study design: Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2014 and July 2015. (author)

  5. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsobki, M.; Sherif, Y.; Wooders, P.

    2009-10-01

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Implementing CDM projects. A guidebook to host country legal issues; CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curnow, P. (Baker and McKenzie, London (United Kingdom)); Hodes, G. (UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) continues to evolve organically, and many legal issues remain to be addressed in order to maximise its effectiveness. This Guidebook explains through case studies how domestic laws and regulatory frameworks in CDM Host Countries interact with international rules on carbon trading, and how the former can be enhanced to facilitate the implementation and financing of CDM projects. (author)

  7. Developing technique for waste water cleaning of a division for equipment decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromoglasov, A.A.; Solyakov, V.K.; Novikov, V.N.; Pil'shchikov, A.P.; Chekalov, A.G.; Sinyukov, M.A.; Pshenichnykh, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results are described of developing technique for radionuclide cleaning solutions after metal product decontamination. The method is based on the adagulation with usage of quicklime. The conclusion is method permits to consider it as the main technique for waste water decontamination. 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism: lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vöhringer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Deforestation is currentlythe source of about 20% of anthropogenicCO2 emissions. Avoided deforestationhas, nonetheless, been ruled out as a CleanDevelopment Mechanism (CDM) category in theKyoto Protocol's first commitment period,because several methodological issues wereconsidered too difficult to

  9. Introduction: exploring and explaining the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S. I.; van Asselt, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction lays the groundwork for this Special Issue by providing an overview of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP), and by introducing three main analytical themes. The first theme concerns the emergence and continuation of the APP. The contributions show

  10. LIFE: a sustainable solution for developing safe, clean fusion power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Susana; Dunne, Mike; Kramer, Kevin; Anklam, Tom; Havstad, Mark; Mazuecos, Antonio Lafuente; Miles, Robin; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Deri, Bob

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California is currently in operation with the goal to demonstrate fusion energy gain for the first time in the laboratory-also referred to as "ignition." Based on these demonstration experiments, the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant is being designed at LLNL in partnership with other institutions with the goal to deliver baseload electricity from safe, secure, sustainable fusion power in a time scale that is consistent with the energy market needs. For this purpose, the LIFE design takes advantage of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology and adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units used on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. The LIFE market entry plant will demonstrate the feasibility of a closed fusion fuel cycle, including tritium breeding, extraction, processing, refueling, accountability, and safety, in a steady-state power-producing device. While many fusion plant designs require large quantities of tritium for startup and operations, a range of design choices made for the LIFE fuel cycle act to reduce the in-process tritium inventory. This paper presents an overview of the delivery plan and the preconceptual design of the LIFE facility with emphasis on the key safety design principles being adopted. In order to illustrate the favorable safety characteristics of the LIFE design, some initial accident analysis results are presented that indicate potential for a more attractive licensing regime than that of current fission reactors.

  11. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  12. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  13. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic–inorganic hybrid sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Divya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wu, Xinghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Fu, Qitao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ho, Jeffrey Weng Chye [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Kanhere, Pushkar D. [Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Li, Lin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: ASZChen@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)

    2015-07-30

    show the best self-cleaning performance both before and after mechanical abrasion. The developed coating process is simple and can be easily scaled-up for large surfaces that require self-cleaning function.

  14. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  15. Factors Influencing the Development of School Bonding Among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Jenny; Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine the trajectory of school bonding over the middle school period and how factors such as gender, substance use, antisocial peers, delinquent behavior, and academic achievement affect this developmental process. Data from 4 waves of measurement of 2,902 adolescents are analyzed using hierarchical growth curve modeling. Results suggest that school bonding decreases in a non-linear fashion from Grade 6–8. However, school bonding development varies based on inter-individual differences. Boys have lower initial levels and greater decreases in school bonding than girls. Student deviant behavior, having antisocial peers, and low academic achievement are associated with lower levels of school bonding at Grade 6. Low grades and an increase in substance use are associated with a steeper decrease of school bonding over time. Increases in substance use and being male are also associated with a curvilinear pattern of school bonding. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:22427716

  16. Development of a new bonding material and its trial application to accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Yamano, Kiyoshi; Saito, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    We have succeeded to develop a new bonding material for new television technology, which has a very low outgas property. This bonding material has been tested and confirmed the excellent sealing or outgas property in various institutes. We have tried it to use as a vacuum sealant against the super-leaking in He-II. In this report, we will present the motivation of the bonding material development, and the result of the application to cryogenics. (author)

  17. Development of underwater robot for cleaning cooling water intake channels in thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Harumi; Ichiryu, Taku; Takenawa, Toshiya.

    1983-01-01

    To the long intake channels for seawater in thermal and nuclear power stations, marine organisms adhere and grow, and cause resistance to the flow, separate and enter into condensers to cause the clogging or corrosion erosion of cooling tubes. At present, the regular cleaning of the channels is carried out by man power, which requires much cost and many days. The underwater robot developed recently performs this cleaning work by remote control from on the ground. The performance and endurance tests of the robot were carried out in an actual channel, and it was able to be successfully put in practical use with good results. The features of this robot are as follows. It achieves the work safely without anyone entering a channel. It can clean all surfaces including ceiling without any additional structure. It can easily move. It can remove shells of 10 cm thickness. It does not require external power source. The system comprises a robot, a power unit, a hose reel, a control wagon and an underwater monitor. The robot is powered by oil hydraulic motors, and controlled through oil hoses. Cleaning is performed with rotary brushes, while it adheres to a wall by water jet power. The construction and performance of the main components and the results of trial operation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  19. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  20. Technical development of nuclear air cleaning in the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xue Qun; Liu Hui; Wang Tie Shen; Xin Song Niam; Guo Liang Tian.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, with the utilization of nuclear technology in China, air cleaning techniques were developed to prevent the environment from pollution caused by radioactive materials and to ensure the safety of occupational personnel. The technical developments involve many fields including the manufacture of filter media and adsorbents; the application of filters and iodine adsorbers and the testing of them; the improvement of instruments and methods for aerosol concentration measurement; the retention of radioactive noble gases; and others. As nuclear power stations are to be built in China, nuclear air cleaning will be advancing more rapidly. Many programs have been scheduled, such as producing other types of adsorbers, moisture separators, nuclear grade HEPA filters that have excellent performance to resist adverse circumstances, and in-place testing for units of ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These programs are discussed

  1. Study of diffusion bond development in 6061 aluminum and its relationship to future high density fuels fabrication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokofiev, I.; Wiencek, T.; McGann, D.

    1997-10-07

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium alloys and silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the RERTR program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. Testing is done with miniplate-type fuel plates to simulate standard fuel with cladding and matrix in plate-type configurations. In order to seal the dispersion fuel plates, a diffusion bond must exist between the aluminum coverplates surrounding the fuel meat. Four different variations in the standard method for roll-bonding 6061 aluminum were studied. They included mechanical cleaning, addition of a getter material, modifications to the standard chemical etching, and welding methods. Aluminum test pieces were subjected to a bend test after each rolling pass. Results, based on 400 samples, indicate that at least a 70% reduction in thickness is required to produce a diffusion bond using the standard rollbonding method versus a 60% reduction using the Type II method in which the assembly was welded 100% and contained open 9mm holes at frame corners.

  2. Development of the underwater robot to clean the inlet channel for power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Katsuhiko; Saeki, Masato; Nomura, Kazuo; Ohba, Kohzo; Hatta, Takashi; Doi, Syojiro; Hirai, Yasuo; Yamada, Yutaka; Miwa, Kazuhito.

    1994-01-01

    A new remote-controlled underwater robot is developed for taking off marine organisms attached to the inside of inlet channel for power station. As oppose to most robot can be used in square shaped cross section of the culvert, this system can take it off attached inside the circular pipe with coating and move automatically. Evaluations of the performance of movement and cleaning are described in this report. (author)

  3. Municipal and Treasury Bond Market Segments Development at Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the developments that took place, starting with November 2001, inside the Romanian Municipal and Treasury bond market segments at the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The development of a debt market has as a main objective to encourage the central, regional and local governments to consider bond finance as an important way for regional and local project investments; it could enhance the quality and the efficiency of financed projects and encourage long term financial planning. The relatively modest profile of the Romanian public bond sector at Bucharest Stock Exchange can be explained by the late introduction of the T-bonds (7 years after the bond sector was launched. Lacking the benchmark the T-bonds could offer, it was only natural for investors to avoid the (Municipal bond sector. The development of the domestic public bond sector is expected to continue in the years to come, mainly if through bond financing the central/regional and local authorities will support investment projects that will trigger and/or generate economic development.

  4. Developing an NGSS Pedagogy for Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Using the CLEAN Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. L. B.; Taylor, J.; Oonk, D.; Sullivan, S. M.; Kirk, K.; Niepold, F., III

    2017-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards and A Framework for K-12 Science Education have introduced us to 3-dimensional science instruction. Together, these provide infinite opportunities to generate interesting problems inspiring instruction and motivating student learning. Finding good resources to support 3-dimensional learning is challenging. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) as a comprehensive source of high-quality, NGSS-aligned resources that can be quickly and easily searched. Furthermore, teachers new to NGSS are asked to do the following: synthesize high quality, scientifically vetted resources to engage students in relevant phenomena, problems and projects develop place-awareness for where students live and learn encourage data analysis, modeling, and argumentation skills energize students to participate in finding possible solutions to the problems we face. These challenges are intensified when teaching climate science and energy technology, some of the most rapidly changing science and engineering fields. Educators can turn to CLEAN to find scientifically and pedagogically vetted resources to integrate into their lessons. In this presentation, we will introduce the newly developed Harmonics Planning Template, Guidance Videos and Flowchart that guide the development of instructionally-sound, NGSS-style units using the CLEAN collection of resources. To illustrate the process, three example units will be presented: Phenology - a place-based investigation, Debating the Grid - a deliberation on optimal energy grid solutions, and History of Earth's Atmosphere and Oceans - a data-rich collaborative investigation.

  5. Clean Plate Movement and Empowerment of Civil Leadership for Developing Sustainable Life Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Soo; Kim, Seung Woo; Jung, Sin Yeong; Choi, Byeong Dae; Mun, Sung Joo; Lee, Dong Ho

    This paper describes the backgrounds, process, outcomes, and characteristics of "Clean plate" movement carried out in Korea. That was aimed at the reduction of food waste production as well as developing and disseminating a sustainable life style. Excessive foods are wasted every year in Korea and it reaches to 270 g/day/capita. Clean plate movement was started 2004 and over 1.5 million peoples, which is 3% of the population, did pledge for 15 months. Over one million students participated in the pledge campaign and they became conscious about the importance of food and get sustainable eating habit in which they don't leave any food behind. While the campaign carried out successfully, civil volunteers of a Buddhist NGO EcoBuddha, who were the housewives mainly, were in charge of the whole processes and were trained as civil leaders for sustainable development. They awakened to the interrelationship between human being and the nature, based on a series of Buddhist lectures and self practicing asceticism. Clean plate movement as an educational program for sustainable development has various factors in three pillars of environmental, economical and socio-cultural aspects for EfSD.

  6. 26 CFR 1.103-7 - Industrial development bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... security interest test respectively. See § 1.103-8(a)(6) to determine the amount of proceeds of an issue... issue satisfies the security interest test. For rules with respect to the acquisition of the output of.... Example 6. (a) State C issues its general obligation bonds to purchase land and construct a hotel for use...

  7. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of four resin materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a ceramic core material to dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty molar teeth were embedded in a self‑curing acrylic resin. All specimens were randomly divided into four groups of teeth, each according to the resin cement used ...

  8. Criteria, potentials and costs of forestry activities to sequester carbon within the framework of the clean development mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Spiertz, P.H.; Diemont, W.H.; Emmer, I.; Aalders, E.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Forest activities in developing countries can be used to sequester carbon for gaining emission reductions within the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. This study has assessed the potentials and costs for carbon sequestration through afforestation, reforestation and deforestation

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  10. Development of chemical cleaning formulation for service water system of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Das, P.C.; Mathur, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Service water system of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) was found to be corroded and at few locations, the corrosion product oxides were choking the smaller diameter pipelines. An attempt was made to develop a chemical cleaning formulation to chemically remove the oxides using a surface conditioner and chelating agents. Of the several complexants tested, hydroxyethylethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (HEDTA) was found to be better than other complexants from the point of view of oxide dissolution efficiency, solubility etc. A two stage chemical cleaning process involving conditioning of the oxide layer with 0.1% tannic acid followed by exposure of the conditioned oxide layer with a formulation containing 1% HEDTA + 0.5% Sodium Gluconate +0.2% hexamine was recommended to remove the corrosion product oxide present in the service water system. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  11. CDM. Information and guidebook - Developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'[Clean development nedianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.)

    2003-12-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was defined at Conference of the Parties 3 in Kyoto 1997, it took the international community another 4 years to reach the Marrakesh Accords in which the modalities and procedures to implement the CDM was elaborated. Even if more detailed rules, procedures and modalities have to be further developed a general framework to implement the CDM and other Kyoto mechanisms are now in place. This guidebook is produced to support the UNEP project 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism'. Focus is on the CDM project cycle, the Project Design Document (PDD), and related issues such as sustainable development goals, financing and market intelligence. The appendices present frequently asked questions and answers, a short overview of existing guidelines and a possible future list of eligible CDM projects categories. (BA)

  12. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A.; Yamashita, T. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  14. Development of bonding techniques for cryogenic components (2). HIP bonding between Cu Alloys and Ti, cryogenic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru; Ouchi, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Nihon Advanced Technology Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Several joints between dissimilar materials are required in the superconducting (SC) magnet system of SC linear accelerator or fusion reactor, Pure titanium (Ti) is one of candidate materials for a jacket of SC coil of fusion reactor because Ti is non-magnetic material and has a feature that its thermal expansion is similar to SC material in addition to good corrosion resistance and workability. Also, Ti does not require strict control of environment during reaction heat treatment of SC material. Copper (Cu) or Cu-alloy is used in electrical joints and cryogenic stainless steel (SS) is used in cryogenic pipes. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new bonding techniques for joints between Ti, Cu, and SS because jacket, electrical joint and cryogenic pipe have to be bonded each other to cool SC coils. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has started to develop dissimilar material joints bonded by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), which can bring a high strength joint with good tolerance and can applied to a large or complex geometry device. HIP conditions for Cu-Ti, Cu alloy-Ti, Cu alloy-SS were investigated in this study and most stable HIP condition were evaluated by microscopic observation, tensile and bending tests at room temperature. (author)

  15. ANNULUS CLOSURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INSPECTION/SALT DEPOSIT CLEANING MAGNETIC WALL CRAWLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minichan, R; Russell Eibling, R; James Elder, J; Kevin Kane, K; Daniel Krementz, D; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Nicholas Vrettos, N

    2008-01-01

    The Liquid Waste Technology Development organization is investigating technologies to support closure of radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank closure includes removal of the wastes that have propagated to the tank annulus. Although amounts and types of residual waste materials in the annuli of SRS tanks vary, simple salt deposits are predominant on tanks with known leak sites. This task focused on developing and demonstrating a technology to inspect and spot clean salt deposits from the outer primary tank wall located in the annulus of an SRS Type I tank. The Robotics, Remote and Specialty Equipment (RRSE) and Materials Science and Technology (MS and T) Sections of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collaborated to modify and equip a Force Institute magnetic wall crawler with the tools necessary to demonstrate the inspection and spot cleaning in a mock-up of a Type I tank annulus. A remote control camera arm and cleaning head were developed, fabricated and mounted on the crawler. The crawler was then tested and demonstrated on a salt simulant also developed in this task. The demonstration showed that the camera is capable of being deployed in all specified locations and provided the views needed for the planned inspection. It also showed that the salt simulant readily dissolves with water. The crawler features two different techniques for delivering water to dissolve the salt deposits. Both water spay nozzles were able to dissolve the simulated salt, one is more controllable and the other delivers a larger water volume. The cleaning head also includes a rotary brush to mechanically remove the simulated salt nodules in the event insoluble material is encountered. The rotary brush proved to be effective in removing the salt nodules, although some fine tuning may be required to achieve the best results. This report describes the design process for developing technology to add features to a commercial wall crawler and the results of

  16. Development of bonded semiconductor device for high counting rate high efficiency photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    We are trying to decrease dose exposure in medical diagnosis by way of measuring the energy of X-rays. For this purpose, radiation detectors for X-ray energy measurement with high counting rate should be developed. Direct bonding of Si wafers was carried out to make a radiation detector, which had separated X-ray absorber and detector. The resistivity of bonding interface was estimated with the results of four-probe measurements and model calculations. Direct bonding of high resistivity p and n-Si wafers was also performed. The resistance of the pn bonded diode was 0.7 MΩ. The resistance should be increased in the future. (author)

  17. The influence of water flow (reversal) on bond strength development in young masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.; Larbi, J.

    1999-01-01

    Water loss from the fresh mortar is believed to be related to mortar-brick bond strength development in masonry. Recent research on mortar-brick bond has shown that, particularly, effects of water flow on the composition and the hydration conditions of the mortar-brick interface have to be taken

  18. Carbon Tax under the Clean Development Mechanism: A Unique Approach for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the economic and environmental implications of a unique Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme in which a non-Annex B country (Thailand) introduces a carbon tax and exports the resulting emission mitigation as certified emission reductions (CERs). A general equilibrium model for Thailand has been developed for analysing this carbon tax-cum-CDM (CT-CDM) policy. The study finds that, unlike a carbon tax policy, the CT-CDM policy could increase economic welfare in Thailand,...

  19. Dynamics of clean coal-fired power generation development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Li

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired power technology will play an important role over a long period in China. Clean coal-fired power technology is essential for the global GHG emission reduction. Recently, advanced supercritical (SC)/ultra-supercritical (USC) technology has made remarkable progress in China and greatly contributed to energy saving and emission reduction. This study analyzes the dynamics of SC/USC development in China from an integrated perspective. The result indicates that, besides the internal demand, the effective implementation of domestic public policy and technology transfer contributed greatly to the development of SC/USC technology in China. In future low carbon scenario, SC/USC coal-fired power technology might still be the most important power generation technology in China until 2040, and will have a significant application prospect in other developing countries. The analysis makes a very useful introduction for other advanced energy technology development, including a renewable energy technology, in China and other developing countries. - Highlights: ► The US/USC technology is the key clean coal-fired power technology in current China. ► The domestic policy and technology transfer largely contributed to their development. ► This makes a useful introduction for the development of renewable energy in China.

  20. Catalyzing Gender Equality-Focused Clean Energy Development in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center), the African Development Bank and other institutions to develop a Situation Analysis of Energy and Gender Issues in ECOWAS Member States. Through a systematic approach to assess interlinked gender and energy issues in the region, the report puts forth a number of key findings. This brochure highlights ECREEE's partnership with the Solutions Center and key findings from the report.

  1. Development of bonding techniques between tungsten and copper alloy for plasma facing components by HIP method. 1. Bonding between tungsten and oxygen free copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni; Akiba, Masato

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma facing components, like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, oxygen free high thermal conductivity (OFHC)-copper is proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. However, plasma facing components are exposed to cyclic high heat load and heavily irradiated by 14 MeV neutron. Under these conditions, many unfavorable effects, for instance, thermal stresses of bonding interface, irradiation damage and He atom production by nuclear transmutation, will be decreased bonding strength between W and Cu alloys. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to make plasma facing components which can resist them. Then, we started the bonding technology development by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu alloys. In this experiments, to optimize HIP bonding conditions, four point bending were performed for each bonded conditions at temperature from R.T. to 873 K and we could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and OFHC-Cu as 1273 K x 2 hours x 147 MPa. To evaluate bonding strength of the specimen bonded at these conditions, tensile tests were also performed at same temperature range. The tensile strength was similar with OFHC-Cu which were treated at same conditions. (author)

  2. Solid-state Bonding of Superplastic Aluminum Alloy 7475 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, T. D. S.; Vastava, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental works were carried out to study the feasibility of solid state bonding of superplastic aluminum 7475 sheet. Amount of deformation, bonding time, surface cleaning method and intermediate layer were the process parameters investigated. Other parameters, held constant by the superplastic forming condition which is required to obtain a concurrent solid state bonding, are bonding temperature, bonding pressure and atmosphere. Bond integrity was evaluated through metallographic examination, X-ray line scan analysis, SEM fractographic analysis and lap shear tests. The early results of the development program indicated that sound solid state bonding was accomplished for this high strength 7475 alloy with significant amounts of deformation. A thin intermediate layer of the soft 5052 aluminum alloy aided in achieving a solid state bonding by reducing the required amount of plastic deformation at the interface. Bond strength was substantially increased by a post bond heat treatment.

  3. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, David A.; Guan, Dabo; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  4. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...... on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  5. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogger, Cyrill; Beaurain, Francois; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  6. Promoting clean energy technology entrepreneurship: The role of external context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, Joel; Marcus, Alfred A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how political, social and economic factors influence clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). Government policies supporting clean energy technology development and the development of markets for clean energy create opportunities for CETE. However, the extent to which such opportunities lead to the emergence of new clean energy businesses depends on a favorable external context promoting CETE. This study employs a novel dataset combining indicators of the policy and social context of CETE with information on clean energy technology startup firms in the USA to provide empirical evidence that technological and market conditions supporting clean energy induce more extensive CETE under contexts where local attention to clean energy issues and successful firms commercializing clean energy technologies are more prominent. By establishing that CETE is contingent upon a supportive local environment as well as technology and market opportunities, the study holds relevance for policy makers and clean energy technology firms. - Highlights: • Influence of political, social and economic factors on clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). • CETE more prominent with clean energy technology availability. • Greater when local attention interacts with technology availability and market opportunities. • Greater when local firms successfully commercialize technologies. • Novel dataset and Arellano-Bond dynamic panel estimation.

  7. Development for dissimilar metal joint between stainless steel and zirconium by explosive bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Asano, Chooichi; Funamoto, Takao; Hirose, Yasuo; Sasada, Yasuhiro.

    1988-01-01

    Development of dissimilar metal joints between stainless steel and Zr for application to nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment was studied. Two dissimilar metal joints (Zr to SUS 304 L joint and its joint using Ta as insert metal) were made by the explosive bonding technique. After bonding, microstructure, tensile strength and corrosion test of dissimilar metal joints were investigated. The results indicated that: (1) The good dissimilar metal joint is obtained between stainless steel and Zr with a Ta insert metal by using explosive bonding technique. (2) A Ta insert metal retards a growth of intermetallic compounds at the bonding interface. (3) The strength of the dissimilar metal joint in this study is higher than that of Zr metal. Any local attack was not observed at the bonding interface after corrosion test. (author)

  8. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  9. The development of the clean burning inside-out flame in noncatalytic woodstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myren, A.T. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The promulgation of phased emissions standards for woodstoves by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 1984, the Colorado Department of Health in 1985 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1988, caused woodstove manufacturers to develop new noncatalytic products designed to comply with these regulations. This paper looks at the various low emission noncatalytic wood combustion engineering concepts/principles/ideas that led to the development of a clean burning inside-out flame (preheated air is injected into a gas stream containing the fuel to be burned) that has allowed manufacturers to consistently develop units with weighted average emission rates below the EPA Phase II (1990) standard for catalytic woodstoves and as low as 2.1 g/hr

  10. Accelerating the implementation of the clean development mechanism in South African industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Little

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the responses to the threat of global warming is the Kyoto Protocol and the associated Clean Development Mechanism (CDM to reduce greenhouse gases. South Africa is an ideal country for the implementation of industrial CDM projects, yet lags behind many other countries. This qualitative research determines the factors that cause South Africa to lag other developing countries in the implementation of industrial CDM projects and the interventions that will have the most impact on accelerating implementation. The research involved interviews with 30 experts involved in the South African CDM process. The results identify the factors perceived to be facilitating and inhibiting the use of CDM opportunities and a framework for CDM practitioners to develop an implementation strategy within South African industry is established.

