WorldWideScience

Sample records for bomb survivors resident

  1. Survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the United States. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutron-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter

  2. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Kodama, Kazunori; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Dote, Keigo; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Hirata, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Sumio.

    1990-01-01

    During a one-month period from June 13 through July 13, 1989, the seventh medical examination was conducted at five cities, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu, for A-bomb survivors residents in North America. Nine hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors, including 21 living in Canada, were confirmed, consisting of 234 men and 684 women as of the end of July 1989. The number was increased by 167, compared with that as of the end of July 1987. During the past three years, there were 40 deaths; and 878 A-bomb survivors (223 men and 655 women) are still alive. Ninety percent of the survivors came from Hiroshima. U.S. nationality was seen in 61% and Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights was seen in 32%. The majority (39%) of the A-bomb survivors were in their fifties, with an average age of 59.4 years. The survivors were residing in 26 states in the USA and in 3 provinces in Canada. The acquisition rate of the A-bomb survivors' health handbook was 52%. Four hundred and six A-bomb survivors participated in the medical examination, including one male and 8 female children born to A-bomb survivors. Questionnaire survey revealed a history of surgical resection for cancer in 21 survivors. Subjective symptoms included complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness of the body. Overall evaluation revealed the necessity of medical treatment or observation in 71%. This was independent of exposure status. Hypertension was the most common (27%), followed by obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Malignant tumors were seen in 9 survivors, consisting of 3 with breast cancer, 2 with colorectal cancer, and single survivors with lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, or hepatoma. Only 29% of them have had finantial guarantee for their health management according to the Japanese law. (N.K.)

  3. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Jun; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor's health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.)

  4. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Tetsuo; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension. (J.P.N.)

  5. Report on the results of the fifteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Masayuki; Matsumura, Makoto; Suyama, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    The fifteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from May 11th through May 25th and from June 15th through June 29th, 2005, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fifteenth medical examination was 435, 68 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 73.1 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 51.8%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 19.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterus, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 12.8% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 26.2% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 16.9% of the survivors examined. Among the examinees of A-bomb survivors, statistically significant associations with exposure status were not found in any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  6. A survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the U.S. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutral-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter. (author)

  7. Report on the results of the fourteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Jitsuro; Kambe, Masayuki; Hakoda, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    The fourteenth medical examination of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 18th through July 2nd and from July 24th through August 6th, 2003, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fourteenth medical examination was 453, 65 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 71.6 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 45.4%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 15.7% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 14.9% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 28.4% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 21.2% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  8. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohta, Michiya; Urabe, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  9. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Urabe, Takeshi [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    2002-05-01

    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  10. Report on the results of the seventeenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Shizuteru; Matsumura, Makoto; Yanagida, Jitsuro

    2010-01-01

    The seventeenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from September 16th through 30th and from October 7th through 21st, 2009, in the cities of Los Angeles, Honolulu, San Francisco, and Seattle. The total number of those who underwent the seventeenth medical examination was 394, 71 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 76.3 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical (including surgical and gynecological) examinations and physical measurement, transcutaneous measurement of arterial oxygen saturation, electrocardiography (ECG), and hematology, blood biochemistry, urine, and fecal occult blood reaction test and cervical cancer screening. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 57.6%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 23.2% of the survivors examined, with major cancer sites being the prostate, mammary gland, colon, and uterus. As a result of the blood biochemistry test, 24.8% of the survivors examined were diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Abnormal total cholesterol levels and thyroid dysfunction were found in 51.9% and 23.0% of the survivors examined, respectively. Analyses of the A-bomb survivors who underwent this examination showed no statistically significant associations between distance from the hypocenter and any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination, receiving medical treatment, and clinical follow-up, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  11. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U.S. and Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (author)

  12. Report on the results of the eighteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Shizuteru; Matsumura, Makoto; Yanagida, Jitsuro

    2012-01-01

    The eighteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 15th through 29th and from July 13th through 27th, 2011, in the cities of Los Angeles, Honolulu, San Francisco, and Seattle. The total number of those who underwent the eighteenth medical examination was 378, 77 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 77.6 years. The examination items included an medical interview, clinical (including surgical and gynecological) examinations, physical measurement, electrocardiography (ECG), and hematology, blood biochemistry, urine, and fecal occult blood reaction tests, and cervical cancer screening. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of about 60%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in about 18% of the survivors examined, with major cancer sites being the prostate, mammary gland, colon, and uterus. As a result of the blood biochemistry test, about 38% and 67% of the survivors examined were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and dyslipidemia, respectively. Analyses of the A-bomb survivors who underwent this examination showed no statistically significant associations between exposure status and any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination, receiving medical treatment, and clinical follow-up, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  13. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko (and others)

    2000-06-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean {+-}S.D.) was: 69.0{+-}8.69 years; males, 68.4{+-}80.5 years; females, 69.2{+-}8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  14. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2000-01-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean ±S.D.) was: 69.0±8.69 years; males, 68.4±80.5 years; females, 69.2±8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  15. Future population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

    2013-01-01

    The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011.

  16. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.

    1987-01-01

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Report on the results of the eleventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakido, Michio [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Dohy, Hiroo; Neriishi, Kazuo [and others

    1998-01-01

    The 11th medical examination of A-bomb survivors was conducted in 1997. Two medical teams conducted health examinations in Los Angeles and Seattle, and in San Francisco and Hawaii, respectively. The total number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America as of the end of July 1997 was 1,060, an increase of 17 over that confirmed in 1995. The number of survivors exposed <2,000-m from the hypocenter was 234, accounting for 22.1% of the total. The confirmed number of in-utero exposed survivors was 26. As to the past medical history information, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and heart disease were frequently observed in the <2,000-m group. Frequent subjective symptoms include complete exhaustion or fatigue, loss of vigor, blurring of vision, itching of the skin, which were reported in more than 40% of the survivors. The frequencies of nocturia, nervousness, severe headache, and excessive sweating in cold weather were higher in the <2,000-m group. Chest pain was seen frequently in the <2,000-m group for males, but no difference was observed in females. Nocturia was observed in more than half of the males in the <2,000-m group. There were 99 cases (22.8%) with fasting plasma glucose level of 110 mg/dl or above, consisting of 39 males (32.0%) and 60 females (19.2%). Abnormal HbA1c levels were observed in 33 cases (7.6%), including 12 males (9.8%) and 11 females (6.7%). The proportion of cases with abnormal HbA1c levels was higher in males. No difference by exposure status was observed either for fasting plasma glucose or HbA1c. The disease of the highest prevalence was hyperlipidemia (57.4%), followed by hypertension (35.0%), obesity (27.2%), liver disease (21.9%), thyroid disease (20.0%), gastrointestinal disease (20.7%), heart disease (13.4%) and urological disease (12.9%). Malignant tumors were observed in two cases in L.A., two in Seattle, and one in S.F. Cancer will be important issue in the future examinations. (K.H.)

  18. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Report on results of third medical examination of Atomic Bomb Survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Ito, Chikako; Yamada, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb survivors in the U.S. in 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.3% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. Responses to the Health Survey Questionnaires numbered 255, and those with symptoms which appeared to be related to diseases were found at a high rate among the early entrants, but as the number of those receiving examination in this group was few, it is considered that many of those in poor health had come in for the examination. No association could be demonstrated between psychological complaints and exposure status. Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin values were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors, the cause being considered to be the larger intake of animal fat and sugar by those of Japanese ancestry than the indigenous Japanese. Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination or treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (J.P.N.)

  20. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  1. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  2. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  3. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  4. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Seiichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1980-01-01

    Though acceleration of aging induced by radiation could not be demonstrated in many investigations on delayed effects of ionizing radiation on a-bomb survivors, studies on acceleration of aging after the exposure to ionizing radiation in human and animals have been carried out. To investigate whether physiological function was related to the exposure to ionizing radiation, a series of examinations concerning age was carried out at the time of general health examinations at ABCC. Simple examinations concerning aging were carried out on 11,351 a-bomb survivors, but the result was essentially negative. If biological or physiological age was defined clearly, the results of functional test would be used as criterion of aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Some hematological disorders among atomic bomb survivors. Presidential Address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on their hematological disorders, the late radiation effects among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, including cytogenetic and cytological studies, are summarized and discussed. Because of personal research experience, the data were concentrated on the Hiroshima survivors

  6. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Soda, M.; Mabuchi, K.

    1992-01-01

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  7. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  8. Preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Motoko

    1980-01-01

    Hematology data before onset of leukemia were available for 55 of the 1462 acute leukemia cases (as of the end of June 1976) collected by RERF. Among these, 8 showed preleukemic state and 2 were polycythemia. In content, preleukemic state comprised anemia, leukopenia and morphological abnormalities of RBC, platelets and WBC. Leukemia cases presenting preleukemic state were, by type, mostly erythroleukemia and monocytic leukemia. Preleukemic state was not necessarily frequent among cases of leukemia in A-bomb survivors exposed to high dose. The prevalence of the 5 items, prescribed as preleukemic state, i.e., anemia (female =50%), and relative monocytosis (>=10%), could not be said to be high in the survivors exposed to high dose. Anemia in males and leukopenia in males and females were increased significantly with age. Leukemia prevalence was significantly high especially in those cases that had presented leukopenia, relative neutropenia or relative lymphocytosis among the 5 items prescribed as preleukemic state. (author)

  9. Nutritional survey of atomic bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Fumiyo; Tanigawa, Junko; Ito, Chikako

    1978-01-01

    136 cases in which mild anemia was recognized but stomach disease was not recognized by the examination for a-bomb survivors, were investigated concerning living conditions, the habit of food, and the intake amount of nutrition, and the following results were obtained. 1. The mean intake amount of nutritive substances in a-bomb survivors almost reached the level as compared to the necessary amount of nutritive substances in control. 2. Shortage in intake of protein and iron which seemed to be a factor of occurrence of anemia (protein: 50% in men and 19.7% in women, iron: 25% in men and 22.5% in women), much and frequent intake of confectioneries and luxuries, and the rate of going without meal (33.3% of men went without meal one to 6 times a week) were recongized in each case of anemia with high rate. These tendency was marked in men. 3. Anemia was recognized in some of women, although they took all nutritive substances. This seemed to be caused by physiological loss of iron. Accordingly, it was desirable to take an excess amount of iron. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  11. Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia has been observed to increase with increasing radiation dose in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first radiation-related cases occurred 3 to 5 years following exposure. The peak incidence years were about 7 to 8 years following exposure and the leukemogenic effect has decreased since that time, but it may last for 40 years or longer in the most heavily exposed persons. A bimodal susceptibility pattern was observed, with peaks following exposure during childhood and after age 50. Latent periods for the development of acute leukemia were shortest in the younger exposed persons. Both acute and chronic forms of leukemia occurred in exposed persons at younger ages in life than normally is expected. The most common types of radiation-induced leukemia were acute and chronic granulocytic in adults and children, and acute lymphocytic in children. The highest radiation-related leukemia risk was for chronic granulocytic leukemia following childhood exposure

  12. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  13. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Onitsuka, Hideo; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Yukiko; Russell, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  14. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  15. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Hata, Tomoko

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and ≥3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.)

  16. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  17. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Thompson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality

  18. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Land, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950 - 80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiation-induced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer. (author)

  19. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunga, M.; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  20. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Nobuo; Dohy, Hiroo; Kyo, Taiichi; Saito, Osamu; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients. (Ueda, J.)

  1. A review of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Sawai, Terumitsu; Ishii, Toshiyo; Eida, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Takahara, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer amongst atomic bomb survivors, who had undergone operations from 1971∼1984, have been reviewed and compared with that of a control group. The survival rate of the atomic bomb survivors over the age of 60 years was statistically better than that of the same age group in the controls. In this age bracket, the control group were in a more advanced stage of the disease than were the survivors, this accounting for the reason why the survivors had better prognosis. Further, the fact that the survivors continually have received more medical attention than have the aged in the control group affects this statistic. (author)

  2. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kurihara, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology) (and others)

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic romb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the site showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency ws observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  3. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M.; Munaka, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ueoka, H.; Ohtaki, M. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  5. Satisfaction in life of elder A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi

    1992-01-01

    1500 A-bomb survivor aged more than 65 are sampled and the questionnaire was performed by mailing. 1329 (88.6 %) responded and 937 from the age less than 80 were statistically anylized. Fairly good satisfaction was felt on their daily life, including dwelling, income, work, health and family. (J.P.N.)

