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Sample records for bombings travel phobia

  1. Usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jongh; M. Holmshaw; W. Carswell; A. van Wijk

    2011-01-01

    Despite its prevalence and potential impact on functioning, there are surprisingly little data regarding the treatment responsiveness of travel phobia. The purpose of this non-randomized study was to evaluate the usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia, or milder travel a

  2. Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. It is a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no real danger. There are many specific phobias. Acrophobia is a fear of heights. Agoraphobia is ...

  3. Usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Jongh, de, A.; Holmshaw, M.; Carswell, W.; Wijk, van, C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its prevalence and potential impact on functioning, there are surprisingly little data regarding the treatment responsiveness of travel phobia. The purpose of this non-randomized study was to evaluate the usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia, or milder travel anxiety arising as a result of a road traffic accident. Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT), and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing were used to treat a sample of 184 pa...

  4. Usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Ad; Holmshaw, Manda; Carswell, Wilson; van Wijk, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Despite its prevalence and potential impact on functioning, there are surprisingly little data regarding the treatment responsiveness of travel phobia. The purpose of this non-randomized study was to evaluate the usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia, or milder travel anxiety arising as a result of a road traffic accident. Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT), and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing were used to treat a sample of 184 patients, who were referred to a psychological rehabilitation provider. Patients in both treatment groups were encouraged to encounter their feared objects and situations between sessions. Specific (i.e., travel) phobia was diagnosed in 57% of cases. Patients in both treatment conditions showed equally large, and clinically significant, decreases in symptoms as indexed by three validated measures (Impact of Event Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and General Health Questionnaire), therapist ratings of treatment outcome, and a return to driving or travelling by car or motorbike. These improvements were obtained within an average course of 7.3 sessions of 1 hour each. Patients with travel phobia responded with a greater reduction of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than those with milder travel anxiety. Passengers reported higher levels of trauma symptoms than drivers, but no difference in effectiveness of treatment was found between these groups. The results suggest that trauma-focused psychological interventions can be a treatment alternative for patients with travel anxiety. Given the seriousness of the clinical problems related to road traffic accidents more rigorous outcome research is warranted and needed. PMID:20146201

  5. School Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  6. Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Đorđević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Mužinić, Lana

    2003-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is an irrational fear of being observed and judged by other people in various social settings. The individual is afraid that he or she will act in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing. It is often a chronic, disabling condition that is characterized by a phobic avoidance of most social situations. Social anxiety disorder is the most frequent anxiety disorder (10–15%) that occurs in two subtypes – generalized and specific. It is ...

  7. Phobia - simple/specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    A phobia is an ongoing and unreasonable fear of a certain object, animal, activity, or situation that poses little ... Specific phobias are a type of anxiety disorder in which a person may feel extremely anxious or has a ...

  8. Specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided. PMID:19716991

  9. SOCIAL PHOBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabu Supramaniam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social Phobia is a condition characterized by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Exposure to the social or performance situation almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response. Although adolescents and adults with this disorder recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, this may not be the case in children. Most often, the social or performance situation is avoided, although it is sometimes endured with dread. In individuals younger than 18, symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months before is disorder is diagnosed. This diagnosis should not be given if the fear is reasonable given the context of the stimuli (e.g., fear of being called on in class when unprepared. The disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder is not due to a medical condition, medication, or abused substance. It is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.    

  10. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  11. Short Term Treatment Of Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    A phobia is an irrational fear. Many people have phobias but they require treatment only if their symptoms interfere with their daily lives. Simple supportive psychotherapy may be effective for mild phobias. Chemotherapy, particularly with antidepressants, will relieve some severe phobic states. Systematic desensitization, a behavior therapy well suited to physicians with an interest in hypnosis, can cure many incapacitating phobias. PMID:20469246

  12. Castration anxiety and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Rosemary; Larrabee, Linda K; Wyatt, Ian M; Ontiberoz, Amanda; Waters, Stephanie K; Werner, Mitzi L; Miller, Andrea L; Lovelady, Adrianne C; Hurt, Tilmon J; Hardin, Edward D; Gonzalez, Patricia M

    2002-12-01

    Based on Freud's case study of "Little Hans," the authors tested the hypothesis that men with phobias would score higher on castration anxiety than men without phobias. College men with either average or high scores on the Fears Scale of the MMPI-2 (n = 10 men in each group) responded to the Thematic Apperception Test, which was scored for castration anxiety. Men with high scores on the Fears Scale had higher scores on castration anxiety than men with average scores on the Fears Scale. The findings are consistent with Freud's hypothesis about phobias. PMID:12585544

  13. Phobias and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, I; Horder, J

    1987-01-01

    Disabling phobias and phobia like compulsive rituals are surprisingly common in the general population, though only a minority ask for help. Behavioural treatment (exposure) and antidepressants are the most helpful approaches. Most patients can help themselves if they use a self exposure approach systematically under the guidance of a clinician. The method seems well suited for use by general practitioners. Anti-depressants are a useful adjuvant, not a substitute, for exposure when there is evidence of depression complicating the phobias or rituals. PMID:3117246

  14. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  15. Fears and Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the situation calls for. Many people have a fear of public speaking . Whether it's giving a report in class, speaking ... cloudy. A guy with social phobia experiences intense fear of public speaking or interacting, and may be afraid to answer ...

  16. Phobias and their management.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, I.; Horder, J

    1987-01-01

    Disabling phobias and phobia like compulsive rituals are surprisingly common in the general population, though only a minority ask for help. Behavioural treatment (exposure) and antidepressants are the most helpful approaches. Most patients can help themselves if they use a self exposure approach systematically under the guidance of a clinician. The method seems well suited for use by general practitioners. Anti-depressants are a useful adjuvant, not a substitute, for exposure when there is e...

  17. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is social phobia? What are the signs and symptoms of social phobia? What causes social phobia? How is social phobia treated? What is it like having social phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order a ...

  18. TRAVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venice Lau

    2012-01-01

    <正>01"孤星之州"户外探险之旅>温润的气候、湛蓝的天空、充足的阳光和雄美壮丽的地貌资源,令美国得克萨斯州终年引人入胜,而旅游网站TravelTex正好带你畅游德州最刺激好玩的冒险之旅。德州拥有六百多英里波光粼粼的海岸线,毗邻墨西哥湾暖流,吸引着游客体验多姿多彩的户外活动,不论赏鸟、远足、游钓,还是斯库巴潜水,都是户外探险爱好者的理想胜地。狂热的垂钓迷可以沿着幽

  19. Time Bombs

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Hannah Allen

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in technology coupled with the perception of diminished public tolerance for casualties have increased the prominence and popularity of aerial bombing as a coercive tool, particularly for the United States. Despite interest from policy makers and support from the public, there has been little scholarly assessment of these coercive episodes. How successful are air campaigns, and what are the prospects for the future? In this article, I focus on the factors that cause bombing campa...

  20. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  1. Conditioning experiences and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, H; de Ruiter, C; van den Hout, M A; Hoekstra, R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the extent to which phobias are associated with a conditioning pathway to fear. The Phobic Origin Questionnaire (Ost and Hugdahl, Behav. Res. Ther. 19, 439-477, 1981) was administered to a sample of 91 phobic outpatients (patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobics, simple phobics). Results show clearly that conditioning experiences occur more frequently than either vicarious or informational, learning experiences, which confirms the findings previously reported by Rimm, Janda, Lancaster, Nahl and Dittmar (Behav. Res. Ther. 15, 231-238, 1977) and by Ost and Hugdahl (1981; Behav. Res. Ther. 21, 623-631, 1983). Yet, conditioning experiences consist mainly of panic attacks in confirmed environments. The findings also suggest that a considerable number of phobias are based on a combination of different pathways to fear. PMID:2610660

  2. Noise Phobia in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangle

    Full Text Available Fear of thunderstorms and other forms of noise phobia are common problems in dogs. Administering medications along with changing the pet’s environment, and using behavior modification techniques can help ease the fear. Above all, do not give your pet any attention or reward when he is showing signs of fear; this will only reinforce the fearful behavior. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 351-352

  3. Love Bomb

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Love Bomb charts evidence of love and hate through a series of still lives constructed and informed by sourcery, chemistry and psychotherapy. The photographic work is a response to the breakup of relationship and metaphorical investigation of the links between the two emotions on wider scale. Restlessly the artist documents her attempts to stay in love, searching for love potions on the internet then making and photographing them in her studio. Interspersed amongst these attempts is the docum...

  4. Treatment of tunnel phobia: an experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotestam, K Gunnar; Svebak, Sven

    2009-01-01

    The opening of the deepest undersea tunnel in the world (264 m below sea level, 5600 m in length) replaced the ferry from the island of Hitra to the mainland in Norway. This event provoked phobic anxiety for traveling through the undersea tunnel in a number of individuals in the area. A treatment program for tunnel phobia was designed to test whether such a phobia could be mitigated by procedures previously proven effective in the treatment of other phobias. The program was presented to 18 persons with a specific phobia for tunnels and included a general discussion on the construction of undersea tunnels, given by an engineer from the tunnel construction company, and on phobic anxiety. It further consisted of gradual exposure to the tunnel in situ. Treatment effects were strong. All patients were able to travel on their own by car through the tunnel after the treatment. Their somatic complaints and phobic thoughts related to the tunnel were substantially reduced, and their mastery of tunnel driving was convincingly increased compared with the wait-list reference group. PMID:19440895

  5. Participants needed for new study on parental involvement in treatment of children with phobias

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Child Study Center, part of the College of Science, is seeking children with phobias, and their parents, to participate in a study of the effectiveness of parental involvement in treating their children's fears. In order to be considered for the project, children must be between the ages of 7 and 12, have a specific phobia, and be able to travel to Blacksburg for the treatment program.

  6. Social Phobias: Behavioural and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesal, Robin T.; Bajramovic, Hifzija

    1989-01-01

    Five to 10% of the general population suffers from symptoms of an anxiety disorder. Social phobias, while less common than panic disorder, agoraphobia or simple phobias, are just as debilitating. Patients present with somatic, behavioural, mood and cognitive disturbances, of which unrecognized social isolation, depression, loss of employment, and drug and alcohol abuse can be the result. A symptomatic approach can be implemented through the use of education, insight, support, behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy, and pharmacological intervention. PMID:21248950

  7. Social Phobias: Behavioural and Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Reesal, Robin T.; Bajramovic, Hifzija

    1989-01-01

    Five to 10% of the general population suffers from symptoms of an anxiety disorder. Social phobias, while less common than panic disorder, agoraphobia or simple phobias, are just as debilitating. Patients present with somatic, behavioural, mood and cognitive disturbances, of which unrecognized social isolation, depression, loss of employment, and drug and alcohol abuse can be the result. A symptomatic approach can be implemented through the use of education, insight, support, behaviour therap...

  8. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Help Find a Therapist Treatment Support Groups Coaching Mental Health Apps Helping Others Self-Help Publications & ... Yes No Fear that interferes with your daily life? Yes No The inability to travel alone? Having ...

  9. Finding gene-environment interactions for Phobias

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Eley, Thalia C

    2008-01-01

    Phobias are common disorders causing a great deal of suffering. Studies of gene-environment interaction (G × E) have revealed much about the complex processes underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders but have told us little about phobias. This article describes what is already known about genetic and environmental influences upon phobias and suggests how this information can be used to optimise the chances of discovering G × Es for phobias. In addition to the careful concep...

  10. Finding gene-environment interactions for phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M; Lau, Jennifer Y F; Eley, Thalia C

    2008-03-01

    Phobias are common disorders causing a great deal of suffering. Studies of gene-environment interaction (G x E) have revealed much about the complex processes underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders but have told us little about phobias. This article describes what is already known about genetic and environmental influences upon phobias and suggests how this information can be used to optimise the chances of discovering G x Es for phobias. In addition to the careful conceptualisation of new studies, it is suggested that data already collected should be re-analysed in light of increased understanding of processes influencing phobias. PMID:18297421

  11. Social phobia with sudden onset--post-panic social phobia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Overlap between social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) has been observed in epidemiological, family, and challenge studies. One possible explanation is that some cases of SP develop as a consequence of a panic attack in a social situation. By definition, these cases of SP have sudden onset. It...... PD. The concept of post-panic SP is discussed....

  12. Understanding and Treating Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell C.; Kimball, Amy; Stroup, Erin L.

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are reviewed,…

  13. SOCIAL PHOBIA PREVALENCE IN YOUNGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD REZA ZAMANI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most common psychiatric disorder of new communities are the anxiety disorders. In this survey Isfahans' high school students' social phobia were assessed as an important part of anxiety disorders. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school students (250 male, 250 female whom selected by multi-stage cluster and simple random sampling, were enrolled into study. Data collection performed by multiple choice question are and analysis were done by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level. Results: 11 percents of selected students with mean age about 16 Yrs, have had Social Phobia (male=56.4%, female=43.6 % . Parents' education of affected group were higher than non-affected, and birth rank had significant relation with Social Phobia (P = 0.043. Conclusions: Unfortunately in spite of high prevalence of social phobia, It's remain unknown and affected students would have numerous educational and communicational problems because of this disorder, therefore for complications' prevention and on time treatment, its need to inform people and physicians about this disorder and its' diagnose.

  14. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pachana, Nancy A.; Woodward, Rana M; Byrne, Gerard JA

    2007-01-01

    Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the tre...

  15. Incidence of Phobias in Iranian Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DANESHMAND

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1972 a study was undertaken in Roozbeh Mental Hospital of Tehran University to investigate the prevalence of phobias among the patients suffering from one type or another ofmental disorders. It was found that about 10 percent of the total patients visited in the hospital were suffering from phobia. Moreover, darkness, corpse, crowd, pet animals, fear from cancer and syphilis accounted for 79%of the most common phobias, among the 655 recorded cases.

  16. Treatment options for the specific phobias

    OpenAIRE

    Jarnail Singh; Janardhan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Specific phobias are among the most common psychological problems both in men and women. For treatment of specific phobias, exposure-based therapy is the first choice followed by cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques and short-term pharmacotherapy. Long-term pharmacotherapy for specific phobias, is associated with adverse drug reactions and drug abuse, thus not a reasonable choice for long-term symptom control. Glucocorticoids and d-cycloserine (DCS) cause fear reduction when used in combi...

  17. State Phobia and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell; Villadsen, Kaspar

    State Phobia draws extensively upon the work of Michel Foucault to argue for the necessity of the concept of the state in political and social analysis. In so doing, it takes on not only the dominant view in the human sciences that the concept of the state is outmoded, but also the large interpre......State Phobia draws extensively upon the work of Michel Foucault to argue for the necessity of the concept of the state in political and social analysis. In so doing, it takes on not only the dominant view in the human sciences that the concept of the state is outmoded, but also the large...... with the exercise of political sovereignty, yet his work cannot make visible the concept of the state. Moving beyond Foucault, the authors outline new ways of conceiving the state's role in establishing social order and in mediating between an inequality-producing capitalist economy and the juridical...

  18. [Workplace related anxiety and phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2007-01-01

    Work is an important aspect of life. Problems at the workplace must therefore have negative consequences on the mental status and mental problems will interfere with the working place. The relation between anxiety and the workplace is especially important because the workplace causes anxiety due to its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general, and work related anxieties in particular, are workplace phobias, with panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This is a serious complication with negative consequences for the further course of illness. It makes special therapeutic intervention necessary. This paper describes the phenomenon of workplace related anxieties and phobia and provides a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:17106728

  19. Social phobia in spasmodic torticollis

    OpenAIRE

    Gundel, H; Wolf, A; Xidara, V; Busch, R.; Ceballos-Baumann, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity assessed by the use of a structured clinical interview in a large, representative sample of patients with spasmodic torticollis (ST) and to test the hypothesis that social phobia would be highly prevalent.
METHODS—In a consecutive cohort of 116 patients with ST treated with botulinum toxin overall psychiatric comorbidity was studied prospectively with the structured clinical interview (SCID) for DSM-IV axis I d...

  20. The neutron bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'weapon with increased radiation', as the neutron bomb is officially called, has become the subject of fervent discussions. As a substitute for nuclear bombs it is said to reduce the damage to the non-combatant population when tactically deployed, having a greatly reduced radius of action - that at least is what the military say, who are in favour of it. The article describes the radiation effect of the atomic bomb from the examples of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The report on the military concept and development of the neutron bomb is followed by a description of how might be constructed. (orig.)

  1. I-95 phobia treated with hypnotic systematic desensitization: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Systematic desensitization and hypnosis mediated therapy share empirical evidence of efficacy in the treatment of specific phobias. However, a review of the literature indicated there is limited documentation in the employment of these modalities for treating driving related phobias (DRP). This article reports on the use of hypnosis aided systematic desensitization (HASD) in the successful treatment of a case of non-accident related driving phobia, specifically manifested on Interstate 95 (I-95). The treatment consisted of 6 office sessions of HASD along with 14 in-vivo sessions where the patient performed multiple exposures/rehearsals of the behaviors that had been successfully mastered at the office visits. The results indicated that this patient with case of (DRP) was able to resume travel on I-95 at conclusion of treatment. The patient was symptom free at follow up 6 months later. PMID:24665816

  2. Simple techniques to treat medical phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. B.; Ferguson, J. M.; Wermuth, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Participant modelling, a behaviourally-orientated treatment technique, is an effect method of treating phobias associated with minor medical procedures or apparatus such as needles or intravenous catheters. The steps in this technique are described and two cases of severe needle phobias successfully treated with participant modelling are presented to illustrate further its application. PMID:876910

  3. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. PMID:26667758

  4. The onset of driving phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjack, D J

    1984-12-01

    Thirty driving phobics who called the Psychiatry Outpatient Phobia Clinic (25 females and five males) were given a 20-min semi-standardized telephone interview during which they were asked about the circumstances of the onset of their driving fears. Twelve (40%) reported that their fears were precipitated by a panic attack on the freeway; six (20%) by a collision; and three (10%) by other frightening experiences in automobiles. Four (13.3%) related the onset to family stress or upheaval. Other modes of onset also occurred. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of existing theories of fear acquisition and treatment approaches. PMID:6526942

  5. Yields of the bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations reported in later chapters require knowing how many fissions took place in each bomb. The literature gives the average energy released per fission; so an equivalent quantity is the energy released by each bomb. The energy released is called the 'yield'. The yield is given in kilotons. Here 'kiloton' is used as a unit of energy, not of mass. It is defined as 1012 calories or approximately the energy released in the explosion of one kiloton (kt) of TNT. The bomb exploded over Hiroshima was a gun-type device using enriched uranium and was the only detonation ever made of this type of device. The bomb exploded over Nagasaki was an implosion device using plutonium and was the same type as the bombs tested at Trinity in New Mexico and at the Able and Baker tests of Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll in 1946. These test data were the primary source of information used in determining the yield of the Nagasaki bomb. The yield of the Hiroshima bomb was determined by comparison with effects observed in the two cities and by some of the other methods listed below. Because of the importance of the yields to the reassessment program, they have been studied many times

  6. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  7. Radiation: facts, fallacies and phobias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is frequent debate in the media and the scientific published reports about the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment, the benefits and risks of the nuclear industry, uranium mining and the storage of radioactive wastes. Driving this debate is increasing concern about reliance on fossil fuels for power generation for which alternatives are required. Unfortunately, there is generally a poor understanding of the relevant basic sciences compounded by widespread irrational fear of irradiation (radiation phobia). Radioactivity, with special reference to uranium and plutonium is simply described. How radiation affect tissues and the potential hazards to individuals and populations are explained. The origins of radiation phobia and its harmful consequences are examined. Whether we like it or not, Australia is heavily involved in the uranium industry by virtue of having one-third of the world's known reserves, exports of which are worth approximately $470m annually. As this paper has been written as simply as possible, it may also be of interest to readers who may have had little scientific training. It may be downloaded from the web using references provided in this article. It is concluded that ignorance and fear are major impediments to rational debate on radiation issues

  8. Radiation: facts, fallacies and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, D R

    2007-02-01

    There is frequent debate in the media and the scientific published reports about the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment, the benefits and risks of the nuclear industry, uranium mining and the storage of radioactive wastes. Driving this debate is increasing concern about reliance on fossil fuels for power generation for which alternatives are required. Unfortunately, there is generally a poor understanding of the relevant basic sciences compounded by widespread irrational fear of irradiation (radiation phobia). Radioactivity, with special reference to uranium and plutonium is simply described. How radiation affect tissues and the potential hazards to individuals and populations are explained. The origins of radiation phobia and its harmful consequences are examined. Whether we like it or not, Australia is heavily involved in the uranium industry by virtue of having one-third of the world's known reserves, exports of which are worth approximately $470m annually. As this paper has been written as simply as possible, it may also be of interest to readers who may have had little scientific training. It may be downloaded from the web using references provided in this article. It is concluded that ignorance and fear are major impediments to rational debate on radiation issues. PMID:17217485

  9. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  10. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Luckey, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation,...

  11. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  12. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  13. Are IRIS Bombs Connected to Ellerman Bombs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas (∼2–8 × 104 K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified 10 IBs. We find that 3 are unambiguously and 3 others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended {{{H}}}α wings without leaving an obvious signature in the {{{H}}}α core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) the O iv 1401.156 Å and 1399.774 Å lines are absent or very weak; (2) the Mn i 2795.640 Å line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg ii k line wing; (3) the Mg ii k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni ii 1393.330 Å and 1335.203 Å are very strong; and (5) the 1700 Å images obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal intense and compact brightenings. These properties support the formation of these bombs in the photosphere, demonstrating that EBs can be heated much more efficiently than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the Mg ii k and h lines can be used to investigate EBs similarly to {{{H}}}α , which opens a promising new window for EB studies. The remaining four IBs obviously have no connection to EBs and they do not have the properties mentioned above, suggesting a higher formation layer, possibly in the chromosphere.

  14. Are IRIS bombs connected to Ellerman bombs?

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas ($\\sim$2--8$\\times$10$^{4}$ K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified ten IBs. We find that three are unambiguously and three others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended H$_{\\alpha}$ wings without leaving an obvious signature in the H$_{\\alpha}$ core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) The O~{\\sc{iv}}~1401.156\\AA{} and 1399.774\\AA{} lines are absent or very weak; (2) The Mn~{\\sc{i}}~2795.640\\AA{} line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k line wing; (3) The Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) Chromospheric absorption lin...

  15. Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervous and have a panic attack. What's a Panic Attack Like? Panic attacks can be really scary and may make someone ... sweat, and breathe quickly. Some people who have panic attacks might have chest pains, feel dizzy, or feel ...

  16. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions.

  17. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  18. School Phobia: The Going to School Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Dorothy

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the two main causes of phobia and presents a series of case studies, from Toronto school files, which were satisfactorily handled by psychiatric help, either in or outside the school setting. (CJ)

  19. Treatment options for the specific phobias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnail Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific phobias are among the most common psychological problems both in men and women. For treatment of specific phobias, exposure-based therapy is the first choice followed by cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques and short-term pharmacotherapy. Long-term pharmacotherapy for specific phobias, is associated with adverse drug reactions and drug abuse, thus not a reasonable choice for long-term symptom control. Glucocorticoids and d-cycloserine (DCS cause fear reduction when used in combination with exposure based therapy. Being a non-anxiolytic DCS accelerates fear reduction during exposure by facilitating memory consolidation during post-treatment phase. Adjuvant cortisol to exposure therapy also caused great reduction in fear in spider phobia. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 593-598

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Castilho, Paula; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The present study compares core beliefs between a group of patients with social phobia (n = 62), other anxiety disorders (n = 41) and a group of non-psychiatric controls (n = 55). Participants completed measures to assess social anxiety and the Young’s Schema Questionnaire (123-items version) that is designed to assess 15 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). Results suggest that the schematic structure of patients with social phobia differs from the one of patients with other anxiety d...

  1. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  2. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Herbelin, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents researches and experiments performed in collaboration with a psychiatrist in order to validate and improve the use of virtual reality in social phobia psychotherapy. Cognitive and behavioral therapies are strongly based on the exposure to anxiety provoking stimuli. Virtual reality seems to be appropriate for such exposures as it allows for on-demand reproduction of reality. The idea has been validated for the treatment of various phobias but is more delicate in the case o...

  3. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Herbelin, Bruno; Thalmann, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents researches and experiments performed in collaboration with a psychiatrist in order to validate and improve the use of virtual reality in social phobia psychotherapy. Cognitive and behavioral therapies are strongly based on the exposure to anxiety provoking stimuli. Virtual reality seems to be appropriate for such exposures as it allows for on-demand reproduction of reality. The idea has been validated for the treatment of various phobias but is more delicate in the case o...