  11. Heart of the Hearth: Making the Popular Clean, Not the Clean Popular - Technology Research, Development, and Tools for Clean Biomass Cookstoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gist, Ryan [BioLite, Inc., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2016-12-28

    This technical report summarizes the work completed by BioLite in fulfilment of the US DOE EERE award. The work plan focused on three key objectives: developing an optimized combustion system that demonstrates high combustion efficiency and low PM2.5 and CO emissions, integrate the system into popular stove phenotypes – side-fed rocket stove architecture like the BioLite HomeStove, and the Patsari chimney stove in Mexico such that they maintain their important phenotypical characteristics, independently evaluate quantitative fuel and emissions performance of the integrated ‘Turbo-Patsari’ in Mexican households. The project activities were organized into six major tasks: A. Develop, fabricate, and test proof-of-concept prototypes B. Develop field prototypes, assess user feedback and field performance C. Define revised stove design for pre-production model, Identify manufacturing requirements and estimated cost to build, Conduct reliability, emissions, and performance testing of pre-production Turbo-Patsari D. Build pre-production Turbo-Patsari stove combustion cores E. Conduct pre-production field trials F. Summarize field trial results and evaluate Turbo-Patsari for potential volume production. A two-pronged approach was adopted for the above tasks. The first involved building a modular test platform that allowed parametric variation of multiple stove design parameters that directly affect its performance – heat output, thermal efficiency, and emissions. The second part of the approach comprised of building a surrogate Patsari based on GIRA’s specifications that could then be modified or retrofitted for optimum performance based on the learnings from the modular test platform. The following sections of the report will describe the findings of tests on these platform, the subsequent development, design, and installation of the Turbo-Patsari, and finally the in-home field trial.

  12. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-06

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required.

  13. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot roll bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Takeda, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Ikenaga, Yoshiaki.

    1994-01-01

    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) with stainless steel piping is needed for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar metal transition joints between stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot roll bonding process, using the newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. In the R and D program, appropriate bonding conditions in the manufacturing process of the joints were established. This report presents the structure of transition joints and the manufacturing process by the hot roll bonding technique. Then, the evaluation of mechanical and corrosion properties and the results of demonstration test of joints for practical use are described. (author)

  14. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot roll bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Takeda, Seiichiro; Shikakura, Sakae; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Kajimura, Haruhiko.

    1995-01-01

    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) with stainless steel piping is needed for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar metal transition joints between stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot roll bonding process, using the newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. In the R and D program, appropriate bonding conditions in the manufacturing process of the joints were established. This report presents the structure of transition joints and the manufacturing process by hot roll bonding technique. Then, the evaluation of mechanical and corrosion properties and the results of demonstration test of joints for practical use are described. (author)

  15. Renewable Energy Investment in Emerging Markets: Evaluating Improvements to the Clean Development Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Tang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, industrialized countries have invested in or financed numerous renewable energy projects in developing countries, primarily through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol. However, critics have pointed to its bureaucratic structure, problems with additionality and distorted credit prices as ill-equipped to streamline renewable energy investment. In this paper, we simulate the impact of policy on investment decisions on whether or not to invest in wind energy infrastructure in India, Brazil and China. Data from 2,578 past projects as well as literature on investor behaviour is used to inform the model structure and parameters. Our results show that the CDM acts differently in each country and reveal that while streamlining the approval process and reconsidering additionality can lead to non-trivial increase in total investment, stabilizing policy and decreasing investment risk will do the most to spur investment.

  16. Corporate Financing Choices, Deregulations and Corporate Bond Market Development : Lessons from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng

    2008-01-01

    Corporate bond market development is important for reducing vulnerabilities to future financial crises by resolving the maturity mismatch problem; this has been a high priority for policymakers in East Asia since the crisis of 1997. Many policy studies have emphasized the importance of bond market infrastructure, including creating benchmark yield curves, rolesfor credit rating agencies, trading platforms, clearing and settlement systems, and reforming legal systems. This paper is the first t...

  17. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  18. An assessment of bonding characteristics of a newly introduced bonding agent: "beauty ortho bond"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmashree Veeramachineni

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Transbond XT had higher bond strength, the BOB and FOLC showed clinically acceptable bond strengths. However, clean-up after debonding would be easier with the two latter materials.

  19. Clean Development Mechanism: Latin American and Carribean perspectives on political and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potes, V.

    2000-07-01

    Political positions of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries are diverse, although certain principles are held in common. Diversity exists between the views of the small island developing nations, the oil producing nations, and the Amazon states. At the same time, all LAC countries agree on shared but differentiated responsibilities, poverty abatement, and the right to an 'ecological space' on equitable terms. As evidence of the political will to support climate change mitigation efforts, the various meetings and action plans developed by OLADE member countries for regional participation in global greenhouse gas reduction activities, are cited. Among Clean Development Mechanisms issues LAC countries have particular interest in issues concerning equity, supplementary, criteria for project eligibility, certified emission reduction, including independent auditing and verification systems, liability and compliance, sharing proceeds for adaptation and for administrative purposes, and the composition of the Executive Board, especially with respect to equality of representation. Among technical issues those of greatest interest to LAC countries are cogeneration, energy efficiency measures in industry and in the urban residential sector, gasification of biomass, renewable energy sources development, including small and mini-hydro development, fuel substitution, high efficiency gas turbines, and reduction of flaring in oil extraction wells. Development of priorities and objectives, inter-sectoral coordination, definition of development strategies, provision of institutional framework and capacity building, approval, endorsement and certification of CDM projects, are seen as the areas where the governments of LAC countries can play important and useful roles.

  20. The possibility of clean development mechanism in a nuclear power expansion in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Alexandre G.; Oliveira, Wagner S.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear power expansion is a very controversial topic in Brazil, which needs to be carefully addressed, especially because the national energy supply system is becoming more carbon-intensive. Although most of the electricity generated in Brazil is by hydropower plants, the country's electricity matrix expansion is moving towards a larger participation of fossil fuel thermo power generation which is contrarily the global objects of climate change mitigation. Climate change is a reality and the choice facing this problem is between action and delay. There will be needed a huge international mobilization, associated with a great amount of financial, political and engineering resources interested for preventing the aggravation of the greenhouse effect. This article analyses, in the possibility of including nuclear power in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) criteria, the revenue that could be generated from the trading of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) in different scenarios of nuclear power expansion in Brazil. (author)

  1. Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engines /QCSEE/ - A technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's QCSEE Program (Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine) performed by the General Electric Company covers a wide range of advanced propulsion technology features applicable to future subsonic engine concepts. These technology features are combined into two engine and nacelle configurations for demonstration of program goals. This paper presents descriptions of two engine/nacelle configurations and shows the flow of technology developed in component programs into the configurations. The under-the-wing (UTW) configuration, featuring major innovative and advanced components, such as a large variable pitch fan and a composite material integrated engine and nacelle structure, has been tested at General Electric's Peebles, Ohio test facility. The key characteristics of the engine as observed from the initial test series are presented.

  2. Addressing the need for a clean development mechanism (CDM specific project management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lotz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects have additional technical, financial and regulatory requirements that are not fully addressed by classic project management approaches. Research has been done on individual novel concepts of the CDM, like additionality, but little has been achieved to address an overall CDM project management approach. CDM and project management literature was reviewed and the South African CDM Industry Association was used as a case study to gain insight into an appropriate CDM specific project management strategy. A stage-gate model was subsequently derived to align classic project management approaches with the additional requirements of CDM projects. Further research will, in time, determine the completeness and practicability of the proposed model.

  3. A multicriteria approach to identify investment opportunities for the exploitation of the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakoulaki, D.; Georgiou, P.; Tourkolias, C.; Georgopoulou, E.; Lalas, D.; Mirasgedis, S.; Sarafidis, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the prospects for the exploitation of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Greece. The paper is addressing 3 questions: in which country, what kind of investment, with which economic and environmental return? The proposed approach is based on a multicriteria analysis for identifying priority countries and interesting investment opportunities in each priority country. These opportunities are then evaluated through a conventional financial analysis in order to assess their economic and environmental attractiveness. To this purpose, the IRR of a typical project in each investment category is calculated by taking into account country-specific parameters, such as baseline emission factors, load factors, costs, energy prices etc. The results reveal substantial differences in the economic and environmental return of different types of projects in different host-countries and show that for the full exploitation of the CDM a multifaceted approach to decision-making is necessary

  4. Diffusion Bonding Beryllium to Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel: Development of Processes and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ryan Matthew

    Only a few materials are suitable to act as armor layers against the thermal and particle loads produced by magnetically confined fusion. These candidates include beryllium, tungsten, and carbon fiber composites. The armor layers must be joined to the plasma facing components with high strength bonds that can withstand the thermal stresses resulting from differential thermal expansion. While specific joints have been developed for use in ITER (an experimental reactor in France), including beryllium to CuCrZr as well as tungsten to stainless steel interfaces, joints specific to commercially relevant fusion reactors are not as well established. Commercial first wall components will likely be constructed front Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel, which will need to be coating with one of the three candidate materials. Of the candidates, beryllium is particularly difficult to bond, because it reacts during bonding with most elements to form brittle intermetallic compounds. This brittleness is unacceptable, as it can lead to interface crack propagation and delamination of the armor layer. I have attempted to overcome the brittle behavior of beryllium bonds by developing a diffusion bonding process of beryllium to RAFM steel that achieves a higher degree of ductility. This process utilized two bonding aids to achieve a robust bond: a. copper interlayer to add ductility to the joint, and a titanium interlayer to prevent beryllium from forming unwanted Be-Cu intermetallics. In addition, I conducted a series of numerical simulations to predict the effect of these bonding aids on the residual stress in the interface. Lastly, I fabricated and characterized beryllium to ferritic steel diffusion bonds using various bonding parameters and bonding aids. Through the above research, I developed a process to diffusion bond beryllium to ferritic steel with a 150 M Pa tensile strength and 168 M Pa shear strength. This strength was achieved using a Hot Isostatic

  5. Explaining the differential distribution of Clean Development Mechanism projects across host countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, Andrew G.; Moore, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol represents an opportunity to involve all developing countries in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while also promoting sustainable development. To date, however, the majority of CDM projects have gone to emerging markets such as China, India, Brazil, and Mexico, while very few least developed countries have hosted projects. This paper investigates the differential distribution of CDM activities across countries. We develop a conceptual model for project profitability, which helps to identify potential country-level determinants of CDM activity. These potential determinants are employed as explanatory variables in regression analysis to explain the actual distribution of projects. Human capital and greenhouse gas emission levels influenced which countries have hosted projects and the amount of certified emission reductions (CER) created. Countries that offered growing markets for CDM co-products, such as electricity, were more likely to be CDM hosts, while economies with higher carbon intensity levels had greater CER production. These findings work against the least developed countries and help to explain their lack of CDM activity. - Research Highlights: → Regression models are used to explain the inter-country distribution of CDM projects. → Emissions and human capital are significant for hosting projects and CER creation. → An economy's emissions intensity is significant in determining CERs created. → Capacity building and electricity sector growth are significant in hosting projects. → The experience level for host countries in the CDM is significant for CER creation.

  6. CDM (Clean development mechanism) like instrument for sustainable development?; MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) como instrumento para o desenvolvimento sustentavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar Silva; Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduaco em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: kamyla@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The intensification of the greenhouse effect, caused mainly by the anthropogenic activities, such as the intensive use of fossil fuels, reveals itself as a challenge to governments and international organizations. The institution of an international legal framework, resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is allowing the development of some mitigation instruments, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article's purpose is to assess the social and economic aspects that are leading to the climate change process and to analyze the instruments foreseen in the international legal system to face this global concern, in special, the CDM as a tool to achieve sustainable development practices. In this way, the authors aims to demonstrate the connection and interdependence between those instruments and the sustainable development. (author)

  7. How to make the clean development mechanism sustainable-The potential of rent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) should foster sustainable development and greenhouse gas emission reductions. The design of the CDM and first experience suggest that it may not achieve these goals. Developing countries hosting CDM projects may lose cheap emission reduction possibilities for their own future use, and sustainable development and technology transfer may not take place. On the other hand, the CDM has the potential to generate considerable rents if permit prices are high or costs low. To account for equity and distributional issues, a deliberate decision on how to distribute these rents could be taken and the potential failure of the CDM in meeting its goals calls for some further regulation. I suggest to combine these two issues and to extract the rents by a profit tax. Ideally, the tax revenues could contribute to national sustainable development strategies, to offset external costs imposed by CDM projects and to extract part of the resource rent they may generate. The international character of the CDM could offer a frame for internationally coordinated tax design. This would hedge against a potential race to the bottom

  8. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-07-30

    So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.

  9. CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) opportunities for the oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Joana Chiavari [FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy). Eni/Agip Group

    2004-07-01

    Due to the broad impact of legislation limiting greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing public awareness concerning the environment, the oil industry has been currently incorporating climate change considerations in its corporate strategy. However, compliance in the carbon constrained economy does not merely represent a cost issue; it also represents an opportunity. Projects developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in particular represent an incentive both for companies and governments to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries and earn carbon credits, while promoting sustainable development. The oil industry is characterized by a high emission reduction potential and is able to deliver to the market an amount of credits which is by far higher than the amount that most projects developers are able to offer. However some critical issues, such as the current interpretation of the additionally concept, may represent a barrier for the full utilization of such mechanism, particularly regarding petroleum-sector projects, thus reducing the benefits the CDM can actually produce. Considering that a very large number of CDM projects may be needed for the implementation of a successful climate policy, the engagement of the oil industry on the Kyoto mechanisms is very important and auspicial. (author)

  10. CO2 emissions mitigation potential of solar home systems under clean development mechanism in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav

    2009-01-01

    The Government of India has taken several initiatives for promotion of solar energy systems in the country during the last two decades. A variety of policy measures have been adopted which include provision of financial and fiscal incentives to the potential users of solar energy systems however, only 0.4 million solar home systems (SHSs) have been installed so far that is far below their respective potential. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized (Annex-I) countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing (non-Annex-I) countries to achieve a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. SHSs could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. In this study an attempt has been made to estimate the CO 2 mitigation potential of SHSs under CDM in India.

  11. Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Laengner, M.; Matveeva, M.; Schulz, Ch.; Marot, L.; Voitsenya, V.S.; Philipps, V.; Biel, W.; Samm, U.

    2011-01-01

    Mirrors will be used in all optical and laser-based diagnostic systems of ITER. In the severe environment, the optical characteristics of mirrors will be degraded, hampering the entire performance of the respective diagnostics. A minute impurity deposition of 20 nm of carbon on the mirror is sufficient to decrease the mirror reflectivity by tens of percent outlining the necessity of the mirror cleaning in ITER. The results of R and D on plasma cleaning of molybdenum diagnostic mirrors are reported. The mirrors contaminated with amorphous carbon films in the laboratory conditions and in the tokamaks were cleaned in steady-state hydrogenic plasmas. The maximum cleaning efficiency of 4.2 nm/min was reached for the laboratory and soft tokamak hydrocarbon films, whereas for the hard tokamak films the carbidization of mirrors drastically decreased the cleaning efficiency down to 0.016 nm/min. This implies the necessity of sputtering cleaning of contaminated mirrors as the only reliable tool to remove the deposits by plasma cleaning. An overview of R and D program on mirror cleaning is provided along with plans for further studies and the recommendations for ITER mirror-based diagnostics.

  12. Development of a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water is proposed. A model that captures the dynamics well is valuable for the optimization of the cleaning process. The proposed model is based on component balances and contains three parameters that can be

  13. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  14. How can the Clean Development Mechanism contribute to better air quality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, S.J.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Air pollutants and greenhouse gases are to a large extent emitted by the same sources, notably in the industry, transport and residential sectors. However, climate change mitigation is a global issue and is mostly driven by national and international policy. Local governments are in general more interested in improving urban air quality, which is posing serious health hazards across the globe. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, helping industrialised countries to achieve their targets under the Kyoto Protocol while contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. As of January 2009 over 4000 projects are in the pipeline. The CDM could be used by local governments and the private sector to finance projects that contribute to both climate change mitigation and better air quality. However, CDM projects in particularly the transport sector face a number of barriers. We identify the most important issues for such projects, as well as the lessons learnt and some recommendations based on four case studies in Asian cities related to biofuels and bus rapid transit systems. The main conclusions is that successful implementation of CDM projects beneficial for urban air quality depends on the applicability of approved CDM methodologies, the strong cooperation between project developers and local authorities, and the availability of data.

  15. Nuclear power for greenhouse gas mitigation under the Kyoto protocol: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.

    2000-01-01

    At the 43rd regular session of the IAEA General Conference, Member States requested the IAEA to help countries in assessing nuclear power's role in light of global environmental challenges and energy needs. Such assistance should include support for implementing national case studies, and facilitating access to relevant information about nuclear power's role in achieving sustainable development in developing countries and in mitigating GHG emissions. The dissemination of information on CDM is of particular importance to developing countries, so as to enable Member States interested in the mechanism to take an active and informed role in the debate regarding the Kyoto Protocol and eligible CDM technologies. Therefore, the Secretariat organized a series of information seminars, workshops and training courses for Member States on the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading with particular emphasis on the potential role of nuclear power for GHG mitigation. On request, the Secretariat also provided training and assistance to several Member States in the preparation of national case studies that explore the potential role of nuclear power as a CDM technology. These case studies will be presented by the respective national study teams during this side event at the 44th IAEA General Conference. Within the general criteria included in the Kyoto Protocol, the decision on which technologies are eligible for GHG mitigation under the flexibility mechanisms is a sovereign decision of each country

  16. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  17. A real option-based model for promoting sustainable energy projects under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyounkyu; Park, Taeil; Kim, Byungil; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2013-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) provides a way of assisting sustainable development in developing countries for developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Despite its intended benefits, the primary CDM market decreased from US$5.8 billion in 2006 to US$1.5 billion in 2010. One of the primary reasons for the reduction of market size is that developed countries as investors have a high level of risks caused by the volatility of the market price for certified emission reductions (CERs). Another issue to be resolved is that developing countries as host countries cannot claim any right to the CERs produced on their own land. This paper presents a real option-based model for both parties (developed and developing countries) to have their fair share of profits and risks by controlling the uncertainty associated with the future value of CERs. A case study illustrated that the proposed model can effectively attract investors to CDM projects leading to mitigation of climate change. - Highlights: ► This study focused on the risks associated with the uncertainty of future CER value in CDM projects. ► A real option-based model was developed for both parties in CDM to have fair share of profit and risk. ► Key variables and boundary conditions were identified for application of real option to CDM. ► The model allowed both parties to own options, which have an identical value. ► Hydropower plant projects in Indonesia were used to illustrate the implementation of the model

  18. Developing a laser shockwave model for characterizing diffusion bonded interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Smith, James A.; Rabin, Barry H.

    2015-03-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) with the goal of reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU in high-power research reactors. The new LEU fuel is a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to support the fuel qualification process, the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However, because the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on a specimen's surface is intractably complex, the shock wave energy is inferred from the surface velocity measured on the backside of the fuel plate and the depth of the impression left on the surface by the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses generated at the interfaces, a finite element method (FEM) model is being utilized. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop and validate the model by comparing numerical and experimental results for back surface velocities and front surface depressions in a single aluminum plate representative of the fuel cladding.

  19. New progresses in safe, clean and efficient development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In China, there are a lot of high-sulfur gas reservoirs with total proved reserves of over 1 trillion m3, most of which were discovered in the Sichuan Basin. Most high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, distributed in marine carbonate zones, are characterized by great buried depths, complex geologic conditions, high temperatures, high pressures, high H2S and CO2 content, presenting various challenges in gas field development engineering and production safety. Since the development of Sinian high-sulfur gas reservoirs in the Weiyuan area of the Sichuan Basin started in the 1960s, Wolonghe, Zhongba and other medium to small-scale gas reservoirs with medium to low sulfur content have been developed. Ever since 2009, successful production of Longgang and Puguang in the Sichuan Basin, together with some other high-sulfur gas reservoirs highlighted the breakthroughs in development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China. This paper reviews the progress made in gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, gas production, pipeline transportation, corrosion control, natural gas purification, HSE and other aspects with consideration of specific requirements related to safe, clean and high-efficient development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs since the “12th Five-Year Plan” period. Finally, considering the challenges in the development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, we summarized the trend in future technological development with the following goals of reducing risks, minimizing environmental damages, and enhancing the efficiency of high-sulfur gas reservoir development.

  20. The implementation of clean development mechanism (CDM) in the construction and built environment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Ken L.; Han, Seung H.; Choi, Seokjin

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to human activities are the main contributors to global climate change, a problem that should not be ignored. Through the clean development mechanism (CDM) introduced under the Kyoto Protocol, developing countries are able to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits through a myriad of emission reduction projects. This study aims to explore the potential of implementing CDM projects in the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry, which has been criticized for not only consuming an enormous amount of resources, but also for contributing to adverse environmental health. In this research, we limit the boundary of the C and BE industry to include the planning, procurement, construction, occupation and refurbishment/demolition phases of a project's life cycle. Surveys and in-depth follow-up interviews with experts have generated useful insights pertaining to CDM potential and its adaptation into the C and BE industry. From this foundation, this paper evaluates the current obstacles to CDM and presents feasible suggestions to increase CDM projects related to the C and BE industry. - Highlights: • We review the development and limitation of CDM relates to the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry. • We obtain experts' opinions on the feasibility of CDM in the C and BE industry. • Validation, monitoring, verification and additionality of CDM projects are crucial. • Experts agreed that most of our suggestions are feasible in principle

  1. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered.

  2. Clean development mechanism and off-grid small-scale hydropower projects: Evaluation of additionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanwar, Nitin

    2007-01-01

    The global climate change mitigation policies and their stress on sustainable development have made electrification of rural mountainous villages, using small hydro, an attractive destination for potential clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. This invariably involves judging the additionality of such projects. The paper suggests a new approach to judge the additionality of such stand-alone small hydropower projects. This has been done by breaking up additionality into two components: external and local. The external additionality is project developer dependent. For determining the local additionality, the paper takes into account the probability of a village getting electrified over a period of time, which is kept equal to the possible crediting period. This is done by defining an electrification factor (EF) whose value depends on the degree of isolation, financial constraints and institutional constraints encountered while electrifying a mountainous village. Using this EF, the additionality of a CDM project can be judged in a much easier and accurate way. The paper is based on the data and inputs gathered during site visits to many isolated villages located in the eastern Indian Himalayas

  3. FEASIBILITY AND FINANCIAL ISSUES OF CLEAN PROJECT DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Fronti, Inés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to determine the current status and perspectives presented in Argentina in 2011 for different stakeholders regarding the development, execution and implementation of projects of clean development mechanism (CDM under the Kioto Protocol, with emphasis on the analysis of accounting issues.In the Argentinean research there is an analysis of the accounting issues under discussion and -taking as theirtory the Brazilian study mentioned- has surveyed and interviewed stakeholders belonging to government agencies, professional bodies such as councils accounting professionals in economics from different jurisdictions, academics, consultants and companies that deal or CDM projects plan to address issues relating to general and their views on potential regulations from bodies of the accounting profession and/or governmental and motivation of business and accounting issues of CDM projects such as moments of recognition of accounting entries and the different forms of the same recognition. The results showed that knowledge on the subject of stakeholders is initial but is possible an important increase in the future, accompanied by the development in Argentina of such projects.