  6. Malignant Lymphoma in an Atomic-bomb Survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic bomb survivors outside of Japan are few and often hard to follow-up. Spinal malignant lymphoma among these survivors is rare in established studies from Japan or the United States. Here, we report an 81-year-old woman, who experienced the atomic bomb explosion in Nagasaki when she was 19 years old, who presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma when she was 70 years old. Both follicular lymphoma over the right elbow region and vertebral malignant lymphoma were found when she turned 81 years old. Bone scan did not show any increased uptake of isotope. However, thoracolumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple infiltrative soft tissue masses involving vertebral bodies at the T10–11 level. Computed tomography-guided biopsy further showed lymphocyte infiltration. Fortunately, the neurological deficit was improved after chemotherapy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors should be more careful and aggressive, even when their bone scan results show negative findings. In addition, the authors suggest that atomic bomb survivors should be followed-up carefully throughout their entire life.

  7. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity of colchicine in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, R.A.; Odoroff, C.L.; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hamilton, H.B.; Finch, S.C.

    1979-07-01

    The cytotoxicity of colchicine for the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 151 Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors and their controls was determined. No radiation effect was found, but modest age-related changes for the initial number of vialble cells and for the cytotoxicity of colchicine were observed. (author)

  8. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at le2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the le2500 m group than in the ge3000 m group. (N.K.).

  9. Study of thyroid tumors in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Masao; Mine, Mariko; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Ooya, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    Thyroid tumors, which were registered during 16 years from 1973 through 1988 in the Nagasaki tumor tissue registration committee, were examined with the purpose of searching for the relationship between thyroid tumors and A-bombing. One hundred and three A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors 'handbook and 89 non-exposed persons born before August 9, 1945 in Nagasaki City were enrolled in the present study. The A-bomb survivors were divided into three groups: people exposed at >2,000 m from the hypocenter (n=20), those exposed at ≤2,000 m (n=68), and those entered the city early after A-bombing (n=15). Thyroid tumors examined were: thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, thyroid adenoma and malignant lymphoma. Crude incidence rate and relative risk of thyroid cancer were higher in all exposed groups, except for the ≤2,000 m group of males, than the non-exposed group. In particular, the >2,000 m group had significantly higher incidence of thyroid cancer, irrespective of sex. These findings confirmed the previous data for the higher incidence of thyroid cancer in A-bomb survivors exposed to higher doses of radiation. According to age, thyroid cancer was the most common in their sixth decade of life in the exposed group and in their fifth decade of life in the non-exposed group. Histologically, follicular carcinoma occupied higher incidence in the exposed group (19.2%) than the non-exposed group (8.7%). (N.K.)

  10. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  11. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  12. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-01-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  13. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  14. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  15. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults.

  16. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults

  17. Leukemia among a-bomb survivors living in Hiroshima city, 1971-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahito; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Norihiko

    1980-01-01

    The death from leukemia among Hiroshima citizens from 1971 to 1978 was investigated. The total number of dead citizens was 241, and 64 of them were a-bomb survivors. Thirty-seven of a-bomb survivors were exposed to a-bomb within 2 km from hypocenter. Seventy-seven of remaining 177 citizens were born after the explosion of a-bomb, but they were not children of a-bomb survivors exposed directly to a-bomb. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed near the hypocenter was 1.67 (within 2 km) - 2.51 (within 1.5 km) times that of those exposed far from the hypocenter. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed within 1.5 km was significantly high. The death risk from leukemia was significantly high in women. The estimated exposure dose was over 1 rad in 25 of abovementioned 37 a-bomb survivors, and it was over 10 rad in 21 and over 100 rad in 10 of 25. Seven of 10 a-bomb survivors exposed over 100 rad were women. The age at the exposure was under 10 years in 1, teens in 1, twenties in 2, and over thirty in 6. The type of leukemia was acute in 8 and chronic in 2. Both types were myelogenous leukemia. Five of these 10 a-bomb survivors died after 1976. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Micronucleus in A-bomb survivors and in thorotrast patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Kawakami, M.; Izumi, T.; Shigeta, C.; Takahashi, H.; Ohkita, T. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1980-11-01

    Micronucleus and Howell-Jolly (H-J) bodies in bone marrow and in peripheral blood were investigated for 31 a-bomb survivors, and 21 thorotrast injected patients with 7 controls. The rate of micronucleus in myeloerythroblast was 0.263% for a-bomb survivors and 0.288% for thorotrast patients, which were higher than the controls, 0.050%. Correlations of micronucleus appearance with the incidence of chromosome aberrations and with estimated exposure dose were observed, suggesting that the micronucleus appearance could be an indicator of radiation damage. Also the micronucleus appearance in routine examinations could suggest the presence of chromosome aberrations. In the case of thorotrast patients H-J bodies appeared in high rate.

  19. Effects of radiation on aging in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Miyajima, Junko; Ichimaru, Michito

    1980-01-01

    Effect of radiation on aging was studied for 122 female a-bomb survivors exposed to more than 100 rad. Correlations of grades of external appearances, Physiological functions, and hematological features with age and radiation were investigated. Several parameters were used for multiple regression analysis, including hair loss, skin elasticity, grip strength, blood pressure, potassium content etc. The comparison of the estimated age of the exposed group and unexposed one showed no statistically significant difference. (Nakanishi, T.)

  20. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Carter, R.L.; Yamakido, Michio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE) were measured among 2,061 individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki whose estimated doses ranged from 0 to 5.6 Gy. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor were found to be increased in the individuals exposed to higher radiation doses. The IgA level in females and the IgM level in both sexes increased as radiation dose increased, although the effects of radiation exposure were not large. No effect of radiation was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody or on the levels of IgG and IgE. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  2. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  3. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  4. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunori Kodama; Saeko Fujiwara; Michiko Yamada; Fumiyoshi Kasagi; Yukiko Shimizu; Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging. 79 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  6. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Ezaki, Haruo; Sposto, R.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Kodama, Kazunori; Hosoda, Yutaka; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo.

    1990-10-01

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  7. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, J.A.; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  8. Aplastic anemia and related disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Yu; Matsunaga, Masako; Sadamori, Naoki; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1978-01-01

    Whether the incidence of aplastic anemia significantly increases due to the later effect of atomic-bomb radiation was studied. After the data of aplastic anemia which occurred within 1950 - 1973 were evaluated and the diagnoses of the cases were certified, the incidence of aplastic anemia per 109,000 inhabitants of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was calculated and compared according to the dose of atomic-bomb radiation. There was no increase in the incidence according to an increase in radiation dose, and there was no fact that aplastic anemia increased in a certain period either. Most of the atomic-bomb survivors who were close to the epicenter and were clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia had leukemia lesion or myeloid proliferating lesion, and it is likely to be that pathological changes resembling aplastic anemia may appear in a certain phase of myeloid proliferation or as a phenotype of myeloid proliferation. An evaluation was made on cases of aplastic anemia of other groups, but the doses of atomic-bomb radiation which they received were not so much to give effect on the bone marrow except only two cases. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  10. Chromosome survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, Akio

    1992-01-01

    To investigate chromosomes from children of A-bomb survivors, cytogenetic survey has been started in 1967 by the ABCC and completed in 1985 by the succeeding RERF. This paper is designed to overview the cytogenetic survey and to discuss the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation. A cohort of 16,298 children of A-bomb survivors, which were collected from mortality survey population in 1974, was enrolled in this survey and was divided into two groups: the proximally exposed group (n=8,322, whose parents exposed to estimated doses of 0.01 Gy or more within 2,000 m from the hypocenter) and the distally exposed group (n=7,976, those exposed to 0.005 Gy or less far from 2,500 m or not in the city). Three chromosomal aberrations were identified: sex chromosome aberrations consisting mainly of XYY, XXY, and mosaic; structural abnormality of autosomes consisting mainly of translocation and inversion; and trisomy of autosomes. Overall, the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was higher in the distally exposed group (6.39%) than the proximally exposed group (5.17%). According to the type of chromosomal aberrations, the incidences of both sex chromosomes and structural abnormality of autosomes were slightly higher in the distally exposed group (0.30% and 0.34%) than the proximally exposed group (0.23% and 0.28%). Trisomy of autosomes was identified in only one child in the proximally exposed group. These findings failed to demonstrate the rationale for the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation; however, cytogenetic risk of radiation has not been denied completely. (N.K.)

  11. Two cases of giant parathyroid adenoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Nishida, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Toshio

    1983-12-01

    In a study of parathyroid tumor among autopsy cases at RERF in Hiroshima, 16 cases of parathyroid adenoma were detected among 4,136 autopsies during 1961-77. Of these, two cases were giant adenoma (5 cm in diameter) accompanied by hyperparathyroidism. Both cases were atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima. One was exposed to 55 rad at age 51 and died at age 71, and the other was exposed to 28 rad at age 45 and died at age 71. These two cases will be reported together with a review of the literature on parathyroid tumors developed following irradiation on the head and neck. (author)

  12. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and γ-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of leukemia recognized in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito

    1978-01-01

    Out of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 256 patients which were diagnosed as having leukemia by 1975 and of which exposure dose was estimated as over 1 rad were described. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CGL) was plentiful in Hiroshima, and acute myelocytic leukemia (AGL) was comparatively plentiful in Nagasaki. Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) was not recognized in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at places near the center of the explosion, but CLL was recognized plentifully in the atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation of under 1 rad. The incidence of leukemia according to the total dose was higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. When RBE of neutron on the occurrence of leukemia was considered to be five times that of gamma-ray, the occurrence curves in both cities were consistent well. As to a relationship between leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and the age at the exposure time, CGL occurred early in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at an early age. A specific lesion of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors was not recognized, but cases of which leukemia cells were negative to peroxidase and were very difficult to be identified were plentiful in the atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the explosion center. The treatment of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors does not differ from that of general leukemia, but a method of treatment, administration dosage, a method and a kind of supportive care must be discussed according to each case. (Serizawa, K.)

  14. Leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma in atomic bomb survivors treated in this hospital lately

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Masanobu; Orimen, Akio; Ota, Takanori; Aisaka, Tadakazu

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes atomic bomb survivors with leukemia and various leukemia like diseases in Hiroshima City Funairi Hospital. The patients who had been exposed near the bombed area (1 - 3.4 km) consisted of 3 with leukemia, 4 with malignant lymphoma and 2 with multiple myeloma. These diseases seems to tend to be still increased now in the survivors exposed near the bombed area. (Serizawa, K.)

  15. The significance of chromosome deletions in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Shigeta, Chiharu; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Deng, Z.; Niimi, Masanobu; Aisaka, Tadaichi.

    1986-01-01

    In 39 A-bomb survivors 40 years after exposure at ≤ 1,000 m from ground zero, the frequency and features of chromosome deletions in peripheral lymphocytes were examined using a differential staining technique. Simultaneously, in vitro irradiation experiment with Cf-252 was made to infer chromosome aberrations occuring immediately after exposure. Californium-252 with 100 rad induced dicentric and ring chromosomes in 40 % of the cells and acentric fragments in 44 %. Among the A-bomb survivors, chromosome aberrations were observed in 651 (21 %) of the total 3,136 cells. There were 146 cells with deletions (22 % of abnormal cells; 5 % of the total cells), and 10 cells with acentric fragment (0.3 % of the total cells). The figure for deletions was far higher than that reported in the literature. A large number of deletions were seen in chromosomes no.4, no.21, and no.22, and a few deletions in chromosomes no.7 and no.20. Significance of chromosome deletions is discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito; Kamata, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The total number of acute leukemia slightly decreased among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the number of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells in a high incidence. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developiong among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoike, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.)