  4. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itinerary if not accustomed to planned activities Postpone travel if risks outweigh benefits Box 8-02. Contraindications for travel during pregnancy Absolute Contraindications Abruptio placentae Active labor ...

  5. Getting beyond "pandora-phobia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Clinicians, regardless of discipline, tend to prefer those areas of their practice in which they feel a sense of mastery, a confidence in their ability to manage the conditions being presented to them by their patients. In contrast, in clinical scenarios when the history and/or physical exam findings consist of vague and difficult-to-interpret elements, the resulting discordance may challenge some clinicians' sense of mastery. This common primary care scenario, the presentation of symptoms for which no "organic," pathologic, physical diagnosis can be discerned, is referred to as Medically Unexplained Symptoms. Clinical trainees experience "complicated" patients as particularly challenging, and may hesitate to ask about the patients' thoughts and feelings, resulting from a fear of getting entangled in a conversation from which the trainee cannot easily escape. The author refers to this as "Pandora-phobia," from Pandora in Greek mythology and the fear of opening Pandora's box. The task in the training environment is to help young clinicians gain experience in "lifting the lid" of Pandora's box. This is ideally achieved by trainees observing the role-modeling of accomplished mentors, and their working with capable, multidisciplinary teammates. This is the beauty of the collaborative, integrated care delivery team; there is a balanced set of skills and expertise brought by an expanded number of caring persons supporting those patients whose conditions most need a combination of biomedical and psychosocial expertise. PMID:24684159

  6. Sensitivity of Outcome Measures for Treatments of Generalized Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Woody, Sheila; McLean, Peter D.; Koch, William J.

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of five measures of outcomes of treatment for generalized social phobia was studied with 60 people diagnosed with generalized social phobia. Outcome measures were completed before and after treatment and three months later, and effect sizes were computed. Results support the usefulness of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (S.…

  7. A case of spider phobia in a congenitally blind person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Frauke; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Sülzenbrück, Sandra; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2007-09-30

    Vision is the key sensory system in humans, leading to the implicit assumption that the acquisition of spider phobia is predominantly mediated through the visual pathway. We report on a congenitally blind person with spider phobia, showing that the acquisition of spider phobia does not necessarily depend on visual cues. PMID:17597227

  8. Processing of emotional faces in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

  9. The Dental Cognitions Questionnaire in CBT for dental phobia in an adolescent with multiple phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2003-03-01

    A case of an adolescent boy with multiple phobias who was treated successfully for his dental phobia is described to illustrate the clinical utility of the Dental Cognitions Questionnaire (DCQ) in aiding effective cognitive-behavior therapy. The client showed drops in dental anxiety that coincided with the use of the DCQ in cognitive restructuring, and there was a close correlation between dental cognitions and degree of dental anxiety over the time-course of therapy and follow up. PMID:12763393

  10. Find Your Voice: Eliminate Classroom Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    The academically underprepared community college student may also be psychosocially underprepared for college, a condition contributing to the development of classroom-specific social phobia and to the high attrition rate at community colleges. The "Find Your Voice Program" uses individual and group cognitive-behavioral techniques to develop…

  11. The Cognitive approach of Social Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zartaloudi A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social phobia is a disorder characterized by an excessive fear of the individual that he or she “will act in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing” in response to one or more social or performance situations. These disorders cause significant distress and interfere appreciably with a person's daily career, academic, and interpersonal functioning. AIM: The purpose of the present study is to explore the influence of cognitive factors associated with the development and maintenance of Social Phobia. METHOD: A critical review of this body of literature was carried out. Evidence was collected through Medline database. RESULTS: According to cognitive theories, social phobic individuals interpret social situations in a negative way. They overestimate danger, threat and fear, and underestimate their abilities to cope with danger and these threats. As a result, individuals revert to maladaptive coping strategies, including avoidance and safety behaviours. For people with social phobia, social cues are posited to activate negative schema, or beliefs. CONCLUSION: Recognizing the importance of negative self-images, several cognitive-behavioral treatment programs for social phobia include cognitive (cognitive restructuring and behavioral techniques for correcting distorted self-images, modifying dysfunctional thinking patterns and improving individuals’ social skills in order to cope effectively with the social situation.

  12. Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia and Dog Phobia in Youth: Psychological Characteristics and Associated Features in a Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2016-05-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia is a particularly debilitating condition that has been largely ignored in the child literature. The present study examined the clinical phenomenology of BII phobia in 27 youths, relative to 25 youths with dog phobia-one of the most common and well-studied phobia subtypes in youth. Children were compared on measures of phobia severity, functional impairment, comorbidity, threat appraisals (danger expectancies and coping), focus of fear, and physiological responding, as well as vulnerability factors including disgust sensitivity and family history. Children and adolescents with BII phobia had greater diagnostic severity. In addition, they were more likely to have a comorbid diagnosis of a physical health condition, to report more exaggerated danger expectancies, and to report fears that focused more on physical symptoms (e.g., faintness and nausea) in comparison to youth with dog phobia. The present study advances knowledge relating to this poorly understood condition in youth. PMID:27157026

  13. Do Cognitive Models Help in Predicting the Severity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Phobia, and Depression after Motor Vehicle Accidents? A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke; Glucksman, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months…

  14. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Ehring; A. Ehlers; E. Glucksman

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their acciden

  15. Human bombing - a religious act

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of human bombing, which is popularly known as suicide bombing has become important in the Western world since the 9/11 and 7/7 attacks. Since then the issue of human bombing has become important to academia, the media, and security experts. This interest has resulted in much literature attempting to explain why human bombings take place and what motivates the bombers; for instance, the works of Gambetta (2006); Pape (2006); Merari (2010); Hafez (2006, 2007); Wright (2007); Bloom (20...

  16. Heterogeneity among specific phobia types in DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, M M; Brown, T A; Barlow, D H

    1997-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that situational specific phobias (e.g., phobias of driving, flying, enclosed places) are more closely related to agoraphobia than are other specific phobia types. The present study investigated this hypothesis by examining heterogeneity among the four main DSM-IV specific phobia types, particularly with respect to variables believed to be associated with agoraphobia. Using interviews and behavioral testing, 60 patients with specific phobias of animals, heights, blood/injections, or driving were compared with respect to etiology, age of onset, physiological response, predictability of panic attacks, and focus of apprehension. Fifteen patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia served as a comparison group for some measures. Relative to the other specific phobias, driving phobias were most strongly associated with a later age of onset, similar to that of individuals with agoraphobia. Height phobias were also associated with a late age of onset as well as a more internal focus of apprehension, relative to other groups. Finally, individuals in the blood/injection phobia group reported a more internal focus of apprehension than those in other groups and were the only group to report a history of fainting in the phobic situation. Overall, the results did not support the hypothesis that situational phobias are a variant of agoraphobia. In fact, on several of the variables for which groups did differ, individuals with height phobias (a phobia from the natural environment type) showed a pattern most similar to individuals with agoraphobia. The implications of these results for the classification of specific phobias are discussed. PMID:9465442

  17. A Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Applied to a Social Anxiety Disorder and a Specific Phobia, Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsas, George D.; Paschali, Antonia A.

    2014-01-01

    George, a 23-year-old Greek student, was referred by a psychiatrist for treatment to a University Counseling Centre in Athens. He was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and specific phobia situational type. He was complaining of panic attacks and severe symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms were triggered when in certain social situations and also when travelling by plane, driving a car and visiting tall buildings or high places. His symptoms lead him to avoid finding himself in such situat...

  18. Ellerman bombs: fallacies, fads, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J; van der Voort, Luc H M Rouppe; Sütterlin, Peter; Vitas, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are short-lived brightenings of the outer wings of Halpha that occur in active regions with much flux emergence. We point out fads and fallacies in the extensive Ellerman bomb literature, discuss their appearance in various spectral diagnostics, and advocate their use as indicators of field reconfiguration in active-region topography using AIA 1700 A images.

  19. Specific Phobia in Youth: Phenomenology and Psychological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Raishevich, Natoshia; Davis, Thompson E.; Sirbu, Cristian; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2009-01-01

    Sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of 62 youth with animal and natural environment types of specific phobia were examined in a treatment-seeking sample. Differences due to age, sex, ethnicity, family structure, and family socioeconomic status were not found between youth with the two types of specific phobia. Moreover, differences were not obtained between the two groups in the clinical severity of their phobias, the perceived dangerousness of the feared outcomes associated wi...

  20. Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Waters, Allison M

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias. PMID:17716087

  1. Virtual reality exposure therapy for school phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Magallón Neri, Ernesto Mijail; Rus-Calafell, M.; Peñaloza-Salazar, C.

    2009-01-01

    School phobia is characterized by fear to diverse events associated to school such as being beaten by a classmate, bullied or criticised in front of the lass, having to speak in public, doing exams, getting undressed to practice sports, etc. and can frequently cause young children to a chronic school refusal leading to significant social and academic difficulties. In older children and adolescents, the risk of a low school performance and an early school dropout is increased. Diverse techniqu...

  2. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  3. The Cognitive approach of Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Zartaloudi A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social phobia is a disorder characterized by an excessive fear of the individual that he or she “will act in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing” in response to one or more social or performance situations. These disorders cause significant distress and interfere appreciably with a person's daily career, academic, and interpersonal functioning. AIM: The purpose of the present study is to explore the influence of cognitive factors associated with the development and main...

  4. Efektivitas Program Coping Cat pada Anak dengan Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Erwina, Wina

    2015-01-01

    Social phobia is a marked and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2004). Social phobia is common not only in adults but in children as well. Many of children with social phobia report attending school to be a significant course of social distress (Strauss & Last in Morris, 2004). Unfortunately, social phobia is often not recognized as a problem by teachers o...

  5. [Phobia or fear in rural communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemann, H; Kuda, M; Massing, A

    1975-01-01

    In the following paper an attempt is made to demonstrate by means of phobia that neurotic subjective experience can only be understood in its social environment. Patients with phobic symptoms far more frequently come from rural communities and small towns, i.e. from towns which have a ruraltype structure. To support this thesis, empirical-statistical results based on surveys at the Medicopsychological Advice Centre for Students at the University of Göttingen are cited. Further, it is shown that a meaningful integration of this statistical data with psychodynamic and sociological findings is possible. The resulting explanatory model illustrates the attempt to make as comprehensive a statement as possible about the structure of the phobia and its cohesion to social mechanisms. The phobia is not only interpreted as an intrapsychic occurence, but at the same time the boundaries to the respective social conditions are also demonstrated and reference is made to the parallelism of social-historical development and corresponding psychic structure. PMID:1224818

  6. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  7. The neutron bomb and its physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical background of U.S. neutron bomb research and a brief history of the bomb are presented. The two important characteristics of neutron bombs, i.e. enhanced radiation and low burst yield, are explained in detail, and a comparison with common fission bombs is given. The physical principles are explained, i.e. the neutron bomb is a specially designed hydrogen bomb in which energetic neutrons released in the fusion of deuteron and triton is the main injurious factor. Finally, the functions and limitations of neutron bombs as well as the means of protection against them are discussed

  8. Specific phobia: a disorder of fear conditioning and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Matsunaga, Hisato

    2006-04-01

    Specific phobia is the most prevalent of the anxiety disorders. Although there have been relatively few studies of its psychobiology and pharmacotherapy, there is a rich laboratory of literature on fear conditioning and extinction and a clear evolutionary perspective. Advances in the cognitive-affective neuroscience of fear processing may ultimately lead to new approaches to the clinical management of phobias. PMID:16641829

  9. Phobia and phobic memories: an old issue with new concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Latif Wani

    2014-01-01

    This article is a short report on phobias and the recent study which shows that phobias act as the memories in the brain which can inherit from one generation to another generation to transfer experiences in the newly generation. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(4.000): 70-72

  10. Phobia and phobic memories: an old issue with new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Latif Wani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is a short report on phobias and the recent study which shows that phobias act as the memories in the brain which can inherit from one generation to another generation to transfer experiences in the newly generation. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(4.000: 70-72

  11. Social Phobia in College Students: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald W.; Mandrusiak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We used the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) to identify self-reported social phobia symptoms in 59 students presenting for intake at our counseling center and 119 students meeting a course requirement for research participation. We expected that students presenting for clinical service would have higher scores than the students not seeking such…

  12. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand expression, see www.workandpump.com/handexpression.htm ). TRAVELING WITH A BREASTFEEDING CHILD Breastfeeding provides unique benefits to mothers and children traveling together. Health care ...

  13. Parental Assessment of Childhood Social Phobia: Psychometric Properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children-Parent Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Charmaine K.; Fernandez, Shantel N.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Daleiden, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    Validity and parent-child agreement of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children-Parent Report (SPAI-C-P) were examined in a racially diverse sample of 158 students in Grades 5 through 8 (87 girls; ages 10 to 14; M = 11.53) and their caregivers. Children completed the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), and…

  14. Space phobia: syndrome or agoraphobic variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, I; Bebbington, P

    1976-08-01

    Four elderly women had intense fears of falling when there was no visible support at hand or on seeing space cues while driving. Two patients had cervical spondylosis. The mean age at onset of the fear was 54--thirty years later than that for agoraphobia. Fear of public places and of heights was not prominent, nor was depersonalisation or depression. These "space phobias" might be a hitherto unrecognised syndrome or an unusual variant of agoraphobia. The visuospatial reflexes involved might illuminate the pathogenesis of certain fears. PMID:947417

  15. Travel Guide (Travelling Fires)

    OpenAIRE

    Stern-Gottfried, Jamie; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2009-01-01

    Close inspection of real fires in large, open compartments reveals that they do not burn simultaneously throughout the whole compartment. Instead, these fires tend to move as flames spread, partitions or false ceilings break, and ventilation changes through glazing failure. These fires have been labelled ‘travelling fires’ and represent a new understanding of fire behaviour in modern building layouts. Despite these observations, fire scenarios currently used for the structural fire design of ...

  16. Detection of Logic Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh Bist

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer viruses are big threat to computer world; researchers doing work in this area have made various efforts in the direction of classification and detection methods of these viruses. Graph mining, system call arrangement and CFG analysis are some latest research activities in this field. The computability theory and the semi computable functions are quite important in our context of analyzing malicious activities. A mathematical model like random access stored program machine with the association of attached background is used by Ferenc Leitold while explaining modeling of viruses in his paper. Computer viruses like polymorphic viruses and metamorphic viruses use more efficient techniques for their evolution so it is required to use strong models for understanding their evolution and then apply detection followed by the process of removal. Code Emulation is one of the strongest ways to analyze computer viruses but the anti-emulation activities made by virus designers are also active. This paper involves the study of logic bombs.

  17. Scientists and the atomic bombings of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, on the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the controversy about the use of nuclear weapons has been heated up. Still little-known or unknown to the general public are the efforts made by some scientists to prevent the atomic bombing, the formidable impediments encountered by such anti-bomb pleas; the support in summer 1945 from many notable A-bomb scientists for use of A-bomb, and the range of responses from such important scientists as J. Robert Oppenheimer, Leo Szilard, and Luis Alvarez, right after the use of atomic bomb in Japan

  18. Nausea in Specific Phobia of Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Trinka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV is a clinical condition with early onset, chronic course and substantial psychosocial impairment due to a rigorous avoidance behavior. A primary symptom which drives patients to consult a medical practitioner is nausea. In this study our aim was to further analyze this symptom of SPOV and examined its role in the development and manifestation of the phobia. We conducted an internet survey in the german SPOV-internet-forum. We calculated a nausea score and grouped participants in a high- and low-nausea group to examine the relationship between nausea and characteristics of the fear of vomiting. In this sample (N = 131, nausea was fairly common in most participants with fear of vomiting. Participants in the high-nausea group had significantly higher ratings of subjective fear and significantly longer duration of fear of vomiting. Additionally, the high-nausea group contained more participants with a body mass index below 19 than the low-nausea group. The present findings suggest that nausea is a core symptom in SPOV which is closely related to intensity of the fear, duration of the fear, and body weight. Future research should investigate if nausea-specific design of treatment could improve therapy outcome.

  19. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  20. Neutron bomb and European defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  1. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  2. The assessment and treatment of specific phobias: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grös, Daniel F; Antony, Martin M

    2006-08-01

    Specific phobia is one of the most common and easily treated mental disorders. In this review, empirically supported assessment and treatment procedures for specific phobia are discussed. Exposure-based treatments in particular are highlighted given their demonstrated effectiveness for this condition. The format and characteristics of exposure-based treatment and predictors of treatment response are outlined to provide recommendations for maximizing outcome. In addition, several other treatments for specific phobia are reviewed and critiqued, including cognitive therapy, virtual reality, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, applied tension, and pharmacologic treatments. The review concludes with a discussion of future directions for research. PMID:16879794

  3. Neuro-linguistic programming and application in treatment of phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Mahishika

    2010-11-01

    Phobias are a prevalent and often debilitating mental health problem all over the world. This article aims to explore what is known about the use of Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP) as a treatment for this condition. Whilst there is abundant experiential evidence from NLP practitioners attesting to the efficacy of this method as a treatment for phobias, experimental research in this area is somewhat limited. This paper reviews evidence available in literature produced in the UK and US and reveals that NLP is a successful treatment for phobias as well as being particularly efficient due to the relatively brief time period it takes to effect an improvement. PMID:20920803

  4. Bio-phobias/techno-philias: virtual reality exposure as treatment for phobias of 'nature'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Joyce; Smith, Mick

    2003-09-01

    In modern society natural objects like spiders or snakes have a primary role as the loci of specific phobias. Drawing on interviews with members of the UK National Phobics Society (NPS) and associated service providers, this paper explores the implications of the increasingly significant role played by new media, particularly Virtual Reality technologies, in the treatment of these 'bio-phobias'. While advanced technological approaches provide new possibilities for individual sufferers to experiment with and control their phobic responses they also exemplify certain aspects of those specifically modern social relations that are the media within which bio-phobic behaviours develop. From a critical sociological perspective the techno-philic move to the medium of cyber-space may actually exaggerate characteristically modern social relations that seek (but never convincingly manage) to assert complete 'cultural' control over the unpredictable 'natural' elements threatening our cultural integrity. PMID:12919450

  5. One Session Treatment for Specific Phobias: An Adaptation for Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-12-01

    Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, which has largely been neglected in the child literature. The present paper briefly reviews the aetiology of specific phobias with particular attention to BII and provides an integrated developmental model of this disorder in youth. Evidence-based treatments for child-specific phobias are discussed, and the development of a modified one session treatment (OST) approach to enhance treatment outcomes for BII phobia in children and adolescents is described. This approach is illustrated in two children with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia. The cases illustrate the unique challenges associated with treating BII in youth and the need for a modified intervention. Modifications included addressing the role of pain (e.g., psychoeducation, more graduated exposure steps) and disgust (e.g., disgust eliciting exposure tasks) in the expression of the phobia and fainting in the maintenance of this phobia. Moreover, it is recommended that parents be more actively involved throughout treatment (e.g., education session prior to OST, contingency management training, guidance regarding planning exposure tasks following treatment) and for families to participate in a structured e-therapy maintenance programme post-treatment. PMID:26374227

  6. Travel Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking a quick trip with your family or studying abroad for several months, it's easier to get sick ... Keeping Your Cool in the Cold and Snow Studying Abroad Traveling and Asthma Food Allergies and Travel Food ...

  7. Travel sketches

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Collection of quick travel sketches from private sketchbooks (mixed techniques, pencil, ink pens, water colour, pastels). Contributions to University Gallery showing travel sketches of alumni of Leibniz Universität Hannover - Landscape Architecture Faculty

  8. Travel Vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Solmaz Çelebi

    2008-01-01

    Travelers encounter infections that are absent or uncommon in their own country. The risk of travelers contracting infectious diseases depends on the destination, duration of the trip, and nature and conditions of travel. The risk of specific diseases may be increased during periods in which outbreaks of disease are occurring, such as with meningococcal disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Immunizations are important for reducing risks of infections in travelers. Also, immunization is probably the...

  9. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, T.; Ehlers, A; Glucksman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Diagnoses were established with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV. Predictors included initial symptom severities; variables estab...

  10. Untangling genetic networks of panic, phobia, fear and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Sandra; Burmeister, Margit

    2003-01-01

    As is the case for normal individual variation in anxiety levels, the conditions panic disorder, agoraphobia and other phobias have a significant genetic basis. Recent reports have started to untangle the genetic relationships between predispositions to anxiety and anxiety disorders.

  11. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... INJURY ABOARD CRUISE SHIPS Cruise ship medical clinics deal with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. ...

  12. Non-Antidepressant Psychopharmacologic Treatment of Specific Phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rami Bou

    2013-02-01

    Specific phobias are among the most frequently diagnosed disorders in community with a twelve-month prevalence of 8.7% and a lifetime prevalence of 12.5%. Exposure-based therapies constitute the most effective treatment for this type of anxiety disorders. However, pharmacotherapies can still be considered for patients suffering from specific phobias in case they were non-adherent or resistant to exposure-based therapies or in case this kind of therapies was not accessible for them. Few data support the use of antidepressant in the treatment of specific phobias. A literature search via MedLine has been done in order to review all available studies in the domain of non-antidepressant pharmacotherapy of specific phobias. The importance of benzodiazepines such as diazepam, alprazolam and midazolam resides in the short-term reduction of subjective self-reported fear during the exposure to the feared object or situation. General anesthesia for the treatment of dental phobia does not seem to be efficient unless conducted with the inhalation anesthetic nitrous oxide which seems to be efficient on the short and on the long-term. Beta-adrenergic antagonists have been essayed with conflicting results. Cognitive enhancers such as D-cycloserine, glucocorticoids and yohimbine hydrochloride, seem to be more effective than placebo after a short term period of follow-up in treating specific phobia sympotms. In conclusion, promising efficient pharmacotherapies for specific phobias consists of drugs that enhance the efficacy of exposure-based therapies sessions by reducing anticipating phobia-related fear and/or by enhancing cognition during these sessions. PMID:23438730

  13. Therapeutic Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment for Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young-Hee; Park, Kee-Hwan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic factors influencing the outcome of cognitive behavioral group treatment for social phobia and the most helpful therapeutic component. Fifty psychiatric outpatients who were diagnosed with social phobia according to the DSM-IV criteria were chosen as subjects. Patients were asked to complete the Yalom's Curative Factors Questionnaire and Therapeutic Components Evaluation Form at the end of their Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment (CBGT). The patients w...

  14. A Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Applied to a Social Anxiety Disorder and a Specific Phobia, Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsas, George D; Paschali, Antonia A

    2014-11-01

    George, a 23-year-old Greek student, was referred by a psychiatrist for treatment to a University Counseling Centre in Athens. He was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and specific phobia situational type. He was complaining of panic attacks and severe symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms were triggered when in certain social situations and also when travelling by plane, driving a car and visiting tall buildings or high places. His symptoms lead him to avoid finding himself in such situations, to the point that it had affected his daily life. George was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and with specific phobia, situational type (in this case acrophobia) and was given 20 individual sessions of cognitivebehavior therapy. Following therapy, and follow-up occurring one month post treatment, George no longer met the criteria for social phobia and symptoms leading to acrophobia were reduced. He demonstrated improvements in many areas including driving a car in and out of Athens and visiting tall buildings. PMID:26973946

  15. A cognitive-behavior therapy applied to a social anxiety disorder and a specific phobia, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Tsitsas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available George, a 23-year-old Greek student, was referred by a psychiatrist for treatment to a University Counseling Centre in Athens. He was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and specific phobia situational type. He was complaining of panic attacks and severe symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms were triggered when in certain social situations and also when travelling by plane, driving a car and visiting tall buildings or high places. His symptoms lead him to avoid finding himself in such situations, to the point that it had affected his daily life. George was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and with specific phobia, situational type (in this case acrophobia and was given 20 individual sessions of cognitive-behavior therapy. Following therapy, and follow-up occurring one month post treatment, George no longer met the criteria for social phobia and symptoms leading to acrophobia were reduced. He demonstrated improvements in many areas including driving a car in and out of Athens and visiting tall buildings.

  16. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  17. Bombe udstiller Sinn Feins dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Natten til mandag den 12. april sprang en bombe lige udenfor Belfast. Hverken tid eller sted var tilfældigt. Bomben sprang nemlig på den dag, hvor det justitspolitiske område blev overført til Nordirland. Og den sprang lige bagved den bygning hvor den britiske sikkerhedstjeneste MI5 har deres nye...