  4. Development of bonding techniques between tungsten and copper alloy for plasma facing components by HIP method (2). Bonding between tungsten and DS-copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Akiba, Masato

    2000-02-01

    Recently, W (tungsten)-alloys are considered as plasma facing material (PFM) for ITER because of these many favorable properties such as high melting point (3655 K), relatively high thermal conductivity and higher resistivity for plasma sputtering. On the other hand, Cu-alloys, especially DS (dispersion strengthened)-Cu, are proposed as heat sink materials because of its high thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties at high temperature. Plasma facing components (PFC) are designed as the duplex structure where W armor tiles are bonded with Cu-alloy heat sink. Then, we started the bonding technology development by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu-alloys because of its many advantages. Until now, it was reported that we could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and OFHC-Cu and the tensile strength was similar with HIP treated OFHC-Cu. In this experiments, bonding tests of W and DS-Cu with insert material were performed. As insert material, OFHC-Cu was used with different thickness. Bonding conditions were selected as 1273 K x 2 hours x 147 MPa. Bonding tests with 0.3 to 1.8 mm thickness OFHC-Cu were successfully bonded but with 0.1 mm thickness was not bonded. From the results of tensile tests, the tensile strength of the specimens with 0.3 and 0.5 mm thickness were decreased at elevated temperature. It was shown that over 1.0 mm thickness OFHC-Cu insert may be needed and the tensile strength were a little higher than that of HIP treated OFHC-Cu. (author)

  5. Microstructural developments in TLP bonds using thin interlayers based on Ni-B coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, R.K. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Khan, T.I., E-mail: tkhan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA 758 was transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded using thin interlayers based on Ni-B electrodeposited coatings and the microstructural developments across the joint region were studied. The bonding surfaces were electrodeposited with a coat thickness of 2-9 {mu}m and microstructural features were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The homogeneity of the joint was assessed performing micro-hardness test. The results showed that the coating thickness as well as the amount of melting point depressants (boron) in the coatings had a significant effect on the microstructural developments within the joint region. TLP bonds made using a 2 {mu}m thick coating interlayer produced a joint with no visible precipitate formation and parent metal dissolution, and the absence of precipitates was attributed to the lower volume concentration of boron in the 2 {mu}m thick coating interlayer.

  6. Microstructural developments in TLP bonds using thin interlayers based on Ni-B coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, R.K.; Khan, T.I.

    2009-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA 758 was transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded using thin interlayers based on Ni-B electrodeposited coatings and the microstructural developments across the joint region were studied. The bonding surfaces were electrodeposited with a coat thickness of 2-9 μm and microstructural features were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The homogeneity of the joint was assessed performing micro-hardness test. The results showed that the coating thickness as well as the amount of melting point depressants (boron) in the coatings had a significant effect on the microstructural developments within the joint region. TLP bonds made using a 2 μm thick coating interlayer produced a joint with no visible precipitate formation and parent metal dissolution, and the absence of precipitates was attributed to the lower volume concentration of boron in the 2 μm thick coating interlayer.

  7. Laser materials development by means of a solid-state bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews laser materials development via a bonding method without adhesives. Instead of conventional chemical etching, a dry etching technique using an argon beam has been newly developed for the bonding method. This method meets the requirement for the use of optical materials. We succeeded in the fabrication of a composite laser crystal with good heat conductivity by bonding two kinds of crystals; one is neodymium-doped YVO 4 crystal (Nd:YVO 4 ) and the other is its host crystal YVO 4 . In the comparison of the laser performance between the normal and composite crystal, the composite one shows the good lasing capability of increasing laser output without fracture of the crystal due to thermal stress which appeared in the normal one. (author)

  8. Metabolic Engineering to Develop a Pathway for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a biochemical pathway for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. Specifically a novel biochemical pathway will be developed for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in carbazole. The cleavage of the first C-N bond in carbazole is accomplished by the enzyme carbazole dioxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of carbazole to 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol. The genes encoding carbazole dioxygenase were cloned from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 and from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. The selective cleavage of the second C-N bond has been challenging, and efforts to overcome that challenge have been the focus of recent research in this project. Enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating bacterial cultures that can metabolize 2-aminobiphenyl, but no enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the C-N bond in 2-aminobiphenyl has been identified. Aniline is very similar to the structure of 2-aminobiphenyl and aniline dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of aniline to catechol and ammonia. For the remainder of the project the emphasis of research will be to simultaneously express the genes for carbazole dioxygenase and for aniline dioxygenase in the same bacterial host and then to select for derivative cultures capable of using carbazole as the sole source of nitrogen.

  9. Municipal Bonds in Developing Countries. Case Study: Municipality of Stip, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija GOGOVA SAMONIKOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries, especially in the Balkans, barely use the municipal bonds as an alternative way of financing their activities. This paper is part of the project “The municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing municipals activities and the effective management of funds, with a special emphasis to the Municipality of Stip, R. Macedonia”. The paper has an important impact, according to both academic and practical perspective. It combines the experts’ academic analysis with the municipals potential in order to facilitate a successful municipal bond emission that would support the local economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ability and willingness of the Municipality of Stip to issue municipal bonds. The main hypothesis states that the Municipality of Stip is able to issue a municipal bond as an alternative way of financing its investment activities. The research includes the classical SWOT analysis regarding the Municipality of Stip and continues with a statistical analysis based on correlation and regression relationships within the accounts of the Municipality’s annual reports. The methodological framework is based on quantitative research methods (correlations and regression methods which result in acceptance of the main hypothesis in the paper - the municipal bonds as an alternative source for funding municipal’s activities are justified, especially if the funds are associated with a specific revenue-generating project. The findings would serve as a basis for the municipal bonds prospect, which would be the ultimate goal of combining the academic knowledge with the practical potential of the Municipality of Stip. The conclusions reveal that this would be the first municipal bond emission in the Republic of Macedonia. However, this fact can serve as an advantage in the market in terms of introducing financial instrument innovation. This paper suggests that the usage of municipal bonds is

  10. Sustainable Development Impacts of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the Clean Development Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed...... are suggested based on emerging approaches and methodologies for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas reductions and SD impacts of NAMAs....

  11. Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism. Lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voehringer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Deforestation is currently the source of about 20% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Avoided deforestation has, nonetheless, been ruled out as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) category in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period, because several methodological issues were considered too difficult to resolve. This paper explores whether CDM issues such as (1) carbon quantification, (2) additionality and baseline setting, (3) leakage risks, (4) non-permanence risks, and (5) sustainable development can be adequately dealt with in large, diversified forest conservation projects. To this aim, it studies the case of the Costa Rican Protected Areas Project (PAP), an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project which was meant to consolidate the national park system to avoid deforestation, promote the growth of secondary forests and regenerate pastures on an area that, in total, covers 10% of the national territory. The case study examines how the issues mentioned above have been addressed in the project design and in the certification process. It is found that baseline uncertainties are the major problem in this case. Nonetheless, the case suggests the possibility to address CDM issues by specific requirements for project design and very conservative and temporary crediting. Provided that other case studies support this conclusion, eligibility of well-designed forest conservation projects under the CDM in the second commitment period may be worth considering, given the secondary benefits of avoided deforestation

  12. Forecast of energy demand in China and introduction of nuclear power using the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemoto, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    As an economic energy source with low greenhouse gas emissions and essentially no resource limitations, nuclear power is a promising option for meeting the rapidly growing energy demands of China that is being driven by rapid population and economic growth. This paper examines an introduction scenario for nuclear power in China by using the clean development mechanism, based on quantitative evaluation of energy demand forecasts and the nuclear fuel cycle through 2100. The results of the case study concluded that in the short to mid term, large-scale light water reactors will primarily be sited in coastal areas where infrastructure development is advanced. In the future, as dispersed power sources in inland areas, small scale FBRs will be preferred due to their promising safety, operation and maintenance characteristics, ease of transportation of plant equipment and plant construction and the possibility of on-site nuclear fuel cycle. Evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle showed that this introduction scenario is feasible considering natural Uranium demand, Uranium enrichment capacity and reprocessing capacity. (author)

  13. How to use the clean development mechanism in the residential sector? The case of Brazilian refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Helioui; Cohen, Claude; Salem Szklo, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The definition of simple and reliable emission baselines is crucial to foster clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. This paper assesses a project methodology that could boost large-scale energy-efficiency projects in the sector of domestic appliances. The baseline appliance is defined a priori in a 'conservative' manner as the design option minimizing life-cycle social costs. The project methodology consists in a program which rebates new appliances according to their emission savings compared to the baseline. Is the proposed baseline acceptable? What could be the impact of such project on emissions? To address these questions, we look for insights from a hypothetical case on Brazilian refrigerators. A rational choice model is developed which assumes that households select design options minimizing life-cycle private costs. Results suggest that electricity tariff distortions and financial constraints might hamper project performances and allow significant free-riding. Low income households remain trapped into low-efficiency choices and high income households adopt outperforming appliances, whether rebated or not. However, simple solutions likely to improve the project methodology do exist

  14. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  15. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Research and development of advanced clean energy vehicles; 1998 nendo kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The efforts aim to develop advanced clean energy vehicles (ACEVs) which drive on substitutes of oil low in pollution, consuming 1/2 or less energy and emitting 1/2 or less CO2 than the existing vehicles. Studies conducted in fiscal 1998 covered high-efficiency hybrid power systems and ACEVs. Efforts to develop ACEVs involved a reformed methanol fuel cell hybrid passenger car of Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (improvement on element technologies, study of methanol concentration); CNG (compressed natural gas) engine hybrid passenger car of Honda Research and Development Co., Ltd. (improvement on flywheels, studies of ANG (adsorbent natural gas) adsorbent and ANG tank); CNG ceramics engine hybrid cargo truck of Isuzu Ceramics Research Institute Co., Ltd. (fabrication of ceramics single-cylinder engine, design and fabrication of vehicle control system, fabrication of prototype); CNG lean burn engine hybrid cargo truck of Mitsubishi Motors Co., Ltd. (studies, designing, and fabrication of engine element parts); LNG engine hybrid bus of Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Ltd. (development of engine and power storage); and DME (dimethylether) engine hybrid bus of Hino Motors, Ltd. (development of DME fuel injection system and high-efficiency power storage). (NEDO)

  16. Developing self-cleaning and air purifying transportation infrastructure components to minimize environmental impact of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Creating transportation infrastructure, which can clean up itself and contaminated air surrounding it, can be a : groundbreaking approach in addressing environmental challenges of our time. This project has explored a possibility of : depositing coat...

  17. Research and development of Ro-boat: an autonomous river cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aakash; Bhardwaj, Prashant; Vaibhav, Bipul; Mohommad, Noor

    2013-12-01

    Ro-Boat is an autonomous river cleaning intelligent robot incorporating mechanical design and computer vision algorithm to achieve autonomous river cleaning and provide a sustainable environment. Ro-boat is designed in a modular fashion with design details such as mechanical structural design, hydrodynamic design and vibrational analysis. It is incorporated with a stable mechanical system with air and water propulsion, robotic arms and solar energy source and it is proceed to become autonomous by using computer vision. Both "HSV Color Space" and "SURF" are proposed to use for measurements in Kalman Filter resulting in extremely robust pollutant tracking. The system has been tested with successful results in the Yamuna River in New Delhi. We foresee that a system of Ro-boats working autonomously 24x7 can clean a major river in a city on about six months time, which is unmatched by alternative methods of river cleaning.

  18. The role of international business in clean technology transfer and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2015-01-01

    While research has generated very useful insights, usually at the macro level, regarding the multifaceted nature of environmental innovation and regulation, the characteristics and drivers peculiar to international companies have remained underexposed in the policy-related literature on clean

  19. The e7 guide to implementing projects under the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The e7 was formed in 1992 to play an active role in global electricity issues and to promote sustainable development. It consists of nine leading electricity companies: American Electric Power (United States), Electricite de France (France), ENEL (Italy), Hydro-Quebec (Canada), The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. (Japan), Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (Canada), RWE (Germany), ScottishPower (United Kingdom), and Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan). This report provides a guide to help develop projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which is an instrument that allows public or private entities to invest in greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigating activities in developing countries and earn credits in an emission trading system. The dual objectives of the CDM, one of three mechanisms set out in the Kyoto Protocol, are the reduction of global GHG emissions and a contribution to sustainable development in the host country. The guidelines and procedures detailed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and the related Protocols and Accords, were followed in the preparation of this document. Recommendations based on e7 experience were also included. The criteria for success were stated, and additionality was discussed. Additionality refers to the reductions of emissions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence of the certified project activity. The baseline methodology was described. Project Design Document (PDD) is the format that must be used for presenting the information pertaining to a project and its evaluation. PDD contents include: general description of the project activity, baseline methodology, identification of crediting period, monitoring methodology and plan, calculation of GHG emissions by sources, environmental impacts, and stakeholder comments. Third party verification, and project risk and transaction costs were also addressed. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Forest Protection and Reforestation in Costa Rica: Evaluation of a Clean Development Mechanism Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak

    2000-09-01

    / Costa Rica has recently established a program that provides funds for reforestation and forest protection on private lands, partly through the sale of carbon certificates to industrialized countries. Countries purchasing these carbon offsets hope one day to receive credit against their own commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica has used the proceeds of the sale of carbon offsets to Norway to help finance this forest incentive program, called the Private Forestry Project, which pays thousands of participants to reforest or protect forest on their lands. The Private Forestry Project is accompanied by a monitoring program conducted by Costa Rican forest engineers that seeks to determine net carbon storage accomplished on these lands each year. The Private Forestry Project, which is officially registered as an Activity Implemented Jointly, is a possible model for bundled projects funded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also serves as an interesting example for the CDM because it was designed by a developing country host-not by an industrialized country investor. Accordingly, it reflects the particular "sustainable development" objectives of the host country or at least the host planners. Early experience in implementing the Private Forestry Project is evaluated in light of the main objectives of the CDM and its precursor-Activities Implemented Jointly. It is concluded that the project appears to meet the criteria of global cost-effectiveness and financing from non-ODA sources. The sustainable development implications of the project are specific to the region and would not necessarily match the ideals of all investing and developing countries. The project may be seen to achieve additional greenhouse gas abatement when compared against some (although not all) baselines.

  1. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelowa Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (≤ 15% despite very high level of policy support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Results Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. Conclusion The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.

  2. Research and development on air cleaning system of reprocessing plant in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruki, K.

    1985-01-01

    Present status in Japan of R and D on air cleaning systems, especially of the fuel reprocessing plant is summarized. The description is centered on the R and D and experience of Tokai-reprocessing plant, which covers the plant air cleaning system, effort carried out for decreasing I 2 effluence in the actual vented off-gas, and R and D for recovery of Kr and 3 H. Some experimental results for the evaluation of HEPA filter are also described

  3. Copper alloy-stainless steel bonds and recent developments for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Chappuis, Ph.; Mitteau, R.; Reindl, G.

    1998-01-01

    High strength high conductivity copper alloys such as CuCrZr are used in Tore Supra as structural heat sink material for high heat flux plasma facing components. Although friction welded pipes on these components have shown a satisfactory in-service reliability, it came out that recently produced CuCrZr-stainless steel bonds showed very poor results in ductility. This led to a more detailed investigation of friction weldments. Finally, a more ductile joint has been developed with 'Plansee AG' on the basis of electron beam welded nickel adapters inserted between the two materials. Characterisation of such bonds is reported. (author)

  4. 26 CFR 5c.103-2 - Leases and industrial development bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases and industrial development bonds. 5c.103-2 Section 5c.103-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c...

  5. Improving or Disproving Sustainable Development in the Clean Development Mechanism in the Midst of a Financial Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Macdonald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol is a dual purpose mechanism aiming to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable development. However the CDM, as a market mechanism, seems incapable of fulfilling this latter purpose. Bui lding on the dichotomy between market liberalism and sustainable development as identified by D.M. Driesen, this paper argues that the CDM has become a schizophrenic mechanism trying to achieve two mutually exclusive aims. The paper discusses options for improving sustainable development in the CDM, but concludes these options are either impractical or impossible to pursue. The 'development dividend' (as per A. Cosbey, et al is likely to forever be in arrears. The CDM should explicitly acknowledge its sustainable development failings. This brings into question the CDM's very existence. The paper also comments on the effect the financial crisis might have on the carbon market, so crucial for the CDM. The article suggests that the financial crisis will make it even more difficult for the CDM to pursue its sustainable development aim.

  6. Development challenges under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)-Can renewable energy initiatives be put in place before peak oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Bob; Subbarao, Srikanth

    2009-01-01

    The 'Sustainable Development' aspect of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol is examined, with regard to its current impact on crucial developmental issues. The paper discusses the immediate and urgent global concerns of developmental needs, energy and climate change, whilst highlighting their influence on the poor in the developing world. The global responses to address the above concerns in terms of renewable energy technologies, policies and strategies that can be instrumental in addressing the issues are discussed, with main emphasis on the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol. The critical issue of whether the CDM can address poverty alleviation and sustainable development in developing countries is discussed in the context of existing market principles, transparency of the mechanism, economics and the daunting bureaucratic procedures involved. The paper concludes that the CDM, if suitably modified, can go some way to address sustainable development and alleviate poverty for poor rural areas and not increase emissions by a focus on renewable energy technologies. This result can be achieved as the energy consumption of rural sectors is currently so small relative to developed economies that only small additional renewable energy generation capacities are needed to make a measurable difference

  7. Development of a Stable TiO2 Nanocomposite Self-Cleaning Coating for Outdoor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient and low-cost approach for the elaboration of a stable superhydrophobic coating is reported, involving the use of TiO2 nanoparticles via the spray coating method. This method can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings on large areas for different kinds of substrates. The synergistic effect of the micro/nanobinary scale roughness was produced by a multilayer RTV SR/TiO2 composite. The influence of the nanofiller concentration in a specific frequency range (40 Hz to 2 MHz on the dielectric behavior was analyzed as well. It was found that the real relative permittivity (εr′ increases as the nanofiller concentration increases. Superhydrophobic behavior is analyzed by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and profilometer. The stability of the developed coating also has been evaluated in terms of immersion in various aqueous solutions, heating, adhesion, and exposure to UV irradiation, and the results showed good stability against these factors. The coating retained its superhydrophobicity after several days of immersion in solutions of different pH levels (2, 4, 6, and 12 and different conductivities. In addition, they also exhibited exceptional stability against UV radiation and heating, as well as good mechanical stability.

  8. Policies for the design and operation of the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourcade, J.Ch. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED-CNRS/EHESS), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Toman, M. [Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington D.C. (United States)

    2003-07-01

    On September 24-25 1999, CIRED and RFF held a workshop at CIRED to explore a number of key policy issues surrounding the design and operation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This mechanism, created as part of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), has been the subject of much ongoing negotiation and debate. The multinational participants assembled not to seek consensus but to promote better understanding of commonalties and differences in views in a non politicized setting, as well as to see what new ideas and understandings might emerge from the discussions. The meetings were informal and ''off the record'' to promote frank exchange. This document is a summary of the discussions as seen through the eyes of the two co-organizers. We have tried to reflect as well as possible the range and diversity of the thoughts expressed at the meeting, and we have circulated this summary to other participants for their comments. But we alone are responsible for its content. (author)

  9. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  10. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO 2 eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects

  11. Dynamics of technology shifts in the household sector-implications for clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper attempts to analyse the dynamics of energy end-use technology shifts in the household sector in India. The technology shifts can be categorized as naturally occurring shifts (with increasing household incomes and availability of energy carriers) and policy-induced shifts (by creating a favourable environment). Initially, the households energy usage patterns, types of energy carriers and the technologies in use are analysed using the data from the National Sample Survey (1999-2000). The energy consumption is disaggregated according to end-use activity and by income groups for rural as well as urban households. It is observed that large variations in energy use exist across different sections of households-urban/rural, low/high-income groups, etc. Further, the paper provides a methodological framework for the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies, and the implications of such diffusions for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It analyses the reasons for the gap between possible and practical implementation of energy-efficient measures, study the reasons for households not using the cost-effective technologies available to them, the benefits of innovation of energy efficiency, and the required policies and specific proposals for government intervention to achieve the potential for the CDM

  12. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2015-09-01

    This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the 'waste handling and disposal sector' (13) over the past ten years (2004-2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO2eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves 'not financially attractive' without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufoni, André Luiz, E-mail: bufoni@facc.ufrj.br [Energy Planning Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro PPE/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luciano Basto [International Virtual Institute of Global Changes IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Energy Planning Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro PPE/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects.

  14. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  15. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project was focused on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate deaminase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative C-N bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments resulted in the isolation of microbial cultures that utilize aromatic amides as sole nitrogen sources, several amidase genes were cloned and were included in directed evolution experiments to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. During the second year of the project (October, 2003-September, 2004) enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating a mixed bacterial culture that can utilize 2-aminobiphenyl as a sole nitrogen source, directed evolution experiments were focused on the aniline dioxygenase enzyme that is capable of deaminating aniline, and expression vectors were constructed to enable the expression of genes encoding C-N bond cleaving enzymes in Rhodococcus hosts. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the

  16. Enabling clean access into Subglacial Lake Whillans: development and use of the WISSARD hot water drill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Frank R

    2016-01-28

    Clean hot water drill systems (CHWDSs) are used with clean access protocols for the exploration of subglacial lakes and other subglacial aquatic environments (e.g. ice-shelf cavities) in Antarctica. A CHWDS developed for the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project by the Science Management Office at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL-SMO), USA, was specifically designed for use in West Antarctica, where the US Antarctic Program's South Pole Traverse could assist with logistical support. The initial goal was to provide clean access holes through ice up to 1000 m thick following environmental stewardship guidelines; however, the existing design allows this CHWDS to be used for ice thicknesses up to 2000 m following modifications to accommodate longer hose lengths. In January 2013, the WISSARD CHWDS successfully provided for the first time a clean access borehole through 800 m of ice into Subglacial Lake Whillans beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for the deployment of scientific instruments and sampling tools. The development and initial use of the WISSARD CHWDS required the project team to address a number of constraints while providing contingencies to meet the defined project scope, schedule and budget. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Restoration Using the Clean Development Mechanism: A Case Study from Humbo, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas R.; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa

    2011-08-01

    Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation—the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits—facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project—empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands.

  18. Recent developments in the Clean Water Act: Section 404 regulatory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsch, T. (EPA, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Since the late 1970's and the 1980's, the Nation has become increasingly aware of the vital role wetlands play in providing habitat, protecting us from flooding and maintaining surface water quality. This public awakening came at the same time that the Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory published reports indicating that less than one half of the wetlands that existed when the Europeans came to the US remain. The reports also indicated that the US was continuing to lose approximately 450,000 acres of our wetlands per year. Although recent data updating the status and trends of wetland losses for the 1980's indicate that the rate of loss has decreased, the Fish and Wildlife Service estimates indicate that approximately 290,000 acres of wetlands are still lost each year. Any loss in the natural functions provided by wetlands is not just felt in the environment; we simultaneously sustain, as a loss to our national economy, a decline in the income that could have been derived from the fisheries, recreation and other critical services performed by wetland systems. Clearly wetlands merit protection. However, in the US, where over 75 percent of our remaining wetlands are on private property, the protection of wetlands is often a difficult and sometimes contentious issue -- evoking debate about private property rights, economic development, the public interest in protecting wetland values, and the kind of world we wish to leave for future generations. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act establishes the primary Federal regulatory program providing protection for the Nation's remaining wetlands. The Section 404 permit program is recognized by both its supporters and critics as one of the strongest, yet often most contentious, Federal environmental protection programs. This presentation provides an overview of the Section 404 regulatory requirements and discusses some of the recent developments that have stirred considerable

  19. Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the clean development mechanism: A case study from Humbo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas R; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa

    2011-08-01

    Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation--the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits--facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project--empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands.

  20. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane III

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project will focus on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate amidase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative CN bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. The project is on schedule and no major difficulties have been encountered. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments have resulted in the isolation of promising cultures that may be capable of cleaving C-N bonds in aromatic amides, several amidase genes have been cloned and are currently undergoing directed evolution to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. Future research will address expression of these genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis. Enrichment culture experiments and directed evolution experiments continue to be a main focus of research activity and further work is required to obtain an appropriate amidase that will selectively cleave C-N bonds in aromatic substrates. Once an appropriate amidase gene is obtained it must be combined with genes encoding an enzyme capable of converting carbazole to 2'aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol: specifically carA genes. The carA genes from two sources have been cloned and are ready for construction of C-N bond cleavage

  1. Developing the Market for Local Currency Bonds by Foreign Issuers: Lessons from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoschka, Tobias C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys the experience of countries in the East Asian region that have introduced local currency bonds by foreign issuers. The countries that are examined include Australia; Hong Kong, China; Japan; Republic of Korea; and Singapore. It is suggested that there are sound reasons for many countries to develop the market for foreign issuers. Benefits and potential issues are analyzed, development policies are reviewed, and concrete policy options are discussed for those countries that ...