  18. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a fixed population of A-bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Midori; Yokoyama, Naokata; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Takagi, Miwako; Kitano, Koei; Toyama, Kyoko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    In a fixed population (7,564 A-bomb survivors) for Adult Health Study performed until December 1985, 28 A-bomb survivors (5 men and 23 women) were diagnosed as having thyroid cancer, and 79 (including one man) as breast cancer. There was an evident tendency among the group receiving 100 rad or more towards higher incidence of cancers of the thyroid and breast and synchronous or metachronous multiple primaries. The incidence of thyroid cancer tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors less than 20 years of age at the time of exposure; however, this tendency was not seen in the case of breast cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer - in contrast to breast cancer - tended to decrease from year to year. Multiple primaries were associated with thyroid cancer in 5 A-bomb survivors and breast cancer in 9 A-bomb survivors. Three A-bomb survivors had both thyroid and breast cancers. Among the 11 A-bomb survivors with multiple primaries, nine had received 100 rad or more. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality rate in children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the previous findings of carcinogenesis and mortality rate in children born to A-bomb survivors. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has collected 72,228 children born to A-bomb survivors from May 1946 through 1984. Of their parents, 31,159 parents had been exposed to significant doses (≥0.01 Sv), with a mean genital dose of 0.435 Sv. Among a hypothetic population of 100,000 children of A-bomb survivors exposed to an mean genital dose of 0.4 SV, radiation-induced diseases were considered to occur in only 250 children or less. An earlier large-scale survey during the period 1948-1956 has revealed an evidence of significant increase in stillborn, congenital malformation, and infantile death. In the 1946-1982 survey concerning carcinogenesis in 72,216 children of A-bomb survivors, cancer was found to be detected in 92 children, with no statistically significant increase in cancer risk with increasing radiation doses in their parents. The survey on mortality rate in 67,586 children of A-bomb survivors has revealed no evidence of significant increase in mortality rate from diseases, other than cancer, and in the incidence of lethal cancer. For A-bomb survivors, genetic doubling doses were considered to be 1 Sv or more. Further, when genetic doubling doses are calculated, the contribution rate of genital cell disturbance should be considered in the incidence of spontaneously induced disease. There is no supportive evidence of genetic effects of A-bomb radiation in children of A-bomb survivors; however, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation cannot be denied completely. Continuing survey is expected to be done for children of A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  20. Mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarises the outcome of follow-up surveys on mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 1791 A-bomb survivors, and 1534 (85.7%) of these came from Hiroshima. According to uterus absorption doses, these A-bomb survivors could be divided into the 0 Gy exposed group (n=772) and the ≥0.01 Gy (a mean, 0.302 Gy) exposed group (n=1019). The number of proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (2,000 m or less) was approximately 3 times larger in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, probably due to various socioeconomical factors. When the mortality rate was examined according to uterus absorption doses, it was higher at infancy and at the age of 15-39 in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. For infants, it was 3 times higher in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. The 1950-1984 survey on cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors have revealed that cancer incidence tended to increase among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors with increasing uterus absorption doses in their mothers. Since A-bomb survivors aged 15 years or younger at the time of A-bombing are characterized by developing leukemia 5-10 years after A-bombing, leukemia is unlikely to be increased among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  1. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  2. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  3. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.; Akahoshi, M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, S.; Kodama, K.; Yoshizawa, H.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune

  4. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  5. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Aoki, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Sato, Eiichi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sakamoto, Goi; Page, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The risk of female breast cancer in association with radiation exposure is well established, on the basis of follow-up studies of the atomic-bomb survivors and other exposed populations. This association is especially strong for women exposed before age 20 yr and appears to be much weaker among women exposed after age 40 yr. In this study, breast-tissue autopsy samples from high-dose and low-dose individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study sample were examined in detail to determine whether nonproliferative or proliferative breast lesions are associated with radiation exposure. The results suggest that proliferative disease in general and atypical hyperplasia in particular are associated with radiation exposure and that the risk is strongest for subjects who were ages 40-49 yr at the time of the bombings. It is hypothesized that this finding may be related to the age dependence of radiation-induced breast cancer, in the sense that potential cancers reflecting early-stage changes induced at these ages by radiation exposure may receive too little hormonal promotion to progress to frank cancers. (author)

  6. Biochemical survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chiyoko

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has conducted biochemical survey in children of A-bomb survivors, with the purpose of elucidating whether or not the rate of genetic mutation in genital cells is increased. This paper describes the previous surveys done at protein levels. Two kinds of indicators have been used: (1) 'rare mutation type' reflecting base substitution mutation, base deletion, and insertion; (2) 'mutation type' reflecting the decrease of red cell enzyme activity. According to the DS86 dosimetry system, the children population of A-bomb survivors were examined by dividing into the exposed group (n=11,364) of their parents exposed to 0.01 Sv or more and the control group (n=12,297) of those exposed to less than 0.01 Sv. 'Rare mutation type' was detected using electrophoresis in a total of 1,233 children in both groups. Of these children, 2 in the exposed group and 4 in the control group had a new 'mutation', i.e., mutation that was considered to have occurred in genital cells of their parents. Survey for genetic foci has revealed mutation in 2 children in the exposed group and 4 children in the control group, with the rate of mutation being 0.37 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation and 0.68 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation, respectively. Mutation type reflecting the decrease in red cell enzyme activity was seen in 26 in the exposed group and 21 in the control group. A total of 41 children were found to have been inherited from their parents. In the survey for genetic foci, only one had mutation in the exposed group, with the rate of mutation being 1.7 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation. These findings have revealed no evidence of significant difference in the rate of mutation between the exposed and control groups. Finally, the future genetic surveys at molecular levels are briefly discussed. (N.K.)

  7. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1 % in Group 1, 5.4 % in Group 2, and 4.9 % in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7 % vs 2.0 %), followed by gastric polyp (0.9 % vs 0.5 %) and gastric cancer (0.6 % vs 0.2 %). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Inoue, Akira; Shiomi, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6. Gastric mass survey in atomic bomb survivors (1982 - 1984)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako

    1986-11-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at less than or equal to 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1% in Group 1, 5.4% in Group 2, and 4.9% in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7% vs 2.0%), followed by gastric polyp (0.9% vs 0.5%) and gastric cancer (0.6% vs 0.2%). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Mine, Mariko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi

    1980-01-01

    The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

  11. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  13. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashizawa, K.; Imaizumi, M.; Usa, T.; Tominaga, T.; Hida, A.; Ejima, E.; Neriishi, K.; Soda, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Maeda, R.; Akahoshi, M.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T 3 , F T 4 ) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T 4 (0.71∼1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45∼4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in the Sh group were

  14. Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan

    2010-06-01

    Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 1958-1998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n = 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n = 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter [excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv = 1.65; 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78]. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv = 0.27; 90% CI = -0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters. Overall, there was a positive association between radiation and the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters (ERR/Sv = 0.60, 90% CI: 0.09, 1.30). Updated follow-up of the LSS cohort provides substantial additional information on the association between radiation and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter, a site not examined in recent reports on analyses of these data. The results are

  15. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (≥2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Reanalysis of atomic bomb survivors' leukemia based on the recent classification for leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-three A-bomb survivors developing leukemia, who had been exposed within 9,000 m from the hypocenter, were entered on the study for reanalysis of their disease based on the new classification. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) showed the highest concordance rate (95%) between the previous and new classifications. For 10 survivors previously diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a new classification diagnosed CLL as well in 3 and adult T-cell leukemia in the other 7. None of the A-bomb survivors exposed to one Gy or more had subtype M3 of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), although the exposed group had almost the same distribution pattern of AML subtypes as the naturally induced leukemic group. The incidence of CML was significantly lower than that of AML in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. As A-bomb survivors were older at the time of A-bombing, the relative risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was decreased; that of CML and other types of leukemia was increased. An increased relative risk of ALL and CML tended to be associated with larger doses. A significantly shortened interval between A-bomb exposure and the development of leukemia was also associated with larger doses. (N.K.)

  17. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

  18. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  19. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hironori; Kawano, Michio; Huang, Naihui; Tanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Hideo; Sakai, Akira; Kuramoto, Atsushi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine differences in the expression of cell surface antigens in normal plasma cells and mature myeloma cells. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple myeloma, including 5 A-bomb survivors. Seven normal persons, four with chronic tonsillitis, one with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and two with chronic lymphadenitis served as controls. In the group of myeloma cells, 12 showed mature myeloma cells of VLA-4[sup +]/VLA-5[sup +]/MPC-1[sup +], and the other 8 showed precursor myeloma cells of VLA-4[sup +]/VLA-5[sup -]/MPC-1[sup -]. In terms of CD56 and CD19, CD56[sup +]/CD19[sup -] were seen in 13 patients, CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup -] in 5, and CD56[sup +]/CD19[sup +] in 2; none of the patients showed phenotype of CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup +]. In the control group, all showed VLA-4[sup +]/VLA-5[sup +]/MPC-1[sup +]/CD44[sup +]/CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup +]; phenotype of normal plasma cells was CD38[sup ++]/CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup +] alone, which was not seen in the group of mature myeloma cells. Thus, this type is considered characteristic to normal plasma cells. These findings revealed that the difference in the expression of CD56 and CD19 aids in the identification of myeloma cells from normal plasma cells. (N.K.).

  20. Mortality among atomic-bomb survivors, 1950-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Pierce, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from 1950 through 1990 was recently published in Radiation Research. Work is also nearing completion on an updated analysis of data on noncancer mortality in the LSS. The new LSS mortality reports, collectively called Report 12, differ from earlier LSS reports in several general aspects. The Report includes some simple tabular, and graphical summaries of the excess risks which were developed to make it easier to comprehend the magnitude and nature of the excess risks in this cohort while highlighting uncertainties in the current LSS data. In order to overcome problems inherent in the use of summary risk estimates averaged over the current follow-up, sex- and age-at-exposure-specific lifetime risks computed for the LSS cohort are used as primary summaries of the excess risks. Throughout the new report, risk estimates were derived from models that make explicit allowance for important risk-modifying factors, such as age-at-exposure, sex, or attained age. This chapter contains a brief summary of some of the findings of the cancer mortality report and provides a preview of the latest non-cancer results

  1. A study on thyroid disorder of Sjoegren's disease in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid disorders were seen in eight of 25 atomic bomb survivors with Sjoegren's disease -- simple goiter in 2, chronic thyroiditis in 4, and primary hypothyroidism probably arising from chronic thyroiditis in 2. Thyroid disorders associated with Sjoegren's disease seemed to occur frequently in survivors exposed near the explosion. One of the two survivors with primary hypothyroidism had been exposed to atomic bomb 1.7 km from the explosion. As for the other clinical laboratory findings, there was no significant difference between the group with thyroid disorders and the group without them. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  3. Cytogenetic studies on leukemia and preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Tomonaga, Yu; Tagawa, Masuko; Kusano, Miyuki; Nishino, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    Chromosomal abberation of bone marrow cells in healthy persons and patients with various hematologic diseases both of the exposed and the non-exposed were discussed. One healthy a-bomb survivor exposed near the hypocenter and structural abnormality of chromosomes closely similar to that found out in a small number of patients with hematologic diseases, but clone formation was not recognized. Though it was clarified that there was chromosomal abberation peculiar to each hematologic disease, specific chromosomal abberation peculiar to a-bomb survivors with hematologic diseases was not recognized. There were many a-bomb survivors with hemopoietic dysplasia who had structural abnormality of chromosomes, and their frequency was significantly higher than that of the non-exposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  5. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Keiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8{+-}15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  6. Synthetic medical studies on atomic bomb survivors exposed in short distances, 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Munaka, Masaki; Hattori, Takao; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Kurihara, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    An analysis for chromosome breakpoints in 731 cells with chromosome aberrations obtained from 39 A-bomb survivors was made. There were 50 chromosome regions where the number of breaks was significantly higher than the expected number (p < 0.05). Twenty of these regions were common to those specific to cancer cells, and 16 were common to fragile sites. Chromosome regions commonly seen for constitutional fragile sites, chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors and cancer patients were 5q31, 6q25, 8q24, 11q23, and 17q23. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. A time series analysis on an individual data of atomic-bomb survivors and reduction to a medical treatment of atomic-bomb survivors using the results, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Hamada, Tadao; Kawagoe, Kazuko; Shigenobu, Takuzo; Matsuura, Chifumi.