  18. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter. PMID:26724069

  19. The clinical structure of phobia: Lacan's reformulation of the variables and its treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Jennifer A,

    2010-01-01

    Phobias have been understood and treated in many different ways by history, but mainstream have overlooked a possibly crucial modality in its treatment as proposed by Lacan. By viewing phobia as a symptom modern day treatments miss out why phobia may exist. Both Freud and Lacan see phobia as symptom and structure, but Lacan has gone further in order to provide the clinic with a deeper comprehension of what a phobia is and how it can be treated. By first understanding where the phobia ste...

  20. Residential cognitive and interpersonal treatment for social phobia: Outcomes, predictors and factors associated with in treatments changes of social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of social phobia is high, and the impact on the life of individuals suffering from this disorder is devastating. Several studies have shown that individuals with social phobia have difficulties to apply for help. When they do seek treatment, they have often not responded. If untreated, it demonstrates an enduring, and frequently lifelong course. As a consequence, it is important to develop effective treatments. The aim of this dissertation is to gather knowledge on how well two...

  1. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  2. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  3. Simulating an Exploding Fission-Bomb Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    A time-dependent desktop-computer simulation of the core of an exploding fission bomb (nuclear weapon) has been developed. The simulation models a core comprising a mixture of two isotopes: a fissile one (such as U-235) and an inert one (such as U-238) that captures neutrons and removes them from circulation. The user sets the enrichment percentage and scattering and fission cross-sections of the fissile isotope, the capture cross-section of the inert isotope, the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the number of ``initiator'' neutrons, the radius of the core, and the neutron-reflection efficiency of a surrounding tamper. The simulation, which is predicated on ordinary kinematics, follows the three-dimensional motions and fates of neutrons as they travel through the core. Limitations of time and computer memory render it impossible to model a real-life core, but results of numerous runs clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical mass for a given set of parameters and the dramatic effects of enrichment and tamper efficiency on the growth (or decay) of the neutron population. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  4. Neutron bomb and detente policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines the strategic aspects of the neutron weapon, i.e. of those problems which result from the discussion on the neutron weapon and its connection with military detente. He discusses the events that happened until President Carter decided to delay the production of the neutron bomb. Furthermore, he examines its strategic function following this decision. He points out the problematic relationship between production and emplacement decision. Since the neutron bomb - according to its construction - will only be effective if it is located in Central Europe and primarily in the Federal Republic of Germany, the latter has to bear the final responsibility. Without a decision on its emplacement, there could be no decision in favour of its production. (HSCH)

  5. Unknown effects of neutron bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions surrounding the use of the neutron bomb as a tactical weapon are considered. In particlar the problem of what would happen to troops exposed to neutron bomb radiation is examined. The use of a 1 kilotonne enhanced radiation warhead, to WD-70 mod 3, detonated at a height of 130-200 metres would destroy buildings only 130 metres from a point below where it is detonated but the entire 1000 people in a tank crew in that area would receive lethal doses of radiation although some would not die for more than a month following exposure. All would however begin to suffer various forms of radiation sickness. The effect over time of whole-body radiation doses of 200 to 18000 rads for physically demanding work are shown graphically. The problem of treating the wounded and of reoccupying areas of high residual radiation are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Parental fever phobia and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M S; Naimark, L; Leduc, D G

    1985-06-01

    Parents of 202 young febrile children were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and fears concerning fever and its treatment. Forty-eight percent of the parents considered temperatures less than 38.0 degrees C to be "fevers", 43% felt that temperatures less than 40.0 degrees C could be dangerous to a child, 21% favored treatment for fevers less than 38.0 degrees C, and 15% believed that, left untreated, temperature could rise to 42.0 degrees C or higher. Fifty-three percent advocated waking a febrile child at night to administer antipyretic therapy. Young age of the child was associated with a preference for use of acetaminophen over aspirin and, unexpectedly, with a higher parental threshold for consideration of fever. The higher their child's temperature at the time they were questioned, the higher the minimum temperature that parents considered a cause for concern. Surprisingly, higher socioeconomic status was not associated with a lesser degree of fever phobia. In fact, parents of higher socioeconomic status were more concerned about the risks of brain damage or seizures as sequelae of fever than were parents of lower socioeconomic status. It is concluded that undue fear and overly aggressive treatment of fever are epidemic among parents of infants and young children, even among the highly educated and well-to-do. Considerable effort will be required on the part of pediatricians and other child health workers to reeducate these parents about the definition, consequences, and appropriate treatment of fever. PMID:4000786

  7. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving mag...

  8. Self-arranged exposure for overcoming blood-injection-injury Phobia: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkin, Michelle R.; John M. Malouff

    2014-01-01

    Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is both common and dangerous, because it can lead to avoidance of medical procedures for diagnosis and treatment. It also tends to prevent individuals from donating blood for use in the healthcare of others. BII phobia often has an unusual characteristic for a type of phobia – fainting. The typical treatment for BII phobia involves teaching the client how to avoid fainting and staging multiple gradual-exposure trials for the client. In this case report, an ...

  9. Brain dynamics in spider-phobic individuals exposed to phobia-relevant and other emotional stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Michalowski, Jaroslaw; Melzig, Christiane; Weike, Almut I.; Stockburger, Jessica; Schupp, Harald Thomas; Hamm, Alfons

    2009-01-01

    Dense sensor event-related brain potentials were measured in participants with spider phobia and nonfearful controls during viewing of phobia-relevant spider and standard emotional (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral) pictures. Irrespective of the picture content, spider phobia participants responded with larger P1 amplitudes than controls, suggesting increased vigilance in this group. Furthermore, spider phobia participants showed a significantly enlarged early posterior negativity (EPN) and late...

  10. A review and meta-analysis of the heritability of specific phobia subtypes and corresponding fears

    OpenAIRE

    Houtem, van, C.M.H.H.; Laine, M.L.; D.I. Boomsma; Ligthart, L.; Wijk, van, A.J.; Jongh, de, J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from twin studies suggests that genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing a fear or a phobia. The aim of the present study was to review the current literature regarding twin studies describing the genetic basis of specific phobias and their corresponding fears. The analysis included five twin studies on fears and ten twin studies on specific phobias. Heritability estimates of fear subtypes and specific phobia subtypes both varied widely, even within the subtypes. A meta-a...

  11. [Treating specific childhood phobia in a single session? A systematic review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Fond, Guillaume; Franc, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The essential feature of specific phobia is a persistent fear of clearly discernable, circumscribed objects or situations. The DSM-IV distinguishes four subtypes: animal, natural environment, blood-injection-injury, and situational. Specific phobias frequently co-occur. Specific phobia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of 12.5% and is about twice as common in women as in men. Most phobias have a childhood onset except for the situational sub...

  12. Enhanced information processing of phobic natural images in participants with specific phobias

    OpenAIRE

    Haberkamp, Anke

    2014-01-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, it can be assumed that visual processing and rapid detection of potentially dangerous stimuli in the environment (e.g., perilous animals) is highly adaptive for all humans. In the present dissertation, I address three research questions; (1) Is information processing of threatening stimuli enhanced in individuals with specific phobias? (2) Are there any differences between the different types of phobia (e.g., spider phobia vs. snake phobia)? (3) Is the freq...

  13. The media and dirty bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recent Jose Padilla 'dirty bomb' scare, an indignant US citizen wrote to his local newspaper in Florida complaining that the news media were giving terrorists a recipe for making dirty bombs. 'Unless the media eases up on scaring us, he wrote, the public won't feel safe even leaving their homes. Or perhaps that is what they want, he said, 'us staying inside our homes watching the news on how terrorists can destroy us all.' It seems our real motivations have finally been uncovered we in the media want to scare them so much they won't leave their TV screens. Based on the previous event an analysis of the role of media and journalists is discussed. Leaders of the news media would, first of all, universally advise full and rapid and authoritative disclosure of what is known. If it isn't coming quickly from the highest levels, then the news will soon deteriorate to what's being heard on the streets, from police officers and fire fighters and other emergency personnel, and from passers-by. Journalists are the first to acknowledge their ignorance.That is why they ask questions. However, they seem to learn fast. It was found that that the term dirty bomb never appeared on Associated Press news wires before the 11 September 2001 attacks. Now it appears every day, and increasingly we are getting the facts right and helping to prepare our audience of millions for this dangerous new world

  14. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders. PMID:23845416

  15. Solution-Focused Therapy: Strength-Based Counseling for Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and…

  16. The Successful Treatment of Specific Phobia in a College Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonathan M.; Cook-Nobles, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Specific phobias are highly prevalent among college students and can be quite debilitating. However, students often do not present for treatment for phobias and, when they do, often do not receive effective treatment. This article will present a case study of the effective treatment of specific phobia using cognitive-behavioral therapy with an…

  17. [Workplace-related anxiety, workplace phobia and disorders of participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, B; Linden, M

    2009-06-01

    Work is an important domain of life. It is therefore clear that problems at the workplace and mental disorders will have negative interactions. Job-related anxieties are of special importance as any workplace causes or intensifies anxiety by its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general and workplace-related anxieties in particular is workplace phobia. Similarly to agoraphobia, it is characterised by panic when approaching or even thinking of the stimulus, in this case the workplace. Workplace phobia has serious negative consequences for the further course of illness. It impairs the ability to work, and can lead to sick leave and early retirement. It requires special therapeutic interventions. This paper describes workplace-related anxieties and workplace phobia and gives a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:19544717

  18. Radiative characteristics of depleted uranium bomb and it is protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the developing process of depleted uranium bombs described in the first part, the radiative characteristics and mechanism of depleted uranium bombs are analyzed emphatically. The deeper discussion on protection of depleted uranium bombs is proceeded

  19. [Adventure travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernhard R

    2013-06-01

    Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined. PMID:23732454

  20. Posttraumatic Dental-Care Anxiety: Is "dental phobia" a misnomer?

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha, MD Stefan; Vega, PHD Edward; Vega, Carrie

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this article, we suggest that the term “dental phobia,” as commonly applied to the experience of dental fear and anxiety, is typically a misnomer. The problem with using the term “phobia” in a dental-care context is as follows: by definition, phobias involve a fear that is “excessive or unreasonable,” which the individual recognizes as such, and in which the anxiety, panic attacks and phobic avoidance are not better accounted for by another disorder, including posttraumat...

  1. Travelers' Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America. Prevention In otherwise healthy adults, diarrhea is rarely serious ...

  2. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  3. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  4. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, F

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving magnetic insulation and GeV electrostatic potentials

  5. The bomb and the men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945, more than 2000 nuclear weapon tests have been performed in the world, with a perfect knowledge of the irradiation risks. This book tells this story. The one of the men who designed the bombs, who used and improved them. It tells also the story of these men who were injured by nuclear weapons and those who were directly impacted by the fallouts of these tests. Finally, the book does not forget to mention the men who voluntarily dissimulated the ravages of nuclear weapons before discretely recognizing them and thinking of repairing the damage

  6. A man, a plan, a bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki justified? Was it necessary? Were there other - better - options available, either to the scientists who built the bombs or the generals who ordered them dropped? Nearly 70 years later, there are still no settled answers to these questions, and Tom Morton-Smith's new play Oppenheimer wisely avoids dwelling on the "what ifs" of atomic history.

  7. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  8. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear. PMID:25411452

  9. Ambulatory Assessment in Panic Disorder and Specific Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Georg W.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory.…

  10. Exposure and Anxiety Management in the Treatment of Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Gillian; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of exposure treatment for social phobia, and whether anxiety management would increase the effects of exposure in 45 patients. Results showed both exposure treatments were effective, although the combination of exposure and anxiety management was even more effective. (JAC)

  11. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  12. The Behavioral Treatment of School Phobia: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, David

    1984-01-01

    Presents a critical review of the studies that have applied behavioral techniques in the treatment of school phobia. Notes the conspicuous absences of any studies designed to assess either the relative efficacy of behavior therapy in comparison to other types of therapy or the different effects of various behavioral treatments. (JAC)

  13. Phobias and Anxiety Disorders: Don't Panic!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too, is not uncommon. Fast Facts Each year, anxiety disorders affect about 40 million American adults age 18 years and older (about 18%), filling ... no actual danger. More than 19 million American adults suffer from phobias; they ... disorders commonly accompany other mental or physical conditions, such ...

  14. Special Educators and Mathematics Phobia: An Initial Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Michael; Hourcade, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Special educators are uniquely challenged to be content experts in all curricular areas, including mathematics, because students in their caseloads may require academic instruction in any area. However, special educators with math phobia may be limited in their ability to provide effective instruction to their students with mathematical deficits…

  15. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  16. Computer-Assisted Exposure Treatment for Flight Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miguel; Bornas, Xavier; Llabres, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    This review introduces the state of the art in computer-assisted treatment for behavioural disorders. The core of the paper is devoted to describe one of these interventions providing computer-assisted exposure for flight phobia treatment, the Computer-Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment (CAFFT). The rationale, contents and structure of the CAFFT…

  17. Differentiating High-Functioning Autism and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Katherine E.; Cruess, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Both high-functioning autism (HFA) and social phobia (SP) involve profound social interaction deficits. Although these disorders share some similar symptoms, they are conceptualized as distinct. Because both HFA and SP are defined behaviorally, the degree of overlap between the two disorders may result in misinterpretation of symptoms. However,…

  18. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  19. [Chronic knee pain and specific heat phobia. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepke, W; Neubauer, E; Schiltenwolf, M

    2013-02-01

    This case report presents the medical history of a patient suffering from chronic knee pain with specific heat phobia who had a long history of sick certificates. Using multimodal pain therapy and biofeedback therapy the acquired anxiety disorder could be solved. Long-term working ability could be achieved. PMID:23321701

  20. Atomic bombs and conspiracy theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been a number of articles in the press concerning Australia's bid to get the atomic bomb. These articles are based on the recent publication of a book, 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb' by Wayne Reynolds. The book at first sight appears to be very well researched, with many archival references from a number of countries, and the hypotheses appear to be well supported and argued. Its major shortcoming is the way that the science and technology involved is presented. The author seems to have a complete lack of understanding of basic science and engineering principles, and the manner in which scientists and politicians communicate with each other. This paper will attempt to redress these shortcomings, I shall look at the way communities of scientists and politicians present their ideas to each other and to the public at large. By investigating the backgrounds to the establishment of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and the later establishment of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, the author is able to explain how such a hypothesis ever saw the light of day

  1. Attentional mechanisms of social perception are biased in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Sabrina; Bartholomaeus, Marie; Peter, Ulrike; Lupke, Ulrike; Gamer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of social phobia have reported an increased vigilance to social threat cues but also an avoidance of socially relevant stimuli such as eye gaze. The primary aim of this study was to examine attentional mechanisms relevant for perceiving social cues by means of abnormalities in scanning of facial features in patients with social phobia. In two novel experimental paradigms, patients with social phobia and healthy controls matched on age, gender and education were compared regarding their gazing behavior towards facial cues. The first experiment was an emotion classification paradigm which allowed for differentiating reflexive attentional shifts from sustained attention towards diagnostically relevant facial features. In the second experiment, attentional orienting by gaze direction was assessed in a gaze-cueing paradigm in which non-predictive gaze cues shifted attention towards or away from subsequently presented targets. We found that patients as compared to controls reflexively oriented their attention more frequently towards the eyes of emotional faces in the emotion classification paradigm. This initial hypervigilance for the eye region was observed at very early attentional stages when faces were presented for 150ms, and persisted when facial stimuli were shown for 3s. Moreover, a delayed attentional orienting into the direction of eye gaze was observed in individuals with social phobia suggesting a differential time course of eye gaze processing in patients and controls. Our findings suggest that basic mechanisms of early attentional exploration of social cues are biased in social phobia and might contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. PMID:27131909

  2. Travel Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China to become the world’s No.1 tourist destination by 2015 May 19 is a special day in China’s history. On that day 400 years ago,Xu Xiake (1587-1641),wellknown geographer,traveler and explorer of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644),started a lifelong journey,leading to the publication of the monumental Xu Xiake’s Travel Notes,known for its detailed and accurate geographical information. The book also provided valuable insight into local customs and habits.

  3. Mortality among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have conducted a long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 120,000 atomic bomb survivors and non-exposed controls since 1950. The most recent findings regarding cancer mortality during the period 1950-85 in this cohort, based on the DS86 doses are as follows: The dosimetry change does not alter the list of radiation-related cancers. Some city differences in dose-response previously thought to be real are no longer significant with the DS86 doses. Assuming a linear dose-response, and using estimated organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetries are very similar. If larger RBE values are assumed, the disparity between the two dosimetries increases because the neutron dose is much greater in the T65 dosimetry. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also have been demonstrated increases in cancers of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which cancer is normally prone to develop (the so-called 'cancer age'), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality in the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher generally for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) than for those who were older ATB. Non-cancer mortality in the period 1950-78, based on the T65 doses, which is the most recent published report, did not show an increase with dose, but now, with the accumulation of seven more years of follow-up, there seems to be an excess in the very high dose range, particularly for the younger age ATB cohort. (author)

  4. Time Travel?

    OpenAIRE

    Deser, Stanley; Jackiw, Roman

    1992-01-01

    To travel into the past, to observe it, perhaps to influence it and correct mistakes of one's youth, has been an abiding fantasy of mankind for as long as we have been aware of a past. Here are described some recent scientific investigations on this topic.

  5. Time travel?

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, Stanley D; Deser, Stanley; Jackiw, Roman

    1992-01-01

    To travel into the past, to observe it, perhaps to influence it and correct mistakes of one's youth, has been an abiding fantasy of mankind for as long as we have been aware of a past. Here are described some recent scientific investigations on this topic.

  6. Traveler's Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You also can take a medicine called loperamide (brand name: Imodium). However, if you have bloody diarrhea, ... traveler’s diarrhea? Is traveler’s diarrhea common in the country I’m traveling to? If I get traveler’s ...

  7. How Dangerous are 'Dirty Bombs'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological weapon (or a radiation weapon) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactivity, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive), which spreads radioactive material. Recently, it has been called 'dirty bombs'. This term refers especially to a weapon that would disperse radioactive material through conventional explosives. The term was put in focus in June 2002, when U. S. officials announced they had captured an al-Qaida terrorist in Chicago who was allegedly planning for such a device. Designed to produce radiation sickness in a military force or a civilian population instead of destroying a target, Iraq developed and tested radiation weapons in 1980s, during the war with Iran with intention to produce health effects that would be difficult to explain. The project was abandoned because a radiation levels low enough to escape detection were also insufficient to cause significant medical problems in the weeks following an attack. Radiological weapons are therefore widely considered to be militarily useless for a state-sponsored army and are not believed to have been deployed by any military forces. However, these weapons have been suggested as a possible terror weapon in order to create fear and panic in densely populated areas and havoc to local economies. They do not require weapons-grade materials, and common materials such as 137Cs used in radiological medical equipment, could be used. Subsequent removal of urban radioactive contamination, i.e. cleanup efforts according to experiences from the radiological accident in a Brazilian city of Goiania could be long, difficult and costly. Therefore, the overall effects of exploded dirty bombs are hard to assess considering that: a) The health effects of low-level radiation are hotly contested. Namely, according to 'linear, no-threshold' dosimetric model, any increase over background is

  8. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, J. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations ...

  9. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Travel/Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir International ... The Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis ...

  10. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  11. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between $\\lta80$ and 800 dyne~cm$^{-2}$ before explosion, i.e. between $\\lta850$ and 550 km above $\\tau_{500}=1$. This places the phenomenon's origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfv\\'enic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  12. Quality of Life Impairments among Adults with Social Phobia: The Impact of Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Nina; Sarver, Dustin E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    Social phobia is characterized by extreme fear in social or performance situations in which the individual may be exposed to embarrassment or scrutiny by others, which creates occupational, social and academic impairment. To date, there are few data examining the relationship of social phobia impairments to quality of life. In this investigation, we examined how demographic characteristics, comorbidity, and social competence are related to quality of life among patients with social phobia and...

  13. The effects of maternal social phobia on mother-infant interactions and infant social responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, L; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C; Schofield, E.; Sack, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We addressed these problems in the current study.Methods: We assessed mothers with social phobia (N = 84) and control mothers (N = 89) at 10 weeks in face-...

  14. [Case report: patient with needle phobia for caesarean section - not quite as in a textbook …].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillermann, Thomas; Breitenstein, Chantal; Soll, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    In a 20-year old parturient general anesthesia is induced by inhalation and without venous access because of severe needle phobia. This article discusses risks associated with inhalational induction of anesthesia in this special situation. It deals with needle phobia, an anxiety disorder belonging to the group of blood-injury-injection phobia. This psychic illness can cause severe problems for the anaesthetic management in acute or in elective situations. PMID:26147408

  15. Blood-and Injection Phobia in Pregnancy : Epidemiological, Biological and Treatment aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Lilliecreutz, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Blood- and injection phobia is an anxiety disorder with a prevalence of approximately 3-5% in the general population. The etiology is often a combination of genetic factors and a conditioning experience. The symptoms of blood- and injection phobia are dizziness, confusion, nausea, epigastria discomfort, anxiety and sometimes panic attacks when receiving injections, seeing blood or having a blood sample taken. Unique for this specific phobia is the high probability of fainting wh...

  16. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Fisler, Melanie S; Federspiel, Andrea; Horn, Helge; Dierks, Thomas; Schmitt, Wolfgang; Wiest, Roland; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Soravia, Leila M

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects.

  17. Fears, anxieties and cognitive-behavioral treatment of specific phobias in youth

    OpenAIRE

    Reuterskiöld, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The present dissertation consists of three empirical studies on children and adolescents presenting with various specific phobias in Stockholm, Sweden and in Virginia, USA. The overall aim was to contribute to our understanding of childhood fears, anxiety and phobias and to evaluate the efficacy and portability of a one-session treatment of specific phobias in youth. Study I tested the dimensionality of the Parental Bonding Instrument, across three generations and for two countries, and exami...

  18. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Fisler, Melanie S; Federspiel, Andrea; Horn, Helge; Dierks, Thomas; Schmitt, Wolfgang; Wiest, Roland; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Soravia, Leila M

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty female...

  19. Traveling Theater

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Peter Z

    2005-01-01

    This thesis proposes that architecture has the potential to organize experience through its sensory effects and that the body is the fundamental link between experience and the imagination. The project in this thesis is a traveling theater. It was inspired by an interest in the intersection between architecture and contemporary theater. The theater borrows elements from traditional theaters and street theater in an effort to establish a separation between actor and spectator while also en...

  20. Travelling Crab

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    This work dissert about proposal and calculation hoisting device travelling crab, intended for tonnage 50 000 kg. For this tonnage there're performed pertinent strenght calculations, concerning journal of pullies, side plate, crossbeam and crane hook. Part of work is proposal desirable electric motor, gear - box, brakes, jaw clutch and bearings. In work are also descriptions of hoisting apparatus and descriptions of construction parts of sheave block. Defined are also main dimensions ancillar...

  1. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of J...

  2. Atomic Bomb and Leukemia : II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Masao; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for CML in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. In the distribution of AML subtypes of FAR classification, there was no M3 cases in 1Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells...

  3. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  4. The therapeutic lamp: treating small-animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Maja; Alcañiz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Bretón-López, Juana; Ortega, Mario; Brotons, Daniel Beneito

    2013-01-01

    We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it might develop into psychological disorders such as phobias, producing high anxiety and affecting everyday life. The Therapeutic Lamp is an interactive projection-based augmented-reality system for treating small-animal phobias. It aims to increase patient-therapist communication, promote more natural interaction, and improve the patient's engagement in the therapy. PMID:24807885

  5. Could virtual reality be effective in treating children with phobias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    The use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in adults is gaining popularity and its efficacy is supported by numerous outcome studies. Similar research for children is lagging behind. The outcome studies on the use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in children currently address only specific phobias, and all of the available trials are reviewed in this article. Despite the limited number of studies, results are very encouraging for the treatment of school and spider phobias. A study with adolescents suggests that, at least for social anxiety, exposure stimuli would be more effective if they were developed specifically for younger populations. Virtual reality may not increase children's motivation towards therapy unless their fearful apprehension is addressed before initiating the treatment. PMID:21306208

  6. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemer, Julian; Stefan M Schulz; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spider...