  2. Development of the human-research animal bond and its impact on animal well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    For millennia, relationships have developed between animals and people through the context of work, sport, companionship, or some combination of these activities. Often, a bond between animal and human results, which is based on affection and/or respect. In the research environment, it is not uncommon for a bond to develop between the investigator, veterinarian, and/or animal care technicians and the animals with which they work; and such a bond can be just as strong for a mouse as it is for a dog. Circumstances that foster the formation of these bonds include the close and frequent contact between the researchers and their animals during studies or during training of animals to particular tasks, the long periods of time many research animals live in the facilities (often years), the dependency of the animals on the animal care staff for their daily needs, and the veterinarian/patient relationship, which is not unlike that of private practitioners and client-owned animals. In addition, overlaying the fundamental relationship with the research animal are special bonds that can form with certain animals. Among those that engender a special attachment are animals that are particularly friendly, amusing, or intelligent; animals requiring extra supportive care; animals that show courage; animals that represent a milestone in a particular scientific advancement; and animals that reflect humans' own strengths and foibles. The development of these relationships is enriching to both personnel and animals inasmuch as people who care about their animals are committed to promoting and ensuring the well-being of those animals.

  3. Development of bonding techniques between W and Cu-alloys for plasma facing components by HIP method (3). Bonding tests with Au-foil insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma a facing components (PFC), like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, Cu-alloys, like OFHC-Cu or DS-Cu, are proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. It is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to fabricate PFC. JAERI has developed the hot isostatic press (HIP) bonding process to bond W with Cu-alloys. In this experiments, bonding tests with Au-foil insert were performed. We could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and Cu-alloys with Au-foil as 1123K x 2hours x 147MPa. It was shown that the HIP temperature was 150K lower than that of without Au-foil. Furthermore, the tensile strength was similar to that of with without Au-foil. (author)

  4. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  5. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb)

  6. Development of membrane technology for production of concentrated fertilizer and clean water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud

    with high chemical consumption such as ammonia stripping or struvite precipitation. In this PhD thesis, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and forward osmosis have been applied during concentration and separation of raw slurry and digestate liquid fractions. MF membranes showed to be able...... with anionic surfactants (SDS) or alkaline cleaning with chelating agents (EDTA). This suggests that NaOH could be a good and cheap strategy for cleaning RO membranes. Membrane soaking further helped in increasing the membrane water flux recovery. Forward osmosis (FO) was done using aquaporin based membranes...

  7. The clean development mechanism and urban air pollution A handbook for policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, T.; Todoc, J.L.; Thiansathit, W. [Centre for Energy Environment Resources Development CEERD, Bangkok (Thailand); Gomez Caldes, N.; Claude Labriet, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambiantales Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Bakker, S.J.A.; Smekens, K.E.L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Li, Sun; Leteng, Lin [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences SDERI, Jinan, Shandong (China); Dass, A.; Bordoloi, A. [Winrock International India, Haryana (India); Haq, G.; Schwela, D. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Rahmah, A.; Salim, N. [Yayasan Pelangi Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-01-15

    Urban air pollution is a serious health problem in large Asian cities. Often policymakers in those cities are not sufficiently equipped with budget or capacity to address urban air pollution. The clean development mechanism (CDM) could provide finance for air pollution reduction if the measures taken also reduce greenhouse gases. Indeed, there is room for synergy, as there is often a strong sectoral overlap between sources of air pollution and sources of greenhouse gases. This handbook is based on the results an EU Asia Pro Eco co-funded project 'CURB-AIR: CDM and urban air pollution: partnerships enhancing synergies in urban air and health in Kyoto mechanisms'. The CURB-AIR project intends to pave the way for projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. The handbook aims to be a guide for policymakers, civil servants and anyone who is interested in the issue of CDM, urban air pollution and climate change. The Handbook consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the key issues of the synergy between air pollution, CDM, and climate change. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the various steps which constitute the CDM process. Chapter 3 examines the different types of CDM methodologies that could be applied to projects that contribute to improving urban air quality. Chapter 4 presents four case studies that examine the CDM methodological issues of urban projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Finally, Chapter 5 highlights the key conclusions with regard to the synergy between CDM and urban air pollution.

  8. Development of a Systematic Approach to Post-Operation Clean Out at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, Ian; Dunlop, Alister

    2016-01-01

    Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) relates to the activities undertaken directly after commercial operations cease to remove residual activity and facilitate decommissioning of a nuclear facility. Historically the transition of Sellafield facilities has proved sub-optimal resulting in loss of critical plant knowledge, additional cost and protracted delivery timelines. The move from reprocessing in Magnox and Thorp to POCO is a significant transition facing the site, with a large number of diverse facilities scheduled to cease operations over the next 15 years. In order to ensure that the facilities are dealt with in a consistent manner, that supports both Site and Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) strategies, the POCO programme has been established across the Sellafield Operations Division. Primary aims of the POCO programme are: - Risk and Hazard Reduction; - Enabling redeployment of resource and capability; - Life-cycle cost reduction; - Enhanced Reputation. Transition preparations will cover process, organisation, technology and information. Knowledge is a key output of POCO: the creation of records of the plant configuration and status to enable and support the safe and effective eventual decommissioning of the plant. The consistent approach that has been developed will: - Ensure the smooth transition from operations into POCO, and then into surveillance and maintenance. - Maximise the potential of facilities to support other site activities prior to POCO. - Optimise the facility schedules within the overall POCO programme, to ensure timely decoupling. - Define and manage the resource demands and capabilities prior to and during POCO. - Provide a baseline configuration for each facility at the end of the POCO phase. - Encourage and enable knowledge management to ensure that subsequent decommissioning activities are informed and supported. - Look for opportunities to progress housekeeping and co-processing activities so as to reduce inventory and make best

  9. Optimal sampling plan for clean development mechanism lighting projects with lamp population decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xianming; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A metering cost minimisation model is built with the lamp population decay to optimise CDM lighting projects sampling plan. • The model minimises the total metering cost and optimise the annual sample size during the crediting period. • The required 90/10 criterion sampling accuracy is satisfied for each CDM monitoring report. - Abstract: This paper proposes a metering cost minimisation model that minimises metering cost under the constraints of sampling accuracy requirement for clean development mechanism (CDM) energy efficiency (EE) lighting project. Usually small scale (SSC) CDM EE lighting projects expect a crediting period of 10 years given that the lighting population will decay as time goes by. The SSC CDM sampling guideline requires that the monitored key parameters for the carbon emission reduction quantification must satisfy the sampling accuracy of 90% confidence and 10% precision, known as the 90/10 criterion. For the existing registered CDM lighting projects, sample sizes are either decided by professional judgment or by rule-of-thumb without considering any optimisation. Lighting samples are randomly selected and their energy consumptions are monitored continuously by power meters. In this study, the sampling size determination problem is formulated as a metering cost minimisation model by incorporating a linear lighting decay model as given by the CDM guideline AMS-II.J. The 90/10 criterion is formulated as constraints to the metering cost minimisation problem. Optimal solutions to the problem minimise the metering cost whilst satisfying the 90/10 criterion for each reporting period. The proposed metering cost minimisation model is applicable to other CDM lighting projects with different population decay characteristics as well

  10. Prevention for climatic changes: the mechanism for clean development and the prospects of working with developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavard, D.; Cornut, P.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of the mechanism for clean development (MDP) is one of the principal topics of the sixth Conference of the Parties (COP6) which is to be held in November 2000 at The Hague. The enforcement of the Kyoto protocol is dependant on the industrialized countries ratifying it, which will only be the case if flexible mechanisms have been written in. The MDP holds a key role as it could come into play as of 2000, if its conditions of operating are established, thereby allowing industrialized countries to carry out lower-cost emission reductions. Developing countries have put great hopes in the implementation of this new mechanism, likely to contribute to their economic development whilst helping them to adopt growth trajectories which are more environmentally friendly. The key question raised by the MDP about the collectivity of projects has not as yet been resolved. The regulations that will be introduced at The Hague as regards this matter are, to a large extent, going to affect the environmental efficiency and the scope the mechanism. However, for a certain number of countries, the project approach of the MDP will always be too restrictive. In view of the economic stakes that the carbon credit market represents, the MDP does not seem to be in a position to offer adequate prospects to the semi-industrialized countries who also wish to take part in the discussions at the same level as the industrialized countries in transition. (authors)

  11. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  12. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  13. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  14. Use of diffusion bonded SS-Al composite material in the development of neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Mary; Prasad, K.R.; Pappachan, A.L.; Grover, A.K.; Krishnan, J.; Derose, D.J.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Kale, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a SS-Al composite plate in-house at BARC by diffusion bonding technique. Details of the several tests carried out on the composite material and the use of the plate in the development of a boron lined neutron chamber for Dhruva reactor control instrumentation has been described. The bonded sample has withstood tensile strength test, leak test and thermal cycling test and the leak rate was observed to be less than 3 x 10 -10 stdcc/sec. The chamber with the composite material has been installed in Dhruva Basket C location and connected to the log rate safety channel. It has been working successfully for the past two years. The use of SS-Al composite material has improved the reliability and long-term performance of the detector. (author)

  15. Development of non-bonded interaction parameters between graphene and water using particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejagam, Karteek K; Singh, Samrendra; Deshmukh, Sanket A

    2018-05-05

    New Lennard-Jones parameters have been developed to describe the interactions between atomistic model of graphene, represented by REBO potential, and five commonly used all-atom water models, namely SPC, SPC/E, SPC/Fw, SPC/Fd, and TIP3P/Fs by employing particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. These new parameters were optimized to reproduce the macroscopic contact angle of water on a graphene sheet. The calculated line tension was in the order of 10 -11 J/m for the droplets of all water models. Our molecular dynamics simulations indicate the preferential orientation of water molecules near graphene-water interface with one OH bond pointing toward the graphene surface. Detailed analysis of simulation trajectories reveals the presence of water molecules with ≤∼1, ∼2, and ∼4 hydrogen bonds at the surface of air-water interface, graphene-water interface, and bulk region of the water droplet, respectively. Presence of water molecules with ≤∼1 and ∼2 hydrogen bonds suggest the existence of water clusters of different sizes at these interfaces. The trends observed in the libration, bending, and stretching bands of the vibrational spectra are closely associated with these structural features of water. The inhomogeneity in hydrogen bond network of water at the air-water and graphene-water interface is manifested by broadening of the peaks in the libration band for water present at these interfaces. The stretching band for the molecules in water droplet shows a blue shift as compared to the pure bulk water, which conjecture the presence of weaker hydrogen bond network in a droplet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wendels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010 in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis–Arbuzov, Friedels–Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase. Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C. Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable

  17. Recent developments in the study of projectile structure and molecular bond effects on the stopping power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera T, R.; Cruz, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In the penetration of charged particles in matter, the standard Bethe theory of deposition does not consider the projectile electronic structure, thus neglecting the projectile electrons interaction during the collision. Furthermore, in the case of molecular targets, it is customary to use the Bragg rule for the calculation of the stopping power, that is, the sum of the contribution of each atom in the molecule, therefore neglecting the chemical bond effects on the calculation of the energy deposition. In this talk, I will present relevant aspects leading to the development of current studies of energy deposition for projectiles with structure as well as the molecular bond effects on the stopping power of heavy ions. Finally, a discussion is presented on new challenges and possible future landscapes for research in the area of energy deposition. (Author)

  18. Development of bonding techniques of W and Cu-alloys for plasma facing components of fusion reactor with HIP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.; Fukaya, K.; Ishiyama, S.; Eto, M.; Sato, K.; Akiba, M.

    1998-01-01

    W (tungsten) and Cu (copper)-alloys, like oxygen free high thermal conductivity (OFHC)-copper or dispersion strengthened (DS)-copper, are candidate materials for plasma facing components(PFC) of TOKAMAK type fusion reactor as armor tile and heat sink, respectively. However, PFC are exposed to cyclic high heat load and heavy irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. Under these conditions, thermal stresses at bonding interface and irradiation damage will decrease the bonding strength between W and Cu alloys. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to make PFC with enough integrity. We have applied the hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu-alloys. In this experiments, to optimize HIP bonding conditions, four point bending tests were performed for different bonding conditions at temperatures from R.T. to 873 K and we obtained an optimum HIP bonding condition for W and OFHC-Cu as 1273 SK x 2 hours x 98 ∼ 147 MPa. Tensile tests were also performed at the same temperature range. The tensile strength of the bonded W / Cu was almost equal to that of OFHC Cu which was HIPed at the same conditions. Tensile specimens were broken at the bonding interface or OFHC-Cu side. Bonding tests of W and DS-Cu showed that HIP was not successful because tungsten oxide was produced at the bonding interface and residual stresses were not relaxed. Therefore, it was concluded that some insert materials will be needed to bond W and DS-Cu. (author)

  19. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  20. Going Clean - The Economics of China's Low-carbon Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallding, Karl; Thai, Helen; Han, Guoyi; Olsson, Marie; Kartha, Sivan (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)); Eklund, Klas (SEB, Stockholm (Sweden)); SU Ming (Peking Univ. (China)); Cao Jing (Tsinghua Univ. (China)); Luderer (Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact (Germany))

    2009-11-15

    -scale abatement. Carbon pricing mechanisms can also assist clean technology objectives, as anticipation of higher carbon prices sets an incentive to develop low-carbon technology and products, and can thus steer investments in this direction. In addition, we propose a new international finance mechanism - the Inter-country Joint Mitigation Plan - as a broader and more efficient way of financing technology transfers. There needs to be a substantial, stable and predictable source of international finance, accompanied by market reform and regulatory mechanisms that can recognise, support and deepen domestic mitigation and adaptation efforts. International assistance will fuel and accelerate China's shift to a knowledge-based economy. China faces a monumental challenge and a historic opportunity. The transition to a low-carbon society will require large investments but also bring about substantial benefits, not only to China but to the entire world

  1. Effect of Metal Bond-Pad Configurations on the Solder Microstructure Development of Flip-Chip Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y. J.; Hsu, Y. C.; Huang, T. S.; Lu, C. T.; Wu, Albert T.; Liu, C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Various microstructural zones were observed in the solidified solder of flip-chip solder joints with three metal bond-pad configurations (Cu/Sn/Cu, Ni/Sn/Cu, and Cu/Sn/Ni). The developed microstructures of the solidified flip-chip solder joints were strongly related to the associated metal bond pad. A hypoeutectic microstructure always developed near the Ni bond pad, and a eutectic or hypereutectic microstructure formed near the Cu pad. The effect of the metal bond pads on the solder microstructure alters the Cu solubility in the molten solder. The Cu content (solubility) in the molten Sn(Cu) solder eventually leads to the development of particular microstructures. In addition to the effect of the associated metal bond pads, the developed microstructure of the flip-chip solder joint depends on the configuration of the metal bond pads. A hypereutectic microstructure formed near the bottom Cu pad, and a eutectic microstructure formed near the top Cu pad. Directional cooling in the flip-chip solder joint during the solidification process causes the effects of the metal bond-pad configuration. Directional cooling causes the Cu content to vary in the liquid Sn(Cu) phase, resulting in the formation of distinct microstructural zones in the developed microstructure of the flip-chip solder joint.

  2. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  3. Costs of certified emission reductions under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Kirkman, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the cost structure of certified emission reductions (CERs) through various types of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Using the CDM project data, the costs of CERs and their variation across technology and over time and space are estimated by applying alternative functional forms and specifications. Results show that the average cost of CERs decreases with the project scale and duration, scale and duration effects significantly vary across project types, and there is an upward trend in costs. The results also show that the distribution of the projects in the CDM portfolio or a given location does not strictly follow the relative cost structure, nor does the distribution of the CDM projects in different host countries follow the principle of comparative advantage. More than 84% of the CDM portfolio consists of various energy projects with substantially higher costs of CERs than afforestation and reforestation, industrial and landfill gas reduction, and methane avoidance projects, which are only 12% of all projects. While per unit cost of abatement plays an important role in the bottom-up and top-down models to evaluate emission reduction potential and analyze policy alternatives, the findings contradict the presumption of such models that project investors seek out low-cost opportunities. At the aggregate level, the cost of CER by the projects in Asia and Europe is similar but higher than those hosted in Africa, Americas, and Oceania. Yet more than 83% of the projects in the CDM portfolio are located in Asia; more than 69% of the projects are in China and India alone. China appears to have a comparative advantage (i.e., lowest opportunity cost) in energy efficiency projects, while India has a comparative advantage in hydro power projects and Brazil has a comparative advantage in wind power projects. In contrast, energy efficiency category accounts for only 8% of the CDM projects in China, hydro power

  4. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  5. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  6. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  7. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Short and Long-Impact Indicators for Corporate Bond Market Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Astrauskaitė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An additional instrument or established access to the capital market funding would increase business opportunities for performance, development, growth, channeling financing for sustainable and long-term economic growth and job creation. Capital market and its level of development or further development opportunities are exposed to different factors. Clear identification of them mobilizes the attention of accurate and useful decisions or actions influencing the expected results, their adoption and implementation, monitoring. With the purpose to identify a set of factors influencing the capital market deve lopment as well as to introduce a model of their short term and long term impact projections, the ARDL model for the US and Lithuanian cases is introduced. The concluding remarks state on different legal and regulatory framework, banking sector and ICT measures exposures to the different stages of the corporate bond market development.

  9. The use of dialogic electronic journal writing to develop students' understanding of chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sarah Collard

    The intent of this study is to examine how the implementation of a dialogic electronic journal writing environment continues the development of students' understanding of chemistry, specifically chemical bonding, through written communication between the individual students and their chemistry teacher. This study is framed within a constructivist theoretical context where students' understanding is constructed through written discussions with the educator, the students' interaction with the classroom environment, and his/her interaction with the computer environment. The research design of collective case study was employed to allow multiple perspectives and processes conveyed by the participants to be examined in the context in which they occurred while considering multiple sources of information. Data sources included electronic journal entries, classroom artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which involved coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Four cases were reported in detail. This study found that the dialogic electronic journal-writing environment was an effective venue in revealing previously undiscovered students' alternative conceptions of chemical bonding. Opportunities to actively confront and reconcile such conceptions were afforded through educator/student dialogic written interaction. The dialogic electronic journal-writing environment was also critical in the identification of gaps in students' conceptual understanding linked to improper sequencing of chemistry content. This study also found that the on-line environment provided the educator the opportunity to scaffold chemical bonding concepts to meet the needs of the students involved in the study. This study concluded that the dialogic electronic journal-writing environment positively contributed to the development of student understanding. These findings may have practical implications for teachers in

  10. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  11. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015; we plan to develop a new solvent or solvent...

  12. Clean Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Diesel Program offers DERA funding in the form of grants and rebates as well as other support for projects that protect human health and improve air quality by reducing harmful emissions from diesel engines.

  13. Development of Thermoelectric and Permanent Magnet Nanoparticles for Clean Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phi-Khanh

    The global trend towards energy efficiency and environmental sustainability has generated a strong demand for clean energy technologies. Among the many energy solutions, the work in this dissertation contributes to two strategic goals: the reduction of fuel consumption in the transportation sector, and the increase of domestic wind power capacity. The key barriers to achieving these goals are materials challenges. Automobiles can be made more efficient by thermoelectric conversion of waste heat from the engine into electricity that can be used to power electrical components in the vehicle. Vehicles can forego petroleum fuel altogether by using electric or hybrid motors. Unfortunately, the conversion efficiency of current thermoelectric technology is too low to be considered economically feasible, and the permanent magnets used in electric vehicle motors and wind turbine generators require critical rare-earth elements that are economically unstable (often referred to as the "rare-earth crisis"). In order to combat these challenges, a "spark erosion" technique was utilized for producing nanoparticles that improve thermoelectric efficiency and contribute to the development of electromotors that do not require rare-earths. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, I describe the utilization of spark erosion for producing high-quality thermoelectric nanoparticles at a remarkably high rate and with enhanced thermoelectric properties. The technique was employed to synthesize p-type bismuth-antimony telluride (BST) and n-type skutterudite nanoparticles, using a relatively small laboratory apparatus, with low energy consumption. The compacted BST nanocomposite samples made from these nanoparticles exhibit a well-defined, 20--50 nm size nanograin microstructure, and show an enhanced Figure of merit, ZT, of 1.36 at 360 K due to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity. The skutterudite nanocomposites also show reduced thermal conductivity but still require enhancement in the

  14. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  15. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  16. The role of the clean development mechanism in facilitating the application of biomass renewable energy technologies in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheng, Wong Hwee; Hvid, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian Government's move to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in September 2001 reaffirms the country's support to combat global climate change. Although Malaysia is not bound by any commitments to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, the opportunities that exist through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be two-fold: to contribute to the country's sustainable development objectives and to improve the energy supply security through the application of clean energy technologies such as renewable energy technologies. Malaysia is very dependent on fossil fuel based technologies for electricity generation and energy production. In 2001 almost 90% of the total energy input to power stations was derived from fossil fuels. Although the energy mix will continue to be predominantly based on fossil fuels, indigenous renewable energy resources may come to play a noticeable role in complementing the depleting fossil fuels. This paper focuses on how best to utilize the oil palm residues for electricity generation and energy production as these residues are the 'low hanging fruits' that are readily available. It compares the use of two different technological uses of residues: distributes power generation and co-firing with coal in large-scale power plants. The paper analyses the financial, economic and environmental impacts of these technologies, and it discusses the relative benefits of the technologies. In addition, the paper look into the barriers associated with each of the technologies, and it suggests possible policy interventions to be adopted in order to promote a viable and environmentally efficient use of the limited biomass resources. (au)

  17. Development of an Indium Bump Bond Process for Silicon Pixel Detectors at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Brönnimann, C; Gobrecht, J; Heising, S; Horisberger, M; Horisberger, R P; Kästli, H C; Lehmann, J; Rohe, T; Streuli, S; Broennimann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high energy physics experiments currently under construction use a three dimensional connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100um, required in these applications, cannot be fullfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflown indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R&D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflown afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a seco...

  18. Polymerisation shrinkage versus layer thickness of a dentine bonding resin: Method development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarzadeh T

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Dentine bonding systems are usually unfilled, and so their shrinkage may be significant. High"nshrinkage may cause internal stress at the interface between resin-composite restoration and the dentine"nsubstrate. Failure of the adhesive interface may be observed due to the interna! stress. The aims of this"nstudy were:"nA To obtain a suitable method for measuring the kinetics of polymerisation shrinkage in unfilled resm at different thicknesses, particularly for thin films."nB Consideraing the effect of thickness on shrinkage."nScotchbond Multipurpose (3M adhesive bond resin was used. To overcome the particular challenges presented by thin films, a filled-ring measurement procedure was used. Also, a non-contact laser analogue displacement sensor system was developed and applied to measure polymerisation shrinkage. Regression analysis was performed on a complete data set. Non-linear regression analysis established a logarithmic relationship between polymerisation shrinkage and layer thickness. The method applied in this study was found to be sensitive and accurate procedure for determining photo-polymerisation shrinkage of thin films. Polymerisation shrinkage increased with logarithmic of the adhesive thickness.

  19. Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Malay K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Horenstein, Mark N. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Joglekar, Nitin R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The feasibility of integrating and retrofitting transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) on the front surfaces of solar collectors was established as a means to provide active self-cleaning properties for parabolic trough and heliostat reflectors, solar panels, and Fresnel lenses. Prototype EDS-integrated solar collectors, including second-surface glass mirrors, metallized Acrylic-film mirrors, and dielectric mirrors, were produced and tested in environmental test chambers for removing the dust layer deposited on the front surface of the mirrors. The evaluation of the prototype EDS-integrated mirrors was conducted using dust and environmental conditions that simulate the field conditions of the Mojave Desert. Test results showed that the specular reflectivity of the mirrors could be maintained at over 90% over a wide range of dust loadings ranging from 0 to 10 g/m2, with particle diameter varying from 1 to 50 μm. The measurement of specular reflectivity (SR) was performed using a D&S Reflectometer at wavelength 660 nm. A non-contact reflectometer was designed and constructed for rapid measurement of specular reflectivity at the same wavelength. The use of this new noncontact instrument allowed us to measure SR before and after EDS activation. Several EDS prototypes were constructed and evaluated with different electrode configurations, electrode materials, and encapsulating dielectric materials.