    1980-01-01

    To prevent death of a-bomb survivors with myocardial infarction, a time series analysis of conditions of death caused by myocardial infarction was performed. Six a-bomb survivors who died of myocardial infarction were selected as subjects because their time series data could be obtained. Growth-equilibrium curves and polynomial trend line obtained from time series analysis were analysed by using a computer. Changes in a white blood cell count, a erythrocyte count, and Hb showed patterns of hemorrhagic shock at a terminal stage. Essential condition necessary for preservation of damaged heart was to keep up an erythrocyte count of 3,060,000 and Hb of 64.7%. The borderline between life and death was systolic pressure of 54 mmHg. It was demonstrated that prof. Abe's theory that the condition necessary for controlling diabetis is to keep up fasting glucose in blood of 140 mg/dl was correct. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Leukaemia following childhood radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in medically exposed groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence and mortality risks of radiation-associated leukaemia are surveyed in the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors exposed in early childhood and in utero. Leukaemia incidence and mortality risks are also surveyed in 16 other studies of persons who received appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment in childhood and for whom there is adequate dosimetry and cancer incidence or mortality follow-up. Relative risks tend to be lower in the medical series than in the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The relative risks in the medical studies tend to diminish with increasing average therapy dose. After taking account of cell sterilisation and dose fractionation, the apparent differences between the relative risks for leukaemia in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the medical series largely disappear. This suggests that cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy between the relative risks in the Japanese data and the medical studies. Excess absolute risk has also been assessed in four studies, and there is found to be more variability in this measure than in excess relative risk. In particular, there is a substantial difference between the absolute risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor data and those in three other (European) populations. In summary, the relative risks of leukaemia in studies of persons exposed to appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions in childhood are generally less than those in the Japanese A-bomb survivor data. The effects of cell sterilisation can largely explain the discrepancy between the Japanese and the medical series. (authors)

  10. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima a-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Okita, Hajime; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1980-01-01

    Certain blood examinations were performed on a-bomb survivors having anemia more than moderate stage (the hemoglobin value under 9.0 g/dl), who were found out by the periodical health examination performed in Hiroshima-A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic during the latter period of the fiscal year 1975. The total number of a-bomb survivors who received the periodical health examination was 50,973, and the number of survivors whose hemoglobin value was under 9.0 g/dl was 201 (0.39%). The incidence of such anemia was high in women. There was not a relationship between this anemia and the exposure distance from the hypocenter. The incidence of this anemia was high in young a-bomb survivors, and more than 50% of a-bomb survivors having this anemia was under the age of 50. Iron-deficiency anemia was found in 88% of a-bomb survivors, and the course of their anemia ran in many years in many a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%; major depression was second in prevalence (21%. Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56% than without (5% bombing-related PTSD (P<.001 and those with (72% than without (14% predisaster major depression (P<.001. Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress.

  12. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masanori

    1980-01-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. T-cell immunosenescence and inflammatory response in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Mika; Kubo, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Douple, Evan B; Nakachi, Kei

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we summarize the long-term effects of A-bomb radiation on the T-cell system and discuss the possible involvement of attenuated T-cell immunity in the disease development observed in A-bomb survivors. Our previous observations on such effects include impaired mitogen-dependent proliferation and IL-2 production, decreases in naive T-cell populations, and increased proportions of anergic and functionally weak memory CD4 T-cell subsets. In addition, we recently found a radiation dose-dependent increase in the percentages of CD25(+)/CD127(-) regulatory T cells in the CD4 T-cell population of the survivors. All these effects of radiation on T-cell immunity resemble effects of aging on the immune system, suggesting that ionizing radiation might direct the T-cell system toward a compromised phenotype and thereby might contribute to an enhanced immunosenescence. Furthermore, there are inverse, significant associations between plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and the relative number of naïve CD4 T cells, also suggesting that the elevated levels of inflammatory markers found in A-bomb survivors can be ascribed in part to T-cell immunosenescence. We suggest that radiation-induced T-cell immunosenescence may result in activation of inflammatory responses and may be partly involved in the development of aging-associated and inflammation-related diseases frequently observed in A-bomb survivors.

  14. Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Norman, J.E. Jr.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.; Tsuji, Y.

    1979-01-01

    From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

  15. Cancer incidence of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki City, 1973 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko

    1988-01-01

    Subjects were residents older than 30 years ascertained through the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki City during a ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The total number of cancer patients was 6,243 (3,456 men and 2,787 women), 2,626 of whom were A-bomb survivors. Stomach cancer was the most common, irrespective of sex, in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Crude incidence of cancer of any organ was higher in the exposed group, especially the group of people entering the city early after the bombing, than the non-exposed group. In the groups exposed at <2,000 m and at 2,000 - 10,000 m from the hypocenter, the incidence of stomach, lung, and thyroid cancers and malignant lymphoma; and the incidence of stomach, breast, and thyroid cancers were radiation-dose dependent in men and women, respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks of breast and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the exposed group of women than the non-exposed group. Comparing cancer incidence during the first and latter five years, the incidence of thyroid cancer and malignant lymphoma tended to decrease or remain unchanged in both men and women. The incidence of colorectal cancer showed a tendency to increase. An increased incidence of stomach and lung cancers was restricted to the exposed group of women. As for breast cancer, the exposed group of women had a tendency for decrease, as opposed to the non-exposed group with the increased incidence. There was no significant difference in histologic types between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Contributing factors to long-term psychological consequences in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asukai, Nozomu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Midori; Saeki, Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    The atomic bombing in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, caused an estimated casualty of 140,000 by the end of that year. Survivors faced hideous scenes and many lost family members. Later, in the early 1960s, increased rates of leukemia and other types of cancer were observed among the survivors. These long-term health effects caused serious apprehension to linger. However, only a few studies on psychological consequences among the survivors have been conducted. In 2008, Hiroshima City commissioned our study team to perform a large-scale survey on long-term health effects among the survivors. We delivered a questionnaire by mail to all subjects who were living in Hiroshima City and adjacent towns prior to the release of the A-bomb until the study was implemented. The number of potential subjects was 31,598 and the response rate was 75%. We analyzed a subsample of subjects (n=14,373) whose age at the event was 8 or above. In the multiple regression analysis, hibakusha (A-bomb victims) and those who were exposed to the Black Rain (fall-out) showed poor mental health compared to the comparison group on SF-8, K6 and IES-R scores even after adjusting socio-demographic variables. Although traumatic experiences at the event still affected mental health, anxiety for health effects and social stigma showed greater impact. Our findings suggest that even 63 years after the event, apprehension of health effects and social stigma harm mental health in A-bomb survivors. Our findings may also suggest that long-term risk communication will be vital to mitigate mental health effects among survivors of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (author)

  17. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth

  19. Follow-up studies on A-bomb survivors: implications for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, S.

    1983-01-01

    A-bomb survivor data are the principal basis for risk estimates for late somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man. The data concern radiation delivered at high dose rate and the risk estimates are dominated by persons with doses (kerma) of more than 100 rads. The estimates, therefore, may not be applicable to low doses received at low dose rates, where some advocate use of a dose-rate reduction factor of at least two for carcinogenesis. In contrast with dose-rate factors, little attention has been given to individual factors such as age. Even after more than 35 years, the experience of only the oldest A-bomb survivors (aged over 50 in 1945) is essentially complete. It appears, however, that the risk of carcinogenesis may depend upon age at exposure and that relative risk may be a more appropriate measure than absolute risk. Limits for occupational or population exposures were not developed on the basis of risk estimates; such estimates can, however, be used to calculate the possible consequences of exposure standards. In contrast to carcinogenesis, which has been shown clearly in the data on A-bomb survivors, and despite the appearance of chromosome aberrations, no evidence of radiation-induced mutations in the children of survivors has yet been detected

  20. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2009-06-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  2. A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1993-01-01

    The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

  3. Radiation effect on non-cancer diseases among a-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, G.; Akahoshi, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Neriishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Hakoda, M. [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    It has been well documented in the literature that radiation induces DNA damages and increases cancer risk. Besides cancer risk, the Life Span Study (LSS) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that has been conducted since 1950 by RERF demonstrated an increase in non-cancer death by cardiovascular diseases and chronic liver diseases (1). Since LSS analysis depends on death certificate, a physiological mechanism has not been elucidated how radiation increases the incidence of non-cancer diseases. In order to elucidate radiation effect on non-fatal disorders, RERF has conducted the Adult Health Study (AHS) since 1958 where 23,000 A-bomb survivors have been examined every other year. This study suggested that radiation exposure about 55 years before reduced the immune response to pathogens such as HB virus and Chlamydia pneumoniae, increased the levels of serum inflammatory markers, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis/liver cirrhosis and senile cataract, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Our colleagues reported a dose-dependent decrease in the CD4 T cell number among A-bomb survivors (2,3). Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are causative of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases or cataract, we speculate a decrease in the immune response to pathogens, at least in part, is one of the mechanisms that A-bomb exposure increased non-cancer diseases. When the levels of inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were analyzed among subjects with evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, significantly higher levels of CRP were associated with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in those subjects receiving >1Gy than those receiving <5mGy. It is well known that high CRP is one of the risk factors of arteriosclerosis (4,5). Thus, A-bomb exposure seems to augment inflammatory response to pathogens, though of which mechanisms are not clear now.

  4. Studies on preparation of the database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the database system aimed at multipurpose application of data on clinical medicine was studied through the preparation of database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors. The present database includes the data about 110,000 atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki City. This study detailed: (1) Analysis of errors occurring in a period from generation of data in the clinical field to input into the database, and discovery of a highly precise, effective method of input. (2) Development of a multipurpose program for uniform processing of data on physical examinations from many organizations. (3) Development of a record linkage method for voluminous files which are essential in the construction of a large-scale medical information system. (4) A database model suitable for clinical research and a method for designing a segment suitable for physical examination data. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by periodical health examination, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tsutomu; Dohy, Hiroo; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    Serum ferritin was determined in A-bomb survivors, and its significance was evaluated. A low-ferritin group included many of the females under the age of 50, who mostly had iron deficient anemia. A high-ferritin group included many older-aged A-bomb survivors who had secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and multiple myeloma. Secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, PNH, leukemia, and sideroblastic anemia was detected in those who were old and had underlying moderate or severe anemia with a high ferritin level. As the results of this investigation, blood examination combined with serum ferritin determination is valuable for diagnosis of anemia and detection of underlying diseases. (Ueda, J.)