  7. Treatment of Social Phobia in Rezidual Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif SIMSEK KAYGUSUZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Having negative symptoms is the basic feature of residual-type schizophrenia and there is a direct proportion between the neurocognitive impairments associated with negative symptoms. Among the approaches used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, cognitive behaviour therapy is the one with the most evidence of efficacy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is considered to be beneficial for the residual symptoms after drug treatment. The social phobia leads among the anxiety disorders accompanying schizophrenia. According to the cognitive model, the impairment of social performance increases the severity of social phobia. The leading factor of this vicious circle is that the patients pay attention selectively to such cases in order to find evidence for their thoughts and beliefs that they are going to be evaluated negatively. In this paper, the cognitive behavioural therapy and formulation carried out with a patient, who has been followed for a long time with the diagnosis of residual-type schizophrenia and social phobia is reported. The purpose of the treatment is to interfere with the impaired functionality of the patient through cognitive and behavioural techniques by dealing with the medical treatment-resistant symptoms. To this end, firstly coping mechanisms are examined through the identification of avoidance and security providers, and then, the patient’s automatic thoughts and false beliefs are discussed depending on the cognitive perspective. The main part of the treatment has been completed by carrying out various investigations in order to increase the patients’ social performance via applying behavioural techniques. As a result, false beliefs are the indicators of the relationship between cognitive inability and negative symptoms and related to social functioning. By addressing these beliefs through cognitive behavioural therapy, the necessity of increasing the patient’s social activities and the relationship between social

  8. Alcohol and benzodiazepines generate anxiety, panic and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S I

    1995-01-01

    In almost half the patients seeking advice for anxiety, panic and phobias the cause was alcohol or benzodiazepines. In the remainder it was psychological, usually a state of conflict or a traumatic event. When symptoms are persistent following a distressing event it is often the case that alcohol or benzodiazepines are keeping them going. There is a large variation in individual vulnerability and the mechanism responsible for these symptoms is rebound arousal. PMID:7769598

  9. Fearful attention : Investigating event-related potentials in spider phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Joakim

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that emotional pictures capture attention. Further, this effect was decreased by manipulating spatial attention. In contrast, studies produced mixed findings for effects of perceptual load on attention to emotional pictures. Emotional pictures can be phobic or nonphobic. Because phobia might be an evolutionary adaption, it is possible that effects of phobic pictures on attention differ from effects of nonphobic emotional pictures. The present thesis aimed at investigat...

  10. Intensive Treatment of Specific Phobias in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Thompson E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2009-01-01

    One-session treatment (OST), a variant of cognitive-behavioral therapy, combines graduated in vivo exposure, participant modeling, reinforcement, psychoeducation, cognitive challenges, and skills training in an intensive treatment model. Treatment is maximized to one 3-hour session. In this paper, we review the application of OST for specific phobia in youth and highlight practical matters related to OST and its use in a clinical setting. We also briefly review results of treatment outcome st...

  11. Alcohol and benzodiazepines generate anxiety, panic and phobias.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S I

    1995-01-01

    In almost half the patients seeking advice for anxiety, panic and phobias the cause was alcohol or benzodiazepines. In the remainder it was psychological, usually a state of conflict or a traumatic event. When symptoms are persistent following a distressing event it is often the case that alcohol or benzodiazepines are keeping them going. There is a large variation in individual vulnerability and the mechanism responsible for these symptoms is rebound arousal.

  12. A comparison study of body dysmorphic disorder versus social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Megan M.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Zimmerman, Mark; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) shares many characteristics with social phobia (SP), including high levels of social anxiety and avoidance, but to our knowledge no studies have directly compared these disorders’ demographic and clinical features. Demographic and clinical features were compared in individuals with BDD (n=172), SP (n=644), and comorbid BDD/SP (n=125). SP participants had a significantly earlier age of onset and lower educational attainment than BDD participants. BDD participants...

  13. Recent Findings in Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchcock, Carla A.; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood social phobia (SP) is common and associated with varying forms of impairment. The cause of social anxiety disorder is often complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Shyness in young children may be a possible precursor to social anxiety later in life, although not the sole antecedent. Current assessment of childhood social anxiety includes psychometrically sound self report and clinician administered measures either specifically targeting SP disorder or including t...

  14. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel ... Travel During Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time ...

  15. Anxiety, fears, and phobias in persons with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2003-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the cognitive-linguistic profile associated with Williams syndrome, studies have yet to follow up on preliminary observations suggesting increased anxiety and fears in persons with this disorder. To this aim, Study 1 compared fears in 120 participants with Williams syndrome to 70 appropriately matched persons with mental retardation of mixed etiologies. Study 2 assessed differences in parent versus child reports of fears in 36 Williams syndrome and 24 comparison group parent-child dyads. In Study 3, rates of phobia and other anxiety disorders were assessed in standardized psychiatric interviews with the parents of 51 individuals with Williams syndrome. Relative to their counterparts, persons with Williams syndrome had significantly more fears as well as a wider range of frequently occurring fears, as reported by either parents or participants themselves. Children in both groups reported more fears than their parents. Whereas generalized and anticipatory anxiety were found in 51% to 60% of the sample with Williams syndrome, specific phobia was more prevalent, with 96% showing persistent and marked fears and 84% avoiding their fears or enduring them with distress. The feasibility of cognitive-behavioral treatments for phobia is discussed, as are implications for future research. PMID:12730029

  16. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas. PMID:25694215

  17. Fear the serpent: A psychometric study of snake phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polák, Jakub; Sedláčková, Kristýna; Nácar, David; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2016-08-30

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from specific phobias. Almost any stimulus may trigger a phobic reaction, but snakes are among the most feared objects. Half of the population feel anxious about snakes and 2-3% meet the diagnostic criteria for snake phobia. Despite such a high ratio, only one instrument is commonly used, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ). The aim of this study was to develop a standardized Czech translation, describe its psychometric properties and analyze the distribution of snake fears. In a counter-balanced design 755 respondents were asked to complete the English and Czech SNAQ (first or last) with a 2-3 month delay; 300 of them completed both instruments. We found excellent test-retest reliability (0.94), although the total scores differed significantly when the English version was administered first. The mean score was 5.80 and Generalized Linear Models revealed significant effects of sex and field of study (women and people with no biology education scored higher than men and biologists). A cut-off point for snake phobia as derived from a previous study identified 2.6% of the subjects as phobic. Finally, the score distribution was similar to other countries supporting the view that fear of snakes is universal. PMID:27280527

  18. Combined Case of Blood-Injury-Injection Phobia and Social Phobia: Behavior Therapy Management and Effectiveness through Tilt Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Ferenidou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of behavior therapy based mainly on real-life exposure situations as well as applied tension was examined for a combined case of blood-injury-injection (BII phobia and social anxiety disorder. Treatment involved 28 behavior therapy sessions, while applied tension technique was also described and practiced. The specific contribution of social skills techniques, fantasy, and real-life situations exposure was examined in a single case design. The subject was a 39-year-old male with anxiety symptoms when confronting an audience, as well as symptoms of the autonomic nervous system (bradycardia and syncope, which were better explained by BII. All self-report measures regarding fear, social phobia, and anxiety were reduced after behavior therapy and remained maintained at followup, while BII decreased further after applied tension techniques. The contribution of behavior therapy to the overall outcome of the case is considered significant for many reasons that are discussed in the pape.

  19. Easy Travel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois; Essomba

    2011-01-01

    A common visa for six Central African countries boosts tourism FOR a region that is made up of six countries, the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa(CEMAC) has less than 2 million annual cross border arrivals according to official statistics. Cameroon,the Republic of the Congo, Gabon,Equatorial Guinea,Central African Republic(CAR) and Chad make up this group,whose regional travel statistics are extremely low by international standards.Cameroon received only 580,000 visitors in 2010.

  20. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  1. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-15

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  2. Travel counseling for the elderly traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kasey J

    2005-01-01

    As the baby boomer's generation retirees, many will have the time and money to travel abroad to see the world's exotic wonders or visit family and friends. When the travelers are elderly, they are particularly vulnerable to the effects of travel. Healthcare professionals are responsible for counseling elders on travel health based on their medical history, destination, method of transportation, and exposure risks. Important areas of travel counseling include preparing for travel, air travel, safety, sun and heat, insect precautions, food and water precautions, and vaccinations. PMID:16271122

  3. Travel personae of American pleasure travelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, S.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Mazanec, J.A.;

    2010-01-01

    Travel style has been shown to be a useful concept for understanding travelers. In this study it is argued that the portfolio of trips (specifically, the portfolio of various trip styles) one takes can be used to describe his/her overall travel persona. Network analysis was used to examine the...... structural relationships between types of trips based upon the assumption that each travel style may be considered as a "node," and its association with other travel styles may be represented by the links within the network. Analyses indicate that American travelers take on a wide range of different travel...

  4. Vehicle bomb protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six-step methodology presented in this paper can be applied to nuclear power reactors to provide protection measures and considerations against vehicle bomb threats. The methodology provides a structured framework for examining the potential vulnerability of a plant to a postulated vehicle bomb and for developing contingency planning strategies for dealing with such a possibility. The six steps are as follows: (1) identify system options available to establish and maintain a safe reactor shutdown; (2) identify buildings or other structures containing critical components and equipment associated with each system option; (3) determine survival envelopes for the system options; (4) review site features to determine vehicle access approach paths and distances as they relate to the survival envelopes; (5) identify measures to limit or thwart vehicle access, and protect and preserve preferred system options; (6) prepare contingency plans and make advance arrangements for implementation of contingency measures for a vehicle bomb attack. Portions of this methodology related to blast effects from vehicle bombs on power reactor components are implemented using BombCAD, a proprietary computer-aided design (CAD)-based blast effects analysis technique

  5. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  6. What Is the Core Fear in Social Phobia? A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A.

    2009-01-01

    What, exactly, do individuals with social phobia fear? Whereas fear of anxiety-related bodily sensations characterizes and defines panic disorder, is there a fundamental focus of anxiety that unifies individuals under the diagnostic category of social phobia? Current conceptualizations of social phobia suggest several possible candidates,…

  7. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  8. Evidence-Based Behavioral Treatment of Dog Phobia with Young Children: Two Case Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Anna C.; Rudy, Brittany M.; Davis, Thompson E., III; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    Specific phobias are among the most common anxiety disorders, especially in children. Unfortunately, a paucity of literature exists regarding the treatment of specific phobia in young children, despite the knowledge that traditional techniques (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT]) may not be practical. Therefore, the purpose of this article…

  9. Social phobia : diagnosis and epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacology, comorbidity and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunello, N; den Boer, JA; Judd, LL; Kasper, S; Kelsey, JE; Lader, M; Lecrubier, Y; Lepine, JP; Lydiard, RB; Mendlewicz, J; Montgomery, SA; Racagni, G; Stein, MB; Wittchen, HU

    2000-01-01

    Social phobia is a common disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment, representing a substantial public health problem largely determined by the high prevalence, and the lifelong chronicity. Social phobia starts in early childhood or adolescence and is often comorbid with depressio

  10. Performance Anxiety among African-American College Students: Racial Bias as a Factor in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aleta Bok

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the etiology of social phobia, and proposes that the sensitivity to self-scrutiny common to social phobics can be exacerbated by the effects of longstanding racial bias. The impact of racism on identity and the importance of context are explored as salient factors in the onset of a case of social phobia for an…

  11. Cognitive Restructuring in the Treatment of Social Phobia: Efficacy and Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Woody, Sheila; Koch, William J.; McLean, Peter; Paterson, Randy J.; Anderson, Kent W.

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether cognitive restructuring (CR) contributes to treatment efficacy and investigates its mode of action for therapeutic effects. Results, based on 60 persons with generalized social phobia, indicate that CR reduced social phobia and negative social cognitions and increased positive cognitions. CR did not enhance the effects of…

  12. Shyness and Social Phobia: A Social Work Perspective on a Problem in Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Social phobia can be conceptualized from a social work perspective as an extreme shyness that can be overcome with cognitive learning and behavioral rehearsal. This article reviews the biopsychosocial causes of social phobia and presents a summary of cognitive and behavioral interventions with empirically demonstrated effectiveness. (Author)

  13. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  14. Counterconditioning in the treatment of spider phobia : effects on disgust, fear and valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter; Vorage, [Unknown; van den Hout, MA

    2000-01-01

    From the perspective that disgust is a core feature of spider phobia, we investigated whether the treatment efficacy could be improved by adding a counterconditioning procedure. Women with a clinically diagnosed spider phobia (N = 34) were randomly assigned to the regular one-session exposure condit

  15. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  16. Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Computer Phobia Levels in Terms of Gender and Experience, Turkish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursavas, Omer Faruk; Karal, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to determine the level of pre-service teachers' computer phobia. Whether or not computer phobia meaningfully varies statistically according to gender and computer experience has been tested in the study. The study was performed on 430 pre-service teachers at the Education Faculty in Rize/Turkey. Data in the study were…

  17. SET-C versus Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Crosby, Lori A.; Pathak, Sanjeev

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the effectiveness of fluoxetine, pill placebo and Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) for children and adolescents with social phobia. The results conclude that both fluoxetine and SET-C are effective for social phobia but SET-C is better for enhancing social skills.

  18. Social Phobia in Youth: The Diagnostic Utility of Feared Social Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafico, Anthony C.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of parent- and child-reported social fears for reaching a diagnosis of social phobia in youth. The diagnostic utility of (a) the number of fears and (b) specific feared social situations was examined. The sample included 140 youth and their parents: youth diagnosed with social phobia (n = 50), youth…

  19. Quality of Life in College Students with and without Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Gholam Hossein; Tavoli, Azadeh; Bakhtiari, Maryam; Melyani, Mahdieh; Sahragard, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrating quality of life impairment in phobia and anxiety disorders have relied upon epidemiological samples or clinical data. Using the same quality of life scale, the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), in Iranian college students allowed us to study the impact of social phobia (SP) on quality of life among the college…

  20. The Prevalence and Comorbidity of Specific Phobias in College Students and Their Interest in Receiving Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Richard W.; Spates, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    While the prevalence of specific phobias and social phobias is believed to be high in the general adult population, little data exists regarding the prevalence of these fears among college students. This paper describes an epidemiological study that surveyed 813 college students regarding the severity of fears experienced toward 12 objects and…

  1. The Treatment of Social Phobia in a Young Boy with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleismann, Kelly D.; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including social phobia, occur often in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; Gillott, Furniss, & Walter, 2001; Leyfer et al., 2006; Simonoff et al., 2008); however, little is known about the conceptualization and treatment of social phobia in this population. The current study presents the case of "James," a 6-year-old…

  2. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  3. Thermal analysis of pyrotechnic mixture-fireworks, atom-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sound level produced from two varieties of sound producing fireworks of atom-bomb, cake bomb and thunder bomb were measured. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO3/S/Al(H3BO3) of compositions 57.5/19.9/22.1(0.5)% very much similar to commercial atom-bomb were taken and five cake bomb and seven thunder bomb with different net weight of chemicals were manufactured specifically for analysis. Cake bomb with 1g pyrotechnic mixture and thunder bomb with 2g pyrotechnic mixture produce -3. Ignition temperature of the mixture is above the melting point of the metallic fuel, Al (660 deg C) and self propagating decomposition occurred at high temperature. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO3/S/Al(H3BO3) is a safe mixture from accidental factor, static electricity. DSC studies indicate slight formation of potassium nitrite with evolution of NO above 400 deg C. (author)

  4. Travel insurance and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, P A; Carne, J; Kedjarune, U

    1999-12-01

    Travel insurance normally underwrites travel, medical, and dental expenses incurred by travelers abroad and arranges aeromedical evacuation of travelers under conditions specified by the travel insurance policy. Because of the costs of medical and dental treatment abroad and the high cost associated with aeromedical evacuation, all travelers should be advised of the need for comprehensive travel insurance and be advised to read their policies carefully to see what is covered and to check for any exclusions. In particular, those travelers who have known preexisting conditions, who are working overseas, or who are going to undertake any form of hazardous recreational pursuit may need to obtain a special travel insurance policy, which may attract a higher premium. Conservatively, it is estimated that between 30-50% of travelers become ill or injured whilst traveling. Relative estimated monthly incidence rates of various health problems have been compiled elsewhere. The risk of severe injury is thought to be greater for people when traveling abroad. These risks should be covered by travel insurance to protect the traveler, however it is not known what proportion of travel agents or airlines give advice routinely on travel insurance. Travel insurance is the most important safety net for travelers in the event of misadventure, and should be reinforced by travel health advisers. Although only 4% of general practitioners (GPs) in a late 1980's study in the United Kingdom would advise a traveler going to Turkey about travel insurance,4 more recent studies have shown about 60% of GPs in New Zealand and 39% of travel clinics worldwide usually advised travelers concerning travel insurance. In addition, 54% of GPs in New Zealand usually also advised travelers about finding medical assistance abroad, but only 19% of GPs recommended travel insurance companies as a source of medical assistance while traveling. PMID:10575173

  5. Over-representation of Myers Briggs Type Indicator introversion in social phobia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Morter, S; Tancer, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile the personalities of patients with social phobia. Sixteen patients with social phobia were compared with a normative population of 55,971, and with 24 hospitalized Major Depressive Disorder inpatients, using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, a popular personality survey, divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts versus Introverts, Sensors versus Intuitives, Thinkers versus Feelers, and Judgers versus Perceivers. Social phobia patients were significantly more often Introverts (93.7%) than were subjects in the normative population (46.2%). In addition, using continuous scores, the social phobia patients scored as significantly more introverted than did the patients with Major Depressive Disorder, who also scored as Introverted. Introversion is a major component of social phobia, and this observation may have both etiological and therapeutic significance. PMID:10875053

  6. Panic and phobic anxiety: associations among neuroticism, physiological hyperarousal, anxiety sensitivity, and three phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Susan L; Watson, David; Noyes, Russell; Yoder, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A dimensional and psychometrically informed taxonomy of anxiety is emerging, but the specific and nonspecific dimensions of panic and phobic anxiety require greater clarification. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses of data from a sample of 438 college students were used to validate a model of panic and phobic anxiety with six content factors; multiple scales from self-report measures were indicators of each model component. The model included a nonspecific component of (1) neuroticism and two specific components of panic attack, (2) physiological hyperarousal, and (3) anxiety sensitivity. The model also included three phobia components of (4) classically defined agoraphobia, (5) social phobia, and (6) blood-injection phobia. In these data, agoraphobia correlated more strongly with both the social phobia and blood phobia components than with either the physiological hyperarousal or the anxiety sensitivity components. These findings suggest that the association between panic attacks and agoraphobia warrants greater attention. PMID:16332429

  7. Color obsessions and phobias in autism spectrum disorders: the case of J.G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Amanda K; Heaton, Pamela; Hill, Elisabeth; Franklin, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The current study is the first investigation of color 'obsessions' and 'phobias' in ASD. We investigate the color perception and cognition of J.G., a boy with ASD who has a strong obsession with blue, and a strong phobia of other colors. J.G.'s performance on a series of color tasks (color-entity association; chromatic discrimination; color classification) is compared to 13 children with and without autism who do not have color obsessions or phobias. The findings lead to the formalization of two hypotheses: (i) color obsessions and phobias in individuals with ASD are related to an unusually strong ability to associate colors with entities; (ii) color obsessions are related to hyposensitivity, and color phobias to hypersensitivity, in the affected regions of color space. PMID:23547979

  8. The impact of the A-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty years after the throwing of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki this book is published as the expression of a profound longing for peace and disarmament. It is based on a comprehensive compilation of results published in 1979; it sums up the main parts of that work and adds new materials which illustrate the actual conditions at the time of the bombing. The experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is to become the joint possession of all peoples and to enhance the commitment of mankind to peace. The individual chapters describe the devastations, atomic destruction, the victims who suffered injuries, the acute stage of the A-bomb disease, scars that failed to heal, the survivors, life in the ruins, medical care and assistance, the search for peace, the path to a world without nuclear arms. (HSCH)

  9. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  10. Ultrasonic Device Would Open Pipe Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raheb, Michael S.; Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, energized by frequency generator and power supply, vibrates shell of pipe bomb while hardly disturbing explosive inner material. Frequency-control circuitry senses resonance in shell and holds generator at that frequency to induce fatigue cracking in threads of end cap. In addition to disarming bombs, ultrasonically induced fatigue may have other applications. In manufacturing, replaces some machining and cutting operations. In repair of equipment, cleanly and quickly disassembles corroded parts. In demolition of buildings used to dismember steel framework safely and controllably.

  11. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent a...... catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  12. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and burn injury or blast and crush injur y, are common during an explosive event. Knowledge about nature of injuries is essential for medicolegal and postmortem reports.

  13. Hypnotherapy: the salutogenic solution to dealing with phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Maria; Gregory, Colette

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggests that around a quarter of women can suffer from an intense fear of giving birth (tocophobia). This can be costly to these women in terms of enduring negative effects of the increased use of medical interventions associated with tocophobia. Other phobias, such as white coat hypertension, can also be problematic in pregnancy. This article describes the establishment of a hypnotherapy service within the antenatal day assessment unit at East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust and recounts a recent case study in which the use of hypnotherapy was employed to help Rebecca, a white coat hypertension sufferer, to successfully manage her condition. PMID:26336786

  14. The Therapeutic Lamp: Treating Small-Animal Phobias

    OpenAIRE

    WRZESIEN, Maja; Alcaniz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; BURKHARDT, Jean Marie; BRETON LOPEZ, Juana; Ortega, Mario; BENEITO BROTONS, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it might develop into psychological disorders such as phobias, producing high anxiety and affecting everyday life. The Therapeutic Lamp is an int...

  15. Mothers’ approach to feverish child and fever phobia Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Esenay, Figen Işık; İşler, Ayşegül; Kurugöl, Zafer; Conk, Zeynep; KOTUROĞLU, Güldane

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to determine mother’s knowledge thoughts and attitudes about fever fever phobia fear situations and related factors Material and Method: The study was carried out with 426 mothers who had a child aged between 0 to 6 years and who were admitted to the pediatric policlinic of Ege University Hospital in a four month period Data was collected using a questionnaire form that included 17 open ended and multiple choiced questions; the results were evaluated using the numb...

  16. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  17. Phobias of attachment-related inner states in the psychotherapy of adult survivors of childhood complex trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    The clinical case described in this article illustrates the value of taking into account the dynamics of disorganized attachment in the assessment of attachment-related phobias (phobia of attachment and phobia of attachment loss) during the psychotherapy of chronically traumatized patients. These seemingly opposite phobias typically coexist in the same patient, appear as phobias of both inner states (affect phobias) and relational experiences, and are linked to dissociated representations of self-with-other. Theory and research on attachment disorganization provide a clinician-friendly conceptual framework for capturing both the intrapsychic (e.g., intrusive and nonintegrated mental states) and the relational (e.g., dramatic unsolvable dilemmas in interpersonal exchanges) aspects of the attachment-related phobias. The therapeutic strategy and the key interventions that logically follow from a case formulation based on this conceptual framework are examined. PMID:24037602

  18. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  19. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  1. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  2. Reassessment of Atomic Bomb radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past several years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence produced by gamma rays in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). To be useful in radiation risk assessment, DS86 must be individualized or applied to the assertions of particular individuals as to their whereabouts at the time of the bombing. New DS86 estimates, in terms of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs, are available for 106,001 of the 141,635 individuals in current follow-up study populations. For the other individuals, it has been impossible to make DS86 estimates for 9,026 exposed individuals, and there are 26,608 unexposed individuals who were not in either city at the time of bombing. The DS86 estimates are discussed and compared with early dose estimates which were designated as Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D) and were used as a basis for radiation risk assessment throughout the 1970's

  3. From Hiroshima to the neutron bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of thermonuclear reaction is explained and the destructive action is briefly outlined of the projected neutron bomb. Using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions as a warning of the consequences of the misuse of nuclear energy, an appeal is made for disarmament as the sole safeguard of peace. (L.O.)

  4. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  5. Emporiatrics: The Travellers Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sushma, R; Nagabhushana, D

    2012-01-01

    Travel broadens the mind" and people have been extolling the merits of travel for a very long time .The general belief is that travel is good for travelers mentally and physically. But while travel can indeed be interesting and exciting, and good for mental and physical wellbeing, all too often it can be harmful to a traveler's health (1) .The increase in numbers of travellers and the speed at which they travel has not only had economic, cultural, and social repercussions, but medical, e...

  6. The 'secureplan' bomb utility: A PC-based analytic tool for bomb defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates a recently developed, PC-based software system for simulating the effects of an infinite variety of hypothetical bomb blasts on structures and personnel in the immediate vicinity of such blasts. The system incorporates two basic rectangular geometries in which blast assessments can be made - an external configuration (highly vented) and an internal configuration (vented and unvented). A variety of explosives can be used - each is translated to an equivalent TNT weight. Provisions in the program account for bomb cases (person, satchel, case and vehicle), mixes of explosives and shrapnel aggregates and detonation altitudes. The software permits architects, engineers, security personnel and facility managers, without specific knowledge of explosives, to incorporate realistic construction hardening, screening programs, barriers and stand-off provisions in the design and/or operation of diverse facilities. System outputs - generally represented as peak incident or reflected overpressure or impulses - are both graphic and analytic and integrate damage threshold data for common construction materials including window glazing. The effects of bomb blasts on humans is estimated in terms of temporary and permanent hearing damage, lung damage (lethality) and whole body translation injury. The software system has been used in the field in providing bomb defense services to a number of commercial clients since July of 1986. In addition to the design of siting, screening and hardening components of bomb defense programs, the software has proven very useful in post-incident analysis and repair scenarios and as a teaching tool for bomb defense training

  7. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  9. Travel time and travel cost in European air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Dusek, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine two issues of consumer air travel accessibility in Europe, namely flight time and ticket costs. The first part of the paper discusses the various methodological problems of creating time matrix and cost matrix of air travel. Because of problems of conceptualizing of the air travel network and the modifiable areal unit problem the analysis is conducted on several spatial levels. The smallest network consists of 15 busiest airports and the largest network has ...