  20. Process development for biological cleaning of industrial waste water; Prozessentwicklung fuer die biologische Reinigung industrieller Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik; Noertemann, B. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Surface water, and drinking water obtained from surface water, should be largely free of organic compounds. This applies particularly to substances that are not or poorly degradable in the environment. Pollution of surface water with poorly degradable toxic substances - especially from industrial applications - can be avoided or at least largely reduced by means of specially adapted biological waste water cleaning techniques. The compound ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), which has multiple technical applications and is used in large amounts, demonstrates that even contaminants considered to be unsuitable for biological treatment can be eliminated from waste water by means of certain biological processes employing specially enriched bacterial cultures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oberflaechengewaesser und daraus gewonnenes Trinkwasser sollen moeglichst frei von organischen Verbindungen sein. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer Substanzen, die in der Umwelt nicht oder nur sehr langsam abbaubar sind. Eine Belastung von Oberflaechengewaessern mit schwer abbaubaren `Problemstoffen` - insbesondere aus industriellen Anwendungsbereichen - kann unter anderem mit Hilfe speziell angepasster Verfahren zur biologischen Abwasserreinigung vermieden beziehungsweise weitestgehend reduziert werden. Am Beispiel der technisch sehr vielfaeltig und in grossen Mengen eingesetzten Verbindung EDTA (Ethylendiamintetraacetat) laesst sich erkennen, dass durch bestimmte bioverfahrenstechnische Massnahmen mit Hilfe speziell angereicherter Bakterienkulturen auch als `biologieunfaehig` eingestufte Problemstoffe aus Abwaessern eliminiert werden koennen. (orig.)

  1. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing

  2. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  3. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  4. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick

  5. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  6. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  7. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2 is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR, vertical roller mills (VRM, gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and

  8. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  9. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  10. Estimation and diminution of CO2 emissions by clean development mechanism option at power sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal; Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.

  11. Is a Clean Development Mechanism project economically justified? Case study of an International Carbon Sequestration Project in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu, Salih; Dalir, Sara; Olya, Hossein G

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates a carbon sequestration project for the three plant species in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. Results show that Haloxylon performed appropriately in the carbon sequestration process during the 6 years of the International Carbon Sequestration Project (ICSP). In addition to a high degree of carbon dioxide sequestration, Haloxylon shows high compatibility with severe environmental conditions and low maintenance costs. Financial and economic analysis demonstrated that the ICSP was justified from an economic perspective. The financial assessment showed that net present value (NPV) (US$1,098,022.70), internal rate of return (IRR) (21.53%), and payback period (6 years) were in an acceptable range. The results of the economic analysis suggested an NPV of US$4,407,805.15 and an IRR of 50.63%. Therefore, results of this study suggest that there are sufficient incentives for investors to participate in such kind of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects.

  12. 78 FR 8295 - Guarantees for Bonds Issued for Community or Economic Development Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... a population poverty rate of at least 20 percent; (2) has an unemployment rate 1.5 times the... Guarantee Program, as well as interest rates, terms and conditions for Bonds, Bond Issues, the Risk-Share... and transferable to capital markets on terms and conditions that are consistent with comparable...

  13. Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean. After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding.

  14. The improvement of control rod in experimental fast reactor JOYO. The development of a sodium bonded type control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, T.; Miyakawa, S.; Mitsugi, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai Engineering Center, Irradiation Center, Irradiation and Administration Section, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Currently, the lifetime of control rods in JOYO is limited by Absorber-Cladding Mechanical Interaction (ACMI) due to swelling of B{sub 4}C(boron carbide) pellets accelerated by relocation of pellet fragments. A sodium bonded type control rod was developed which improves the thermal conductivity by means of charging sodium into the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding and by utilizing a shroud which wraps the pellet fragments in a thin tube. This new design will be able to enlarge the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding, without heating B{sub 4}C or fragment relocation, thus extending the life of the control rod. The sodium bonded type will be fabricated as the ninth reload control rods in JOYO. (1) The specification of a sodium bonded type control rod was determined with the wide gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding. In the design simulation, main component temperature were below the maximum limit. And the local heating by helium bubble generated from B{sub 4}C in the sodium gap, was not a serious problem in the analysis which was considered. (2) A structural design for the sodium entrance into the pin was determined. A formula was developed which the limit for sodium charging given physical dimension of the structure and sodium property. Result from sodium out-pile experiments validated the theoretical formula. (3) The analysis of ACMI indicated a lifetime extension of the sodium bonded type by 4.6% in comparison with lifetime of the helium bonded type of 1.6%. This is due to the boron10 burn-up rate being three times higher in the sodium bonded type than in the helium bonded type. To achieve a target burn-up 10% in the future, it will be necessary to modify design based on irradiation data which will be obtained by practical use of the sodium bonded control rods in JOYO. (4) The effects due to Absorber-Cladding Chemical Interaction (ACCI) were reduced by controlling the cladding temperature and chromium coating to the cladding's inner surface. It was confirmed

  15. Development of a thin film vitreous bond based composite ceramic coating for corrosion and abrasion services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.

    2003-01-01

    IPC has been involved with the Alberta Research Council in developing a vitreous bond (VB) - based composite ceramic fluoropolymer coating technology. Compared to the present state of the art which is based on a hard discontinuous phase (ceramic particles) suspended in a soft continuous matrix (fluoropolymer mix) the novelty of our approach consists of designing a composite system in which both the ceramic and the fluoropolymer phases are continuous. The ceramic matrix will provide the strength and the erosion resistance for the fluoropolymer matrix even at high temperatures. The ceramic formulation employed is not affected by temperatures up to 500 o F while the fluoropolymer matrix provides a corrosion protection seal for the ceramic matrix. The inherent flexibility of the polymer matrix will protect against brittle fractures that may develop by handling or impact. Therefore the composite coating is able to withstand the deformation of the substrate without chipping or disbanding. The fluoropolymer matrix also provides dry lubrication properties further enhancing the erosion resistance of the ceramic phase. The thickness of the coating is very thin, in the 25 to 100 micron range. In summary, the coating technology is able to provide the following features: Corrosion protection levels similar to those of fluoropolymer coatings; Erosion resistance similar to that of ceramic coatings; Price comparable to that of polymer coatings; Exceptional wear resistance properties; and Capability for coating complicated shapes internally or externally or both. This paper will discuss the theory and development of this new technology and the resultant coating and potential properties. (author)

  16. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  17. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  18. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  19. Community capacity for implementing clean development mechanism projects within community forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minang, Peter A.; McCall, M.K.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in

  20. Political Conflict and Entangled Social Logics in the Development of Institutional Capacity: Creating a Designated National Authority for the Clean Development Mechanism in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    2012-01-01

    Institutional capacity development is commonly conceptualised in an instrumental way; the concern is how to implement policy and realise project designs by aligning institutional realities with policy prescriptions. When assessed against project aims, capacity development interventions are often...... partially successful and sometimes unsuccessful. Inspired by an actor-oriented approach to understanding the processes and outcomes of institutional capacity development, this article argues that the real logics of actors are not in line with the formal ideas and assumptions of the project. This argument...... is based on a case study of a project to develop capacity for the Clean Development Mechanism in Uganda implemented over 4 years in the mid-2000s. This article concludes that the politics of processes of institutional change are largely ignored in an instrumental approach, and, contrary to project...

  1. A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…

  2. Privatizing Environmental Resources: The Need for Supervision of Clean Development Mechanism Contracts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, A.; Gupta, J.; Nijboer, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that a current trend in global sustainable development governance is actively to engage the private sector in participating in the process of implementing global and national policy goals. This trend is based on the notion that the private sector has the ideas, technologies and

  3. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  4. Development of Be/Glidcop joint obtained by hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding for high in-service temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, F.; Bucci, P.; Burlet, H.; Le Marois, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France); Barberi, D.; Laille, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some aspects of the beryllium-Glidcop joining by Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion Bonding. The quality of a joint is mainly dependent on the interface microstructure. Thus, as Be/copper direct bonding is not recommended, the choice of interlayers is a critical point. The joining process parameters, i.e. temperature, pressure and time, must take into account the in-service requirements, the mechanical and metallurgical properties of each material. The Be/Glidcop joining process developed at CEA/Grenoble is presented here. (author)

  5. The Need for a Rights-Based Approach to the Clean Development Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filzmoser, Eva; Voigt, Juliane; Trunkl, Urska

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of a range of resolutions by the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) signals the introduction of a human rights-based approach into the lexicon of climate change negotiation and resulting initiatives. This development has been subsequently reinforced by the Conference of Part...... highlights the need for CDM to embrace a rights- based focus in its operation. This is followed with conclusion and recommendations....

  6. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business andTechnology Cooperation Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can,Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-08-22

    Development and poverty eradication are urgent andoverriding goals internationally. The World Summit on SustainableDevelopment made clear the need for increased access to affordable,reliable and cleaner energy and the international community agreed in theDelhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development on theimportance of the development agenda in considering any climate changeapproach. To this end, six countries (Australia, China, India, Japan,Republic of Korea and the United States) have come together to form theAsia Pacific Partnership in accordance with their respective nationalcircumstances, to develop, deploy and transfer cleaner, more efficienttechnologies and to meet national pollution reduction, energy securityand climate change concerns consistent with the principles of the U.N.Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The APP builds on thefoundation of existing bilateral and multilateral initiativescomplements.APP has established eight public-private sector Task Forcescovering: (1) cleaner fossil energy; (2) renewable energy and distributedgeneration; (3) power generation and transmission; (4) steel; (5)aluminium; (6) cement; (7) coal mining; and (8) buildings and appliances.As a priority, each Task Force will formulate detailed action plansoutlining both immediate and medium-term specific actions, includingpossible "flagship" projects and relevant indicators of progress by 31August 2006. The partnership will help the partners build human andinstitutional capacity to strengthen cooperative efforts, and will seekopportunities to engage the private sector. The APP organized An OutreachWorkshop: Business&Technology Cooperation Opportunities forIndustry on August 26, 2006, New Delhi. This paper was prepared toprovide background information for participants of the Conference. Ithighlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and climate technologies,barriers, and partnerships that are being implemented in the US, Indiaand other selected

  7. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  8. Development of a software and hardware system for monitoring the air cleaning process using a cyclone-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaeva, B. K.; Borisov, A. P.; Zlochevskiy, V. L.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a hardware-software complex for monitoring and controlling the process of air purification by means of a cyclone-separator. The hardware of this complex is the Arduino platform, to which are connected pressure sensors, air velocities, dustmeters, which allow monitoring of the main parameters of the cyclone-separator. Also, a frequency converter was developed to regulate the rotation speed of an asynchronous motor necessary to correct the flow rate, the control signals of which come with Arduino. The program part of the complex is written in the form of a web application in the programming language JavaScript and inserts into CSS and HTML for the user interface. This program allows you to receive data from sensors, build dependencies in real time and control the speed of rotation of an asynchronous electric drive. The conducted experiment shows that the cleaning efficiency is 95-99.9%, while the airflow at the cyclone inlet is 16-18 m/s, and at the exit 50-70 m/s.

  9. The clean development mechanism (CDM) an international perspective and implications for the LAC region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    This paper addresses activity a) an analysis of international CDM experiences and its potential contribution to the LAC region. The paper begins with a section describing the basic principles of the CDM and retrieves the lessons learned from the first two years of the CDM operation. This is followed by a more detailed review in section 2 of the on-going baseline and monitoring methodology approval process. In section 3, the development value of the CDM is explored. Section 4 describes the current CDM markets, while section 5 reviews the response of host countries to the CDM outside the LAC region. Section 6 describes the various capacity building programs established by Annex 1 countries to support the CDM. In each of the first 6 sections, implications for the LAC region are identified. Section 7 brings these conclusions together into a concise summary. (The author)

  10. Maximizing opportunities and mitigating risks in Canada's rapidly developing clean coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, D.W. [GE Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The power generation industry faces many challenges. Across the U.S., 132 coal plants to deliver 82 GW of power are proposed. IGCC and advanced PC/SCPC are compared. Data is presented to show the environmental benefits of IGCC. Advantages of IGCC include a proven technology, fuel flexibility, good emissions performance, high efficiency, comparable cost of electricity at launch, energy security, and public acceptance. GE acquired CVX gasification technology in 2004 and formed the IGCC alliance with Bechtel later that year. The key requirements for an IGCC reference plant are outlined: plant performance, design status, reference plant options, capital costs, project phases, multiple offerings, global activities, development budget, gasification programmes, and future plans. 18 figs.

  11. Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-11

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from point sources, such as coal fired-power plants, account for the majority of the green houses gasses in the atmosphere. Capture, storage and utilization are required to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Aqueous amine-based CO2 capture solvents are currently considered the industry standard, but deployment to market is limited by their high regeneration energy demand. In that context, energy efficient and less-viscous water-lean transformational solvent systems known as CO2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs) are being developed in our group to advance this technology to commercialization. Herein, we present a logical design approach based on fundamental concepts of organic chemistry and computer simulations aimed at lowering solvent viscosity. Conceptually, viscosity reduction would be achieved by systemmatic methods such as introduction of steric hindrance on the anion to minimize the intermolecular cation-anion interactions, fine tuning the electronics, hydrogen bonding orientation and strength, and charge solvation. Conventional standard trial-and-error approaches while effective, are time consuming and economically expensive. Herein, we rethink the metrics and design principles of low-viscosity CO2 capture solvents using a combined synthesis and computational modeling approach. We critically study the impacts of modyfying factors such as as orientation of hydrogen bonding, introduction of higher degrees of freedom and cation or anion charge solvation and assess if or how each factor impacts viscosity of CO2BOL CO2 capture solvents. Ultimately, we found that hydrogen bond orientation and strength is predominantly influencing the viscosity in CO2BOL solvents. With this knowledge, a new 1-MEIPADM-2-BOL CO2BOL variant was synthesized and tested, resulting in a solvent that is approximately 60% less viscous at 25 mol

  12. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  13. Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non-Indigenous Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    indigenous . Some species were grouped due to identification similarity and some could not be identified beyond genus due to lack of flowering under...FINAL REPORT Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non- Indigenous Invasive...vehicles .............................. 15  4.3.2 Non- indigenous plant survey to create occupancy maps

  14. Innovation and Technology Dissemination in Clean Technology Markets and The Developing World: The Role of Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Lybecker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is an inherently risky and uncertain process. Many of the broader challenges to innovation in general are both mirrored and exaggerated in clean technology innovation. The development of environmental technologies is further complicated by the public goods nature of knowledge, environmental externalities, and uncertainty. This study on clean technology focuses on recent work on the role of uncertainty, the participation of emerging and developing nations, the controversy surrounding intellectual property rights, and the variety of market actors and strategies in place. The paper also considers the policy instruments that are available, the cost, benefits and consequences of their use. As scholars continue to analyze when, where, why and how clean technology innovations are developed and adopted, it is essential that government policymakers aim to reduce uncertainty and risk, incentivize innovation with effective intellectual property rights, and foster transparency in the market. This continues to be a field of increasing future importance, and a rich area for continued academic study and analysis. Consumers, government policymakers and innovators would all benefit from a greater understanding of the process of technological change in the development, diffusion and financing of clean technologies.

  15. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  16. Achieving global environmental benefits through local development of clean energy? The case of small hilly hydel in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V. Ratna; Uitto, Juha I.; Frans, Dirk R.; Matin, Nilufar

    2006-01-01

    Energy and development are closely intertwined. Yet, increasing fossil fuel-based energy consumption contributes significantly to environmental problems both locally and globally. This article explores the interlinkages between local livelihood and environmental benefits from the provision of energy to remote rural households through small hydropower development. The analysis is based on research carried out around a large development project designed to assist the Government of India in the optimum utilization of small hydropower resources in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions. There are about 100,000 villages in India that are not connected to electricity supply, many of them in the hilly regions with ample hydropower potential. The project aimed to demonstrate the utility of and options for providing electricity to such villages through clean mini-hydro. The article addresses the nature of the impacts of the demonstration small hydel schemes on the local communities, to what extent they translate into environmental benefits both locally and globally, and the perceptions and participation of the local communities in these small hydro schemes. The study explores the impacts of the schemes on financial capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, human capital, and gender equity in the local communities. It further provides a discussion on the links between local and global environmental benefits. Overall, it is found that the schemes' impacts both on the local communities and the environment are mostly marginally positive or neutral, although achieving clearly demonstrable benefits would require major upscaling of the effort involving broader changes than possible under this project. Furthermore, it is argued that some of the assumptions behind the project design were faulty. Involvement of the local communities and direct livelihood benefits to them are essential for the long-term sustainability of the small hydro schemes. The discussion and

  17. Dry Cleaning, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Albert J.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this course are to prepare students for employment in dry cleaning occupations and to assist them in completing their high school graduation…

  18. Assessment of Restrained demand of Electricity, Natural Gas and Alcohol into Clean Development Context at Aracatuba Administrative Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideier, Raphael B.; Ueocka, Marcos Z.; Udaeda, Miguel E.M. [Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dep. de Engenharia de Energia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernal, Jonathas [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper assesses the restrained market of electricity, natural gas and alcohol in the Aracatuba Administrative Region (RAA) comparing the consumption with the average consumption of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and Florida State, USA. Projections are made for the attendance of these demands in the context of clean development in a hypothetical set. Results show that the total restrained electric demand in the RAA was estimated in 22,467 MWh monthly in respect to Sao Paulo and 477,052 MWh monthly in respect to Florida, it means more power than the whole production of the region today and 3 times the demand nowadays. And the restrained vehicle demand in relation to the average of the state of Sao Paulo was low, about 5%, resulting in a restrained demand of less than 10 million liters per year (alcohol and gasoline). As the current production is about 2 billion liters of alcohol per year, one conclusion is that the RAA has potential to supply its necessity and export using only 10% of its territory in planted area of sugarcane.

  19. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.

  20. Status of implementation of the clean development mechanism in Brazil; Estado de implementacao do mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da [Instituto de Energia e Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kamyla_energia@terra.com.br; Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Rei, Fernando Fernandes [Centro Universitario SENAC, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Gestao Integrada

    2006-07-01

    Defined in the article 12 from Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was created as a market instrument. As a consequence, CDM projects distribution is becoming unequal among the regions of the globe and also among project activities types. Brazil is the second in number of projects and the third in emission reductions, but the market aspect of CDM is a factor that influences the domestic dynamics of CDM. In this way, the objective of this paper is to evaluate in which way the regional and technological differences between CDM projects are replicable in the national context. In order to meet this aim, it was assessed all Brazilian CDM projects that were submitted to UN until March 10{sup th} 2006. As a result, it could be identified that there is not any land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF CDM) projects, besides the Brazilian potential in this field, it could be noticed that the most part of Brazilian CDM projects is focused in renewable energy promotion, such as cogeneration with biomass and small hydro power plants and that there is a small number of projects related to energy efficiency. In addition, it was verified wide differences regarding regional distribution of projects and the predominance of unilateral initiatives. (author)

  1. Clean development mechanism and domestic policies and measures; Mecanisme de developpement propre et politiques et mesures domestiques. Version synthetique du rapport final, fevrier 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsenty, A

    2002-02-15

    The study aims to show in an axiomatic micro economic framework, the impacts of the clean development mechanism on the development. To illustrate the analysis, two main sectors of the control of the contribution level of developing countries to the CO{sub 2} rate increase in the atmosphere, have been chosen: the electric power sector in India and the forestry. The simulation, the experimental methodology and the results are presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. Ties That Bond: Youth Sport as a Vehicle for Social Identity and Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Balish, Shea M; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A

    2017-06-01

    An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social identity and PYD in youth sport. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social identity and PYD in sport. Youth engaged in recreational sport (N = 219; M age  = 11.61 years, SD = 1.39 years) completed measures of social identity and PYD in sport. The social identity measure assessed 3 dimensions including ingroup ties (IGT; perceptions of similarity, bonding, belongingness), cognitive centrality (importance of being a team member), and ingroup affect (IGA; feelings associated with group membership). A regression analysis was performed separately for 4 PYD outcomes (personal and social skills, goal setting, initiative, negative experiences) with the 3 dimensions of social identity entered as predictors. Regression analyses revealed that IGT and IGA were positively associated with personal and social skills (R 2 Adj. = .29). Further, IGT predicted initiative (R 2 Adj. = .16), whereas IGA was positively associated with goal setting (R 2 Adj. = .17) and negatively associated with negative experiences (R 2 Adj. = .08). The findings extend previous research highlighting the benefits of social identity on teammate behavior and team performance and demonstrate how social identity may contribute to PYD through sport.

  3. Addition of ammonium-based methacrylates to an experimental dental adhesive for bonding metal brackets: Carious lesion development and bond strength after cariogenic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Patrícia Layane de Menezes Macedo; Meereis, Carine Tais Welter; Maske, Tamires Timm; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Pfeifer, Carmem Sílvia; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the caries inhibition and shear bond strength achieved with the addition of the antibacterial monomer [2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (MADQUAT) to an adhesive used to bond orthodontic brackets. Experimental adhesives were formulated with addition of 0% (control), 5%, or 10% MADQUAT followed by measurement of the degree of conversion. These adhesives were used to lute brackets to the enamel of premolars (n = 30). Biofilm from a microcosm model was cultivated in half of the specimens under cariogenic challenge for 5 days. The brackets were subjected to a shear bond strength test followed by measurement of the internal hardness of the enamel around the brackets to calculate the integrated mineral loss. The addition of MADQUAT slightly increased the degree of conversion. Adhesive containing 10% MADQUAT significantly reduced the integrated mineral loss around the bracket but also resulted in the lowest values of bond strength. No effects on bond strength and integrated mineral loss were observed with the addition of 5% MADQUAT to the adhesive. The cariogenic challenge did not affect the bond strength and the failure mode. MADQUAT was effective to reduce the integrated mineral loss only when added to the adhesive at a concentration of 10% despite the reduction of bond strength. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of methods for remediation of artificial polluted soils and improvement of soils for ecologically clean agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachev, V.; Adrianova, G.; Zaitzev, V.; Kalinin, V.; Kovalenko, E.; Makeev, A.; Malikova, L.; Popov, Yu.; Savenkov, A.; Shnyakina, V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the research: Development of methods for the remediation of artificial polluted soils and the improvement of polluted lands to ecologically clean agricultural production.The following tasks will be implemented in this project to achieve viable practical solutions: - To determine the priority pollutants, their ecological pathways, and sources of origin. - To form a supervised environmental monitoring data bank throughout the various geo system conditions. - To evaluate the degree of the bio geo system pollution and the influence on the health of the local human populations. - To establish agricultural plant tolerance levels to the priority pollutants. - To calculate the standard concentrations of the priority pollutants for main agricultural plant groups. - To develop a soil remediation methodology incorporating the structural, functional geo system features. - To establish a territory zone division methodology in consideration of the degree of component pollution, plant tolerance to pollutants, plant production conditions, and human health. - Scientific grounding of the soil remediation proposals and agricultural plant material introductions with soil pollution levels and relative plant tolerances to pollutants. Technological Means, Methods, and Approaches Final proposed solutions will be based upon geo system and ecosystem approaches and methodologies. The complex ecological valuation methods of the polluted territories will be used in this investigation. Also, laboratory culture in vitro, application work, and multi-factor field experiments will be conducted. The results will be statistically analyzed using appropriate methods. Expected Results Complex biogeochemical artificial province assessment according to primary pollutant concentrations. Development of agricultural plant tolerance levels relative to the priority pollutants. Assessment of newly introduced plant materials that may possess variable levels of pollution tolerance. Remediation

  5. The Development of an Automated Clean-up for Fat Extracts in the Routine Analysis of Organochlorine Compounds in Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a new, automatic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC Clean-up step, in the methodology of sample preparation and multi-residue determination of organochlorine compounds (OCs in fish meat. 24 OCs were taken into study. In addition 7 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, 7 chlorobenzene compounds and one 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD were investigated. The HPLC conditions were established in accordance with the validated traditional Clean-up step of the laboratory. The technique was applied on a dilution of analytes of interest in order to establish the period of time in which the compounds are eluted. Another set of experiments involved fish oil, in order to identify and separate the fat fraction from the analytes. To confirm the findings of the experiments mentioned above, extracts of fish samples obtained after Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE were examined. The samples were spiked with the analytes of interest before HPLC clean-up step and quantified through Gas Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. A HPLC clean-up technique lasting 38 minutes/sample was developed. The method is not suitable for OCs such as Endosulfansulfat and Endrine Ketone due to the very low recovery results.Â

  6. Development of reliable design rules for adhesively bonded joints loaded in fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.