  6. Recent results concerning radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent data of the prospective study among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (approx. 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to cancer induction varies considerably by irradiated tissues. (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at present; (g) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumors show a radiation-related effect; (h) children under 10 years old at time of bombing are presently showing the highest relative cancer risk compared to other survivors at equal attained age. If this effect persists, age-specific cancer risk coefficients are necessary [fr

  7. A simple reductionist model for cancer risk in atom bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    1) In data from the atom bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the roughly linear-quadratic radiation dose responses for chromosome aberration and leukemia correspond closely to each other, as do the linear dose responses for gene mutation and solid cancer incidence. 2) In view of the increasing evidence for multiple oncogene and suppressor gene changes in human cancer, as well as the evidence that human cancer rate is often proportional to age to the power of 6 or so, it is postulated that the radiation has contributed one and only one oncogenic mutational event to the radiation induced cancers. 3) The radiation induced cancers should therefore display a cancer rate versus age relationship that has a power of n-1, where n is the power for the corresponding background cancers. 4) It is shown that this is precisely what is happening in the collective solid cancer incidence of the atom bomb survivors. (author)

  8. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  9. Delayed immunologic effects of low dose radiation in Japanese A-bomb survivors. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinodan, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    Samples collected from 832 A-bomb survivors were analyzed for natural killer activity, interleukin production, interferon production, serum interferon levels, and circulating immune complex levels. The most striking finding was a significant radiation-sex interaction for NK activity. The NK of females exposed to 100+ rads was decreased compared to those exposed to 0 to 99 rads. A significant increase in NK activity with age ATB was observed, as well as an increase with age in circulating immune complex

  10. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  12. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki; Amemiya, Tsugio

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  13. Study on the multiple cancer in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy data from cohort studies performed on A-bomb victims revealed that the incidence rate of multiple cancer was 7.8% (193 of 2,472 cancer A-bomb victims), being higher than that (5.8%) found from the tumor registry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Multiple cancer occurred more frequently in women than in men in both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple cancer was 1.5 times higher in the victims exposed to more than 100 rad (Vsub(+) group) than in those exposed to less than one rad (V 0 group), suggesting that there might be dose-response relationship, although this was not statistically significant between the exposed groups. According to the organs, relative risk ratio of developing cancer in the Vsub(+) group to that in the V 0 group was high in the colon and rectum, bladder, lungs, and testes in men; in the thyroid gland, lungs, colon and rectum, bladder, and breast in women, although no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. This was suggestive of cancer that arises frequently in the lungs of men in the Vsub(+) group. Occult cancer of the thyroid gland and testes was also discussed in relation to the incidence of multiple cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Ph1 chromosomes and bcr gene rearrangements in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients developed from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Takechi, Miho; Shigeta, Chiharu; Sakatani, Keiko; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Takimoto, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study compared findings of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in A-bomb survivors (n=8) developing CML within 10 years after the bombing and in non-exposed CML patients (n=14). Both Ph 1 chromosomes and bcr rearrangement were observed in all patients in both exposed and non-exposed groups. There was no significant difference in distribution sites of bcr rearrangement between the groups. These results suggest that bcr-abl chimera mRNA and chimera protein associated with Ph 1 chromosomes have an important role in the development of CML among A-bomb survivors, as well as among non-exposed patients. (N.K.)

  15. Mortality of in-utero children exposed to the A-bomb and of offspring of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1978-01-01

    A cohort-type follow-up study has been carried out by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation on the mortality of children exposed to A-bomb radiation while in utero. The mortality increased with tissue dose during the first year of life and did not increase during the following nine years, but an increase with dose was again suggested during 10-32 years of age. A detailed analysis of infant mortality revealed that the dose-associated excess in mortality among those under one year of age, especially within one month after birth, was attributable partly to the mechanical injury of the mother, but this does not provide the whole explanation. There was no increase of mortality from cancer including leukaemia with dose. As the number of cancer deaths is at present only five, further careful follow-up on this cohort is necessary to determine the state of radiation-induced cancer among this cohort. The continuing study on mortality rates among children born to A-bomb survivors has been updated to 1976. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the offspring (average age 24 years) could be demonstrated either by a contingency chi 2 -type of analysis or regression analysis. (author)

  16. Search for gene mutations affecting protein structure in children of A-bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Fujita, Mikio; Goriki, Kazuaki; Asakawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Norio; Hamilton, H.B.; Hazama, Ryuji; Neel, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Children who were born between May 1, 1946 and April 1, 1971 to survivor(s) exposed to A-bombing within 2,000 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were selected as exposed group; their sex- and age-matched children born to survivor(s) who were exposed at 2,500 m or farther were selected as control group. When these children were in junior high school, mutation of protein structure was examined by using electrophoresis and by determining red cell enzymes with decreased activity and heat-unstable red cell enzymes. Electrophoretic study revealed a ''rare type of protein mutation'' in 635 of 12,242 individuals in the exposed group and in 448 of 10,154 individuals in the control group. The number of locuses in all proteins examined was calculated. The number of locuses per protein was corrected using the rate of parents' mutation type, and relative number of locuses were obtained. As a result, there was no difference in the mutation frequency per locus and generation between the exposed and control groups. Among children having red cell enzymes with decreased activity, mutant in triose phosphate isomerase was detected in one child in the exposed group, in whom electrophoretic pattern was normal and red cell enzymes were stable to heat. Heat-unstable red cell enzymes were seen in 9 children and their parents. However, family survey revealed genetic mutation in all instances irrespective of A-bombing. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Osborne, R.V.

    1988-03-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

  18. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  19. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence interval 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dose-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  20. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofumi Nakatsuka; Yukiko Shimizu; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Ichiro Sekine; Haruo Ezaki; Eiichi Tahara; Makoto Takahashi; Takatoshi Shimoyama; Nobuo Mochinaga; Masao Tomita; Ryoichi Tsuchiya; Land, Charles E.

    1992-10-01

    Colerectal cancer incidence in the LSS sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence internal 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dos-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  1. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels.

  2. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part III: Leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, 1950-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Izumi, Shizue; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Tomonaga, Masao; Ron, E.; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Matsui, Tatsuki; Nonaka, Hiroaki

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data on the incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from late 1950 through the end of 1987 (93,696 survivors accounting for 2,778,000 person-years). These analyses add 9 additional years of follow-up for leukemia and 12 for myeloma to that in the last comprehensive reports on these diseases. This is the first analysis of the lymphoma incidence data in the cohort. Using both the Leukemia Registry and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, a total of 290 leukemia, 229 lymphoma and 73 myeloma cases were identified. The primary analyses were restricted to first primary tumors diagnosed among residents of the cities or surrounding areas with Dosimetry Systems 1986 dose estimates between 0 and 4 Gy kerma (231 leukemias, 208 lymphomas and 62 myelomas). Analyses focused on time-dependent models for the excess absolute risk. Separate analyses were carried out for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and adult T-cell leukemia in this population. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for all subtypes except ATL, and there were significant subtype differences with respect to the effects of age at exposure and sex and in the temporal pattern of risk. The AML dose-response function was nonlinear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for the other subtypes. When averaged over the follow-up period, the excess absolute risk (EAR) estimates (in cases per 10 4 PY Sv) for the leukemia subtypes were 0.6, 1.1 and 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding estimated average excess relative risks at 1 Sv are 9.1, 3.3 and 6.2, respectively. There was some evidence of an increased risk of lymphoma in males (EAR = 0.6 cases per 10 4 PY Sv) but no evidence of any excess in females. 64 refs., 14 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1986-12-01

    Four decades after the actual events, quantitative characterization of the radiation fields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki continues to be sought, with high accuracy a goal justified by the unique contribution to radiation protection standards that is represented by the medical records of exposed survivors. The most recent effort is distinguished by its reliance on computer modeling and concomitant detail, and by its decentralized direction, both internationally and internally to the US and Japan, with resultant ongoing peer review and wide scope of inquiry. A new system for individual dose estimation has been agreed upon, and its scientific basis has been elaborated in the literature as well as in a comprehensive treatise to be published in the Spring of 1987. In perspective, this new system appears to be an unusually successful achievement that offers the expectation of reliable estimates with the desired accuracy. Some aspects leading to this expectation, along with a caveat, are discussed here. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    For decades after the actual events, quantitative characterization of the radiation fields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki continues to be sought, with high accuracy a goal justified by the unique contribution to radiation protection standards that is represented by the medical records of exposed survivors. The most recent effort is distinguished by its reliance on computer modelling and concomitant detail, and by its decentralized direction, both internationally and internally to the U.S. and Japan, with resultant ongoing peer review and wide scope of inquiry. A new system for individual dose estimation has been agreed upon, and its scientific basis has been elaborated in the literature as well as in a comprehensive treatise to be published in the Spring of 1987. In perspective, this new system appears to be an unusually successful achievement that offers the expectation of reliable estimates with the desired accuracy. Some aspects leading to this expectation, along with a caveat, are discussed here

  5. Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1986-12-01

    Four decades after the actual events, quantitative characterization of the radiation fields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki continues to be sought, with high accuracy a goal justified by the unique contribution to radiation protection standards that is represented by the medical records of exposed survivors. The most recent effort is distinguished by its reliance on computer modeling and concomitant detail, and by its decentralized direction, both internationally and internally to the US and Japan, with resultant ongoing peer review and wide scope of inquiry. A new system for individual dose estimation has been agreed upon, and its scientific basis has been elaborated in the literature as well as in a comprehensive treatise to be published in the Spring of 1987. In perspective, this new system appears to be an unusually successful achievement that offers the expectation of reliable estimates with the desired accuracy. Some aspects leading to this expectation, along with a caveat, are discussed here. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Study on liver function tests in A-bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Iwao; Mine, Yutaka; Ito, Naomi

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of liver function abnormality was examined in the health screening for A-bomb survivors performed at Nagasaki in l986. Parameters were as follows: GOT, GPT, ALP, ZTT, gamma-GTP, LAP, and LDH. A-bomb survivors were divided into Group A - those exposed within 2,000 m from the hypocenter, Group B - those exposed between 2,000 and l0,000 m, and Group C - those who entered the city within 2 weeks after A-bombing. The incidence of abnormality in GOT, GPT, gamma-GTP, and LAP was higher in men than women in every age group. Women aged 50 years or older had a higher incidence of abnormality in ALP and LDH, in contrast to men aged 60 years or older having a higher incidence for ZTT. There was no definitive tendency among groups for the incidence of abnormal findings, except for GOT showing a higher value among women in Group A. (Namekawa, K)

  7. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  8. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Kopecky, K.J.; Fujikura, Toshio; Tokuoka, Shoji; Monzen, Tetsuo; Nishimori, Issei; Nakashima, Eiji; Kato, Hiroo.

    1987-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  9. The relationship between the life environment of the atomic bomb survivors (Hibakusha) and their cardiovascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Masatoshi; Saito, Osamu; Miyaki, Sumiyo; Watabu, Akiko

    1978-01-01

    In order to observe clinically the effects of the atomic bomb on the human body (and on the environment), subjects were divided into group A (persons living in Hiroshima city more than 10 years after dropping of the atomic bomb) and group B (persons who changed their residence within 1 month). Group A was divided into two separate groups: group A 1 (persons living in segregated areas), and group A 2 (persons living in other areas). General examinations showed no abnormal findings. Incidence of abnormal ECG findings was higher in subjects living in segregated areas and was also higher in women than in men. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1966-08-25

    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  11. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors. The RERF Life Span Study. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We focus primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1950 through 1985 based on recently revised dosimetry procedures. We report the risk of cancer other than leukemia among the atomic bomb survivors. We note that the number of excess deaths of radiation-induced malignant tumors other than leukemia increases with age. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fall with time is not yet clear, although some evidence suggests that the risk may be declining. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure and to provide direct rather than projected risks over the lifetime of an exposed individual

  12. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A-bomb

  13. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of leukemias found in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Eguchi, Mariko

    1994-01-01

    Seventy five radiation-related leukemia patients in Hiroshima including 16 patients exposed to more than one Gray were cytogenetically examined. Statistical analysis of data on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the survivor groups according to bone marrow doses by DS86 estimation revealed that the heavily exposed group tended to have significantly higher aberration rates compared to the non-exposed group. Furthermore, the chromosomal aberrations in the survivors were observed to be of a more complex nature and had the characteristic findings of secondary leukemia. These observations therefore suggest that patients with a history of heavy exposure to atomic bomb radiation had leukemic cells originating from a stem cell which had been damaged by irradiation at the time of the bombing as well as cells involved in complex chromosome abnormalities. A higher incidence(p=0.06) of 11q23 abnormality was found in acute leukemia patients who had a history of exposure to A-bomb and developed from 1986 to 1993. However, we could not detect rearrangement of MLL gene in these patients. Break point region on 11q23 of radiation induced leukemias may be different from the common 8.5 kb region. Molecular biologic studies on RAS genes in acute and chronic leukemias and the BCR gene in chronic myelocytic leukemia were performed in exposed and non-exposed groups. So far, no distinctive differences have been observed in the frequency and sites of point mutations in N and K-RAS genes or in the rearrangement of the BCR gene. Further, retrospective analysis using DNA from leukemia patients who developed the disease in the early period from atomic bomb radiation exposure would be useful for elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia. (author)