  10. [Self-esteem: a comparison study between eating disorders and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III

  11. Risk factors associated with interdog aggression and shooting phobias among purebred dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Lund, Jørgen D.

    aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German, Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs and...... Spitz dogs. Poodles, retrieving/flushing dogs, Sheepdogs, Spitz dogs and terriers had higher odds of shooting phobia. The odds of interdog dominance aggression were higher among dogs owned by younger dog owners compared to dogs owned by older dog owners. Dogs living in the capital area of Copenhagen had...... phobia. Dogs belonging to dog breeders had reduced odds of being reported to have the investigated behaviour problems....

  12. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy to treat driving phobia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, J; Taylor, S

    2000-01-01

    An AB case design was used to examine the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) in treating driving phobia. After a one week baseline, the patient received three treatment sessions over a ten day period. Treatment included practice of four VR driving scenarios. Peak anxiety decreased within and across sessions. Ratings of anxiety and avoidance declined from pre-treatment and post-treatment, with gains maintained at seven month followup. Phobia-related interference in daily functioning similarly decreased. The results suggest that it would be useful to further evaluate the efficacy of VRET for driving phobia in controlled clinical trials. PMID:11494960

  13. Travel-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad. PMID:23692948

  14. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. I. MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PHOTOSPHERIC RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution imaging-spectroscopy movies of solar active region NOAA 10998 obtained with the Crisp Imaging Spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope show very bright, rapidly flickering, flame-like features that appear intermittently in the wings of the Balmer Hα line in a region with moat flows and likely some flux emergence. They show up at regular Hα blue-wing bright points that outline the magnetic network, but flare upward with much larger brightness and distinct 'jet' morphology seen from aside in the limbward view of these movies. We classify these features as Ellerman bombs and present a morphological study of their appearance at the unprecedented spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution of these observations. The bombs appear along the magnetic network with footpoint extents up to 900 km. They show apparent travel away from the spot along the pre-existing network at speeds of about 1 km s-1. The bombs flare repetitively with much rapid variation at timescales of seconds only, in the form of upward jet-shaped brightness features. These reach heights of 600-1200 km and tend to show blueshifts; some show bi-directional Doppler signature and some seem accompanied with an Hα surge. They are not seen in the core of Hα due to shielding by overlying chromospheric fibrils. The network where they originate has normal properties. The morphology of these jets strongly supports deep-seated photospheric reconnection of emergent or moat-driven magnetic flux with pre-existing strong vertical network fields as the mechanism underlying the Ellerman bomb phenomenon.

  15. Radiation education versus 'radio-phobia' - public perception of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the author presents the basis and reasons of the public radio-phobia in Poland. He mentions about people mentality historically based the 'cold war' and Soviet's military and technologically domination in this part of Europe. Besides of the historical and sociological sources he pays attention on a few aspects, which - in his opinion - intensified the negative public responses: Chernobyl catastrophe, the coal-lobby influences, the political parties (not only 'green') games during election time, existing of old conventional coal power stations, accessibility of own cheap coal, cost of transformation from communistic to free-market economy, low-level of public pro-ecology thinking and so on. On the other hand the author describes some non-realistic attitudes of society - for example - they accept nuclear medicine while do not agree to develop nuclear power engineering. Finally he presents conclusions, which can change public perception of radiation. (author)

  16. Public reaction to radiation: fear, anxiety, or phobia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public fear reactions to ionizing radiation are discussed in a social psychological context. The common use of the terms fear, anxiety, panic, and phobia is related to their clinical meanings, and the authors stress the importance of caution when using certain psychiatric terms for interpreting public reactions to radiation. Differences related to existing knowledge and belief structures, trust, and preferences, create obstacles to effective communication; however, the study of such differences also offers explanations to different reactions and different viewpoints. More information and communication of radiation, clear behavioral guidelines in situations of increased radiation levels, and respect for citizens' concerns about radiation protection would counterbalance lay people's fears and feelings of vulnerability. Such measures may enhance familiarity with radiation, increase perceived personal control in anxiety-creating situations, and develop trust in authorities and their expertise. (author)

  17. Driving phobia in the city of Houston: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, R J; Weinman, M L; Semchuk, K M; Levin, B L

    1982-08-01

    To study the fear of driving phenomenon the authors contacted 48 subjects who, in response to a newspaper article, had expressed an intense fear of driving in the city of Houston and compared them with an age- and sex-matched control group. The information elicited from the subjects suggested the existence of a driving phobia. No significant differences emerged between the phobic subjects and the controls on relevant driving history and background. Although the phobic subjects reported significantly higher levels of anxiety while driving in normal and difficult situations, most of them reported anxiety of phobic intensity only about difficult driving situations, such as driving on freeways and in congested traffic. PMID:7091430

  18. Acquisition of blood, injury, and needle fears and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, R A

    1994-11-01

    The origins of fear and phobia of blood, injury, and injections were investigated in a sample of 128 fearful university students. Based on Mutilation Questionnaire scores, subjects were designated as common fear, high fear, or phobic. Ss reports of their onset experiences obtained from structured interviews were categorized into one or more acquisition pathways of conditioning, vicarious observation, and information. Of the 73% of Ss who recalled one or more onset experiences, 76% reported conditioning-like events as the primary pathway with the majority reporting fear-related UCSs. Vicarious experiences were reported as primary by 20% and 3% reported information as being primary in their fear onset. Severity of fear was unrelated to the pathway by which it was acquired, to whether the onset was recalled, and if recalled, whether it was due to a single or to multiple traumatic events. Results are discussed in terms of methodological problems of memory issues and means by which data are collected. PMID:7993325

  19. Attempted suppression of social threat thoughts: differential effects for social phobia and healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsep, Patrick; Page, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Thought suppression research in the area of social phobia provides conflicting evidence regarding whether individuals demonstrate a general deficit or successful suppression. This paper reports the outcome of two studies using an online thought suppression paradigm measuring activation of target thoughts. Study 1 examined the effects of suppressing social threat stimuli with a healthy control group. Surprisingly, the results showed that participants demonstrated non-suppression of this stimuli class. Study 2 compared individuals with social phobia to a control group using the same stimuli as Study 1. Results revealed that following instructions to suppress social threat stimuli, individuals with social phobia demonstrated successful suppression, whilst the control group, as in Study 1, did not. The lack of suppression of social threat information by the control group may reflect functional impression-management of social threat stimuli. Whereas, successful suppression of these stimuli by individuals with social phobia, may contribute to diminished habituation to such information. PMID:20421097

  20. Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Matthew G; Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Roizen, Erica R; Truong, Nhan L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between parental depression and phobias in offspring as well as links between childhood fears and risk for major depression. This study examines the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in parents and specific fears and phobias in offspring. Three hundred and eighteen children of parents with lifetime MDD, anxiety disorder, MDD+anxiety disorder, or neither were psychiatrically assessed via parent interview. Rates of specific phobias in offspring did not differ significantly across parental groups. Specific fears were significantly elevated in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder relative to the other groups (MDD, anxiety disorder, and controls, which did not differ). We failed to find increased phobias in offspring of parents with MDD without anxiety disorder. Elevated rates of specific fears in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder may be a function of more severe parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading, or unmeasured environmental influences. PMID:17935207

  1. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  2. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  3. Mass cancer survey of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an outcome of mass screening for breast and uterine cancers performed in A-bomb survivors during the period from August 1988 through March 1990. Among 1,770 participants in mass screening for breast cancer, detailed examination was judged to be necessary in 6.1%. The rate of participation in the subsequent examination was 81.5%. Breast cancer was detected in 6 patients, which was all invasive ductal carcinoma. The estimated detection rate for breast cacer was 0.47%. There were 1,648 participants in mass screening for uterine cancer. The rate of detailed examination required was 2.0%, and the rate of participation was 66.7%. Uterine cancer was detected in 5 A-bomb survivors, one of whom had metastasis of rectal cancer. The estimated detection rate was 0.45%. (N.K.)

  4. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  5. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), has been conducting a long-term follow-up of a cohort of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The continuing follow-up of this population, known as the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, has been a major source of epidemiological data for radiation risk assessment. Periodic analyses of the LSS mortality data have resulted in a series of reports that describe and quantify radiation effects on cancer mortality. More recently, a series of comprehensive reports of cancer incidence for this cohort has also been published. The latest report on the LSS cancer mortality data through 1990 will soon be published. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an updated overview of the LSS cancer and leukemia data. (author)

  6. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  7. Bomb strike experiment for mine clearance operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The Bomb Strike Experiment for Mine Countermeasure Operations, currently sponsored through the Office of Naval Research mine impact burial prediction project, is part of a multi-year, comprehensive effort aimed at enhancing the Navyâ s fleet naval mine clearance capability and success. The investigation discussed in this paper examines the experimental and theoretical characteristics of a rigid body falling through the air, water, and sediment column at high speed. Several experiments were ...

  8. Radiological Situation at the Bomb Test Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of radiological situation at the selected bomb test sites is presented. The report is based on the reports and measurements performed by IAEA while the author was a head of its Physics-Chemistry-Instrumentation Laboratory. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll (USA testing ground), Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls (French testing ground) and Semipalatinsk (SSSR testing ground) have been discussed in some details. (author)

  9. Emporiatrics: The Travellers Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sushma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Travel broadens the mind" and people have been extolling the merits of travel for a very long time .The general belief is that travel is good for travelers mentally and physically. But while travel can indeed be interesting and exciting, and good for mental and physical wellbeing, all too often it can be harmful to a traveler's health (1 .The increase in numbers of travellers and the speed at which they travel has not only had economic, cultural, and social repercussions, but medical, epidemiological, and medico-legal consequences as well. Travel medicine or Emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers (2. The art of travel medicine is selecting the necessary prevention strategy without unnecessary adverse events, cost or inconvenience" (3. Travel health advice is primarily aimed at prevention, and is therefore offered before travel. It includes steps taken before travel like Medical examinations and screening, Psychological preparation, Provision of a medical kit, First aid training, Preventive measures for prevention of thermal injury, Insure and plan for aeromedical evacuation and repatriation, Advice regarding accidents and related hazards, Special provisions for specific travel hazards and Protection against tropical diseases. There is also an aspect of travel health which is provided after return from travel, which is usually diagnostic (4,5. Giving adequate advice on travel health requires a good knowledge about local health hazards overseas, public health measures, and the effectiveness of immunization and prophylaxis. In summary, travel medicine will be established as an interdisciplinary special discipline in the next years and will be characterized by new risks and on the other hand by new methods of therapy and prophylaxis.

  10. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, ...

  11. Disability and quality of life in pure and comorbid social phobia. Findings from a controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Fuetsch, M; Sonntag, Holger; Müller, Nina; Liebowitz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Social phobia is increasingly recognized as a prevalent and socially impairing mental disorder. However, little data is available regarding the general and disease-specific impairments and disabilities associated with social phobia. Furthermore, most studies have not controlled for the confounding effects of comorbid conditions. This study investigates: (a) the generic quality of life; (b) work productivity; and, (c) various other disorder-specific social impairments in current cases with pur...

  12. Stimulus Fading and Differential Reinforcement for the Treatment of Needle Phobia in a Youth with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Daniel B; Fisher, Wayne W

    2006-01-01

    Stimulus fading in the form of gradually increased exposure to a fear-evoking stimulus, often combined with differential reinforcement, has been used to treat phobias in children who are otherwise normal and in children with autism. In this investigation, we applied stimulus fading plus differential reinforcement with an adolescent with autism and diabetes whose needle phobia had prevented medical monitoring of his blood glucose levels for over 2 years. Results showed that the treatment was s...

  13. The Neuroanatomical Basis of Panic Disorder and Social Phobia in Schizophrenia: A Voxel Based Morphometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Picado Rossi, Marisol; Carmona Cañabate, Susana; Hoekzema, Elseline; Pailhez Vindual, Guillem; Bergé Baquero, Daniel; Mané, Anna; Fauquet Ars, Jordi; Hilferty, Joseph; Moreno, Ana; Cortizo, Romina; Vilarroya Oliver, Óscar; Bulbena Vilarrasa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure b...

  14. The neuroanatomical basis of panic disorder and social phobia in schizophrenia: a voxel based morphometric study.

    OpenAIRE

    Picado, Marisol; Carmona, Susanna; Hoekzema, Elseline; Pailhez, Guillem; Berg?? Baquero, Daniel; Man?? Santacana, Anna; Fauquet, Jordi; Hilferty, Joseph; Moreno, Ana; Cortizo Vidal, Romina; Vilarroya, ??scar; Bulbena Vilarrasa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia. METHODS: Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure b...

  15. Social phobia in Parkinson’s disease: Prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ozdilek, Betul; Gultekin,Bulent Kadri; Bestepe, Engin Emrem

    2014-01-01

    Bulent Kadri Gultekin,1 Betul Ozdilek,2 Engin Emrem Bestepe1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Neurology, Erenkoy Research and Training Hospital for Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate the frequency of social phobia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, we explored the relationship between social phobia and the clinical characteristics of PD, and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders in PD pat...

  16. When the present visits the past: Updating traumatic memories in social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that distorted images of the self are common in social phobia and play a role in maintaining the disorder. The images are often linked in thematic and sensory detail to distressing memories that are clustered around the onset or worsening of the disorder. This has led to speculation about the likely benefit of working directly with these memories to improve symptoms of social phobia. In this exploratory study, we describe a process of cognitive restructuring followed by imag...

  17. Hyperparathyroidism among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One thousand and thirty men and 2229 women, including A-bomb survivors, have underwent serum routine examinations from August 1986 through December 1987 at Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Hyperparathyroidism was detected in 3 men and 12 women. On the basis of the DS86 system, this cohort was divided into four groups, with the purpose of examining the relationship between atomic bombing and hyperparathyroidism. There were significant differences between exposure doses and the incidence of hyperparathyroidism (0.3% in the 0-9 mGy group vs 1.7% in the ≥1000 mGy group for women; 0.4% in the 10-499 mGy group vs 1.1% in the ≥1000 mGy group for men). Higher serum levels of calcium were significantly associated with exposure doses in both men and women. A similar tendency was observed when patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. Serum levels of phosphorus did not show any significant correlation with the bombing, although these were slightly lower in the ≥1000 mGy group. (N.K)

  18. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988. PMID:2889042

  19. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred and sixty cases of breast cancer were collected from among the 63,000 female members of the RERF extended Life Span Study sample which includes atomic bomb exposed women and controls of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The relationship of these breast cancer cases to A-bomb radiation was sought, and in studying 5-year survival, the following conclusions were obtained concerning its relationship to histopathological findings: 1) The prognosis of the 50+ rad high dose group is the best, followed by the nonexposed group and the low dose group; 2) The apparently better survival may be due, at least in part, to the fact that this group is heavily weighted in favor of those who were younger at the time of the bomb; 3) There is no specificity of the histologic type of breast cancer in the survivors by dose; 4) Nor, is any significant difference observed in the distribution of tumor size and histological grade; 5) Cellular reaction is significantly marked at the stroma of carcinoma tissue in the high dose group; 6) Immune reaction is considered to be strong at the affected site of breast cancer in the high dose group and this can be regarded as a finding suggestive of good prognosis; 7) Further extended studies are therefore warranted. (author)

  20. Influence on social life of atomic bomb, chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 3 ''Influence on social life'', the following matters are described: relations of the atomic bombings to society; destroyed societies such as disruption of regional societies and loss of wealth; life of the sufferers such as occupation, marriage, hardships of life, orphans, livelihood variation, and suffering of foreigners; and mental process of the sufferers. (J.P.N.)

  1. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  2. Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors in Nagasaki 1

    OpenAIRE

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kishikawa, Masao

    1991-01-01

    In 1945, an atomic bomb was exploded on Nagasaki. The Scientific Data Center for the Atomic Bomb Disaster was founded in Nagasaki University to analyse radiation effects on atomic bomb survivors. There were about 110,000 victims registered living in Nagasaki as of 1968. Since then, data of 2,000,000 items of health examination has been stored in the computer in the Scientific Data Center. The analysed results of the mortality, the survival and the risk estimation were presented.

  3. On the anti-neutron bomb movement in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports on activities of the Dutch activists group Stop the neutron bomb in his country: Collection of signatures, statements made by about a hundred well-known theologians, two-thirds majority in parliament against the production and emplacement of the neutron bomb, International Forum 1978 in Amsterdam with mass demonstrations. President Carter is said to have been forced to delay the production of the neutron bomb temporarily by means of this international pressure. (HSCH)

  4. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine Fobias, outras comorbidades psiquiátricas e enxaqueca crônica

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Corchs; Juliane P. P. Mercante; Vera Z. Guendler; Domingos S. Vieira; Marcelo R Masruha; Frederico R. Moreira; Marcio Bernik; Eliova Zukerman; Mario F.P. Peres

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM) with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. METHOD: We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. RESULTS: Lifetime criteria for at least one ment...

  5. Comorbidity in youth with specific phobias: Impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome and the impact of treatment on comorbid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Öst, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. In an analysis of data from an existing randomized control trial of brief cognitive behavioral treatment on specific phobias (One-Session Treatment, OST; Ollendick et al., 2009), we examined 1) the effect of comorbid specific phobias and other anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes, and 2) the effect of treatment of the specific phobia on these co-occurring disorders. These relations were explored in 100 youth presenting with animal, natural envi...

  6. The Relationship Among Social Phobia, Objective and Perceived Physiological Reactivity, and Anxiety Sensitivity in an Adolescent Population

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Emily R.; Hope, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Physiological theories may be important in the development and maintenance of social phobia in youth. A limited literature base indicates that youth with social phobia experience increases in objective physiological arousal during social-evaluative situations and are more aware of such increases compared to nonanxious youth. Recent research suggests that youth with social phobia also evidence heightened levels of anxiety sensitivity, which may lead to interpretation of physiological arousal a...

  7. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  8. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  9. Predetonation probability of a fission-bomb core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2010-08-01

    An undergraduate-level derivation of the probability that a uranium or plutonium fission bomb will suffer an uncontrolled predetonation due to neutrons liberated in spontaneous fissions in the fissile material is developed. Consistent with what was learned by Los Alamos bomb designers during World War II, it is shown why uncontrolled predetonation was not a problem for a U-235 bomb of the Little Boy "gun" design but necessitated development of implosion engineering for the Pu-239 Trinity and Fat Man bombs where the cores were contaminated with highly spontaneously fissile Pu-240.

  10. Social phobia in Parkinson’s disease: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin BK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bulent Kadri Gultekin,1 Betul Ozdilek,2 Engin Emrem Bestepe1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Neurology, Erenkoy Research and Training Hospital for Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate the frequency of social phobia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In addition, we explored the relationship between social phobia and the clinical characteristics of PD, and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders in PD patients. Methods: This study included 80 consecutive patients with PD admitted to the Parkinson’s disease and Movement Disorders Clinic at the Erenkoy Research and Training Hospital for Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey and used demographic and clinical data. The PD patients were evaluated during the “on state”, using the Hoehn and Yahr scale, the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, and the Schwab England Activities of Daily Living Scale. Psychiatric evaluations were conducted using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition structured clinical interview, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: Social phobia was diagnosed in 42.5% of PD patients. Social phobia was comorbid with depression in 20 patients (58.8%, generalized anxiety disorder in 18 patients (52.9%, and panic disorder in six patients (17.6%. Social phobia was more frequent in males, early-onset PD, patients with a long duration of disease, the presence of postural instability, and with the use of a high Levodopa equivalent daily dose. A logistic regression analysis revealed the predictive factors of social phobia to be the sex of the patient (more frequent in males and the presence of postural instability. There was a statistically significantly negative correlation between the LSAS score and the age of disease onset (r=–0.503; P=0.002 and a positive correlation between LSAS score and the

  11. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  12. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  13. Risk for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Prion Diseases Risk for Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Jakob Disease (vCJD) by Blood and Blood Products . Risk for Travelers The current risk of acquiring vCJD ...

  14. Traveling with children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002427.htm Traveling with children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Traveling with children presents special challenges. It disrupts familiar ...

  15. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  16. Pregnancy and travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000608.htm Pregnancy and travel To use the sharing features on this page, ... Most of the time, it is fine to travel while pregnant. As long as you are comfortable ...

  17. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any of the...... eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19...

  18. End to End Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  19. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... No vaccine is available, nor are drugs for preventing infection. Travelers should avoid drinking unboiled or unchlorinated ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... is time-consuming and expensive. TREATMENT Supportive care. PREVENTION All travelers aged ≥12 months should have evidence ...

  1. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  2. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  3. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian ... and does not increase the risk for adverse effects, screening for total anti-HAV before travel can be useful in some circumstances to determine ...

  4. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Scuba Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... PREPARING FOR DIVE TRAVEL Planning for dive-related travel should take ... in health, including injuries or surgery, and medication use. Respiratory ...

  6. Finnish travelers' travel motivation : case: Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Jokilehto, Katri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study the travel motives which lead Finnish people to travel to the Canary Islands and other factors which impact on the holiday decision process and destination choice. The target group for the research was Finnish people and the aim was to study the travel motives of Finns to the Canary Islands and which factors are important for Finnish people to gain a successful holiday. The research was conducted by using internet survey and the collected data was analyzed b...

  7. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  8. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study

    OpenAIRE

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support ...

  9. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  10. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  11. CALCULATION OF PER PARCEL PROBABILITY FOR DUD BOMBS IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tavakkoli Sabour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth’s surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  12. Effects of the atomic bomb: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic bomb was aimed at the heart of the multifunctional regional center in he Hiroshima Bay. The buildings were reduced to rubble and ashes by a combination of the blast wave and heat rays. Determining the number of persons exposed to the atomic bomb and those killed is most difficult due to many movements of the people at that time and due to loss of records in the bombing, but from various sources the total physically present population in Hiroshima on the bombing day is estimated to 340,000-350,000. Body injuries resulting from the atomic bombing included burns, trauma and serious body injuries due to radiation. Compared to Hiroshima, blast damage to buildings was more severe in Nagasaki, damage by fire defied all imagination. Population in Nagasaki is estimated at 240,000 on the dy of bombing. Body injuries from exposure to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were classified as acute A-bomb injuries in the initial stage, secondary injuries, after-effects, and delayed effects. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experience is the starting point for projecting and absolute necessity for preventing, the irreversible devastation that would result from the use of current nuclear weapons

  13. Quality improvement program for the B83 bomb hand truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loll, M.B.; Buck, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the problems, issues, and history of the H1347 bomb hand truck for the B83 bomb after the bomb was put into stockpile in the mid-1980s. Major issues that were reported in Unsatisfactory Reports (URs) were cracking problems on stacking fixture welds, cracked welds on the caster bracket receptacles on the cradle, cracked caster mounting brackets, casters unlocking from the swivel lock position, and caster tires rubbing and binding on the stacking frame. Resolution of these and other problems is described. The introduction of the H695B storage-only bomb hand truck to alleviate a shortage of bomb hand trucks in the mid-1990s is described. The development and qualification of the H1347A bomb hand truck as a replacement for the H695 B is covered. The results from load test evaluations on the stacking fixture, cradle, and casters for the H1347 are described along with towing results on one and two-high stack configurations of B83 bombs in bomb hand trucks. New towing and truck/trailer transport procedures are described. Development, evaluation, and production recommendations for a stronger caster mounting bracket are described.

  14. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the...

  15. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... the primary disinfectant promoted by CDC and the World Health Organization Safe Water System at a 1. ...