    2005-01-01

    Design rules considering fatigue for practical applications are mostly based on spectra representing the cyclic loading and the so-called SN-curves (Wohler curves). For welded and mechanically fasted joints the reliability of these design ruiles is proved over the years. For adhesive bonded joints

  7. Development of dental resin luting agents based on Bis-EMA4: bond strength evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of incorporating Bis-EMA4 monomer into experimental Bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based resin luting agents on the bond strength to dentin. Seven mixtures were prepared with the following ratios (wt% of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/Bis-EMA4: 50/50/0, 50/30/20, 50/10/40, 50/0/50, 30/10/60, 10/10/80 and 0/0/100. Camphorquinone (0.4 wt%, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (0.8 wt% and hydroquinone (0.2 wt% were dissolved in each mixture, which was loaded with silanated strontium glass fillers to a constant content of 60 wt%. Bond strength was evaluated by microshear testing (n = 10 on bovine dentin. Data were submitted to Analysis of Variance (p<0.05. Modes of failure were classified under magnification (200×. Bond strength means (MPa, respective to each agent, were: 19.4, 19.8, 20.0, 19.1, 16.8, 18.7 and 17.8. No significant differences were detected among groups. Mixed failures were generally predominant for all materials. In conclusion, the addition of Bis-EMA4 presented no significant influence on the bond strength of the experimental resin luting agents to dentin.

  8. Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Final Report for Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Number ORNL93-0237 Adhesive Bonding Technologies for Automotive Structural Composites; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeman, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. The research undertaken under this CRADA addresses the following areas of importance: bulk material characterization, structural fracture mechanics, modeling/characterization, process control and nondestructive evaluation (PC/NDE), manufacturing demonstration, and advanced processing. For the bulk material characterization task, the individual material properties of the adherends and adhesives were characterized. This included generating a database of mechanical and physical properties, after identifying and developing standard test methods to obtain properties. The structural fracture mechanics task concentrated on test development to characterize the fracture toughness of adhesively bonded joints subjected to Mode I, Mode II and mixed-mode conditions. Standard test procedures for quantifying an adhesive/adherend system's resistance to crack growth were developed for use by industry. In the modeling/characterization task, fracture mechanics-based design guidelines and predictive methodologies have been developed which will facilitate iteration on design concepts for bonded joints while alleviating the need for extensive testing

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  11. Experimental techniques for the characterization and development of thermal barrier coating bond coat alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert J.

    Thermal barrier coatings, commonly used in modern gas turbines and jet engines, are dynamic, multilayered structures consisting of a superalloy substrate, an Al-rich bond coat, a thermally grown oxide, and a ceramic top coat. Knowledge of the disparate material properties for each of the constituents of a thermal barrier coating is crucial to both better understanding and improving the performance of the system. The efforts of this dissertation quantify fundamental aspects of two intrinsic strain mechanisms that arise during thermal cycling. This includes measurement of the thermal expansion behavior for bond coats and superalloys as well as establishing specific ternary compositions associated with a strain-inducing martensitic phase transformation, which is known to occur in Ni-rich bond coat alloys. In order to quantify the coefficient of thermal expansion for a number of actual alloys extracted from contemporary thermal barrier coating systems, this work employs a noncontact high temperature digital image correlation technique to nearly 1100°C. The examined materials include: two commercial superalloys, two as-deposited commercial bond coat alloys, and three experimental bond coat alloys. The as-deposited specimens were created using a diffusion aluminizing and a low pressure plasma spray procedure to thicknesses on the order of 50 and 100 mum, respectively. For the plasma sprayed bond coat, a comparison with a bulk counterpart of identical composition indicated that deposition procedures have little effect on thermal expansion. An analytical model of oxide rumpling is used to show that the importance of thermal expansion mismatch between a commercial bond coat and its superalloy substrate is relatively small. Considerably higher expansion values are noted for a Ni-rich bond coat alloy, however, and modeling which includes this layer suggests that it may have a substantial influence on rumpling. Combinatorial methods based on diffusion multiples are also

  12. Fabrication of imitative stress corrosion cracking using diffusion bonding for the development of nondestructive testing and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Noritaka; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a method to fabricate imitative stress corrosion cracking suitable for the development of nondestructive testing and evaluation methods. The method is to embed a partially-bonded region, which simulates the characteristics of stress corrosion cracking, inside a material by bonding together surfaces having artificial grooves. Since the sizes of the grooves are smaller than the spatial resolution of nondestructive testing method applied, the material property realized can be regarded as uniform as the actual stress corrosion cracking. The grooves are introduced using mechanical machining, which enables one to control the characteristics of the simulated flaw. Four specimens made of type 316L austenitic stainless steel are fabricated. The method is demonstrated by visual and eddy current examinations. (author)

  13. Research document no. 21 bis. How could developing countries participate in climate change prevention: the clean development mechanism and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavard, D.; Cornut, P.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-10-01

    An agreement on CDM rules is important both for industrialized and developing countries. As a flexibility mechanism, it will allow industrialized countries to benefit from low cost emission reductions but the CDM, as a main goal, should also stimulate a more sustainable economic development in DCs. The CDM is the sole instrument, with GEF, proposed for DCs participation into climate change prevention. This situation satisfies a majority of DCs, but CDM may not offer sufficient perspectives for some countries with rapid industrialization given the huge economic stakes linked to the creation of a carbon credits market between Annex I countries. The operationality of the CDM is not yet established and important questions, as environmental additionality, are still unresolved. Here we first examine the rules in order to validate project additionality and their possible consequences on the effectiveness and the scope of the mechanism. The different reactions of major DCs groups on the structure of the mechanism will then be analysed. This will lead us to examine the possibilities to enlarge participation of DCs in climate change prevention according to the apparent wish of semi-industrialized countries. (author)

  14. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  15. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible site suitable for reforestation in accordance with the CDM international scheme is a large plateau (more than 5000 hectares 600 meters high on the sea level far from the Cannabis crops area. The evaluation of the project costs and of the social benefits for the population consider (using different species the indigenous communities necessity. The evaluation of carbon sequestration show the small scale of the reforestation project on behalf of the Kyoto Protocol, but give also an idea about the people rights and necessities. The normal afforestation and reforestation projects, under the Kyoto Protocol, try to maximize the CO2 sequestration in a short time, than business laws usually require. A small scale project could be self-managing, less expensive (international certification costs and more interesting for local communities.

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  17. Characterization of the Bonds Developed between Calcium Silicate Hydrate and Polycarboxylate-Based Superplasticizers with Silyl Functionalities

    KAUST Repository

    Orozco, Carlos A.

    2017-03-24

    Major developments in concrete technology have been achieved with the use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCEs) to improve the concrete rheology without increasing the mix water content. Currently, it is possible to control the fluidity of the fresh concrete and obtain stronger and more durable structures. Therefore, there is a strong incentive to understand the interactions between PCEs and cement hydrates at the atomic scale to design new customized functional PCEs according to the ever-increasing requirements of the concrete industry. Here, the bonding types generated between a PCE with silyl functionalities (PCE-Sil) and a synthetic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) are analyzed using XRD, 29Si NMR spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based techniques, such as NEXAFS and EXAFS. The results indicated that the carboxylic groups present in PCE-Sil interact by a ligand-type bond with calcium, which modified not only the symmetry and coordination number of the calcium located at the surface of C-S-H but also the neighboring silicon atoms of the C-S-H. In addition, the silyl functionalities of the PCE-Sil generated covalent bonds through siloxane bridges between the silanol groups of PCE-Sil and the nonbonding oxygen located at the dimeric sites in C-S-H, forming new bridging silicon sites and subsequently increasing the silicate polymerization.

  18. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  19. On the selection of financing instruments to push the development of new technologies: Application to clean energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, Luis; Ruester, Sophia; Liong, Siok-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Achieving climate policy goals requires mobilizing public funds to bring still immature clean technologies to competitiveness and create new technological options. The format of direct public support must be tailored to the characteristics of technologies addressed. Based on the experience accumulated with innovation programs, we have identified those features of innovation that should directly condition the choice of direct support instruments. These include the funding gap between the cost of innovation activities and the amount of private funds leveraged; the ability of technologies targeted to compete for public funds in the market; the probability that these technologies fail to reach the market; and the type of entity best suited to conduct these activities. Clean innovation features are matched to those of direct support instruments to provide recommendations on the use to be made of each type of instrument. Given the large financing gap of most clean energy innovation projects, public grants and contracts should finance a large part of clean pre-deployment innovation. However, public loans, equity investments, prizes and tax credits or rebates can successfully support certain innovation processes at a lower public cost. Principles derived are applied to identify the instrument best suited to a case example. - Highlights: ► Public financing instruments must be tailored to the features of supported innovation. ► Instruments should trigger desired innovation at the lowest public cost possible. ► They should strike the right balance between technology selection and competition. ► Public funds mobilized through them should reach the innovating entity. ► Public loans, equity investments, prizes, and rebates should be used in specific cases.

  20. Dentine bonding agents comprising calcium-silicates to support proactive dental care: Origins, development and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The origin of ion-releasing dentine bonding agents lies in a change in attitude regarding the qualities demanded of a restorative dental material. The objectives of this paper are to review recent studies on novel hybrid adhesives comprising bioactive fillers based on information from original research papers, reviews, and patent literatures. Literature searches of free text and MeSH terms were performed by using MedLine (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo and the Cochrane Library (6th November, 2013). Reference lists of primary research reports and eligible systematic reviews were cross-checked in an attempt to identify additional studies. Experimental methacrylate-based adhesives, either when incorporating calcium/sodium phosphate-phyllosilicates or calcium silicate cements, demonstrated to promote therapeutic/protective effects on the micro-mechanical and ultramorphological properties of resin bonded-dentine interfaces associated with mineral deposition over time. Further randomized control trials are needed in order to confirm these initial results in vivo.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Bonding Strength Enhancement Using Metal "Wicking" Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes grown from a surface typically have poor bonding strength at the interface. A process has been developed for adding a metal coat to the surface of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) through a wicking process, which could lead to an enhanced bonding strength at the interface. This process involves merging CNTs with indium as a bump-bonding enhancement. Classical capillary theory would not normally allow materials that do not wet carbon or graphite to be drawn into the spacings by capillary action because the contact angle is greater than 90 degrees. However, capillary action can be induced through JPL's ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and through the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. A reflow and plasma cleaning process has also been developed and demonstrated to remove indium oxide, and to obtain smooth coatings on the CNT bundles.

  2. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  3. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  4. Prototype of a new tip developed to be coupled to dental light-curing units for optimizing bonding of orthodontic brackets and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Júnior, Sergio Luiz; Campos, Márcio José da Silva; Gravina, Marco Abdo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-01-01

    Development of a new device to be coupled to light-curing units for bonding orthodontic brackets and accessories, and test its efficacy in an in vitro mechanical trial. The inner surface of the device is mirrored and is based on physical concepts of light refraction and reflection. The main advantage of such device is the reduced clinical time needed for bonding and the low possibility of contamination during the process. One hundred and twenty specimens were used for testing the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with the device. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also determined. The sample was divided into 2 groups. In group 1 a halogen light-curing unit was used while in group 2 a led light-curing unit was used. Each group was then subdivided. In subgroups H1 and L1, a conventional light guide rod was used while in subgroups H2 and L2 bonding was performed with the mirrored device coupled to the tip of the guide light rod. The values obtained for the shear bond strength and the ARI in the subgroups were compared. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference for the shear strength (p > 0.05) and the ARI (p > 0.05) between the subgroups. The tests of mechanical trials and the ARI analysis showed that the new device fulfilled the requirements for bonding orthodontic accessories, and that the time for bonding was reduced to half, being necessary only one light exposure.

  5. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  6. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  7. Navigating the “paradox of openness” in energy and transport innovation: Insights from eight corporate clean technology research and development case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Jeppesen, Jakob; Bandsholm, Jesper; Asmussen, Joakim; Balachandran, Rakulan; Vestergaard, Simon; Andersen, Thomas Hauerslev; Sørensen, Thomas Klode; Bjørn-Thygesen, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Using an inductive case study approach drawn from original interview data, this article investigates the innovation approaches among a sample of international energy companies, or corporate firms. It first presents a conceptual framework synthesized from the business studies, entrepreneurship, evolutionary economics, innovation studies, management science, organization studies, political science, and sociology literature. This framework suggests that corporate approaches to clean technology innovation will cut across the four dimensions of organizational multiplicity and stakeholder involvement, information sharing, coordination and control, and market orientation. It then explores how eight firms—the Algal Carbon Conversion Flagship and Aurora Algae (biofuel), DONG and Statoil (carbon capture and storage), Tesla and Volkswagen (electric vehicles), and Siemens and Vestas (offshore wind turbines)—approach clean technology development with “open innovation” attributes mixed with “closed” attributes. Although the study finds striking similarities among the particular approaches embraced by each corporate actor, it also notes that approaches are technology and firm specific, and the potential for different permutations leads to an almost endless number of possible stylistic combinations. The innovation profiles depicted also reveal conflict and competition among various stakeholders, the implication being that corporate innovation in the energy sector remains a conflicted, disjointed, and messy process. - Highlights: • Corporate firms remain under-examined in the energy studies literature. • Corporate approaches to clean technology innovation cut across “open” and “closed” attributes. • The corporate innovation profiles depicted reveal elements of conflict and competition.

  8. Improved clean development mechanism and joint implementation to promote holistic sustainable development - an integrated policy and methodology for international energy collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kua Harn Wei

    2007-07-01

    The current Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation framework does not emphasize on wholistic sustainability of energy projects. The Golden Standard was a good example of how this framework can be fine-tuned. However, it does not explicitly incentivize the adoption of the sustainability standards it outlines. A 4-element integrated policy strategy is proposed. A Sustainability Assessment Matrix is constructed to evaluate project proposals' sustainability performance. The Probational Sustainability Performance Demand requires continual monitoring of this performance of approved projects throughout a designated probation period. The involved countries will be awarded Sustainability Credits (measured with the matrix) in installments according to their performance within this period. The Probational Emission Reduction Demand requires investing countries to meet moderated emission reduction targets in order for them to claim the certified emission reductions/ emission reduction credits and their share of Sustainability Credits. These credits are converted into Sustainability Assistance Funds, which can be channeled back to finance either the approved projects or independent renewable energy projects in the involved countries. The MIT Energy Cost Model is used to estimate the required amount and identify the forms of such assistance package. Finally, an integrated policymaking framework is suggested to execute and monitor these interconnected policy elements. (auth)

  9. Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Aparna

    fabric strip was developed and it demonstrated the negative effect of inhomogeneous straining of fibers arising from the commonly used diamond bond shape and pervasive fiber-to-fiber elongation variability on fabric strength.

  10. [Integration and demonstration of key techniques in surveillance and forecast of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province III Development of a machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental cleaning and automatic mollusciciding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-biao; Ma, Yu-cai; Sun, Le-ping; Hong, Qing-biao; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Chang-lin; Du, Guang-lin; Lu, Da-qin; Sun, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei; Dai, Jian-rong; Liang, You-sheng

    2016-02-01

    To develop a machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental cleaning and automatic mollusciciding and to evaluate its effectiveness of field application, so as to provide a novel Oncomelania hupensis snail control technique in the large-scale marshlands. The machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental cleaning and automatic mollusciciding, which was suitable for use in complex marshland areas, was developed according to the mechanization and automation principles, and was used for O. hupensis snail control in the marshland. The effect of the machine on environmental cleaning and plough was evaluated, and the distribution of living snails was observed at various soil layers following plough. The snail control effects of plough alone and plough followed by mollusciciding were compared. The machine could simultaneously complete the procedures of getting vegetation down and cut vegetation into pieces, plough and snail control by spraying niclosamide. After plough, the constituent ratios of living snails were 36.31%, 25.60%, 22.62% and 15.48% in the soil layers at depths of 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 cm and 16-20 cm respectively, and 61.91% living snails were found in the 0-10 cm soil layers. Seven and fifteen days after the experiment, the mortality rates of snails were 9.38% and 8.29% in the plough alone group, and 63.04% and 80.70% in the plough + mollusciciding group respectively (χ²₇ d = 42.74, χ²₁₅ d = 155.56, both P values mollusciciding group, which decreased by 64.92% and 93.60%, respectively, and the decrease rate of snail density was approximately 30% higher in the plough + mollusciciding group than that in the plough alone group. The machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental cleaning and automatic mollusciciding achieves the integration of mechanical environmental cleaning and automatic niclosamide spraying in the complex marshland areas, which provides a novel technique of field snail control in the large

  11. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  12. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Johannes M; Joshi, Vineet K; Hu, Zhen; Medvedovic, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score). The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at . The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView). Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the conclusions made about clusters of co

  13. Metallurgical Bonding Development of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    General Atomics (GA), in conjunction with the Department of Energy's (DOE) DIII-D Program, is carrying out a plan to utilize a vanadium alloy in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected in the U.S. as the leading candidate vanadium alloy for fusion applications. This alloy will be used for the divertor fabrication. Manufacturing development with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is a focus of the DIII-D RD Program. The RD structure, part of which will be fabricated from V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, will require many product forms and types of metal/metal bonded joints. Metallurgical bonding methods development on this vanadium alloy is therefore a key area of study by GA. Several solid state (non-fusion weld) and fusion weld joining methods are being investigated. To date, GA has been successful in producing ductile, high strength, vacuum leak tight joints by all of the methods under investigation. The solid state joining was accomplished in air, i.e., without the need for a vacuum or inert gas environment to prevent interstitial impurity contamination of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

  14. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzinskij, O. I.; Gubsky, K. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tarasov, B. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements

  15. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  16. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress.

  18. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C

    2005-01-01

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress

  19. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  20. Bonding of Si wafers by surface activation method for the development of high efficiency high counting rate radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Onabe, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    Si wafers with two different resistivities ranging over two orders of magnitude were bonded by the surface activation method. The resistivities of bonded Si wafers were measured as a function of annealing temperature. Using calculations based on a model, the interface resistivities of bonded Si wafers were estimated as a function of the measured resistivities of bonded Si wafers. With thermal treatment from 500degC to 900degC, all interfaces showed high resistivity, with behavior that was close to that of an insulator. Annealing at 1000degC decreased the interface resistivity and showed close to ideal bonding after thermal treatment at 1100degC. (author)

  1. Cleaning Management in Higher Education: Value for Money Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, Edinburgh.

    This report identifies key management issues for senior managers and heads of cleaning departments in developing and reviewing cleaning services to support improvement and enhance cost effectiveness. The cleaning costs incurred by higher education institutions (HEIs) represent 2.7 percent of the total spent nationally on cleaning services for both…

  2. Repellent materials. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2015-03-06

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  4. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  5. Clean Room Apparel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    American Hospital Supply Corporation (AHSC), Baxter Healthcare Corporation's predecessor, used the NASA informational base on contamination control technology to improve industrial contamination control technology. When a study determined that microscopic body particles escaping through tiny "windows" in woven garments worn by workers were the greatest source of contamination, AHSC developed TYVEK. This non-woven material filters 99% of all particulate matter larger than half a micron. Baxter Healthcare added a polyimide coating which seals and ties down any loose fibers, providing greater durability. Stress points along seams have been minimized to make the garment almost tearproof. Micro-Clean 212 garments are individually packaged and disposable.

  6. CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

  7. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  8. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  9. Novel electrochemical approach to study corrosion mechanism of Al-Au wire-bond pad interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elisseeva, O. V.; Bruhn, A.; Cerezo, J.

    2013-01-01

    A gold-aluminium material combination is typically employed as an interconnection for microelectronic devices. One of the reliability risks of such devices is that of corrosion of aluminium bond pads resulting from the galvanic coupling between an aluminium bond pad and a gold wire. The research...... presented in this manuscript focuses on studying bond pad corrosion by selecting an appropriate model system and a dedicated set of electrochemical and analytical experimental tools. Taking into account the complex three-dimensional structure and the small dimensions of Au-Al interconnections (around 50......-100 μm), a dedicated and novel experimental approach was developed. Au-Al covered silicon chips were developed under clean room conditions. Three-dimensional electrodes were mimicked as flat, two-dimensional bond pad model systems, allowing the use of microelectrochemical local probe techniques. Thin...

  10. Development of new-type rapid analysis technology of polychlorinated biphenyls by using liquid chromatographic clean-up material (polyvinyl alcohol gel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsubashi, Tetsuya; Tsukahara, Chisato; Baba, Keigo; Ohi, Etsumasa; Shinoda, Akiko; Miura, Norio

    2008-01-04

    We developed a new-type rapid polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis technology on the basis of a liquid chromatographic clean-up system combined with a large-volume injection GC-LRMS. Among 18 kinds of materials such as polymer gels, normal-phase silica gels, reversed-phase silica gels, carbon material and ion-exchange material, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel and poly (hydroxylmethacrylate) gel were found to give rather good separation performance for insulating oil. Especially, PVA gel was confirmed to be the most suitable for rapid PCB analysis because of its least required quantity of fraction liquid as well as the highest resolution. Then, we confirmed elution characteristics of all PCB isomers and removal efficiency of insulating oil on PVA gel under an optimized condition, and established high-performance clean-up system using a combination of octadecyl silica gel (ODS), porous graphite carbon (PGC) and PVA gel. In this system, we applied newly valve-switching method that could remove other impurities. In addition, it was demonstrated that the proposed clean-up system could become highly sensitive and rapid PCB analysis technology with 2-h analysis time, lower measurement limit of less than 0.05 mg/kg, and a variation coefficient of less than 5%, by coupling with a large-volume injection type GC-LRMS. Thus, we can conclude that this rapid PCB analysis technology has not only good correlativity (R2>0.999) with standard analysis method but also high durability and can be fully applied to actual PCB-treatment plants.

  11. Using Impact Bonds to Achieve Early Childhood Development Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Gardiner, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, or Global Goals) and their associated targets set out by the United Nations in 2015 explicitly seek to address some of the largest challenges facing children around the world. Early Childhood Development (ECD) interventions have been found to improve adult health and education levels, reduce crime, and…

  12. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  13. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  14. Process development studies on recovery of clean coal from ultra fine hardcoal tailings using enhanced gravity separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, S.; Turksoy, V.O.; Sabah, E.; Oruc, F. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-10-15

    Gravity-based processing methods were used to process and recover clean coal from ultra-fine hardcoal tailings at a site in Turkey. The coal samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. A hydrocyclone was used to conduct classification tests and to separate the clay minerals from the coal. The effects of various operating parameters were also investigated. Regression analysis was used to characterize the relationship between the ash content and coal recovery rate and the feed solid, inlet pressure, diameter of vortex, and diameter of apex variables of the hydrocyclone. The effects of feed pressure were also investigated. The study showed that coal can be economically recovered from hardcoal tailings containing clay minerals. It was concluded that a coal sample with 6.98 per cent ash content and a net calorific value of 28,778 kJ was obtained with a weight recovery of 61.73 per cent. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 18 figs.