  14. Liver cancer in atomic-bomb survivors. Histological characteristics and relationships to radiation and hepatitis B and C viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Sharp, G.B.; Mizuno, Terumi

    2001-01-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A panel of pathologists classified tumor histological types and defined accompanying cirrhotic changes of the liver. Archival tissue samples were assessed for HBV using pathology stains and PCR. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to determine HCV status. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare 302 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases to 53 cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cases, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, sex and viral status. Cirrhotic changes occurred significantly more often among HCC than CC cases (76% in HCC and 6% in CC). Compared to CC cases, HCC cases were 10.9 times more likely to be HBV-positive (95% confidence interval: 2.1-83.2) and 4.3 times more likely to be HCV-positive (95% confidence interval: 1.1-20.5) No significant differences were found between HCC and CC cases in radiation exposures. The predominance of HCC in the atomic-bomb survivors follows the background liver cancer pattern in Japan. Our findings suggest that HBV and HCV are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC with or without cirrhosis and are significantly less important in that of CC. (author)

  15. Coping support factors among Australians affected by terrorism: 2002 Bali bombing survivors speak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry J; Dunsmore, Julie C; Agho, Kingsley E; Taylor, Melanie R; Jones, Alison L; Raphael, Beverley

    2013-12-16

    To examine terrorism survivors' perceptions of factors likely to promote coping and recovery, and to determine whether coping supports vary according to demographic, physical and mental health, incident-exposure and bereavement variables. Individuals directly exposed to and/or bereaved by the 2002 Bali bombings and who had participated in a New South Wales Health therapeutic support program completed cross-sectional telephone interviews during July-November 2010. Spoken passages were categorised into coping support themes. Advocated supports were then examined by demographic, physical and mental health, incident-exposure and bereavement variables. Based on their experiences, respondents identified personal, social and service-related factors that they believed would optimally support future survivors of terrorism. Of the 81 people contacted, 55 (68%) participated, providing a total of 114 comments. Thirty-two respondents were women, and 54 had lost relatives or friends in the bombing. Mean age was 50 years (range, 20-73 years). Four meaningful coping support themes emerged, with excellent inter-rater reliability: professional help and counselling; social support; proactive government response and policy; and personal coping strategies. Women were significantly more likely to advocate the need for proactive government response (P = 0.03). Men were more likely to endorse the use of personal coping strategies (P bombings were significantly less likely to advocate social support processes (P = 0.04). Our findings highlight the perceived value of counselling-related services for terrorism-affected groups. Male survivors may benefit more from mental health interventions that initially build on problem-focused forms of coping, including brief education about reactions and periodic check-ups. Proactive government health and support services that allow simplified and longer-term access were consistently identified as priority areas.

  16. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1985-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  17. Risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases in the atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Grant, Eric J; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    Late health effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation have been evaluated in survivors. A cohort of 120 321 people has been followed since 1950 for mortality, including the cause of death using the Japanese population registry system (Life Span Study), and for cancer incidence using population-based cancer registries. Findings have included a markedly increased risk of leukaemia several years after the exposure, increased risk of various malignant tumours several decades after the exposure and, more recently, findings of increased rates of non-cancer diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Alternatives to the BEIR relative risk model for explaining atomic-bomb survivor cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The apparent failure of the BEIR absolute risk model to explain the data on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors does not imply that the BEIR relative risk model (RRM) is correct. RRM is objectionable in that it fits the data only in conjunction with an assumption not in accord with current knowledge and thinking. Contrary to what is widely believed, RRM is not a consequence of, or consistent with, initiator-promoter theories; models derived from initiator-promoter theories fit the data with fewer adjustable parameters and without requiring unpalatable assumptions. The preferable models give substantially lower radiation risks

  19. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohy, Hiroo; Taketomi, Yoshinori; Oguma, Nobuo; Takamatsu, Yumiko; Kamada, Nanao

    1984-01-01

    Of 195,146 A-bomb survivors undergoing the periodic health examination, 607 in whom anemia was confirmed were investigated. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 77.3% of the survivors (mostly consisting of women under the age of 54 years). There was no significant difference in other types of anemia between men and women. Renal anemia was frequent in survivors aged between 60 and 80 years. Refractory anemia was frequent in survivors older than those with renal anemia. The white blood cell count and platelet count were within the normal range in three types of anemia. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Is there a genetic instability in A-bomb survivors' lymphocytes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio

    1997-01-01

    Based on the reports that the genetic instability can be induced even by low LET radiation and that the instability can be essentially the cause of radiation carcinogenicity, data accumulated hitherto on the chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors were re-evaluated since it can be conceivable that there is still remaining a genetic instability in them. For a measure of biological radiation dose, translocation frequency was used and for genetic instability, dicentrics frequency. The relationship between those frequencies was analyzed in about 2500 survivors and showed either a saturable or linear one. For clear conclusion, additional studies on dicentrics frequency occurring in cultured lymphocytes from subjects who received various radiation doses would be necessary. (K.H.)

  1. Persisting injuries in immune system and their effects on health in a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2000-01-01

    This review describes findings concerning persisting effects of A-bomb radiation on immune cells and their relation to diseases. Injuries in immune system are mainly the depression of cellular immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes, especially CD4 T-cells, and the elevation of humoral immunity by B-cells. These are conceivably the imbalance results in immune system of incomplete recovery of those T-cells after exposure and thymus retraction by aging and of consequently affecting the functional differentiation of CD4 T-cells to lower the cellular immunity and to elevate the humoral immunity. Lowered cellular immunity in the survivors can be related to their liver and cardiovascular diseases caused by infection and cancer caused by tumor antigens and oncoviruses. Thus immunological investigations of the survivors are revealing not only the effect of radiation on the immune system but also the correlation between immunity and diseases. (K.H.)

  2. Ichiban: radiation dosimetry for the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important issues of the nuclear age concerns the effects of ionizing radiation on man. Immediately after the cessation of fighting in Japan in World War II, studies began which were aimed at learning as much as possible about radiation effects on the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. The most important factors were the immediate and long-term effects of the varying doses of radiation to the survivors. Although the medical studies commenced within months of the bombings, it was ten years before technology reached the stage at which it appeared possible to determine with any real reliability the effect the radiation doses had on these people. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and subsequently the Energy Research and Development Administration supported and strongly encouraged medical and dosimetry studies of the survivors until 1975 when the United States and Japan joined as full partners to carry on the studies far into the future. During the last few years, reliable doses for most of the individual survivors have been obtained, and the door was opened to a much better understanding of the effects of radiation on human beings. The dosimetry portion of these studies is recorded in this monograph. In this review the author presents an interesting mixture of historical highlights and scientific information without trying to cover either subject in great depth. The objective is to give the reader some insight and understanding into the overall program and to identify the original publications for those seeking an in-depth analysis

  3. Epidemiologic study of breast cancer in a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenichi; McGregor, D.H.; Kato, Hiroo; Wakabayashi, Toshiro.

    1978-08-01

    A case-control study was made on female breast cancer cases and their matched controls in the Life Span Study sample. The index cases were detected during 1958-69 among the 251 breast cancer cases ascertained originally by McGregor et al. The purpose of this study was to define the epidemiologic risk factors of breast cancer among Japanese women, to test for radiation effects in the presence of other risk factors, and to search for interactions. The survey was conducted by interview at home visits for those residing in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki areas, and by mail survey for others. The interview was carried out by several trained interviewers. Information concerning suspected risk factors of breast cancer, such as familial history, education, age at menarche and menopause, marital history, reproductive history, history of breast feeding, etc., was collected for both index cases and controls. Out of 183 original pairs, analysis was made on 164 pairs with available information for both the index and control, using the method of matched samples described by Mantel and Haenszel. There was enhancement of risk for those exposed to high radiation dose (100 rad or more). Although most major results were similar to those of previous studies, a significant increase of risk was observed among those under one of the following conditions: actual duration of marriage was less than 10 years; number of pregnancies was two or less; and age at delivery of first live born child was 27 or over. These factors had a mutual interrelationship and cases with two or more of these risk factors showed higher risk than those with one. Additive interrelationship was demonstrated between radiation dose and these marital or reproductive risk factors in elevating the relative risk of breast cancer. (author)

  4. The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Moriyama, I.M.

    1980-07-01

    The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

  5. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  6. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1983-08-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high

  7. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki

    1983-01-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (author)

  8. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H 2 -blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author)

  9. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people. (author)

  10. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H{sub 2}-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author).

  11. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  12. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (J.P.N.)

  13. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  14. Studies of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi

    1985-01-01

    Among the 82,064 subjects, 595 cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed, 395 cases (66.4%) by microscopic examinations of histological specimens and 69 cases (11.6%) by death certificate only. Subjects with unknown exposure dose or who were not in Hiroshima city at the time of the bombing were excluded, and the analysis was based on 60,470 persons with estimated exposure dose. In this population, there were 450 colorectal cancer cases: 239 cases of colon cancer, 203 cases of rectal cancer and eight cases with unknown site. Concerning the relationship between incidence of colorectal cancer and radiation exposure, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased with radiation dose, and this tendency was observed in both sexes. 2. The risk of colon cancer increased with dose, and linear trend tests showed that the increase was significant both in males (p<0.05) and females (p<0.01). The effects of radiation on the incidence of colon cancer differed by age at the time of the bombing. Among survivors exposed at young ages (less than 20) the effects were especially remarkable, the relative risk of the 100+ rad group versus the 0 rad group being 6.2, which was significantly greater than unity (p<0.01). Further, by site of colon cancer, radiation dose effects on the incidence of cancer of the right side colon (cecum and ascending colon), and sigmoid colon were observed, while dose effects on the incidence of the transverse colon or descending colon were not. 3. No effects atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of rectal cancer could be demonstrated, even when examined by sex and age at the time of the bombing. 4. For both colon cancer and rectal cancer, no difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (J.P.N.)

  15. Findings of a recent ORNL review of dosimery for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    More detail than previously available on the leakage spectra of neutrons from the Nagasaki and Hiroshima weapons was provided by calculations made at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976. Several neutron-transport calculations using these data predicted significantly less neutron exposure in Hiroshima than the current radiation-exposure estimates for survivors designated as T65D (or Tentative 1965 Doses). The difference was extremely important since recent studies using the T65D estimates have predicted a very large leukemia risk for neutrons at low exposure levels in Hiroshima. Some findings are that the neutron exposures in Hiroshima were probably less than the T65D estimates by factors varying from about four at a ground distance of 1000 m to eight at 2000 m, and the gamma-ray exposures were greater than the T65D estimates starting at about 1000 m and were probably larger by a factor of about three at 2000 m. In Nagasaki, the situation was reversed with respect to gamma rays, and the T65D estimates were higher, but the differences were small (i.e., about 20% at 1000 m and 30% at 2000 m). As a result, it now appears that leukemia and other late effects at lower exposure levels in Hiroshima were due largely to gamma rays rather than neutrons. This may not be true at higher exposure levels in Hiroshima, however. Any reanalysis of data on late effects among the atomic-bomb survivors should be regarded as highly speculative until some other important issues have been investigated in more detail. These issues include the anisotropy in neutron leakage from the Hiroshima weapon, the energy yield of the Hiroshima weapon, the shielding factors for houses, and the organ-dose factors for the atomic-bomb survivors

  16. Clonally expanded T lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors in vitro show no evidence of cytogenetic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, K; Kusunoki, Y; Nakashima, E; Takahashi, N; Nakachi, K; Nakamura, N; Kodama, Y

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Genomic instability has been suggested as a mechanism by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to cancer in exposed humans. However, the data from human cells needed to support or refute this idea are limited. In our previous study on clonal lymphocyte populations carrying stable-type aberrations derived from A-bomb survivors, we found no increase in the frequency of sporadic additional aberrations among the clonal cell populations compared with the spontaneous frequency in vivo. That work has been extended by using multicolor FISH (mFISH) to quantify the various kinds of chromosome aberrations known to be indicative of genomic instability in cloned T lymphocytes after they were expanded in culture for 25 population doublings. The blood T cells used were obtained from each of two high-dose-exposed survivors (>1 Gy) and two control subjects, and a total of 66 clonal populations (36 from exposed and 30 from control individuals) were established. For each clone, 100 metaphases were examined. In the case of exposed lymphocytes, a total of 39 additional de novo stable, exchange-type aberrations [translocation (t) + derivative chromosome (der)] were found among 3600 cells (1.1%); the corresponding value in the control group was 0.6% (17/3000). Although the ratio (39/3600) obtained from the exposed cases was greater than that of the controls (17/3000), the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.101). A similar lack of statistical difference was found for the total of all structural chromosome alterations including t, der, dicentrics, duplications, deletions and fragments (P = 0.142). Thus there was no clear evidence suggesting the presence of chromosome instabilities among the clonally expanded lymphocytes in vitro from A-bomb survivors.