  16. Comprehensive care of travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, R E; Peate, W F; Cordes, D H

    1986-12-01

    Travel, especially if it is international, often means major changes for the family. Family physicians should assess the epidemiologic risk and psychosocial significance of travel or relocation in light of the family's life-cycle stage and antecedent health. Using core references, which are kept current in partnership with public health agencies, family physicians are able to provide comprehensive immunization, medications, and patient education for all travel risks. Families are given medical record summaries and recommended sources of care at their destination. Eight weeks after their return patients are reassessed for newly acquired illness and helped to integrate the perspectives gained during the travel into the family's future dynamics. Taking advantage of growing travel medicine opportunities, family medicine educators should base the care of travelers and teaching of residents on defined competence priorities. Travelers' health provides a mutually rewarding model of shared care with public health consultants in the community medicine curriculum. PMID:3537200

  17. Some considerations about ''philia'' and ''phobia'' in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a radiation phobia as the negative issue of misinformation due to irresponsible behavior of some members of the scientific community and media. The author elaborates on that definition. Until the general public will not be an active political subject in health management irrationalist attitudes will predominate. Industry, armed forces and public services pay more attention to the expected benefits of new potentially dangerous agents such as technology products, drugs and even foods, and this causes a series of oscillating phases as regards general health, public concern, risk assessment and research. Alarm sets in on the general public. The following silent phase generally shows a serious commitment to research, regulation, and a more conscious public concern. An increasing health fanaticism and the increasing fear for the environment are two general trends which are present in all industrialized societies. The author advises avoiding conclusive statements in the early phases and to state tentative protection regulations which would supposedly be modified according to the results of compulsory check procedures. He also suggests promoting a serious program of research in all directions: environmental measurements and monitoring, biophysical and pathophysiological experiments, and epidemiologic investigations

  18. Monitoring physiology and behavior using Android in phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Telmo; Brás, Susana; Soares, Sandra C; Fernandes, José Maria

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present an Android-based system Application - AWARE - for the assessment of the person's physiology and behavior outside of the laboratory. To accomplish this purpose, AWARE delivers context dependent audio-visual stimuli, embedded into the subject's real-world perception, via marker/vision-based augmented reality (AR) technology. In addition, it employs external measuring resources connected via Bluetooth, as well as the smartphone's integrated resources. It synchronously acquires the experiment's video (camera input with AR overlay), physiologic responses (with a dedicated ECG measuring device) and behavior (through movement and location, with accelerometer/gyroscope and GPS, respectively). Psychological assessment is heavily based on laboratory procedures, even though it is known that these settings disturb the subjects' natural reactions and condition. The major idea of this application is to evaluate the participant condition, mimicking his/her real life conditions. Given that phobias are rather context specific, they represent the ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of a mobile system application. AWARE allowed presenting AR stimuli (e.g., 3D spiders) and quantifying the subjects' reactions non-intrusively (e.g., heart rate variation) - more emphatic in the phobic volunteer when presented with spider vs non phobic stimulus. Although still a proof of concept, AWARE proved to be flexible, and straightforward to setup, with the potential to support ecologically valid monitoring experiments. PMID:26737106

  19. How children experience brief-exposure treatment of specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lisa; Larsson, Asa; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2002-03-01

    Examined how 56 children who had received brief-exposure treatment for specific phobias experienced the treatment. It was also investigated whether there was a relation between the children's reported experiences before, during, and after the treatment and therapy outcome. Results indicated that the treatment was experienced as something positive, and the large majority of the children appreciated the pace and degree of control they had during treatment, as well as the therapist and the treatment outcome. The response patterns did not differ between sexes, diagnostic groups, mode of treatment, or age groups. The therapy outcome of the children was not found to differ according to the children's pretreatment expectations and feelings during the treatment, neither according to the children's evaluations of the pace of the treatment nor of the therapist's. However, children's reports about their feelings upon termination of the treatment and the satisfaction with the treatment differed significantly depending on the treatment outcome. Results and tentative explanations of these are discussed and implications for future lines of research are suggested. PMID:11845654

  20. Bruxism and oral parafunctional hyperactivity in social phobia outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermesh, H; Schapir, L; Marom, S; Skopski, R; Barnea, E; Weizman, A; Winocur, E

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered aggravating factors for bruxism. We examined the influence of anxiety, depression and SSRI on bruxism in social phobia (SP). Twenty-three drug naïve, 17 SSRI-treated SP patients and 33 healthy controls underwent a psychiatric assessment and completed Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Oral parafunctional activity (PF) was evaluated by TM-dental examination and by a questionnaire. Drug- naïve and SSRI-treated SP patients did not differ on demographic and clinical measures. Awake bruxism, 'JAW PLAY' and at least one PF were more prevalent in SP than in controls. Severity of SP predicted the presence of PF. SP, but not depression, was associated with higher risk of oral PF and awake bruxism. Chronic SSRI treatment of SP did not affect sleep and awake bruxism. Dental and anxiety screening may improve the prognosis psychiatric and dental patients. Effective treatment of SP may mitigate bruxism. PMID:25238249

  1. Neuroimaging correlates of pharmacological and psychological treatments for specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ila M; Chags, Marcos H N; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Crippa, José A S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2014-01-01

    Specific phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by irrational fear and avoidance of specific things or situations, interfering significantly with the patients' daily life. Treatment for the disorder consists of both pharmacological and psychological approaches, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Neuroimaging techniques have been used in an attempt to improve our understanding of the neurobiology of SP and of the effects of treatment options available. This review describes the design and results of eight articles investigating the neuroimaging correlates of pharmacological and psychological treatments for SP. The studies show that CBT is effective in SP, leading to a reduction of anxiety symptoms that is accompanied by functional alterations in the brain. The results of pharmacological interventions for SP are less uniform, but suggest that the partial agonist of the NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) receptor DCS (D-cycloserine) can be used in combination with psychotherapy techniques for the achievement of quicker treatment response and that DCS modulates the function of structures implicated in the neurobiology of SP. Further research should explore the augmentation of CBT treatment with DCS in controlled trials. PMID:24923351

  2. A comparison study of body dysmorphic disorder versus social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Dalrymple, Kristy; Zimmerman, Mark; Phillips, Katharine A

    2013-01-30

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) shares many characteristics with social phobia (SP), including high levels of social anxiety and avoidance, but to our knowledge no studies have directly compared these disorders' demographic and clinical features. Demographic and clinical features were compared in individuals with BDD (n=172), SP (n=644), and comorbid BDD/SP (n=125). SP participants had a significantly earlier age of onset and lower educational attainment than BDD participants. BDD participants were significantly less likely to ever be married than SP participants, had a greater likelihood of ever being psychiatrically hospitalized, and had significantly lower mean GAF scores than SP participants. The two groups had different comorbidity patterns, which included a greater likelihood for BDD participants to have comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or an eating disorder, vs. a greater likelihood for SP participants to have a comorbid non-OCD anxiety disorder. The comorbid BDD/SP group had significantly greater morbidity across several domains than the SP only group, but not the BDD only group. In summary, although BDD and SP were similar across many demographic and clinical features, they had important differences. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and address similarities and differences between these disorders across a broader range of variables. PMID:22999105

  3. H-alpha features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, R J

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for H-alpha, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10,000 - 20,000 K and hydrogen densities around 10^15 cm^-3. Similar arguments likely hold for H-alpha visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  4. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  5. Estimation of neutron doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the radiation doses in the Hiroshima and the Nagasaki atomic bombings, the estimated values of T65D (in the United States) have been used. In recent years, however, these values are being restudied. On the basis of the neutron spectra from atomic bombings published from LANL in 1976, the neutron doses in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings were estimated. It was pointed out that the neutron doses of T65D were overestimated. The results of calculation in this estimation were that at the distance from 1 km to 2 km, the neutron doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were from 1/5 to 1/9 and about 1/3, respectively, as compared with those in T65D. The estimation of the neutron doses in the atomic bombings by calculation, the difference from T65D and the comparison with the measured radioactivities immediately after atomic bombings are described. (Mori, K.)

  6. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero Soto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Results: Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5. Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001 and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001. Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5. Conclusions: High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma.

  7. Blood or needle phobia as a defence under the Road Traffic Act 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, K J

    1996-12-01

    A man was charged with driving over the prescribed alcohol limit. Both specimens of breath contained less than 50 micrograms of alcohol per 100 ml and he refused to submit to a blood test. His defence was that he had a phobia of blood and that he should have been allowed to claim to replace the breath specimens with a specimen of urine. Evidence that he had a phobia was accepted by the prosecution. A woman was arrested on suspicion of driving whilst unfit through drink or drugs. She was charged with refusing to provide a specimen of blood. It was her defence that she had a phobia of needles. Evidence that she had a phobia was not accepted by the prosecution. In both cases the court was asked to decide whether or not the forensic medical examiner had been seriously wrong in deciding that there was no medical reason for refusing a specimen of blood. The man was acquitted and the woman was found guilty. These cases are used to describe the law relating to blood or needle phobias and to suggest how such cases should be approached by the police and forensic medical examiners. PMID:15335604

  8. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  9. The genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the genetic effects of the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been in progress since 1946. The indicators of potential genetic damage in the children of exposees which have been employed are: (1) untoward pregnancy outcomes (major congenital defect and/or stillbirth and/or neonatal death), (2) death of liveborn infants prior to average age 28.8 years, (3) cancer of onset prior to age 20, (4) sex chromosome aneuploidy, (5) mutations affecting protein electrophoretic mobility and/or activity, (6) chromosomal reciprocal translocations, (7) sex-ratio in the children of exposed mothers, and (8) physical development at birth, at 9-months, and at school age. There is no statistically significant effect of parental exposure to the bombs on any of these indicators. The net regression of indicator(s) on dose is, however, positive. On the basis of these regressions and assumptions concerning the contribution of spontaneous mutation to the indicator values in the controls, the gametic doubling dose of acute ionizing radiation under these circumstances is estimated to be 2 Sv. With a dose rate factor of 2, which seems appropriate to these circumstances, the doubling dose for chronic radiation is placed at 4 Sv. This is a substantially higher estimate than previous extrapolations to man from murine experiments

  10. A-bomb and skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury and influence in the skin given by A-bomb are reviewed from the dermatological aspect. As an acute injury, primary and secondary thermal burns, flash and flame, respectively, are generally caused by high-energy heat. More than 90% people present within 1 km diameter area of the hypocenter died in a week and about 30% of whom did due to burns. Alopecia appeared in those who had been exposed to A-bomb radiation within 2.5 km diameter region of the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and purpura, an important measure of radiation injury, occurred maximally 20-30 days after explosion in most of those people above. Late injury involves keloid and malignant skin tumor. The former, hypertrophic scar, was seen mainly in the curing process of the burns in 60-80% and was of somewhat different morphology after flash and flame injuries. In 1987, the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposed dose was recognized in 20,348 survivors in Nagasaki. In the period from 1958 to 1987, the incidence of basal cell carcinoma was found increased in the comparative studies of about 90,000 people consisting of survivors and non-exposed control. Skin examination is pointed out from the aspect to be important in those people exposed to the higher radiation dose than general population, like workers in the nuclear power plant and medical field as well as in those enrolled in a nuclear accident. (R.T.)

  11. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  12. Determinants of public phobia about infectious diseases in South Korea: effect of health communication and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception. PMID:23430887

  13. Virtual reality exposure using three-dimensional images for the treatment of social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Gebara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To test a potential treatment for social phobia, which provides exposure to phobia-inducing situations via computer-generated, three-dimensional images, using an open clinical trial design.Methods:Twenty-one patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia took part in the trial. Treatment consisted of up to 12 sessions of exposure to relevant images, each session lasting 50 minutes.Results:Improvements in social anxiety were seen in all scales and instruments used, including at follow-up 6 months after the end of treatment. The average number of sessions was seven, as the participants habituated rapidly to the process. Only one participant dropped out.Conclusion:This study provides evidence that exposure to computer-generated three-dimensional images is relatively inexpensive, leads to greater treatment adherence, and can reduce social anxiety. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

  14. An experimental demonstration that fear, but not disgust, is associated with return of fear in phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that disgust, rather than anxiety, may be important in some phobias. Correlational studies have been ambiguous, indicating either that disgust increases phobic anxiety or that phobic anxiety potentiates disgust. In the experimental study reported here, disgust and phobic anxiety were manipulated in the context of habituation to phobic stimuli. Spider fearful participants were randomly allocated to conditions in which neutral, disgusting, and phobic anxiety provoking stimuli were introduced into a video-based spider phobic habituation sequence. Exposure to the phobic stimulus resulted in a return of self-reported fear and disgust levels. However, exposure to disgusting stimulus increased disgust levels, but not anxiety levels. Results are most consistent with the hypothesis that fear enhances the disgust response in phobias, but that disgust alone does not enhance the fear response. Previously observed links between disgust and spider phobia may be a consequence of fear enhancing disgust. PMID:16325114

  15. 'Nonspecific' rather than 'nonassociative' pathways to phobias: a commentary on Poulton and Menzies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Graham C L

    2002-02-01

    This commentary attempts to clarify the nature of contemporary associative accounts of phobias, and to describe how they might contribute to the explanation of the diversity of phobic aetiologies. It is argued that conditioning-equivalent associations underpin all phobic conditions, and that the role of experimental psychopathology research is to determine how these associations are acquired. The commentary then proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical problems with the nonassociative account of phobias as it is currently described by Poulton and Menzies, and to suggest that some interpretations of their retrospective and prospective data may not be incompatible with contemporary associative accounts. The outcome of this is that it may be more suitable to describe the fourth pathway to phobia acquisition described by Poulton and Menzies as a 'nonspecific' rather than a 'nonassociative' pathway. PMID:11820225

  16. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  17. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  18. Phase-oriented treatment of structural dissociation in complex traumatization: overcoming trauma-related phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kathy; van der Hart, Onno; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S

    2005-01-01

    The theory of structural dissociation of the personality proposes that patients with complex trauma-related disorders are characterized by a division of their personality into different prototypical parts, each with its own psychobiological underpinnings. As one or more apparently normal parts (ANPs), patients have a propensity toward engaging in evolutionary prepared action systems for adaptation to daily living to guide their actions. Two or more emotional parts (EPs) are fixated in traumatic experience. As EPs, patients predominantly engage action systems related to physical defense and attachment cry. ANP and EP are insufficiently integrated, but interact and share a number of dispositions of the personality (e.g., speaking). All parts are stuck in maladaptive action tendencies that maintain dissociation, including a range of phobias, which is a major focus of this article. Phase-oriented treatment helps patients gradually develop adaptive mental and behavioral actions, thus overcoming their phobias and structural dissociation. Phase 1, symptom reduction and stabilization, is geared toward overcoming phobias of mental contents, dissociative parts, and attachment and attachment loss with the therapist. Phase 2, treatment of traumatic memories, is directed toward overcoming the phobia of traumatic memories, and phobias related to insecure attachment to the perpetrator(s), particularly in EPs. In Phase 3, integration and rehabilitation, treatment is focused on overcoming phobias of normal life, healthy risk-taking and change, and intimacy. To the degree that the theory of structural dissociation serves as an integrative heuristic for treatment, it should be compatible with other theories that guide effective treatment of patients with complex dissociative disorders. PMID:16172081

  19. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  20. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is tr...

  1. Gulliver, Travel, and Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Rawson, Claude

    2012-01-01

    In his article "Gulliver, Travel, and Empire" Claude Rawson analyzes Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels as a central document of European intellectual history. Rawson focuses on the relationship between ethnicity and human identity and asks what constitutes humanity and how individual groups qualify (or not) for human status. Posing teasingly as a "parody" of travel books, it is both a series of voyages and an ethnically widening arc of moral exploration as Book Four at once expresses an amb...

  2. Active Travel - Healthy Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    Across Ireland, there is considerable scope to replace many short car journeys with walking and cycling which would bring about a range of benefits to health as well as saving money for individuals and society.'Active travel, healthy lives' presents a summary of international evidence on the health and economic benefits of active travel and makes recommendations on how active travel can become a viable, safe and attractive alternative to car use.

  3. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  4. [Fever in returning travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, G

    2014-03-01

    Travel-related illness is most often due to gastrointestinal, febrile, and dermatologic diseases. Fever in a returned traveler demands prompt attention because it may be a manifestation of an infection that could be rapidly progressive and lethal. The approach to the febrile patient should be stepwise and consider travel and exposure history. Malaria is the most common cause of fever in patients returning from Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas dengue is more frequent in travelers from other tropical and subtropical areas. Other serious diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fever, amebic liver abscess, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis and-rarely-viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:24557143

  5. [Physical exposure by travelling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, U

    2011-06-01

    Approximately 40 million Germans travel abroad every year. Air travel is the most frequently used mean of transportation followed by the automobile. During airplane flights rheumatic patients are subjected to numerous physical, biological and climatic factors which can cause stress and adverse effects on general health. Therefore, preventive strategies are helpful to protect against health damage, provided that there is general fitness for air travel. The present article focuses on physical and biological stress as well as psychological aspects during air travel and reviews prophylactic measures. PMID:21533614

  6. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social Cognitive-behavioral therapy in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia M Ito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo revisa aspectos relevantes da fobia social e os estágios de tratamento através da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em crianças, adolescentes e adultos. MÉTODO: A partir do banco de dados Medline, realizou-se revisão da literatura publicada a respeito do tratamento da fobia social por meio da terapia cognitivo-comportamental. RESULTADOS: Revisão da literatura sugere que a fobia social é uma condição prevalente e crônica, caracterizada por inibição social e timidez excessiva. Tanto o diagnóstico como o tratamento desse transtorno são comumente determinados pelo nível de incômodo e pelo prejuízo funcional. Estudos populacionais indicam taxas de prevalência ao longo da vida para a fobia social entre 2,5 e 13,3%. As principais técnicas utilizadas na terapia cognitivo-comportamental para a fobia social são descritas e exemplificadas em um relato de caso. CONCLUSÕES: Há consenso geral na literatura de que a terapia cognitivo-comportamental é eficaz tanto para o tratamento de jovens como de adultos com fobia social. Uma vez que a fobia social com freqüência tem início precoce, a identificação de crianças com risco acentuado para o desenvolvimento de fobia social deve ser priorizada em investigações futuras.OBJECTIVE: This article reviews relevant aspects of social phobia and the stages of treatment within cognitive-behavioral therapy in children and adolescents, as well as in adults. METHOD: A review of the literature published on the treatment of social phobia using cognitive-behavioral treatments was performed using the Medline database. RESULTS: A review of the literature suggests that social phobia is a chronic and prevalent condition, characterized by social inhibition and excessive shyness. Diagnosis and treatment of the disorder are usually determined by distress level and functional impairment. Population studies indicate that lifetime prevalence rates for social phobia range from 2.5 to 13

  7. Affective outcomes of virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and specific phobias: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2008-09-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an increasingly common treatment for anxiety and specific phobias. Lacking is a quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after VRET. Searches of electronic databases yielded 52 studies, and of these, 21 studies (300 subjects) met inclusion criteria. Although meta-analysis revealed large declines in anxiety symptoms following VRET, moderator analyses were limited due to inconsistent reporting in the VRET literature. This highlights the need for future research studies that report uniform and detailed information regarding presence, immersion, anxiety and/or phobia duration, and demographics. PMID:17720136

  8. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. III. Phobias and panic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1987-01-01

    Comparison was made of the frequency of phobias and panic attacks in normal controls and in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), attention-deficit disorder (ADD), and ADD secondary to a TS gene. For phobias the most significant difference between controls and TS patients was with respect to fear of public transportation (P = .002), followed by fear of being alone (P = .009), fear of being in a crowd (P = .01), fear of being in water (P = .025), fear of animals (P = .04), fear of public speaking (P = .05), and other fears (P = .05). Only 8.5% of controls had more than three simple phobias and none had more than five, whereas 26% of TS patients had more than three (P = .008) and some had as many as 13. As opposed to 19% of TS patients, none of the controls had phobias that interfered with their life (P = .001). Among female TS patients 55.1% had 3-13 phobias, compared with 8.7% of the female controls (P less than .0005). There was no correlation between the ADD score and the number of phobias (r = -.010) and little correlation with the total number of tics (r = .14). Panic attacks were present in 8.3% of the controls and 33% of the TS patients (P = .0008). This frequency increased to 55.2% (P less than .0005) for grade 3 (severe) TS patients. None of the controls, 15.9% of all TS patients (P = .002), and 31% of grade 3 TS patients (P less than .0005) had more than three panic attacks in 1 wk. Total panic-symptom score (12 possible symptoms) was significantly greater than that in the controls in all grades of TS. The presence or absence of ADD had little effect on the total panic-symptom score, but the presence of ADD resulted in a significantly lower average age at onset of panic attacks (8.8 years) compared with those TS patients without ADD (15.4 years) (P = .03). These observations indicate that phobias and panic attacks are a significant part of the symptomatology of TS and provide the first clear indication that phobias and panic attacks can be due to the

  9. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. III. Phobias and panic attacks.

    OpenAIRE

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1987-01-01

    Comparison was made of the frequency of phobias and panic attacks in normal controls and in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), attention-deficit disorder (ADD), and ADD secondary to a TS gene. For phobias the most significant difference between controls and TS patients was with respect to fear of public transportation (P = .002), followed by fear of being alone (P = .009), fear of being in a crowd (P = .01), fear of being in water (P = .025), fear of animals (P = .04), fear of public speak...

  10. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  11. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  12. Dirty bombs: assesment of radiological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some countries, regulatory control of radioactive sources, used extensively in medicine and industry, remains weak. Global concerns about the security and safety of radioactive sources escalated following the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. There are fears that some radioactive sources could be used by terrorists as radiological dispersal devices (RDD's), or so called 'dirty bombs'. The radioactive material dispersed, depending on the amount and intensity, could cause radiation sickness for a limited number of people nearby if, for example, they inhaled large amounts of radioactive dust. But the most severe tangible impacts would likely be the economic costs and social disruption associated with the evacuation and subsequent clean-up of contaminated property. It has been shown that usage of realistic data in a first response decision making as to avoid inappropriate public reaction accompanied by economic and social consequences is necessary.(author)

  13. Radioepidemiology of the A-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, W J

    1996-06-01

    Estimation of the risk of cancer and other health effects following exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remains largely empirical, and the models used to adduce risk incorporate few, if any, of the advances in molecular biology of the past decade or so. These facts compromise the estimation of risk where the epidemiologic data are weakest, namely, at low doses and dose rates. Although the risk estimates may be sufficient for regulatory purposes, without a better understanding of the molecular and cellular events ionizing radiation initiates or promotes, it seems unlikely that the estimates will be as intellectually satisfying as they might be. Nor will the situation improve further without attention to the identification and estimation of the effects of those host and environmental factors that enhance or diminish risk of cancer or the effects on the developing brain. PMID:8635903

  14. Jets and Bombs: Characterizing IRIS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Donald; Innes, Davina

    2014-06-01

    For almost two decades, SUMER has provided an unique perspective on explosive events in the lower solar atmosphere. One of the hallmark observations during this tenure is the identification of quiet sun bi-directional jets in the lower transition region. We investigate these events through two distinct avenues of study: a MHD model for reconnection and the new datasets of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Based on forward modeling optically thin spectral profiles, we find the spectral signatures of reconnection can vary dramatically based on viewing angle and altitude. We look to the IRIS data to provide a more complete context of the chromospheric and coronal environment during these dynamic events. During a joint IRIS-SUMER observing campaign, we observed spectra of multiple jets, a small C flare, and an Ellerman bomb event. We discuss the questions that arise from the inspection of these new data.

  15. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  16. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.)

  17. Multiwavelength spectropolarimetric observations of an Ellerman bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, R.; Beck, C.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are enhanced emission in the wings of the Hα line in the solar spectrum. Aims: We study the structure of an EB in the photosphere and chromosphere. Methods: We analyze simultaneous observations of four chromospheric lines (Hα, Ca ii H, Ca ii IR 854 nm, and He i 1083 nm) as well as two photospheric lines (Fe i 630 and Si i 1082.7 nm) along with high-cadence 160 and 170 nm ultraviolet (UV) continuum filtergrams. Full Stokes data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) are used to trace the temporal evolution of the magnetic structure. Results: We identify the EB by excess emission in the wings of the Hα line, a brightening in the UV continuum, and large emission peaks in the core of the two Ca ii lines. The EB shows a blueshift in all chromospheric lines, while no shifts are observed in the photospheric lines. The blueshift in the chromospheric layer causes very asymmetric emission peaks in the Ca ii H line. The photospheric Si i spectral line shows a shallower line depth at the location of the EB. The UV continuum maps show that the EB was substantially brighter than its surroundings for about 30 min. The continuum contrast of the EB from 170 nm to 1080 nm shows a power-law dependency on the wavelength. The temperature enhancement amounts to 130 K in the low photosphere and 400 K at the temperature minimum level. This temperature excess is also seen in an LTE inversion of the Ca ii spectra. The total thermal and radiative energy content of the EB is about 1020 J and 1018 J in the photosphere and chromosphere, respectively. The HMI data hints at a photospheric magnetic flux cancellation as the driver of the EB. Conclusions: Ellerman bombs release the energy in a height range of several pressure scale heights around the temperature minimum such that they affect both the photosphere and the lower chromosphere.