  15. Prototype of a new tip developed to be coupled to dental light-curing units for optimizing bonding of orthodontic brackets and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Mota Júnior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: development of a new device to be coupled to light-curing units for bonding orthodontic brackets and accessories, and test its efficacy in an in vitro mechanical trial. The inner surface of the device is mirrored and is based on physical concepts of light refraction and reflection. The main advantage of such device is the reduced clinical time needed for bonding and the low possibility of contamination during the process. METHODS: One hundred and twenty specimens were used for testing the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with the device. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI was also determined. The sample was divided into 2 groups. In group 1 a halogen light-curing unit was used while in group 2 a led light-curing unit was used. Each group was then subdivided. In subgroups H1 and L1, a conventional light guide rod was used while in subgroups H2 and L2 bonding was performed with the mirrored device coupled to the tip of the guide light rod. RESULTS: The values obtained for the shear bond strength and the ARI in the subgroups were compared. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference for the shear strength (p > 0.05 and the ARI (p > 0.05 between the subgroups. CONCLUSION: The tests of mechanical trials and the ARI analysis showed that the new device fulfilled the requirements for bonding orthodontic accessories, and that the time for bonding was reduced to half, being necessary only one light exposure.

  16. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  17. Determination of triazine herbicides in seaweeds: development of a sample preparation method based on Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion and Solid Phase Extraction Clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, N; González-Castro, M J; Beceiro-González, E; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2014-04-01

    A method using dual process columns of Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) has been developed for extracting and cleaning-up of nine triazine herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbuthylazine and terbutryn) in seaweed samples. Under optimized conditions, samples were blended with 2g of octasilyl-derivatized silica (C8) and transferred into an SPE cartridge containing ENVI-Carb II/PSA (0.5/0.5 g) as a clean up co-sorbent. Then the dispersed sample was washed with 10 mL of n-hexane and triazines were eluted with 20 mL ethyl acetate and 5 mL acetonitrile. Finally the extract was concentrated to dryness, re-constituted with 1 mL methanol:water (1:1) and injected into the HPLC-DAD system. The linearity of the calibration curves was excellent in matrix matched standards, and yielded the coefficients of determination>0.995 for all the target analytes. The recoveries ranged from 75% to 100% with relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The achieved LOQs (seaweeds were subjected to the procedure proving the suitability of MSPD method for the analysis of triazines in different seaweeds samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ties That Bond: Youth Sport as a Vehicle for Social Identity and Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W.; Balish, Shea M.; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R.; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social…

  19. Recent developments in enzyme promiscuity for carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yufeng; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    Numerous enzymes have been found to catalyze additional and completely different types of reactions relative to the natural activity they evolved for. This phenomenon, called catalytic promiscuity, has proven to be a fruitful guide for the development of novel biocatalysts for organic synthesis

  20. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market

  1. Economic and Environmental Performances of Small-Scale Rural PV Solar Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: The Case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen De Schepper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The two core objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM are cost-effective emission reduction and sustainable development. Despite the potential to contribute to both objectives, solar projects play a negligible role under the CDM. In this research, the greenhouse gas mitigation cost is used to evaluate the economic and environmental performances of small-scale rural photovoltaic solar projects. In particular, we compare the use of absolute and relative mitigation costs to evaluate the attractiveness of these projects under the CDM. We encourage the use of relative mitigation costs, implying consideration of baseline costs that render the projects profitable. Results of the mitigation cost analysis are dependent on the baseline chosen. To overcome this drawback, we complement the analysis with a multi-objective optimization approach, which allows quantifying the trade-off between economic and environmental performances of the optimal technologies without requiring a baseline.

  2. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  3. Developing a New Teaching Approach for the Chemical Bonding Concept Aligned with Current Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Tami Levy; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Krajcik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a…

  4. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  5. General chemistry technical note no. 61--new developments in plastic bonded explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scribner, K.; James, E.

    1961-10-09

    Two new explosives are under development at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (LRL) which show considerable promise as replacements for PBX 9404 (and also PBX 9010). Three primary considerations have guided us in the development of these explosives. Compared to PBX 9404 we have sought a significant decrease it sensitivity, a substantial gain in mechanical properties and as little loss in energy and detonation velocity as possible. While testing is not complete on these materials and probably won`t be for quite some time sufficient information is available to warrant a complete status report at this time. An index of the topics covered herein is: Formulations and Raw Materials; Molding Powder; Explosive Performance; Sensitivity; Thermal Stability; Compatibility; Mechanical Properties; Machinability; Pressability; and Comparison of the Two Materials.

  6. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  7. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  8. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. This report addresses a variety of factors that have reduced play, including a hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment activities at the expense of recess or free child-centered play. This report offers guidelines on how pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families, school systems, and communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they seek the balance in children's lives to create the optimal developmental milieu.

  9. Killing the Hofstadter butterfly, one bond at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Adhip

    2017-01-01

    Electronic bands in a square lattice when subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field form the Hofstadter butterfly pattern. We study the evolution of this pattern as a function of bond percolation disorder (removal or dilution of lattice bonds). With increasing concentration of the bonds removed, the butterfly pattern gets smoothly decimated. However, in this process of decimation, bands develop interesting characteristics and features. For example, in the high disorder limit, some butterfly-like pattern still persists even as most of the states are localized. We also analyze, in the low disorder limit, the effect of percolation on wavefunctions (using inverse participation ratios) and on band gaps in the spectrum. We explain and provide the reasons behind many of the key features in our results by analyzing small clusters and finite size rings. Furthermore, we study the effect of bond dilution on transverse conductivity ( σ xy ). We show that starting from the clean limit, increasing disorder reduces σ xy to zero, even though the strength of percolation is smaller than the classical percolation threshold. This shows that the system undergoes a direct transition from a integer quantum Hall state to a localized Anderson insulator beyond a critical value of bond dilution. We further find that the energy bands close to the band edge are more stable to disorder than at the band center. To arrive at these results we use the coupling matrix approach to calculate Chern numbers for disordered systems. We point out the relevance of these results to signatures in magneto-oscillations.

  10. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  11. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of semiconductor CVD chamber cleaning systems for electronic device manufacturing using new alternative gas instead of SF6, PFCs, and other gases; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SF6 tou ni daitaisuru gasu wo riyo shita denshi debaisu seizo cleaning system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The efforts aim to develop a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) mechanism cleaning gas with less environmental impact such as global warming and a CVD process using the same. The candidate gas synthesizing study for the development of such a gas continues from the preceding fiscal year. In addition, various candidate gases and tentatively synthesized gases are evaluated for their cleaning performance using a simplified experimental system. As the result, patent applications were filed for three novel alternative gases low in environmental impact and high in cleaning performance. In the research and development of CVD processes, a verification test process is developed for the evaluation of alternative gases at the real system level using a large CVD evaluation system. Studies are also made in which some existing gases are utilized to improve on CVD cleaning efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the process, one domestic patent application is made, and three essays are presented at an international conference on electrochemistry in the United States. (NEDO)

  12. HIP bonding between niobium/copper/stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hitoshi; Fujino, Takeo; Hitomi, Nobuteru; Saito, Kenji; Yamada, Masahiro; Shibuya, Junichi; Ota, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    We have used niobium flanges for the niobium bulk superconducting RF cavities, however, they are expensive. Stainless steel flanges instead of the niobium flanges will be used in the future large scale production of sc cavities like the KEK/JAERI joint project. For a future R and D of the vacuum sealing related to the clean horizontal assembly method or development of cavities welded a helium vessel in the KEK/JAERI joint project, a converter section of niobium material to stainless steel is required. From these requirements we need to develop the converter. We have tried a HIP bonding method between niobium materials and stainless steel or copper material. It was made clear that the technology could offer an enough bonding strength even higher than niobium tensile strength in the joined surface between niobium and stainless steel or copper. (author)

  13. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...

  14. The clean development mechanism for joint implementation of nuclear power projects in developing countries : a win-win strategy for climate-friendly development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, J.; Tisue, T.

    1999-01-01

    The high energy use per capita that characterized most developed countries evolved almost free of constraints external to the market-place. Now, driven by concerns about global climate change and environmental degradation, these countries are being forced to seek climate friendly ways to preserve their enviable quality of life. Success will not come without considerable cost, but there is growing awareness that failure to act will be even more expensive. This recognition has already begun to focus increased attention and investment on conservation and efficiency measures, and on the development of renewable, non- Co2 emitting energy sources (wind, solar electric etc.). At present, it is an open question whether gains in efficiency and expansion of renewable energy sources will suffice. The answer depends in part on developing better models of how the global climate will respond to various levels of GHG in the atmosphere. Another ten years or so may suffice to get the picture clear. But whatever the details, few would argue in favour of additional large increases in GHG emissions, or of severely curtailing development plans of the less-well-off nations. The Climate Convention attests to the world-wide recognition that action on some scale will be obligatory. As we get the problem in better focus, it is important to put all choices on the table for discussion, and to keep all options open. Solving the problem will cost money, probably a lot of it, and finding the most cost-effective approach will be important

  15. Diagnosis of social and environmental evaluation of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects; Diagnostico da sustentabilidade socioambiental nas atividades de projetos candidatos ao MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziliotto, Marco Aurelio B.; Villa, Alessandra T.; Padilha, Simone L. Vieira; Canaverde, Patricia Margue [Instituto Ecoplan, PR (Brazil); Sanqueta, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contributes to sustainability and to sustainable development in those countries where CDM projects are developed and helps the countries from Annex I to achieve their reduction targets to Greenhouse Gases. This paper presents a proposal of a social and environmental sustainability diagnosis making use of a tool called Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix - MADSA{sup R}. Its purpose is to establish and measure appropriate sustainable indicators to evaluate projects to ensure development benefits of CDM projects in host countries in consistency with Annex I countries developmental goals. MADSA{sup R} methodology allows a definition of a social and environmental baseline to MDL projects, and provides information to any interested group of people, from stockholders to local community; showing its results. It allows a greater clients', stockholders' and investor's trust as it measures the development so it makes possible the diagnosis and the comparison between all phases of the project. It also contributes to a continuous improvement through the participation of benefit groups in the diagnosis. Besides being an evaluation method and a management tool, this proposal looks for being a reference as an indicator pattern that evaluates the sustainable social and environmental development of CDM projects. (author)

  16. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  17. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  18. Bond markets in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Mu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on government securities and corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to better institutions and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to smaller fiscal deficits, higher interest rate spreads, exchange rate volatility, and current and capital account openness. Corporate bond market capitalization is directly linked to economic size, the level of development of the economy and financial markets, better institutions, and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to higher interest rate spreads and current account openness. Policy implications follow.

  19. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  20. Fuel assembly cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable efficient and sufficient cleaning of a fuel assembly even in corners without disassembling the assembly and to effectively remove crud. Constitution: Cleaning water mixed with abrasive is injected into a fuel assembly contained within a cleaning device body to remove crud adhering to the fuel assembly. Since a coolant passage from the opening of the bottom surface is of the fuel assembly to the opening of the top surface is utilized as the cleaning water passage at this, the crud can be removed by the abrasive in the water stream even from narrow gaps of the fuel assembly. (Aizawa, K.)

  1. Study on bisbenzocyclobutene bonding for the development of a Si-based miniaturized reformer of fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dae-Hyun; Yeo, Chan-Hyeok; Ok, Chi-Won; Im, Yeon-Ho; Kim, Jean-Tae; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kwon, Yongchai

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a systematic study of bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB) bonding for a Si-based miniaturized reformer system. The micro reformer system, which included microchannels with a depth and a width of 250 µm and 600 µm, respectively, was fabricated using conventional semiconductor processing and BCB bonding. The structural, thermo-mechanical and chemical stability of Pyrex to Si wafer bonding using BCB as an adhesive was examined at temperatures up to 350 °C. The BCB interfaces at the Pyrex to Si wafer bonding pairs were mechanically stable to withstand the typical pressure and temperature conditions of the reforming process (1 atm and 300 °C) with little outgassing during reforming at 1 atm and 300 °C. The thermo-mechanical and chemical stability during wafer bonding and during reforming was examined using an optical inspection, and pressure pop-up test, FTIR test and gas chromatograph (GC) test were performed. The results showed that Pyrex to Si wafer bonding using BCB is suitable for a miniaturized reformer in fuel systems

  2. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance for state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers to identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energy initiatives.

  3. Development and evaluation of a self-cleaning custom-built auto sampler controlled by a low-cost RaspberryPi microcomputer for online enzymatic activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    A fully automated on-site device (SAMP-FIL) that enables water sampling with simultaneous filtration and effective cleaning procedures of the device's components was developed and field-tested. The SAMP-FIL was custom-built using commercially available components and was controlled by a RaspberryPi single-board computer operating open-source software. SAMP-FIL was designed for sample pre-treatment with minimal sample alteration to meet the requirements of on-site measurement devices that cannot handle coarse suspended solids within the measurement procedure or cycle. A highly effective cleaning procedure provides a fresh and minimally altered sample for the connected measurement device. The construction and programmed software facilitates the use of SAMP-FIL for different connected measurement devices. The SAMP-FIL sample pretreatment was tested for over one year for rapid and on-site enzymatic activity (beta-d-glucuronidase, GLUC) determination (BACTcontrol) in sediment-laden stream water. The formerly used proprietary sampling set-up was assumed to lead to significant damping of the measurement signal due to its susceptibility to clogging, debris accumulation and bio-film accumulation. The implementation of SAMP-FIL considerably increased the error-free running time and measurement accuracy of BACTcontrol devices. This paper describes how low-cost microcomputers, such as the RaspberryPi, can be used by operators to substantially improve established measuring systems via effective sampling devices. Furthermore, the results of this study highlight the importance of adequate sample pretreatment for the quality of on-site measurements. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How clean is clean?---How clean is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of cleaning qualifications used in a variety of industries: from small-scale manufacturer's of precision-machined products to large-scale manufacturer's of electronics (printed wiring boards and surface mount technology) and microelectronics. Cleanliness testing techniques used in the production of precision-machined products, will be described. The on-going DOD program to obtain high-reliability electronics, through the use of military specifications for cleaning and cleanliness levels, will be reviewed. In addition, the continually changing cleanroom/materials standards of the microelectronics industry will be discussed. Finally, we will speculate on the role that new and improved analytical techniques and sensor technologies will play in the factories of the future. 4 refs., 1 tab

  5. Joy Development Properties, LLC, Pleasant Valley, Iowa and Summit Concrete, Inc., LeClaire, Iowa - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Joy Development Properties, LLC and Summit Concrete, Inc., for alleged violations at the companies’ residential construction site known as the Schutter Farms Addition loca

  6. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 21, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate.

  7. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.D.; Park, K.H.; Lee, B.S.; Kim, Y.E.

    1999-01-01

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  8. Deforestation in the tropics: after the exclusion from Clean Development Mechanisms new opportunities for the Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The 11th Conference of Parties (Montreal 2005 has favoured initiatives for reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. This issue was discussed at a workshop, organised in Bad Blumau (Austria, 10-12 May 2006 to provide a timely forum for assessment of different methodological and policy approaches. This paper reports the main workshop conclusions, underlining the political and methodological issues of deforestation in developing countries, with Brazil as a specific example.

  9. Clean Air Act Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  10. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  11. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  12. Chapter 2: Assessing the Potential Energy Impacts of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 2 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energ

  13. Energy resources integrated planning as instrument for clean development; Planejamento integrado de recursos energeticos como instrumento de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Luis Claudio Ribeiro; Kanayama, Paulo Helio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the RIP - Resources Integrated Planning, viewing the sustainable development. In the RIP the regional energy resource utilization are a prioritization and the regional economic talent is viewing as a competitive advantage for improvement of the social indexes, and the environmental limitations are considered, including the effects of global heating. Also, the political forces are respected, the involved and interested participates in the planning, and the most important the systemic approaching for obtaining the sustainable, rational and efficient use of the energy are obtained in advance which allows to predict the development consequences before the implantation of projects.

  14. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Robert; Sparks, Michael; Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Before-after trial. Newly built community hospital. 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  15. Silver Oak, Inc. d/b/a Alice Patrcia Homes Residential Development - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Silver Oak, Inc. d/b/a Alice Patricia Homes Residential Development, a business located at 10430 New York Ave, Suite C,

  16. Development of a hot heat exchanger and a cleaning system for a 35 kW hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for solid biomass fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Marinitsch, Gerald; Schöch, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, a small-scale CHP technology based on hermetic Stirling engines has been developed and two prototype plants with a 35 kWel four cylinder and a 70 kWel eight cylinder Stirling engine have been erected in Austria. The prototype plant with a 35 kWel Stirling engine has already...... been operated for more than 9,000 hours. Operating experiences gained from these plants formed the basis for the further development of this technology. The experiences showed that the efficiency of the Stirling hot gas heat exchanger and of the hot gas heat exchanger cleaning system have to be further......H, Austria. The new design of the Stirling hot gas heat exchanger has been developed in order to optimise the performance of the engine and simplify the geometry. In this respect, an equal distribution of the heat transfer across each tube in the hot gas heat exchanger, the reduction of the internal Helium...

  17. Evaluation of stresses developed in different bracket-cement-enamel systems using finite element analysis with in vitro bond strength tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Hammad, Shaza M; Ibrahim, Noha F

    2014-04-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bond strength of different orthodontic bracket materials (ceramic, stainless steel, and titanium) as well as stresses developed in bracket-cement-enamel systems using finite element (FE) analysis. One hundred and thirty-five extracted human caries-free upper central incisors were divided into three groups (n = 45/group) according to the type of orthodontic bracket materials (stainless steel, ceramic, and titanium). Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups (n = 15/group) according to the bond strength test loading mode (shear short side, shear long side, and tensile). After debonding, the fractured specimen was examined, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was determined. FE analysis models analyzed the stress distribution within the cement and enamel. Bond strengths were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, and the ARI scores were analyzed using chi-square (χ2) test. Shear loading at the short side of the bracket resulted in the highest bond strength and lowest maximum principal stress both on cement and enamel compared with the other loading modes (P strength and lower maximum principal stress than metallic brackets (P strength and stresses developed both on cement and enamel.

  18. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  19. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, C.; Buckell, J.

    2010-01-01

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  20. Cost-estimate and proposal for a development impact bond for canine rabies elimination by mass vaccination in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyiam, Franziska; Lechenne, Monique; Mindekem, Rolande; Oussigéré, Assandi; Naissengar, Service; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Mbilo, Celine; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Coleman, Paul G; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-11-01

    Close to 69,000 humans die of rabies each year, most of them in Africa and Asia. Clinical rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, PEP is commonly not available or not affordable in developing countries. Another strategy besides treating exposed humans is the vaccination of vector species. In developing countries, the main vector is the domestic dog, that, once infected, is a serious threat to humans. After a successful mass vaccination of 70% of the dogs in N'Djaména, we report here a cost-estimate for a national rabies elimination campaign for Chad. In a cross-sectional survey in four rural zones, we established the canine : human ratio at the household level. Based on human census data and the prevailing socio-cultural composition of rural zones of Chad, the total canine population was estimated at 1,205,361 dogs (95% Confidence interval 1,128,008-1,736,774 dogs). Cost data were collected from government sources and the recent canine mass vaccination campaign in N'Djaména. A Monte Carlo simulation was used for the simulation of the average cost and its variability, using probability distributions for dog numbers and cost items. Assuming the vaccination of 100 dogs on average per vaccination post and a duration of one year, the total cost for the vaccination of the national Chadian canine population is estimated at 2,716,359 Euros (95% CI 2,417,353-3,035,081) for one vaccination round. A development impact bond (DIB) organizational structure and cash flow scenario were then developed for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad. Cumulative discounted cost of 28.3 million Euros over ten years would be shared between the government of Chad, private investors and institutional donors as outcome funders. In this way, the risk of the investment could be shared and the necessary investment could be made available upfront - a key element for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  1. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  2. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  3. Cleaning and can end chamfering special machine MSCS-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negulescu, D.; Rusu, A.; Dragomir, I.; Turcanu, V.; Bailescu, V.; Burcea, Gh.; Chitu, I.

    2001-01-01

    The MSCS-04 machine executes cleaning and can end chamfering of the CANDU 6 fuel element can through the following technologic chain: - manual positioning of the workpiece in the transporter feeding location; - the transport of the workpiece in front of the cleaning machine and workpiece orientation checking; - automatic loading of the workpiece in the cleaning machine; - bonding the workpiece in the cleaning machine; - cleaning the ends of the workpiece with graphite dust aspiration; - automatic disconnection of the workpiece from the cleaning machine; - automatic unloading of the cleaning machine; - disposal of the workpiece on the transporter in front of cleaning machine; workpiece's transport in front of the chamfering machine; - automatic checking of the workpiece orientation; - automatic loading of the workpiece in the chamfering machine; - axial positioning and bounding of the workpiece in the chamfering machine; chamfering the workpiece's ends with graphite dust and splinter aspiration; - disconnecting the workpiece from the chamfering machine; - automatic unloading of the workpiece from the chamfering machine with splinter blow from the workpiece interior; - workpiece disposal on transporter and the piece transport to the outlet. Details about the technological system, transport system, manipulators, cleaning and chamfering machines are given. Novel elements are highlighted and the technical characteristics are presented

  4. Challenges for nuclear air cleaning technology in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The current evolution of nuclear air cleaning research and engineering and the technological developments needed for improving protection and safety are described. The subjects covered are: iodine and HEPA filters testing; cleaning of reprocessing process gas; plutonium aerosol filtration; and air cleaning in accident situations

  5. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center Benchmark Report: Framework and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report documents the CEMAC methodologies for developing and reporting annual global clean energy manufacturing benchmarks. The report reviews previously published manufacturing benchmark reports and foundational data, establishes a framework for benchmarking clean energy technologies, describes the CEMAC benchmark analysis methodologies, and describes the application of the methodologies to the manufacturing of four specific clean energy technologies.

  6. High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant and Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion NiAl-Base Bond Coat Developed for a Turbine Blade Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Many critical gas turbine engine components are currently made from Ni-base superalloys that are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC). The TBC consists of a ZrO2-based top coat and a bond coat that is used to enhance the bonding between the superalloy substrate and the top coat. MCrAlY alloys (CoCrAlY and NiCrAlY) are currently used as bond coats and are chosen for their very good oxidation resistance. TBC life is frequently limited by the oxidation resistance of the bond coat, along with a thermal expansion mismatch between the metallic bond coat and the ceramic top coat. The aim of this investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center was to develop a new longer life, higher temperature bond coat by improving both the oxidation resistance and the thermal expansion characteristics of the bond coat. Nickel aluminide (NiAl) has excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and can sustain a protective Al2O3 scale to longer times and higher temperatures in comparison to MCrAlY alloys. Cryomilling of NiAl results in aluminum nitride (AlN) formation that reduces the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the alloy and enhances creep strength. Thus, additions of cryomilled NiAl-AlN to CoCrAlY were examined as a potential bond coat. In this work, the composite alloy was investigated as a stand-alone substrate to demonstrate its feasibility prior to actual use as a coating. About 85 percent of prealloyed NiAl and 15 percent of standard commercial CoCrAlY alloys were mixed and cryomilled in an attritor with stainless steel balls used as grinding media. The milling was carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The milled powder was consolidated by hot extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing. From the consolidated material, oxidation coupons, four-point bend, CTE, and tensile specimens were machined. The CTE measurements were made between room temperature and 1000 C in an argon atmosphere. It is shown that the CTE of the NiAl-AlN-CoCrAlY composite bond coat

  7. Development of new assembly techniques for a silicon micro-vertex detector unit using the flip-chip bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Mandai, M.; Kanazawa, H.; Yamanaka, J.; Miyahara, S.; Kamiya, M.; Fujita, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, M.; Koike, S.; Matsuda, T.; Ozaki, H.; Tanaka, M.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Okuno, S.; Haba, J.; Hanai, H.; Mori, S.; Yusa, K.; Fukunaga, C.