  17. Incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on DS86 dosimetry system, 1958-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo

    1992-03-01

    The incidence of skin cancer during the period 1958-1985 was examined in the population registered in the life span study extension (LSSE) and the adult health study (AHS). Among 25,942 A-bomb survivors in whom DS86 was available, skin cancer was confirmed in 47 A-bomb survivors. These A-bomb survivors consisted of 24 males and 23 females. According to DS86 dosimetry system, ten A-bomb survivors had been exposed to 0.50 Gy or more. The most common histology was basal cell epithelioma (n=25), followed by malignant melanoma (n=4) and basosquamous cell carcinoma and sweat gland carcinoma (one each). In the group of 0.50 Gy or more, the incidence of occurrence of skin cancer was 20.8/100,000 population per year (PY) for the LSSE population and 22.8/100,000 PY for the AHS population. In the group of 0.01-0.49 Gy, it was 6.8/100,000 PY for the LSSE population and 12.8/100,000 PY for the AHS population. It was significantly associated with higher exposure doses. The dose-response relationship was linear. (N.K.).

  18. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  19. Leukemia incidence in the atomic bomb survivor Life Span Study, 1950 - 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, K.; Kusumi, S.; Izumi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is currently preparing a series of reports on cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors for the period from 1950 to 1987. One of these reports will present analyses of the data on the risk of hematopoietic cancers including leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. These analyses add an additional 11 years of follow-up to the previous comprehensive analysis of the LSS leukemia data. In this presentation, these data are presented and the methods being used modeling the leukemia risks are outlined. An analysis of the leukemia data pooled over subtypes will be used to illustrate these methods. It is shown that the data suggest a non-linear, concave upward dose response and that the temporal pattern of the radiation-induced excess absolute risks (EARs) depends on age-at-exposure and sex. There is no evidence of city differences in the EAR in this pooled analysis. The results suggest that the EARs for the youngest survivors were initially much higher and have declined more rapidly than those for older survivors. The same general pattern is seen both sexes, but the initial peak incidence is somewhat lower and the rate of decline less rapid for women than for men. (author)

  20. Synthetic medical studies on atomic bomb survivors exposed in short distances, 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Kontani, Nobuko; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Takimoto, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Hattori, Takao

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to search for biological significance of chromosome aberration observed in bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes, the presence of transforming genes in the DNA of bone marrow cells was examined in four healthy A-bomb survivors (Group I), three with preleukemia (Group II), and nine with leukemia (Group III). In Group I exposed at 300 - 500 m from the hypocenter, estimated radiation doses ranged from 565 to 667 cGy; and randomly abnormal karyotypes ranged from 30.7 % to 48.3 %. In Group II exposed at 800 m, in which estimated radiation doses were 300 - 600 cGy, one survivor had a complicated karyotype abnormality; and in the two others, abnormal clones were partly observed. Group III, which was exposed at 800 - 2,000 m and had estimated doses of 20 - 200 cGy, consisted of acute lymphoid leukemia (one), acute myeloid leukemia (five), and chronic myeloid leukemia (three). The patient with acute lymphoid leukemia had a complicated karyotype abnormality. N-ras genes were observed not only in seven acute or chronic leukemic patients but also in three healthy survivors. This may have important implications for the mechanism of leukemic transformation. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Detection of radiation-induced translocations in A-bomb survivors by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Kodama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Ohtaki, K.; Lucas, J.N.; Gray, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a collaborative study by RERF, LINL and UCSF on an analysis of the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors. In this study, attempts have been made to investigate whether the translocation frequencies measured using FISH agree well with the translocation frequencies measured using both G-banding and conventional Giemsa staining analyses, the latter two techniques of which have been accepted as standard cytogenetic procedures. Sample subjects under study include 20 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors, consisting of 2 distally exposed survivors in the 0-Gy group, and 18 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 kerma ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 Gy. Our preliminary results of measurement of translocations using FISH on A-bomb survivors have indicated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of induced translocations, and thus for quantification of previous acute exposures to ionizing radiation. Translocation analysis using FISH can also be utilized to assess the level of acute radiation exposure independent of time between exposure and cytogenetic analysis. (author)

  2. T and B cells and PHA response of peripheral lymphocytes among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Dock, D.S.; Hamilton, H.B.; Awa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Little is known about immune compretence in atomic bomb survivors. The following results were observed from this study. T and B cells showed no change in proportion by age or exposure dose. The percentage of T cells was slightly lower in malignant tumor patients than in the control group. However, it was significantly higher in the group with chromosomal aberrations than in the control group. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) response of peripheral lymphocytes decreased significantly with age in the 0 rad control group and the 200+ rad exposure group, particularly so in the latter. The malignant tumor group also showed lower PHA response than the control group. The PHA response of the chromosomal aberration group was significantly depressed compared with that of the control group. (author)

  3. Some effects of random dose measurement errors on analysis of atomic bomb survivor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of random dose measurement errors on analyses of atomic bomb survivor data are described and quantified for several procedures. It is found that the ways in which measurement error is most likely to mislead are through downward bias in the estimated regression coefficients and through distortion of the shape of the dose-response curve. The magnitude of the bias with simple linear regression is evaluated for several dose treatments including the use of grouped and ungrouped data, analyses with and without truncation at 600 rad, and analyses which exclude doses exceeding 200 rad. Limited calculations have also been made for maximum likelihood estimation based on Poisson regression. 16 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  5. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  6. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Iijima, Soichi; Mori, Kazuo.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  7. Leukemia among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors from 1971 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Masahito; Shigeta, Chiharu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki.

    1976-01-01

    The number of death from leukemia between 1971 - 1975 was 134. 91 cases of them were born before A-bomb explosion. Out of 91 cases, 34 cases were exposed within 5 km from the hypocenter, 23 cases were exposed within 2 km, and 18 cases were exposed within 1.5 km. There were 10 cases of early entrants after A-bomb explosion (till August 16). The mortality from leukemia was the highest in 1975. With respect to the type of leukemia in 23 cases exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter, acute leukemia was seen in 17 cases and chronic leukemia, in 16 cases. Age of 15 cases was over 60 years old, 10 cases were males and 13 cases were females. According to the calculation from 1971 - 1974, the mortality from leukemia among the proximally exposed was higher in both female and male than that of the mean in Japan. The relative risk in the exposed within 1.5 km was about 3 times of the mean in Japan and about 1.8 times in the exposed within 2 km. With respect to the estimated exposure dose in 23 cases exposed within 2 km, 7 of 8 cases in the range from 10 to 99 rad were exposed to over 40 rad. 4 cases received 0 rad, and further 3 cases were not subject for dose estimation. The number of leukemia found out in the physical examination of A-bomb survivors was 8 of acute leukemia and 10 of chronic leukemia. The incidence rate of leukemia was 3.4 (per 100,000 population per year) which was not over the estimated number of about 4 calculated from the mortality from leukemia in Japan. (Kanao, N.)

  8. Reanalysis of interviewing study data in the health attitude survey of A-bomb survivors, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    The interviewing study data in the title were initially contained in the official request of Hiroshima City and Prefecture, which had been presented to MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) in 2010, concerning spread of previously defined A-bomb exposed regions and were statistically reanalyzed based on the requirement of the consequent MHLW council. The data were originally derived from the questionnaire in 2008 about the health attitude survey by Hiroshima authorities, from which 892 survivors had received the interview together with self-writing, and answers of 869 parsons (524 males) were finally subjected to the present reanalysis. Measures of the interview involved the SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey) for QOL, GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire 28-item) for screening of neurosis/depression, and CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) for diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder), etc. These measures were analyzed along with classes of A-bomb experience with adjustment factors of sex, age and income by multiple-/multivariate logistic-regression. It was found that measures were tended to be worse in groups experiencing the black rain without effects of adjustment factors, which was similar to groups experiencing the heavier rainfall; however, these results were statistically insignificant. (T.T.)

  9. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy

    2013-01-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases—hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke—in the first-generation (F 1 ) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11 951 F 1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose–response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease. (paper)

  10. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  11. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko

    1982-09-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant

  12. Genetic instability model for cancer risk in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    1998-01-01

    This review was written rather against Mendelsohn's reductionist model for cancer risk in A-bomb survivors in following chapters. Assumptions for carcinogenic process: mutation of a cell to the cancer cell and its proliferation. Multi-step theory for carcinogenesis and age of crisis: induction of cancer by accumulation of cancer-related gene mutations which being linear to time (age). Effect of exogenous hit in the multi-step theory: radiation as an exogenous hit to damage DNA. Dose-effect relationship for cancer risk in the survivors and the problem for the latent period: for solid tumors, dose-effect relationship is linear and shortening of the latent period is not observed. Considerations on cancer data in adulthood exposure/Indirect effect model in radiation carcinogenesis: solid cancer data supporting the indirect effect model. Possible mechanism for radiation-induced long-term increase of natural mutation frequency: genetic instability remaining in the irradiated cells which being a basis of the indirect effect model. Notes for considerations of carcinogenicity in exposed people/Difference in carcinogenic mechanisms due to age. The author concluded that the radiation-induced carcinogenesis is deeply related with the natural carcinogenesis and particularly for solid cancers, it can not be explained by the classic reductionist model. (K.H.)

  13. Relationship between length of A-bomb survivor's health handbook possession and mortality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Satoh, Kenichi; Tonda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    The title handbook was first issued to support the health of A-bomb survivors by Japan MHLW in 1957, and about 220 thousands possess it in 2010. Its major supports contain free medicare, 2 periodic and 2 optional medical examinations/year and other various benefits. This study was performed to elucidate the relationship in the title for evaluation of its life prolonging effect on Hiroshima survivors. The length of handbook possession was defined the period from acquiring it to death. The cohort was 17,335 (7,607 men) registered survivors who had had the handbook for 1 year or more, and before Nov. 1965 or later, until Dec. 2010. Causes of death event were classified to be the cerebrovascular, cardiac and cancerous disease, and others were censored. The objective variable was mortality risk, and predictors were the exposed dose, age at the exposure, chronological age and length of handbook possession. Risk of cerebrovascular or cardiac death was estimated by the model of exponential function, and of cancer death, of power function based on multi-stage theory of carcinogenesis. Results revealed that the cerebrovascular mortality of women and men was 8.1 and 7.2%, respectively; cardiac, 8.7 and 7.2%; and cancerous, 10.1 and 14.9%. Significant reduction of relative risk of cerebrovascular death, about 4% per 1 year handbook possession, was observed in men alone; negative correlations of period effect were seen in cerebrovascular and cardiac death of women; and positive correlation between cancer death and exposed dose was observed. The prophylaxis and continuous treatment of cerebrovascular disease due to the handbook possession were thought effective in men. (T.T.)