  18. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL informs you that our agency will be closed from 22 December 2006 at 16:30 until 8 January 2007 at 8:30. For all URGENT MATTERS you can contact our CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL branch at W.H.O. (Mr Pierre Plumettaz), phone: 022 791 55 95. We wish you already a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  19. Traveling with Portable Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is right for you depends on your travel plans, your health requirements, and your personal preferences. Compressed Oxygen Compressed ... notice before your ight if you plan to travel with oxygen. For this ... to review procedures and complete all necessary paperwork required by ...

  20. The traveling transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa; Lee, Gini

    2013-01-01

    conditions, correspond to the fields of natural sciences and to spatial aesthetics. The Travelling Transect method, inspired by Alexander von Humboldt’s method of transareal travelling and transversal collecting of ephemeral information from site, informs our exploratory fieldwork in the water landscapes of...

  1. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  2. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with ... virus–neutralizing antibody is not necessary in most international ... weight may be small in relation to the size and number of wounds. RIG ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... preventable serogroups are recognized (see the CDC Travelers’ Health website at www.cdc.gov/travel ). Note that proof of receipt of quadrivalent vaccination ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Sunburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Coccidioidomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  12. Illness in Returned Travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Lawee, D; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative.

  13. Zika Travel Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partners GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... please visit CDC’s Zika website . Traveling soon? Get Zika info on-the-go. Sign up to receive ...

  14. Travel and venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Alexander S; Goghlan, Douglas C

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues about whether and to what extent travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). Almost certainly, the strength of any association was greatly exaggerated in recent press reports. Conclusions from case-control studies vary, with some finding no excess of recent travel among patients with venous thromboembolism and others reporting a two-four fold excess. The strongest evidence that prolonged air travel predisposes to thrombosis comes from the travel history of people who present with PE immediately after landing. Two independent analyses suggest that the risk of early embolism increases exponentially with travel times beyond 6 hours and may reach 1:200,000 passengers traveling for more than 12 hours. The most likely explanation is venous stasis in the legs from prolonged sitting, and there is evidence (preliminary and controversial) that elastic support stockings may prevent deep vein thrombosis in people who travel long-distances. There is an urgent need for more and better studies to define the absolute hazard from travel-related thrombosis and the personal risk factors that may contribute. Without these, it is difficult to give a balanced account to people who intend to travel or to consider definitive prevention trials. Case reports suggest that in most cases, travel-related thrombosis has affected people who were also at risk because of previous thrombosis, recent injury, or other predispositions. This makes it sensible to target such "at risk" people with advice about hazards and precautions, at least until formal study validates some other approach. PMID:12172438

  15. Comorbidity in youth with specific phobias: Impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome and the impact of treatment on comorbid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Ost, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. In an analysis of data from an existing randomized control trial of brief cognitive behavioral treatment on specific phobias (One-Session Treatment, OST; Ollendick et al., 2009), we examined 1) the effect of comorbid specific phobias and other anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes, and 2) the effect of treatment of the specific phobia on these co-occurring disorders. These relations were explored in 100 youth presenting with animal, natural environment, situational, and "other" types of phobia. Youth were reliably diagnosed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and Parent versions (Silverman & Albano, 1996). Clinician severity ratings at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up were examined as were parent and child treatment outcome satisfaction measures. Results indicated that the presence of comorbid phobias or anxiety disorders did not affect treatment outcomes; moreover, treatment of the targeted specific phobias led to significant reductions in the clinical severity of other co-occurring specific phobias and related anxiety disorders. These findings speak to the generalization of the effects of this time-limited treatment approach. Implications for treatment of principal and comorbid disorders are discussed, and possible mechanisms for these effects are commented upon. PMID:20573338

  16. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  17. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2011), s. 181-186. ISSN 1845-8319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * chromosphere * Ellerman bomb Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  19. NADIM-Travel: A Multiagent Platform for Travel Services Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ameur, Houssein; Bédard, François; Vaucher, Stéphane; Kropf, Peter; Chaib-draaa, Brahim; Gérin-Lajoie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    With the Internet as a growing channel for travel services distribution, sophisticated travel services aggregators are increasingly in demand. A travel services aggregation platform should be able to manage the heterogeneous characteristics of the many existing travel services. It should also be as scalable, robust, and flexible as possible. Using multiagent technology, we designed and implemented a multiagent platform for travel services aggregation called NADIM-Travel. In this platform, a p...

  20. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Espino, C.; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H.; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference...

  1. Travel Safety: A Social Media Enabled Mobile Travel Risk Application

    OpenAIRE

    Noyen, Kay; Wortmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    We present the design artifact Travel Safety, a mobile travel risk information system (IS). Besides offering general travel risk information, the iPhone application leverages social media, in particular Twitter, to source travel risk information from multiple foreign offices. This provides a comprehensive real-time information base for the application and enables dispatch of automatic travel warnings. On the basis of Travel Safety we want to explore if content from social media can be leverag...

  2. Subjective, Autonomic, and Endocrine Reactivity during Social Stress in Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Martina; Seefeldt, Wiebke Lina; Heinrichs, Nina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Schmitz, Julian; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Blechert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Reports of exaggerated anxiety and physiological hyperreactivity to social-evaluative situations are characteristic of childhood social phobia (SP). However, laboratory research on subjective, autonomic and endocrine functioning in childhood SP is scarce, inconsistent and limited by small sample sizes, limited breadth of measurements, and the use…

  3. Neural correlation of successful cognitive behaviour therapy for spider phobia: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Alderson-Day, Ben; Prendergast, Garreth; Kennedy, Juliette; Bennett, Sophie; Docherty, Mary; Whitton, Clare; Manea, Laura; Gouws, Andre; Tomlinson, Heather; Green, Gary

    2013-12-30

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment for spider phobia, but the underlying neural correlates of therapeutic change are yet to be specified. The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study responses within the first half second, to phobogenic stimuli in a group of individuals with spider phobia prior to treatment (n=12) and then in nine of them following successful CBT (where they could touch and manage live large common house spiders) at least 9 months later. We also compared responses to a group of age-matched healthy control participants (n=11). Participants viewed static photographs of real spiders, other fear-inducing images (e.g. snakes, sharks) and neutral stimuli (e.g. kittens). Beamforming methods were used to localise sources of significant power changes in response to stimuli. Prior to treatment, participants with spider phobia showed a significant maximum response in the right frontal pole when viewing images of real spiders specifically. No significant frontal response was observed for either control participants or participants with spider phobia post-treatment. In addition, participants' subjective ratings of spider stimuli significantly predicted peak responses in right frontal regions. The implications for understanding brain-based effects of cognitive therapies are discussed. PMID:24139305

  4. Fobia social em uma amostra de adolescentes Social phobia in a sample of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a prevalência e o impacto na escolaridade da fobia social em uma amostra de adolescentes da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O Inventário de Fobia Social (SPIN foi administrado em 116 estudantes adolescentes de 5ª, 6ª, 7ª e 8ª séries de ambos os sexos. A prevalência da fobia social foi de 7,8% na amostra de adolescentes, com maior incidência entre estudantes do sexo feminino, com idade entre 12 e 15. O impacto negativo na escolaridade foi grande, aproximadamente 89% dos adolescentes com fobia social repetiram o ano na escola ao menos uma vez.This study reports the prevalence and the impact in the education of social phobia in a sample of adolescents of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was administrated to 116 students of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades of both sexes. The prevalence of the social phobia was 7.8% in the sample of adolescents, with higher incidence among female students, between 12 and 15 years old. The negative impact on the education was great, approximately 89% of the adolescents with social phobia repeated the year in the school at least one time.

  5. Psychological approaches in the treatment of specific phobias: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Horowitz, Jonathan D; Powers, Mark B; Telch, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Data from 33 randomized treatment studies were subjected to a meta-analysis to address questions surrounding the efficacy of psychological approaches in the treatment of specific phobia. As expected, exposure-based treatment produced large effects sizes relative to no treatment. They also outperformed placebo conditions and alternative active psychotherapeutic approaches. Treatments involving in vivo contact with the phobic target also outperformed alternative modes of exposure (e.g., imaginal exposure, virtual reality, etc.) at post-treatment but not at follow-up. Placebo treatments were significantly more effective than no treatment suggesting that specific phobia sufferers are moderately responsive to placebo interventions. Multi-session treatments marginally outperformed single-session treatments on domain-specific questionnaire measures of phobic dysfunction, and moderator analyses revealed that more sessions predicted more favorable outcomes. Contrary to expectation, effect sizes for the major comparisons of interest were not moderated by type of specific phobia. These findings provide the first quantitative summary evidence supporting the superiority of exposure-based treatments over alternative treatment approaches for those presenting with specific phobia. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. PMID:18410984

  6. Fears and Phobias in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Assessment and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Neville J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The literature on fears and phobias of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities is reviewed. Assessment procedures are then examined, including interviews, self-reports, parent rating scales, and behavioral observations. Interventions are drawn from the principles of respondent, operant, and vicarious conditioning. (Author/DB)

  7. Emotive Imagery in the Behavioral Management of Adolescent School Phobia: A Case Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Lenore A.

    1980-01-01

    A case is described in which a school psychologist treated a high school boy of 16 for school phobia, using a behavioral contract and two weeks of daily 30-minute sessions in which mental images were evoked of school situations that had been the cause of severe anxiety. (CTM)

  8. Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with High Functioning Autism and Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…

  9. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  10. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  11. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kindt; S.M. Bögels; M. Morren

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co

  12. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  13. School-Based Intervention Strategies for School Phobia--A Ten-Step "Common Sense" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Jerome H.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristic behaviors and personality features of school phobia (anxiety, willfulness, dependency, depression, and unrealistic self image) are described, and 10 steps in a school-based intervention approach are listed (including assessing the family constellation, preparing teachers for the student's return to school, and encouraging therapy…

  14. Elementary EFL Teachers' Computer Phobia and Computer Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kate Tzuching

    2012-01-01

    The advent and application of computer and information technology has increased the overall success of EFL teaching; however, such success is hard to assess, and teachers prone to computer avoidance face negative consequences. Two major obstacles are high computer phobia and low computer self-efficacy. However, little research has been carried out…

  15. Evaluation of Children with Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: A Comparison of Psychological and Psychophysiological Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brennan J.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with social phobia (SP) and selective mutism (SM) present similarly in a clinical setting, it remains unclear whether children with SM are unable to speak due to overwhelming anxiety, or whether withholding speech functions as an avoidance mechanism. A total of 35 children (ages 5-12 years) with either SM (n = 10), SP (n = 11),…

  16. Social Phobia as a Predictor of Social Competence Perceived by Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it was analyzed to what extent the variables of social avoidance, concern for being criticized and sense of individual worthlessness as sub-dimensions of social phobia predicted the perceived social competence levels of teenagers. The study group of this study included totally 648 students including 301 (46.5%) female and 347…

  17. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  18. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias: A Detailed Description and Review of Treatment Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2008-01-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments.…

  19. Treating phobias or treating people of acronyms and the social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Fourie

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Phobias are some of the most common disorders brought to the attention of treatment agents. Opsomming Fobies is van die mees algemene versteurings wat onder die aandag van terapeute en dokters kom. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. Treating phobias or treating people of acronyms and the social context

    OpenAIRE

    David P Fourie

    2006-01-01

    Phobias are some of the most common disorders brought to the attention of treatment agents. Opsomming Fobies is van die mees algemene versteurings wat onder die aandag van terapeute en dokters kom. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  1. Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: does parent education training improve the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öst, Lars-Göran; Cederlund, Rio; Reuterskiöld, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if a parent education course would improve the outcome for children with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel, Turner, and Morris (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow-up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre-to post-treatment and from post-to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy. PMID:25727679

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Guided Mastery and Exposure Treatments for Intractable Phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Lloyd; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared two models of phobia treatment. Severe height and driving phobics (N=32) were assigned to either mastery-oriented treatment based on self-efficacy theory, exposure treatment, or no treatment. Mastery treatment proved to be significantly more effective. Results indicated that treatments effect behavioral change through their intervening…

  3. Preliminary research on the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy to treat driving phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Jaye; Taylor, Steven

    2003-10-01

    This article presents a review of preliminary research of two studies of the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) to treat driving phobia. Study 1 describes a case study of a patient who completed a 7-day baseline followed by three sessions of VRET. Her peak anxiety decreased within and across sessions. At the post-treatment assessment, her phobic-related symptoms had diminished and she no longer met diagnostic criteria for driving phobia. Clinical improvement was maintained at 1-, 3-, and 7-month follow-up. In study 2, a multiple baseline across-subjects design was used to treat five patients over eight weekly VRET sessions. Visual and statistical analyses showed clear improvement in driving anxiety and avoidance in three patients between pre- and post-treatment assessments, and they no longer met criteria for driving phobia. There was marginal improvement in one patient, and the remaining individual showed no treatment gains. There was negligible change in actual driving frequency for any of the patients. Some gains were lost at the follow-up, particularly for the two individuals with poorer treatment responses. The results from these preliminary studies suggest that VRET may be a promising intervention for treating driving phobia. Avenues for improving treatment outcome are discussed. PMID:14583121

  4. Demographics, clinical characteristics and quality of life of Brazilian women with driving phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael T da; Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Cantini, Jessye; Freire, Rafael Christophe da Rocha; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-02-01

    Driving phobia is associated with serious consequences such as restriction of freedom, career impairments and social embarrassment. The main objective of this paper is to compare clinical characteristics and quality of life between women with driving phobia and women without this phobia. These factors were assessed using structured interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, scales and inventories. We accessed diagnoses, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, anxiety traits, driving cognitions and quality of life. There was no difference between groups with regard to demographic data and driving history. Both groups were also equivalent in the number of traumatic events and accidents experienced while driving or riding. The fear of driving group showed higher state and trait anxiety scores. A high frequency of cognitive distortions can explain why people with driving phobia often engage in maladaptive safety behaviors in an attempt to protect themselves from unpredicted dangers when driving. Regarding quality of life, the control group had slightly higher scores on all subscales, but significant differences were observed for only three scales: "functional capacity", "social aspects", and "mental health". More studies with larger samples more instruments and other contexts are needed to further investigate the clinical characteristics and personality traits of people who have a fear of driving. PMID:24238932

  5. Mediation of Changes in Anxiety and Depression During Treatment of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…

  6. Determining the Factors of Social Phobia Levels of University Students: A Logistic Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Ozen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing social phobia is an important factor which can hinder academic success during university years. In this study; research of social phobia with several variables is conducted among university students. The research group of the study consists of total 736 students studying at various departments at universities in Turkey. Students are divided into two groups, as low and high level positive evaluation fear (PEF as measured by the Positive Evaluation Fear Scale (PEFS. In respect to Odds rates, the most crucial factor about PEF of students is the time spent daily on the internet. Students who spend their time on the internet have PEF 2.4 times more than those who do not. As a secondary important factor according to negative evaluation fear scale (NEFS, students consider the home city where they lived before attending university increases phobia 30% more than the rate of people who think otherwise. Thus, results showed that spending long hours on the internet and home city lived in before university are significant factors resulting in social phobia.

  7. Cognition about Cognition: Metacognitive Therapy and Change in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Metacognitive theory and therapy views the persistence of negative beliefs and thoughts as a result of metacognitions controlling cognition. This paper describes, with reference to the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia, how metacognition contributes to cognitive stability and to change. Metacognitive therapy offers…

  8. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, M.; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement ...

  9. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  10. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  11. Angiosarcoma arising from skeletal haemangiomatosis in an atomic bomb survivor

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kurosaka, M; Minami, R

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a unique case in which an angiosarcoma arose from skeletal haemangiomatosis in a 72 year old man. This patient had a history of atomic bomb irradiation more than 50 years ago. Radiographically, the patient had multiple sclerotic foci of benign haemangiomas in the pelvis, the sacrum, and the left femur. The patient developed a high grade angiosarcoma in the left pubic bone. It is thought that atomic bomb irradiation played an important role in the development of the malignan...

  12. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  13. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. PMID:22440534

  14. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and ≥3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.)

  15. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  16. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development. PMID:24519704

  17. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  18. Glucocorticoids for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias: a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Margraf, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias belong to the most common anxiety disorders and to the most common psychiatric illnesses in general. In both disorders, aversive memories are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis and symptomatology. Previously, we have reported that elevated glucocorticoid levels inhibit memory retrieval in animals and healthy humans. We therefore hypothesized that the administration of glucocorticoids might also inhibit the retrieval of aversive memory, thereby reducing symptoms in patients with PTSD and phobias. In recent clinical studies, we found first evidence to support this hypothesis. In patients with PTSD, low-dose cortisol treatment for one month reduced symptoms of traumatic memories without causing adverse side effects. Furthermore, we found evidence for a prolonged effect of the cortisol treatment. Persistent retrieval and reconsolidation of traumatic memories is a process that keeps these memories vivid and thereby the disorder alive. By inhibiting memory retrieval, cortisol may weaken the traumatic memory trace, and thus reduce symptoms even beyond the treatment period. In patients with social phobia, we found that a single oral administration of cortisone 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation-, exposure-, and recovery phase of the stressor. In subjects with spider phobia, repeated oral administration of cortisol 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again two days after the last cortisol administration, indicating that cortisol facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. In conclusion, by a common mechanism of reducing the retrieval of aversive memories, glucocorticoids may be suited for the treatment of PTSD as well as phobias. More studies are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of

  19. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes. PMID:27223827

  20. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been thought that A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing were exposed to residual A-bomb radiation both externally and internally (through inhalation, food, drink or skin). This paper summarizes the data on estimated radiation doses in A-bomb survivors who entered Hiroshima within 3 days after A-bombing based on the chromosome staining analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood taken from A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 40 A-bomb survivors; according to a stay period and a history of medical irradiation, they were divided into four: group A with a long stay, group B with a long stay + medical irradiation, group C with a short stay, and group D with a short stay + medical irradiation. A mean estimated radiation dose was 4.8 rad (one rad or less to 13.5 rad) in group A, 13.9 rad (one rad or less to 71.2 rad) in group B, one rad or less in group C, and 1.9 rad (one rad or less to 21.2 rad) in group D. The highest rate of chromosomal aberrations was 3.1% in group B, followed by 2.1% in group A, 0.83% in group D, and 0.73% in group C. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was coincident with the duration of stay in the city. Furthermore, medical irradiation seemed to have contributed to the additional effects of A-bomb radiation. (N.K.)

  1. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Masazumi Akahoshi; Saeko Fujiwara; Kei Nakachi; Yoichiro Kusonoki; Thomas Seed; Yoshiaki Kodama; Eiji Nakashima; Naoko Kamada; Sachiyo Funamoto; Yoshimi Tatsukawa; Miles, Edward F.; Kazuo Neriishi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results...

  2. Three Generations Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Florya, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Tourism plays a magnificent role nowadays in people’s life. Now when there are fewer borders and more oppor-tunities to travel, people want to see and explore the world by themselves, together with their families and rela-tives. The thesis focuses on activities for three generation extended family travelers who are staying in Saimaa Holi-day Oravi cottages. The overall purpose is providing real activities for three generation travelers. The objective was to create brand-new activities, to...

  3. Travel Photography: Destination Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Mukul

    2016-01-01

    Travel photography is a growing and highly popular form of tourism in most parts of the world but despite huge potentials, certain places in the world have yet to capitalize on this opportunity. Among these destinations, Nepal, a country filled with breath-taking landscape and ever-vibrant and growing urban cities has done little to provide this experience of trav-el photography to travelers. Hence, the goal of this Bachelor’s thesis was to develop an at-tractive, affordable and unforgettable...

  4. Cancer developing among atom-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer (with the exception of leukemia) which had often been observed among atom bomb survivors was discussed. Prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was high in the people who had been exposed to more than 50 rad of the atomic radiation. A great difference in prevalence of cancer was seen between irradiated people whose age had been under 20 years at the time of exposure and non-irradiated. More women than men had papillary adenocarcinoma. The highest prevalence was seen 16 to 20 years after exposure to atomic radiation, but there was no difference in prevalence between those from Hiroshima and from Nagasaki. Lung cancer comprised 89% of all cancers of the people whose age was 50 years and over. Most of them had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 300 rad. The type was cellular retrograde cancer. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma was low, and breast cancer occurred at an early age before menopause. The occurrence of cancer in juvenile survivors was several times higher in the patients who had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 100 rad than in non-irradiated. These values indicate that cancer occurs more frequently than leukemia does in such survivors. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  6. Magnetic Flux Cancellation in Ellerman Bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, A; Doyle, J G; Scullion, E; Henriques, V; Nelson, C; Ray, T

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use H$\\alpha$ imaging spectroscopy along with Fe I 6302.5 \\AA\\ spectro-polarimetry from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. The EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. We find, using NICOLE inversions of the spectro-polarimetric data, that on average (3.43 $\\pm$ 0.49) x 10$^{24}$ ergs of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during the EBs burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 10$^{14}$ - 10$^{15}$ Mx s$^{-1}$, and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux and the EBs are f...

  7. Magnetic Flux Cancellation in Ellerman Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E.; Nelson, C. J.; Henriques, V.; Ray, T.

    2016-06-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found to be co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use Hα imaging spectroscopy along with Fe i 6302.5 Å spectropolarimetry from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory, to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. Using NICOLE inversions of the spectropolarimetric data, we find that, on average, (3.43 ± 0.49) × 1024 erg of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during EB burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 1014–1015 Mx s‑1 and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate the near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux, resulting in the formation of the EBs. We also show that these EBs can be fueled further by additional, faster moving, negative magnetic flux regions.

  8. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  9. Nuclear policies: fuel without the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essays, developed from studies conducted by the California seminar on arms control and foreign policy, address technical, political, and economic aspects of nonproliferation. How to halt nuclear proliferation commands worldwide attention today. The search for new energy resources by industrial as well as nonindustral nations has led to the spread of nuclear technology and the production of weapons grade fuel materials such as plutonium and enriched uranium in the name of energy independence. The background and consequences of this growing danger and possible solutions to it are the substance of the essays. Conceding the desirability (if not necessity) of developing nuclear power as an energy source, the writers focus on the different reactor technologies; an historical perspective of proliferation through the example of India; the rationales for stringent international monitoring; and finally, the link between proliferation and the spread of nuclear weapons. The chapters are: Nuclear technology: essential elements for decisionmakers, Robert Gillette; Must we decide now for worldwide commerce in plutonium fuel, Albert Wohlstetter; US peaceful aid and the Indian bomb, Roberta Wohlstetter; International discipline over the uses of nuclear energy, Victor Gilinsky; and Nuclear energy and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, Victor Gilinsky

  10. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality

  11. Uranium content in soil after bombing FRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of uranium enrichment process and its use is very dangerous and harmful. NATO has used DU ammunition in Yugoslav conflict during its air campaign against the tanks and bunkers. The estimated number of about 3,000-10,000 of 30 mm DU rounds as armor-piercing shells were fired from cannons fitted to A-10 aircraft and probably a usage in some of 1,500 launched Tomahawk Cruise missiles. We measured uranium content in the surface soil (0-5 cm depth) from bomb craters during NATO attack. Selected locations were Belgrade, Smederevo, Nis, Bor, Prahovo, Kadinjaca, Jadovnik, Raska, Sjenica, and Cape Arza. Total uranium concentration and isotopic ratio were determined using γ-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma method. Obtained results were in the range 21 - 762.000 Bq/kg dry soil. They were at the all locations except Cape Arza comparable to the uranium content found in off-side locations of soils. (author)

  12. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the “neutron discrepancy problem” – the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima – was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  13. Dirty Bombs: A Discouraging Second Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Cheryl A.

    2004-05-01

    Dirty bombs, terrorist devices to spread intensely radioactive material with the intent to kill, sicken, or inflict economic damage, have been overestimated by some in the government and underestimated by many physicists. It is unlikely that a radiological dispersion device (RDD) will contaminate an area to such a level that brief exposures are lethal or even incapacitating. However, careful examination of the consequences of the accident in Goiânia, Brazil shows that it is highly likely that people in the contaminated region will inhale or ingest dusty or liquid radioactive material in sufficient quantities to cause acute radiation sickness, and in some cases enough to kill. Some forms of radiological attack could kill tens or hundreds of people and sicken hundreds or thousands. This paper provides a general overview of the nature and use of RDDs and examines readily available sources of large quantities of radioactive material, material which requires significantly greater protection than it is afforded today. Under many circumstances an RDD containing only a few curies of cesium-137, strontium-90, cobalt-60 or other industrial isotopes could force the razing of more buildings and inflict greater economic losses than did the September 11, 2002 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The National Defense University study proposes new policies for the federal government which would decrease the chances of an attack and reduce the cost in lives and money to the United States should one, nevertheless, occur.