    1994-01-01

    Full-size models of a detector unit for a silicon micro-vertex detector were built for the KEK B factory. The Flip-Chip Bonding (FCB) method using a new type anisotropic conductive film was examined. The structure using the FCB method successfully provides a new architecture for the silicon micro-vertex detector unit. (orig.)

  8. Cleaning up a GNU/Linux operating system

    OpenAIRE

    Oblak , Denis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to develop an application for cleaning up the Linux operating system that would be able to function on most distributions. The theoretical part discusses the cleaning of the Linux operating system that frees up disk space and allows a better functioning. The cleaning techniques and the existing tools for Linux are systematically reviewed and presented. The following part examines the cleaning of the Windows and MacOS operating systems. The thesis also compares all...

  9. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 64K ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean ... been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May 5, ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 69,414 views 3:10 Hand Washing ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... 652 views 7:11 Hand Hygiene for Health Care Workers - Germ Smart - Duration: 5:45. Saskatchewan Health ...

  14. Clean Diesel National Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  15. Clean Diesel Tribal Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DERA Tribal Program awards clean diesel grants specifically for tribal nations. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication Numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  16. Clean Air Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Air Markets implements regulatory programs such as the Acid Rain Program and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule to reduce air pollution from the power sector that contributes to human health and environmental issues.

  17. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  18. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  19. Clean Air Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  1. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe ...

  4. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  5. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  6. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  7. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  8. Viability of biofuel use in CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) projects; Viabilidade do uso do biodiesel para projetos de MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Julio; Lima, Luciana Santana de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel, renewable energy source, has been adopted by several countries as a possible substitute for fossil fuels. Brazil, by its own, included oil and fat derived biofuel in its energetic matrix through National Politics for Biofuel Use and Production (NPBUP), issue in Law n. 11.097 of 01/13/2005. Many studies demonstrate the contribution of biofuel for Greenhouse Gases reduction, what turns projects using it into possible candidates for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), instrument described in Kyoto Protocol. With purpose of studying the Brazilian potentiality of the insertion of biofuel into CDM projects, this report approaches many aspects related to CDM, as well the terms for being accepted as so. Through bibliographic review were listed the possibilities and the restraints for including biofuel in carbon market resulted, principally, by the obligation of its use; what goes against the principle of voluntary, for seen in the Protocol. I concluded analyzing the advantages of biofuel comparatively to environmental issues, emphasizing the necessity of making viable its entrance into carbon credits market. (author)

  9. Development of liquid repellent coating on cotton fabric by simple binary silanization with excellent self-cleaning and oil-water separation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anita; Varshney, Priya; Mohapatra, Soumya S; Kumar, Aditya

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to develop a facile and single step method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating on cotton fabric. The coating has been prepared by using two silane trichloro(octadecyl)silane and (pentaflurophenyl)triethoxy silane by solution immersion technique. The wettability, surface topography and chemical compostion of the cotton fabric before and after treatment were charecterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, respectively. Additionally, the functional group present in coating was analysed by FT-IR spectra. The coated fabric shows a contact angle of 172.9±3°, 169±3° and 167±3° for water, ethylene glycol and glycerol, respectively. The chemical stability of the coated sample has been evaluated by immersion of the sample in different pH solutions and different solvents, showing the excellent chemical stability of coating. Ultrasonication with water, detergent and petroleum ether, and water jet impact test reveals the mechanical stability of coating. The thermal stability of the coated fabric has been examined by annealing the sample at different temperature. Additionally, it shows resistance to stain and UV irradiation. Furthermore, the coated cotton fabric exhibits excellent self-cleaning and oil-water separation properties, which makes it suitable for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  12. Build clean-operate clean-plant wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocki, P.; Schneider, B.; Roberts, J.

    2012-01-01

    reverse walk-down’ ii. Step two is calculation of SG CPT ingress for a year of steady operation for a typical well-operated plant iii. Having discussed ingress, there can then be discussion of the distribution within the steam generator of such ingress – including the small but very troublesome amount which may deposit and cause blockage at the tube supports iv. Having discussed ingress during steady operation, we can then reflect upon what ingress might be during startup and other transient operating conditions Having discussed ‘Operate Clean’ we can then reflect upon ‘Build-Clean Plant-Wide’. Having developed a focus on ‘operate-clean’ and on the realization that ‘everything ends up in the steam generators’, the concept of ‘build-clean plant-wide’, while not the least bit easy to achieve, is a simple concept to understand. Build-clean means doing all welding, grinding, mill-scale cleanup, flow-passage cleanup, foreign materials exclusion (FME) and system close-up in such a way that upon startup, equipment such as steam generators which are built-clean, will be able to quickly achieve their CPT ingress objective – all without suffering an excessive crud-burst or ingress of any foreign object or anything else that may be life-limiting. (author)

  13. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  14. The McClean Lake uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The McClean Lake Uranium Project, located in the northern part of Saskatchewan, consists of five uranium deposits, Jeb - Sue A - Sue B - Sue C - McClean, scattered in three different locations on the mineral lease. On 16 March 1995, COGEMA Resources Inc and its partners, Denison Mines Ltd and OURD (Canada) Co Ltd, made the formal decision to develop the McClean Lake Project. Construction of the mine and mill started during summer 1995 and should be finished by mid 1997. Mining of the first deposit, Jeb started in 1996, ore being currently mined. The start of the yellowcake production is scheduled to start this fall. (author)

  15. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  16. Development and Implementation of a Low-Cost ex-situ Soil Clean-up Method for Actinide Removal at the AWE Aldermaston Site, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, K.; Purdie, P.; Agnew, K.; Cundy, A.B.; Hopkinson, L.; Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development (and implementation) of a novel, low-cost electrokinetic soil clean-up method for treatment of Pu-labelled soil wastes at the AWE Aldermaston site, Berkshire, U.K. Nuclear weapons manufacture and maintenance, and related research and development activities, have been carried out at the Aldermaston site for over 50 years, and these historical operations have generated a number of contaminated land legacy issues, including soils which contain above background (although radiologically insignificant) specific activities of Pu. Much of the Pu-labelled soil has been removed (via soil excavation), and is held in containment units on site, prior to remediation / decommissioning. Based on initial small-scale laboratory trials examining the potential for Pu removal and directed migration under a low intensity electrical field, a two year project (funded by the former UK Department of Trade and Industry and AWE PLC) has been implemented, and is reported here, involving a focussed programme of laboratory trials followed by a full-scale field trial to examine the potential of low-cost electrokinetic techniques to reduce the activity of Pu in clay-rich site soils, and reduce site waste disposal costs. Pu (and U) exhibited relatively complex behaviour in the laboratory trials, with Pu forming mobile soluble oxy-anionic species under the high pHs generated by the electrokinetic treatment technique. Clear mobilisation of Pu and U (along with a range of other elements) was however observed, in a range of soil types. The relative efficiency of remobilization was element-dependant, and, in terms of heavy metal contaminants, radionuclides, and the stable analogues of radionuclides known to be problematic at other nuclear sites, was (from most to least mobile) Cl > Zn > Sr > U > Pu > Pb. Both Pu and U showed enhanced mobility when the low-cost soil conditioning agent citric acid was added prior to electrokinetic treatment. Full-scale field trials of

  17. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...... relatively simple and thus practically efficient, partly due to the development of a new simple algorithm for computing the connected components of a graph embedded in the plane. A version of our cleaning algorithm has already been incorporated in a commercial product....

  18. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L.-S.

    2007-03-01

    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  19. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  20. Cleaning of SCALPEL next-generation lithography masks using PLASMAX, a revolutionary dry cleaning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, John J.; Novembre, Anthony E.; Bennett, Darryl A.; Kasica, Richard J.; Bailey, Brad; Blakey, Myrtle I.

    1999-12-01

    Due to mechanical and exposure considerations, NGL mask technology lacks the ability to use a pellicle to prevent mask contamination. The PLASMAX (Plasma Mechanical Activation and Extraction of Particle Contamination) process represents a technology, which acts as the functional replacement of a pellicle for the NGL mask. This dry environmentally benign cleaning technology can be directly integrated into the exposure system and serves as an in-situ creative mask cleaning process. Unlike other, more conventional cleaning methods, PLASMAX lifts surface particles from the mask, then suspends, traps and channels these particles down the vacuum port, thus preventing particle redeposition on the mask surface. Originally demonstrated on wafers, this plasma/mechanical cleaning technology has demonstrated its ability to remove particles from the surface of NGL masks such as SCALPEL (Scattering with Angular Limitation in Projection Electron Beam Lithography) masks. PLASMAX uses the combined action of a gentle plasma with simultaneous vibration to clean the mask. Unlike all other methods of mask cleaning, PLASMAX uses no water or hazardous acids, thus reducing the cost of each cleaning step and eliminating the environmental impact of today's aqueous cleaning technologies. Initial work with SCALPEL masks showed them to be highly stable and robust in the PLASMAX environment while yielding cleaning efficiencies of 90% removal of polyester particles 0.8 micron and larger. The PlASMAX technology was proven to be effective in removing particles from the patterned front side and strutted backside of the mask. This paper focuses on the ongoing development of PLASMAX to enhance the cleaning efficiency of SCALPEL masks down to 0.25-micron particles. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of various particle materials will be studied. Sandia National Laboratories is providing software model simulations of the PLASMAX technology to assist in the development effort.

  1. Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...

  2. Clean energy for development and economic growth: Biomass and other renewable options to meet energy and development needs in poor nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilley, Art; Pandey, Bikash; Karstad, Elsen; Owen, Matthew; Bailis, Robert; Ribot, Jesse; Masera, Omar; Diaz, Rodolpho; Benallou, Abdelahanine; Lahbabi, Abdelmourhit

    2012-10-01

    The document explores the linkages between renewable energy, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and climate change in developing countries. In particular, the paper places emphasis on biomass-based energy systems. Biomass energy has a number of unique attributes that make it particularly suitable to climate change mitigation and community development applications.

  3. Examining the impacts of Feed-in-Tariff and the Clean Development Mechanism on Korea's renewable energy projects through comparative investment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bonsang

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy projects in Korea have two avenues that provide subsidies to increase their financial viability. Feed-in-Tariffs (FITs) offer cost based prices for renewable electricity to compete with conventional energy producers. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) issues certified emission reduction (CER) credits that generate additional revenues, enhancing renewable projects’ return on investment. This study investigated how these subsidies impact the financial returns on Korea's CDM projects. An investment analysis was performed on four cases including solar, hydropower, wind and landfill gas projects. Revenues from electricity sales, FITs and CERs were compared using financial indicators to measure their relative contributions on profitability. Results indicate that CDM is partial towards large scale projects with high emission reductions. Moreover, conflicts with FIT schemes can deter small scale, capital intensive projects from pursuing registration. The analysis highlights CDM's bias for particular project types, which is in part due to its impartiality towards carbon credit prices. It also reveals that Korea, a key benefactor of CDM, is susceptible to such biases, as demonstrated by the disproportionate distribution of issued CERs. Improving incentives for bundled, small scale projects, CER price differentiation, and excluding domestic subsidies during additionality testing are proposed as possible reforms. - Highlights: • Korea constitute 8.2% of total CERs issued, third largest in the world after China and India. • CDM favors commercially competitive projects of large scale and high emissions. • 91% of issued CERs from GWP gas; of renewables, 88% from landfill gas and wind. • CER revenues marginal for small scale, commercially less attractive projects. • Conflicts with FIT potentially deters small scale projects from registration.

  4. Particulate Removal Using a CO2 Composite Spray Cleaning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nicole; Lin, Ying; Jackson, David; Chung, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    The Planetary Protection surface cleanliness requirements for potential Mars Sample Return hardware that would come in contact with Martian samples may be stricter than previous missions. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a new technology that will enable us to remove sub-micron size particles from critical hardware surfaces. A hand-held CO2 composite cleaning system was tested to verify its cleaning capabilities. This convenient, portable device can be used in cleanrooms for cleaning after rework or during spacecraft integration and assembly. It is environmentally safe and easy to use. This cleaning concept has the potential to be further developed into a robotic cleaning device on a Mars Lander to be used to clean sample acquisition or sample handling devices in situ. Contaminants of known sizes and concentrations, such as fluorescent microspheres and spores were deposited on common spacecraft material surfaces. The cleaning efficiency results will be presented and discussed.

  5. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  6. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  7. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  8. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  9. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  10. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  11. Bond slip and crack development in FRC and regular concrete specimens longitudinally reinforced with FRP or steel under tension loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    tensile loading using high definition image analysis in two unique test setups. Two different types of cementitious materials, conventional concrete and highly ductile Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), and two types of reinforcement bars, regular steel and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (GFRP......), were tested. It was found that the ductile ECC in contrast to regular brittle concrete decreases crack widths significantly which effectively results in decreased bond slip between the reinforcement and surrounding matrix. Furthermore the use of elastic GFRP in comparison to elastic/plastic steel...

  12. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Short, K.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel bonds have been produced between smooth, clean silicon substrates by spin-coating solutions containing partially hydrolysed silicon alkoxides. The two coated substrates were assembled and the resulting sandwich fired at temperatures ranging from 60 to 600 deg. C. The sol-gel coatings were characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, while the corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterised using both microindentation and tensile testing. Bonding of silicon wafers has been successfully achieved at temperatures as low as 60 deg. C. At 300 deg. C, the interfacial fracture energy was 1.55 J/m 2 . At 600 deg. C, sol-gel bonding provided superior interfacial fracture energy over classical hydrophilic bonding (3.4 J/m 2 vs. 1.5 J/m 2 ). The increase in the interfacial fracture energy is related to the increase in film density due to the sintering of the sol-gel interface with increasing temperature. The superior interfacial fracture energy obtained by sol-gel bonding at low temperature is due to the formation of an interfacial layer, which chemically bonds the two sol-gel coatings on each wafer. Application of a tensile stress on the resulting bond leads to fracture of the samples at the silicon/sol-gel interface

  13. Development of an Ethanol Blend Two-Stroke Direct-Injection Snowmobile for Use in the Clean Snowmobile Challenge and National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The University of Idaho's entry into the 2010 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) was a direct-injection (DI) two-stroke powered snowmobile modified to use blended ethanol fuel. The modulated and battery-less direct-injection system used to decrease...

  14. Understanding Bonds - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    a specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond (the principal) when it “matures,” or comes due. Among the types of bonds you can choose from are: Government securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage and asset-backed securities, federal agency...

  15. Nuclear waste water being cleaned in Paldinski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, A.

    1995-01-01

    The cleaning of nuclear waste water in the former military base of Paldiski, Estonia, has started with Finnish assistance. During the Soviet era, Paldiski served as a site for training nuclear submarine crews. Spent fuel has already been removed from the two nuclear reactors on the base. The volume of water to be cleaned totals some 450 cubic metres. The work is estimated to take till May 1995. The filtering technique used for cleaning has been developed in cooperation by IVO International and the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki. The project is one aspect of an extensive international cooperation programme for reducing environmental hazards arising from the base. The experience of the cleaning obtained so far has been positive. In the first water tank, filtering reduced the cesium activity of waste water from 1,500 becquerels to less than one becquerel. Two water tanks, however, have bottom sediment that probably cannot be treated during the present project. (orig.)

  16. Large Scale Cleaning Telescope Mirrors with Electron Beams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cleaning Lenses and Mirrored Surfaces with Electrons tasks include: Development of Fractal Wand Geometries; Vacuum Chamber testing for Fractal Wand Prototypes;...

  17. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  18. Pengembangan Sistem Informasi Pemesanan Layanan Jasa Cleaning Service Berbasis Web dan Mobile di Liochita Cleaning Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Agung, Aulio Romadho; Kridalukmana, Rinta; Windasari, Ike Pertiwi

    2016-01-01

    Liochita cleaning is a company engaged in the field of cleaning services which are located in the city of Semarang. Until now, the existing of information systems on Liochita Cleaning were not sufficiently able to manage the company and thus to make this company as a company that developed and developing its field and can compete with other companies is not possible. Start from recording customer data and order data, which is the became one as income data, so this companies are less aware in ...

  19. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  20. Laser-assisted cleaning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of ...

  1. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  2. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views 1:36 WHO: SAVE LIVES - Clean Your Hands - No action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 67,269 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson ...

  4. Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New developments and applications ... for modelling amorphous structure we found that the and bond integrals are not only transferable between graphite and diamond structures but they are also strongly anisotropic due to inter-plan bonding between graphite sheets.

  5. Development of a groundwater clean-up technology for the Hradcany military air base; Developpement d'une technologie de depollution des eaux souterraines de la base militaire de Hradcany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masak, J.; Cejkova, A.; Jirku, V. [Institut of Chemical Technology, Dept. of Fermentation Chemistry and Bioengineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Hercik, F. [KAP Ltd, Liberec (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    The former Hradcany military air base in the Czech Republic has been the object of a complex tailor-made clean-up technology for fuel pollution. The information presented here provides an overview of the project, including a description of the site, the contaminants, the technological tests, the bacterial strain used, as well as the technical goals and operation efficiency. The technological development of this ongoing project combines different treatments based on the application of biological agents and nutrient additives. (authors)

  6. Protocolo de Quioto e as possibilidades de inserção do Brasil no Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo por meio de projetos em energia limpa The Kyoto Protocol and the possibilities for the insertion of Brazil at the Clean Development Mechanism through projects in clean energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Margarido Moreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende estudar a inserção do Brasil no Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL do Protocolo de Quioto, por meio de projetos em energia limpa, enfatizando a cooperação entre países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento e visando as ações práticas que esse mecanismo permite desenvolver para se alcançar o desenvolvimento sustentável e para conter o aquecimento global. Para isto, realizou-se extensa revisão bibliográfica dos acordos internacionais referentes às mudanças climáticas e de livros e artigos sobre a inserção brasileira no Protocolo de Quioto e no Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo. O Protocolo de Quioto é um acordo internacional que prevê a redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa por intermédio de mecanismos flexibilizadores. O Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo é o único que permite a participação de países em desenvolvimento, para que eles reduzam emissões por meio de projetos que busquem o desenvolvimento sustentável. Neste contexto, o Brasil surge como um país atrativo para o recebimento destes projetos, por sua vocação para desenvolver fontes alternativas de energia e pela sua liderança no processo negociador do Protocolo. O MDL configura-se, portanto, em uma grande oportunidade para o Brasil, visto que esses projetos representam uma fonte de recursos financeiros para que o país busque o desenvolvimento sustentável, além de incentivarem um maior conhecimento científico e a adoção de novas tecnologias.This article intends to study the insertion of Brazil at the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol, through clean energy projects, emphasizing the cooperation between developed and developing countries, and aiming the practical actions that this mechanism allows to build up in order to reach the sustainable development and to stop the global warming. To achieve this, an intense bibliographic review of the international agreements concerning climate change, and

  7. Forests and global warming mitigation in Brazil: opportunities in the Brazilian forest sector for responses to global warming under the 'clean development mechanism''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created global warming response opportunities through the clean development mechanism that allow countries like Brazil to receive investments from companies and governments wishing to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil has a special place in strategies for combating global warming because its vast areas of tropical forest represent a potentially large source of emissions if deforested. A number of issues need to be settled to properly assign credit for carbon in the types of options presented by the Brazilian forest sector. These include definition of the units of carbon (permanent sequestration versus carbon-ton-years, the latter being most appropriate for forest options), the means of crediting forest reserve establishment, adoption of discounting or other time-preference weighting for carbon, definition of the accounting method (avoided emissions versus stock maintenance), and mechanism to allow program contributions to be counted, rather than restricting consideration to free-standing projects. Silvicultural plantations offer opportunities for carbon benefits, but have high social impacts in the Brazilian context. Plantations also inherently compete with deforestation reduction options for funds. Forest management has been proposed as a global warming response option, but the assignment of any value to time makes this unattractive in terms of carbon benefits. However, reduced-impact logging can substantially reduce emissions over those from traditional logging practices. Slowing deforestation is the major opportunity offered by Brazil. Slowing deforestation will require understanding its causes and creating functional models capable of generating land-use change scenarios with and without different policy changes and other activities. Brazil already has a number of programs designed to slow deforestation, but the continued rapid loss of forest highlights the vast gulf that exists between the magnitude of the problem and the

  8. Fiscal 1993 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology (Subtask 8 - Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbine - Development of ultrahigh-temperature materials); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). (Subtask 8. Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - Cho koon zairyo no kaihatsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Current technologies are surveyed and tasks to discharge are extracted relating to heat resistant alloys, intermetallic compounds, ceramic based composite materials, and carbon based composite materials, which are expected to be used for hydrogen combustion turbines. Concerning oxide dispersion strengthened alloys for cooled vanes, tasks to discharge are extracted, which relate to the designing, development, and selection of vane materials, bonding layer materials, and coating materials, and to thermal barrier coating techniques and machining techniques. Concerning porous fiber reinforced ceramic materials for ceramic shells, tasks involve the elucidation of corrosion behavior and manufacturing techniques. MoSi{sub 2}, which is a promising high-melting intermetallic compound, also presents some tasks to discharge for an increase in its high strength and high ductility in an ultrahigh-temperature steam/reducing atmosphere, and for improvement in manufacturing techniques. For the carbon/carbon composite material which is the sole material usable in the ultrahigh-temperature domain of 2,000 degrees C, an analysis and evaluation method taking its anisotropy into consideration needs to be developed, and an oxidation resistant coating has to be also developed. In addition to the designing and development of these materials, development is necessary of materials testing and evaluating techniques. (NEDO)

  9. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  10. Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented

  11. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  13. Clean Cities National Partner Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    U. S. DOE Clean Cities Program has awarded its National Partner awards for 2002, and the awards will be presented at the Clean Cities Conference in May 2002. This fact sheets describe the winners and their contributions.

  14. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  15. Development of Cotton Fabrics with Durable UV Protective and Self-cleaning Property by Deposition of Low TiO2Levels through Sol-gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anu; Butola, Bhupendra Singh

    2018-01-19

    In this article, the deposition of TiO 2 on cotton fabric using sol-gel technique has been described. Various process routes (pad-dry-cure, pad-dry-hydrothermal and pad-dry-solvothermal) were examined to impart a stable coating of TiO 2 on fabric. The role of precursor concentration, process temperature and time of treatment were studied to aim at a wash durable, UV protective and self-cleaning property in the treated fabric. EDX and ICP-MS techniques were used to examine the add-on percentage of TiO 2 on cotton fabrics treated via different routes. It has been found that the TiO 2 remains largely amorphous and nondurable if it is given a short thermal treatment. To convert the deposited TiO 2 to its anatase crystal form, a prolonged hydrothermal treatment for at least 3 h needs to be given. TiO 2 deposition levels of less than 0.1% were found to be effective in imparting reasonable degree of UV protection and self-cleaning property to the cotton fabric. The self-cleaning ability of the treated fabric against coffee stain was also studied and was found to be related to the process route and the deposition levels of TiO 2 . © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Copper and liquid crystal polymer bonding towards lead sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhwan, Taufique Z.; Alam, Arif U.; Haddara, Yaser M.; Howlader, Matiar M. R.

    2018-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic heavy metal causing adverse impacts on environment and human health, thus requiring its careful monitoring. In this work, we demonstrate the integration of copper (Cu) film-based electrodes toward Pb sensing. For this, we developed a direct bonding method for Cu thin film and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment followed by contact and heat at 230 °C. The oxygen plasma activation forms hydroxyl groups (OH‑) on Cu and LCP. The activated surfaces further adsorb water molecules when exposed to clean room air during contact. After contact, hydrogen bonds are formed between the OH‑ groups. The interfacial water is removed when the contacted films are heated, leading to shrinkage of OH‑ chain. This results in an intermediate oxide layer linking the Cu and C sites of Cu and LCP respectively. A strong adhesion (670 N·m‑1) is obtained between Cu/LCP that may offer prolonged use of the electrode without delamination in wet sensing applications. Anodic stripping voltammetry of Pb using Cu thin film electrode shows a stronger current peak than sputtered Cu electrode, which implies the significance of the direct bonding approach to integrate thin films. We also studied the electrochemical impedance that will enable modeling of integrated environmental sensors for on-site monitoring of heavy metals.

  17. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  18. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  19. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  20. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.