  14. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between multiple myeloma in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the estimated exposure dose is discussed. From October 1950 to December 1976 multiple myeloma was observed in 22 of 72,802 a-bomb survivors (54,116 in Hiroshima; 18,686 in Nagasaki) who were examined periodically in a life span survey by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The incidence per 1,000 was roughly 0.97 in a group exposed to over 100 rad, 0.30 in a group exposed to 1 to 99 rad, and 0.21 in a group exposed to less than 1 rad. There was a statistical difference (p<0.05) in relative risk which standardized city, sex, and age according to the controls exposed to less than 1 rad. An increase in risk in a group exposed to a large dose was marked in survivors aged 20 to 59 at the time of exposure. Multiple myeloma was not observed in those under 20 or over 60 years. An increase in risk in the group exposed to a large dose became marked 15 years after exposure. It is believed that the age factor, in addition to radiation, specifically influenced the occurrence of disease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Ellerman Bombs with Jets: Cause and Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, A; Scullion, E; Doyle, J G; Shelyag, S; Gallagher, P

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both datasets show that EBs are connected to the foot-points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the H$\\alpha$ blue wing connects to the EB initially fuelling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of H$\\alpha$. In the disk dataset, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes (IGLs). Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5-10 km s$^{-1}$, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50-80 km s$^{-1}$....

  16. Observations and NLTE modeling of Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived and compact structures that are observed well in the wings of the hydrogen H-alpha line. EBs are also observed in the chromospheric CaII lines and in UV continua. H-alpha line profiles of EBs show a deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the line wings. Similar shapes of the line profiles are observed for the CaII IR line at 8542 ang. It is generally accepted that EBs may be considered as compact microflares located in lower solar atmosphere. However, it is still not clear where exactly the emission of EBs is formed in the solar atmosphere. High-resolution spectrophotometric observations of EBs were used for determining of their physical parameters and construction of semi-empirical models. In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the H-alpha and CaII H lines. We also used NLTE numerical codes for the construction of grids of 243 semi-empirical models simulating EBs structures. In this way, the observed emission could be compared with th...

  17. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2005-01-01

    Dear customers, On 3 January we informed you that the airlines had decided to cease paying commission to travel agencies in Switzerland. This measure has since been progressively introduced, with rare exceptions. Consequently, in agreement with CERN, we are obliged to apply new transaction fees for private travel, with immediate effect. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) offers: A personalized, professional and competent consultancy service To seek the most economical and best solution adapted to your needs Neutrality in comparing prices and benefits Additional information concerning e.g. visa regulations, insurance, vaccinations, etc. Support in the event of problems We draw your attention to the fact that, in spite of the increase, these prices remain very competitive on today's market. Thank you for your trust and understanding. Yours truly, Carlson Wagonlit Travel CERN agency

  18. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other procedures that pierce the skin, including acupuncture, use of illicit drugs, steroid or vitamin injections, ... contaminated by used needles. Travelers with type 1 diabetes, hemophilia, or other conditions that necessitate routine or ...

  19. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria and Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  20. Chikungunya Infection in Travelers

    OpenAIRE

    Hochedez, Patrick; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Debruyne, Monique; Bossi, Philippe; Hausfater, Pierre; Brucker, Gilles; Bricaire, Francois; Caumes, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The largest described outbreak of chikungunya virus has been occurring on the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean since March 2005. We describe the manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in travelers returning from these islands, with focus on skin manifestations.

  1. Traveling-wave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  2. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... ibandronate sodium, risedronate sodium TREATMENT Nonpharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating motion sickness can be effective with ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... such as in northeastern Brazil). In the Old World (Eastern Hemisphere), VL is found in parts of ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... YFV transmission is present,” as defined by the World Health Organization, are countries or areas where “yellow ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... polio.html ). Country Requirements In May 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the international spread of ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... surfaces and instruments). In some parts of the world, such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, blood ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... is higher in most other parts of the world than it is in the United States. Varicella ...

  8. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, you know ... Topics How Do We Hear? What is Sound? Video Have a question? Information specialists can answer your ...

  9. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language ... here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves ...

  10. Infections in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomsztyk, Mayan; Arnold, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Travel medicine continues to grow as international tourism and patient medical complexity increases. This article reflects the state of the current field, but new recommendations on immunizations, resistance patterns, and treatment modalities constantly change. The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization maintain helpful Web sites for both patient and physician. With thoughtful preparation and prevention, risks can be minimized and travel can continue as safely as possible. PMID:23809721

  11. Business travel and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although it contributes significantly to the demand for transport, in particular air transport, business travel has been relatively neglected in thinking about the strategies needed to promote more sustainable mobility practices. This paper provides a two-stage approach to this subject. We begin by showing how the sustainability of business travel is relevant not only in environmental terms, but also from an economic and social perspective. In the second stage, we consider the strategies that...

  12. Why They Travel Alone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    "WHY Chinese Women Travel Alone" was the theme of a special edition of "Truth Talk" a popular talk show on China Central Television (CCTV), which focused on a few middle-aged women from different cultural backgrounds, social classes, and various educational backgrounds who had all branched out on their own for one reason or another. Each woman spoke of her experiences and feelings while travelling alone. They were all

  13. Freedom of Movement (Common Travel Area) (Travel Documentation) Bill 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Flanagan, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to reinforce the Common Travel Area by providing for passport-free travel for persons who are entitled to travel within the Common Travel Area without a passport...

  14. The Traveling Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-09-01

    Given the recent interest in the human gut microbiome in health and disease, we have undertaken a review of the role of the gut microbiome as it relates to travel. Considering the microbiome as the interface with the external world of the traveler, not only from the perspective of protection from enteric infection by colonization resistance but also the possibility that a traveler's unique microbiome may place him or her at lesser or greater risk for enteric infection. We review available data on travel, travelers' diarrhea, and the use of antibiotics as it relates to changes in the microbiome and the acquisition of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and explore the interplay of these factors in the development of dysbiosis and the post-infectious sequelae of TD, specifically PI-IBS. In addition, we explore whether dietary changes in travel affect the gut microbiome in a way which modulates gastrointestinal function and susceptibility to infection and discuss whether pre- or probiotics have any meaningful role in prevention or treatment of TD. Finally, a discussion of important research gaps and opportunities in this area is identified. PMID:27447891

  15. Reducing Specific Phobia/Fear in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) through a Virtual Reality Environment Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Morag Maskey; Jessica Lowry; Jacqui Rodgers; Helen McConachie; Parr, Jeremy R.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with specific fears and phobias one of the most frequent subtypes. Specific fears and phobias can have a serious impact on young people with ASD and their families. In this study we developed and evaluated a unique treatment combining cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with graduated exposure in a virtual reality environment (VRE). Nine verbally fluent boys with an ASD diagnosis and no reported learning disability, aged 7 to 1...

  16. Comparing acceptance and refusal rates of virtual reality exposure vs. in vivo exposure by patients with specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Palacios, A; Botella, C; Hoffman, H; Fabregat, S

    2007-10-01

    The present survey explored the acceptability of virtual reality (VR) exposure and in vivo exposure in 150 participants suffering from specific phobias. Seventy-six percent chose VR over in vivo exposure, and the refusal rate for in vivo exposure (27%) was higher than the refusal rate for VR exposure (3%). Results suggest that VR exposure could help increase the number of people who seek exposure therapy for phobias. PMID:17927544

  17. In vivo versus augmented reality exposure in the treatment of small animal phobia: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Arbona, Cristina; Pérez Ara, María Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero Castellano, Soledad; García Palacios, Azucena; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific pho...

  18. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific pho...

  19. A computer-based self-treatment for social phobia : Development, evaluation and a controlled treatment study

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Martina

    2003-01-01

    Social phobia is one of the most prevalent and debilitating anxiety disorders. The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop and evaluate a computer-based self-treatment for social phobia within the framework of cognitive behavior therapy. In the formative evaluation, the focus was to create a comprehensible program that could support the learning process. Multimedia and interactive features were applied according to recommendations from leading researchers, as well as feedback from p...

  20. Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D in assessing and valuing health status in patients with social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, Michael; Konnopka, Alexander; Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone; Beutel, Manfred E.; Herpertz, Stephan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Jürgen; Joraschky, Peter; Nolting, Björn; Pöhlmann, Karin; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wiltink, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D in patients with social phobia. Methods We used a sample of 445 patients with social phobia with five measurement points over a 30 month period. The discriminative ability of the EQ-5D was analysed by comparing the patients’ responses with the general population and between different disease severity levels. For test-retest reliability we assessed the level of agreement in patients’ responses over ...

  1. Childhood stress and symptoms of drug dependence in adolescence and early adulthood: social phobia as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, D J; MacDonald, K; Offord, D R

    1999-01-01

    Retrospective data from 7,871 individuals age 16 to 64 were used to investigate whether, among those diagnosed with lifetime social phobia, its symptoms serve to link life events and chronic strains in childhood with symptoms of drug dependence in adulthood. Findings suggest social phobia as a pathway through which early life events and chronic strains affect the development of drug-related problems. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:9990437

  2. Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anckar, Bill

    1999-01-01

    Anckar, B. (1999), ?Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems?. IAMSR Research Report 5/99. Institute for Advanced Management Systems Research, ?bo Akademi University. As electronic commerce enables the tourist service providers to sell their products directly to the consumer, travel agencies are faced with the imminent threat of being by-passed in the travel industry chain in the information age. This paper suggests that virtual travel agencies can compete su...

  3. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission... Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY:...

  4. Reducing specific phobia/fear in young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs through a virtual reality environment intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag Maskey

    Full Text Available Anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, with specific fears and phobias one of the most frequent subtypes. Specific fears and phobias can have a serious impact on young people with ASD and their families. In this study we developed and evaluated a unique treatment combining cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT with graduated exposure in a virtual reality environment (VRE. Nine verbally fluent boys with an ASD diagnosis and no reported learning disability, aged 7 to 13 years old, were recruited. Each had anxiety around a specific situation (e.g. crowded buses or stimulus (e.g. pigeons. An individualised scene was recreated in our 'wrap-around' VRE. In the VRE participants were coached by a psychologist in cognitive and behavioural techniques (e.g. relaxation and breathing exercises while the exposure to the phobia/fear stimulus was gradually increased as the child felt ready. Each child received four 20-30 minute sessions. After participating in the study, eight of the nine children were able to tackle their phobia situation. Four of the participants completely overcame their phobia. Treatment effects were maintained at 12 months. These results provide evidence that CBT with VRE can be a highly effective treatment for specific phobia/fear for some young people with ASD.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN58483069.

  5. A modern conceptualization of phobia in al-Balkhi's 9th century treatise: Sustenance of the Body and Soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaad, Rania; Ali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Morbid fears and phobias have been mentioned in religious, philosophical and medical manuscripts since ancient times. Despite early insights by the Greeks, phobias did not appear as a separate clinical phenomenon in Western medicine until the 17th century and has evolved substantially since. However, robust investigations attempting to decipher the clinical nature of phobias emerged in pre-modern times during the oft-overlooked Islamic Golden Era (9th-12th centuries); which overlapped with Europe's medieval period. An innovative attempt was made by the 9th century Muslim scholar, Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, in his medical manuscript "Sustenance of the Body and Soul," to define phobias as a separate diagnostic entity. Al-Balkhi was one of the earliest to cluster psychological and physical symptoms of phobias under one category, "al-Fazaá", and outline a specific management plan. We analyze al-Balkhi's description of phobias, according to the modern understanding of psychiatric classifications and symptomatology as described in the DSM-5. PMID:26741063

  6. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  8. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  9. ESR dosimetry for atomic bomb survivors and radiologic technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko

    1987-06-01

    An individual absorbed dose for atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and radiologic technologists has been estimated using a new personal dosimetry. This dosimetry is based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of the CO 33- radicals, which are produced in their teeth by radiation. Measurements were carried out to study the characteristics of the dosimetry; the ESR signals of the CO 33- radicals were stable and increased linearly with the radiation dose. In the evaluation of the absorbed dose, the ESR signals were considered to be a function of photon energy. The absorbed doses in ten cases of A-bomb victims and eight cases of radiologic technologists were determined. For A-bomb survivors, the adsorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, were consistent with the ones obtained using the calculations of the tissue dose in air of A-bomb, and also with the ones obtained using the chromosome measurements. For radiologic technologists, the absorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, agreed with the ones calculated using the information on the occupational history and conditions. The advantages of this method are that the absorbed dose can be directly estimated by measuring the ESR signals obtained from the teeth of persons, who are exposed to radiation. Therefore, the ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the accidental exposure and the long term cumulative dose.

  10. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...

  11. Recycling Of Bomb Produced Cl 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, V.; Blinov, A.; Huber, Th.; Kubo, F.; Nolte, E.

    The success of accelerated mass-spectrometry (AMS) has allowed the measuring of very small quantities of radioactive nuclides with the ratio to their stable isotope up to 10-14. With the help of this method the concentration of 36Cl in natural samples can be investigated. The main sources of 36Cl in the atmosphere are a) The natural production in nuclear reactions induced by the interaction of high energy cosmic rays with atmospheric Ar. b) The production by the interaction of high neutron fluxes emitted by the nuclear weapon tests with stable chlorine. c) The production in different reactors with the following release (e.g. Chernobyl accident). The analysis of 36Cl time profile in Greenland showed the fast removal of chlorine from the atmosphere so that nowadays only the natural production of 36Cl is of importance. However the measurement of 36Cl in modern precipitation revealed the significant excess of its concentration over the simulated predictions. The recycling of chlorine as an explanation of the observed discrepancy is ar- gued. The biosphere could take up a part of the fallen down bomb produced 36Cl and releases it into the troposphere in the form of CH3Cl. To check the hypothesis the experiment to collect methyl chloride from the air and to measure 36Cl was set up. The high observed ratio 36 Cl/Cl proves that the chlorine recycling really takes place. Additionally, in order to get more information about the distribution of 36Cl the measurements of its concentration in lakes with long flushing times were performed. With the help of modeling the different sources of 36Cl can be distinguished. The dominant source of 36Cl in many Alpine lakes is chlorine, released during the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

  12. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  13. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2010-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  14. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  15. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective. PMID:26476332

  16. One-Session treatment of specific phobias in youths: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, L G; Svensson, L; Hellström, K; Lindwall, R

    2001-10-01

    Sixty children, ages 7-17 years, who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis for various specific phobias were randomized to (a) 1-session exposure treatment alone, (b) 1-session treatment with a parent present, or (c) wait-list control group for 4 weeks. After the waiting period, the wait-list patients were rerandomized to the active treatments. The patients' phobias were assessed with behavioral approach tests (approach behavior, experienced anxiety, and physiological reactions), whereas general anxiety, depression, phobic tendencies, and anxiety sensitivity were assessed with self-report inventories. Assessments were done pre-, post-, and 1-year following treatment. Results showed that both treatment conditions did significantly better than the control condition, whereas the treatment groups did equally well on most measures, and the effects were maintained at follow-up. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11680558

  17. Comparison of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral one-session exposure treatments for small animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ellen I; Spates, C Richard; Himle, Joseph A

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral one-session exposure treatment procedures with and without programmed generalization for participants with small animal phobias. Forty participants were randomly assigned to the treatment and generalization conditions. Both treatments produced significant improvements from pre-test to post-test and these results were maintained for 1 year. The treatment effect sizes ranged from large to very large across behavioral, self-report, and subjectively rated measures. Participants in the behavioral treatment condition reported that the treatment was significantly more intrusive than participants in the cognitive-behavioral treatment group. The programmed generalization condition did not produce additional measured benefit. The results are discussed in terms of the overall effectiveness of one-session exposure treatment components for small animal phobias. PMID:15500817

  18. Born to fear: non-associative vs associative factors in the etiology of phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineka, Susan; Ohman, Arne

    2002-02-01

    Poulton and Menzies (Behaviour Research & Therapy 40 (2001) 127-149) review two lines of evidence as supporting a non-associative pathway to the origins of "evolutionary relevant phobias". First, in retrospective studies of mode of onset some recall they have always had this fear. We review here solid evidence that retrospective recall is notoriously unreliable. Second, they note as many nonphobics recall relevant associative learning experiences as do phobics. We argue such studies are very inconclusive because they fail to consider many experiential and personality vulnerability (and invulnerability) factors that strongly impact the outcome of any putative learning experience. Their argument also does not explain the transition from developmental fears to phobias that is central to their thesis. Overall, we call for major methodological improvements in this area, in the context of theoretical developments pointing to interacting vulnerability and invulnerability factors. PMID:11814181

  19. Extension lectures: the effects of radiation from atomic bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 56,000 A-bomb survivors are living in Nagasaki city even today. Nagasaki citizens, whether they are A-bomb survivors or not, can not live without concerns on the existence of radiation effects. They have fears of any amount of radiation and are afraid that it may harm their life. As results of studies in the university on radiation effects are not familiar to the citizens, we have started extension lectures on 'the effects of radiation from A-bombing' to them since 1990. We discuss the problems as well as significance of the extension lectures by reporting the details of the extension lectures which we have managed in the past. (author)

  20. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  1. Radiation risks related to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of the atomic bombs dropped down on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are studied in detail. There is no significant genetic effect on the children of survivors. The genetic damage on survivors is a linear or quadratic function of the dose. The connection between cancerous tumours and the dose is studied in detail for small doses. Significant difference was found between the effects of the two bombs. Its main reason is that the radiation of the bomb on Nagasaki was primarily gamma radiation, while that of Hiroshima radiated fast neutrons and γ rays. It is shown that the mortality rate in people who received small dose of radiation is lower compared to those who did not receive radiation at all. (K.A.) 6 figs

  2. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  3. Epidemiologic study of meningioma in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five A-bomb survivors (10 men and 35 women) with surgically proven meningioma were examined, whose ages ranged from 45 to 80 years. According to distance from the hypocenter, 18 A-bomb survivors were exposed at <2,500 m and the other 27 were exposed at ≥2,500 m. The incidence of meningioma was significantly decreased in A-bomb survivors exposed farther from the hypocenter, revealing a high correlation between exposure distance and the incidence of meningioma. Since 1980, the incidence of meningioma was significantly increased in the <2,500 m exposed group than the ≥2,500 m exposed group. (N.K.)

  4. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  5. Synergism Between Mindfulness Meditation Training, and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Psychotherapy of Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Nien-Mu Chiu; Tzan-Fu Sun

    2006-01-01

    We report on the successful treatment of a psychiatric outpatient with long-term SocialPhobia (SP), at best only marginally responsive to pharmacotherapy. He was treated by EyeMovement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) because we suspected that his phobiaderived from emotional trauma. He also received brief training in Mindfulness Meditation(MM), which enhanced his initially poor response to EMDR. The patient practiced meditationintensively during the treatment period and thereafter, an...

  6. Do parental psychopathology and unfavorable family environment predict the persistence of social phobia?

    OpenAIRE

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychopathology and unfavorable family environment are established risk factors for onset of offspring social phobia (SP), but their associations with the further course, e.g., persistence of the disorder, remain understudied. A community cohort of 1395 adolescents and their parents was followed-up over almost 10 years using the DIA-X/M-CIDI. Parental diagnostic interviews were supplemented by family history data. Parental rearing was retrospectively assessed by the Questionnaire of ...

  7. fMRI neurofeedback facilitates anxiety regulation in females with spider phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Anna eZilverstand; Bettina eSorger; Pegah eSarkheil; Rainer eGoebel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spider phobics show an exaggerated fear response when encountering spiders. This fear response is aggravated by negative and irrational beliefs about the feared object. Cognitive reappraisal can target these beliefs, and therefore has a fear regulating effect. The presented study investigated if neurofeedback derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) would facilitate anxiety regulation by cognitive reappraisal, using spider phobia as a model of anxiety disorders. F...

  8. Social Skills and Social Phobia: An Investigation of DSM-IV Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah C Beidel; Rao, Patricia A; Scharfstein, Lindsay; Wong, Nina; Alfano, Candice A.

    2010-01-01

    Social phobia is characterized as pervasive social timidity in social settings. Although much is known about this disorder, aspects of its clinical presentation remain unexplored, in particular characteristics that distinguish the generalized and non-generalized subtypes. For example, it remains unclear whether patients with the non-generalized subtype display social skills deficits in social interactions, and if so, are these deficits clinically, as well as statistically, significant? In thi...

  9. Association between Level of Emotional Intelligence and Severity of Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R. J. R.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, Karina S.

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) ...

  10. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures

  11. Perfectionism, Emotion Regulation and Their Relationship to Negative Affect in Patients with Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Systla Rukmini; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Suresh Bada Math

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research on the perfectionism and emotion regulation strategies in anxiety disorders has gained increased attention. These have an important implication for formulation of therapies. Aims: We examined perfectionism, emotion regulation were examined in 30 patients with social phobia (SP) and 30 community participants. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional design using a clinical and a community control sample was adopted in this exploratory study. Materials and Methods: Participants ...

  12. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero Soto; Ana Lilia Armendariz-Anguiano; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assess...

  13. Workplace-related anxieties and workplace phobia : a concept of domain-specific mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Muschalla, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background: Anxiety in the workplace is a special problem as workplaces are especially prone to provoke anxiety: There are social hierarchies, rivalries between colleagues, sanctioning through superiors, danger of accidents, failure, and worries of job security. Workplace phobia is a phobic anxiety reaction with symptoms of panic occurring when thinking of or approaching the workplace, and with clear tendency of avoidance. Objectives: What characterizes workplace-related anxieties and workpla...

  14. Physiological parameters within three paradigms and perceived symptoms in social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Kley, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study undertakes an effort to contribute to a better understanding concerning patterns of activation versus non-activation of the assumed underlying fear network in a Spanish sample of social phobic participants (n = 23) in comparison to a control group (n = 20). Symptoms typical for social phobia, general anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by questionnaires. Participants physiological activation, measured in heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, pulse, r...

  15. Comorbid ADHD: Implications for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Youth with a Specific Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although findings have been mixed, accumulating evidence suggests that co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses and symptoms negatively predict cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcomes for anxious youth. The current study extends past research by examining the association of not only ADHD but also other features of ADHD with treatment outcomes of youth who received an intensive CBT for a specific phobia. Method: 135 youth (ages 6-15; 52.2% female; 8...

  16. Optimal treatment of social phobia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott KM; Canton J; Glue P

    2012-01-01

    John Canton, Kate M Scott, Paul GlueDepartment of Psychological Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: This article proposes a number of recommendations for the treatment of generalized social phobia, based on a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. An optimal treatment regimen would include a combination of medication and psychotherapy, along with an assertive clinical management program. For medications, selective serotonin reuptak...

  17. Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Appukuttan DP

    2016-01-01

    Deva Priya Appukuttan Department of Periodontics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The ...

  18. Optimal treatment of social phobia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott KM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available John Canton, Kate M Scott, Paul GlueDepartment of Psychological Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: This article proposes a number of recommendations for the treatment of generalized social phobia, based on a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. An optimal treatment regimen would include a combination of medication and psychotherapy, along with an assertive clinical management program. For medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are first-line choices based on their efficacy and tolerability profiles. The nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor, phenelzine, may be more potent than these two drug classes, but because of its food and drug interaction liabilities, its use should be restricted to patients not responding to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. There are other medication classes with demonstrated efficacy in social phobia (benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, alpha-2-delta ligands, but due to limited published clinical trial data and the potential for dependence and withdrawal issues with benzodiazepines, it is unclear how best to incorporate these drugs into treatment regimens. There are very few clinical trials on the use of combined medications. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be more effective than other evidence-based psychological techniques, and its effects appear to be more enduring than those of pharmacotherapy. There is some evidence, albeit limited to certain drug classes, that the combination of medication and cognitive behavior therapy may be more effective than either strategy used alone. Generalized social phobia is a chronic disorder, and many patients will require long-term support and treatment.Keywords: social phobia, social anxiety disorder, psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, antidepressant

  19. The association between online gaming, social phobia, and depression: an internet survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Han-Ting; Chen Mu-Hong; Huang Po-Cheng; Bai Ya-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Online gaming technology has developed rapidly within the past decade, and its related problems have received increasing attention. However, there are few studies on the psychiatric symptoms associated with excessive use of online games. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of online gamers, and the association between online gaming hours, social phobia, and depression using an internet survey. Methods An online questionnaire was designed and posted ...

  20. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...