  14. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.; Soda, M.; Eto, R.; Mabuchi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system

  15. Radiation-related ophthalmologic changes and aging among the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Finch, S.C.; Choshi, Kanji; Takaku, Isao; Mishima, Hiromu; Takase, Tomoko.

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of ionizing radiation to the age-related ophthalmologic findings of the 1978-80 ophthalmologic examination of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been reanalyzed using Dosimetry System 1986 eye organ dose estimates. The main purpose of this re-evaluation was to determine whether age and radiation exposure have an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect on ophthalmologic changes. The best model fitting axial opacities gives a significant positive effect for both linear dose-response and linear age-related regression coefficients and a significant negative effect for an interaction between radiation dose and age. Such a negative interaction implies an antagonistic effect in that the relative risks with relation to radiation doses decrease with increasing age. This phenomenon suggests that the lenses of younger persons are more sensitive to radiation than are those of older persons. However, the best-fitting relationship for posterior subcapsular changes suggested a linear-quadratic dose response and linear age-related effects. The quadratic estimate of radiation dose squared showed a highly significant effect with a negative trend, but the negative quadratic estimate was so extremely small it had almost no contributive value within an appropriative dose area. These data suggest an additive relationship between aging and radiation for the induction of posterior subcapsular changes, and they also indicate that there is no distinct evidence of a radiation-induced aging effect. The radiation-related relative risks increase with a log linearity. The decrease of visual acuity and accommodation with increasing age were comparable in both exposed and control subjects, with age-related visual acuity decreasing more than accommodation. (J.P.N.)

  16. Posttraumatic growth and benefit-finding in lung cancer survivors: The benefit of rural residence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrykowski, Michael A; Steffens, Rachel F; Bush, Heather M; Tucker, Thomas C

    2017-06-01

    Rural cancer survivors report more distress than non-rural survivors. Little research has examined whether rural residence might also be linked to positive psychological outcomes. Rural ( n = 117) and non-rural ( n = 76) lung cancer survivors completed measures of posttraumatic growth, benefit-finding, and distress. Rural survivors reported more posttraumatic growth than urban survivors. There were no differences in benefit-finding. Mediation analyses indicated distress mediated the relationship between rural residence and posttraumatic growth. Findings suggest rural residence might be beneficial with regard to potential for posttraumatic growth among cancer survivors. Consistent with trauma theory, distress mediated the relationship between rural residence and posttraumatic growth.

  17. Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Amano, Takako; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1982-10-01

    A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / √Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / √Dn--96.5 / √Dn. (author)

  18. Mortality of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors exposed at the black rain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Tonda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed on the black rain as a death risk factor of survivors in Hiroshima Uda's (U) light to heavy black rain regions using the positional parameters at their exposure. Subjects were 27,610 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate and direct dose at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was defined to be their all deaths due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, cancers, etc. Confounding factors were sex (11,457 males/16,153 females), age at exposure (av. 25 y) and dose (av. 0.045 Gy), with which analysis was done by Cox proportional hazard model. The confounding interaction of the age/U region was found significant: e.g., at the exposed age 25 y, the hazard ratio was calculated to be 1.084, indicating about 8% higher hazard ratio of U region than the area outside of U. When the effect of the sex, exposed age and direct dose were adjusted to be minimized, the risk was found distributed mainly in concentric circle from hypocenter, yet still the effect of indirect exposure was observed though. When the distance instead of the indirect dose was used as an explanatory variable, it resulted in being significant with no significance of the direct exposure dose. Risk map employing the positional information at explosion revealed that the risk distribution was locally different even in U region itself. Thus this study suggested that the black rain was a mortality risk factor in the U raining region of Hiroshima. (T.T.)

  19. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Michiya; Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-01-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  20. A study of autoimmune thyroid disorder in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, (3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noma, Koji; Sasaki, Hideo (National Kure Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)); Ito, Chikako; Mito, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Egusa, Genji; Hara, Hitoshi

    1989-01-01

    To determine sequential changes in thyroid function after developing asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis (AAT) in A-bomb survivors, initial findings of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test were compared with those 2 years after developing AAT (n=22) and struma (S) (n=12). According to Bastenie's classification, AAT or S patients were clinically staged into three grades. Among 17 patients who had initially had AAT I, one each developed Grade II and III two years later. Initial Grade II turned to Grade I at 2 years in 2 of 4 AAT patients and in 2 of 3 S patients. In both the AAT and S groups, Grade III remained unchanged two years later. There was no significant change in basal or peak thyroid stimulating hormone level between patients with Grade I and those with Grade II or III in both the AAT and S groups. There were no sequential changes in total and free T4, total and free T3, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lactic dehydrogenase. The TRH test is unlikely to reflect the development of hypothyroidism. (N.K.).

  1. Study of autoimmune thyroid disorder in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noma, Koji; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Mito, Kazuyo; Kato, Masashi; Egusa, Gengi; Hara, Hitoshi

    1986-11-01

    To elucidate sequential changes of thyroid function in persons seropositive for anti-thyroid antibodies, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed in 31 patients with asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis (AAT), 13 patients with struma (S), and 28 normal subjects. On the basis of basal TSH values, 26 of the AAT patients were classified as grade I, 4 as grade II, and 2 as grade III; and 8 of the S patients as grade I, 4 as grade II, and one as grade III. One patient with grade I AAT developed subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT). All grade III AAT and S patients were considered to have SHT. S patients were more likely than AAT patients to develop SHT. Regarding serum levels of total T4, total T3, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lactic dehydrogenase, there was no significant correlation between grade I group and grade II + III group. Although the basal TSH value may be a somewhat important indicator for predicting thyroid function, abnormal basal TSH value returned to normal several years later even in the case of patients with increased value. There was no evidence that autoimmune thyroid disorder is frequent in A-bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Serum ferritin and stomach cancer risk among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Blot, W.J.; Kabuto, Michinori; Stevens, R.G.; Kato, Hiroo; Land, C.E.

    1990-02-01

    Using stored serum samples collected from 1970-72 and/or from 1977-79, serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin levels were immunologically determined for 233 stomach cancer and 84 lung cancer cases diagnosed from 1973-83 and for 385 matched controls from a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Elevated stomach cancer risk was associated with low serum ferritin levels, with more than a threefold excess among those in the lowest quintile as compared to the highest ferritin quintile. The average serum ferritin concentration was 8% lower in the stomach cancer cases than in the controls. Risk did not vary with the time between blood collection and stomach cancer onset, remaining high among those with low ferritin levels five or more years before cancer diagnosis. Low ferritin combined with achlorhydria, diagnosed about 10 years before the blood collection and up to 25 years before cancer diagnosis, was an exceptionally strong marker of increased stomach cancer risk. No effect of transferrin or ceruloplasmin independent of ferritin was observed on gastric cancer risk. Lung cancer risk was not related to these three serum proteins. (author)

  3. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking.

  4. Temporal analysis of a dose-response relationship: leukemia mortality in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, J B; Groer, P G; Liddell, R; Ishimaru, T; Ichimaru, M

    1984-09-01

    A data analysis that incorporates time dependencies is demonstrated for the dose response of leukemia mortality in the atomic bomb survivors. The time dependencies are initially left unspecified and the data on leukemia mortality--up to the end of 1978--are used to infer them. Several findings based on T65 revised doses (T65DR) are obtained. First, it is shown that the fits to the data of time-dependent L (linear in gamma dose)-Q (quadratic in gamma dose)-L (linear in neutron dose), L-L, and Q-L dose-response models are significantly improved (P less than 0.001) by using the corresponding time-dependent dose-response models. Second, it is shown that the increased risk of leukemia mortality due to gamma irradiation decreases in time while the increased risk due to neutron exposure decreases more slowly, if at all, in time. Consequently, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons is shown to increase in time (P = 0.002) and the current definition of RBE as a time-independent quantity is therefore challenged. It is demonstrated with time-dependent models that the L-L model has a poor fit (P = 0.01) to the data for the first 7 years of study, but has an adequate fit for the remaining 21 years. In contrast the Q-L model has an adequate fit for the entire follow-up period (P greater than 0.30).

  5. Estimation of risk map for cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. 1970-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofomi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-01-01

    A risk map (map I) involving the effects of direct A-bomb exposure and of other confounding factors was estimated to analyze the death risk in the geographic distribution, and another risk map (map II) was also made by subtracting the direct exposure effect to see the confounder effect. The cohort was 37,382/157,327 survivors at Jan. 1, 1970, whose positional coordinates at the exposure were known, and was followed up until Dec. 31, 2009. For survival analysis, the endpoint was defined to be death (total 19,119) by regarding other 18,263 as censoring. Confounding factors were sex, age at the exposure, exposed dose and shielded condition. Maps I and II were depicted using the hazard ratio at the exposed position relative to the hypocenter, which was estimated by previously reported hazard model functions. Map I was found to be rather similar to concentric circle of the hypocenter, but to be tended a bit distorted toward northwest area. The distortion was clearer in the map II, indicating that death causes other than direct exposure existed. The confounder was thought to be the indirect exposure through the black rain, residual radiation and/or internal exposure, which awaiting future investigation. (T.T.)

  6. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-06-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  7. Model averaging in the analysis of leukemia mortality among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, David B.; Cole, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies often include numerous covariates, with a variety of possible approaches to control for confounding of the association of primary interest, as well as a variety of possible models for the exposure-response association of interest. Walsh and Kaiser (Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011) advocate a weighted averaging of the models, where the weights are a function of overall model goodness of fit and degrees of freedom. They apply this method to analyses of radiation-leukemia mortality associations among Japanese A-bomb survivors. We caution against such an approach, noting that the proposed model averaging approach prioritizes the inclusion of covariates that are strong predictors of the outcome, but which may be irrelevant as confounders of the association of interest, and penalizes adjustment for covariates that are confounders of the association of interest, but may contribute little to overall model goodness of fit. We offer a simple illustration of how this approach can lead to biased results. The proposed model averaging approach may also be suboptimal as way to handle competing model forms for an exposure-response association of interest, given adjustment for the same set of confounders; alternative approaches, such as hierarchical regression, may provide a more useful way to stabilize risk estimates in this setting. (orig.)

  8. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation. Artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (1) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (2) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to 239 Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation–environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. (author)

  9. Micronuclei and chromosome aberrations found in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes form thorotrast patients and atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Izumi, Takaki; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kamada, Nanao (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1984-03-01

    As two cytogenetic parameters of radiation exposure, the frequency of micronucleus in erythroblasts, lymphocytes and red cells (Howell-Jolly body) as well as chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and in lymphocytes were studied in 24 thorotrast patients and in 32 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors who were exposed within one kilometer from the Hiroshima hypocenter. The incidence of both micronucleus and chromosome aberrations in these two exposed groups were significantly higher than that in non-exposed controls. So that these two parameters are useful guide for evaluating the residual effects of radiation, especially on hematopoietic cells. Because of its simple procedures, micronucleus test is also helpful as screening for prediction of chromosome aberrations. The characteristics of lymphocyte chromosome aberrations differed considerably between thorotrast patients and A-bomb survivors; the incidence of unstable type aberrations and intracellular complexity of chromosome aberrations were much higher in the former group. The incidence of micronucleus in erythroblasts and lymphocytes was also higher in thorotrast patients. Such differences are attributable to the differences in the radiation quality (..cap alpha..-ray or ..gamma..-ray+neutron) and in the mode of exposure (persistent or single) of these two groups.

  10. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors.

  11. Ionizing radiation exposure and the development of soft-tissue sarcomas in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartzis, Dino; Nishi, Nobuo; Cologne, John; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Hayashi, Mikiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Miles, Edward F; Suyama, Akihiko; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi

    2013-02-06

    Very high levels of ionizing radiation exposure have been associated with the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. The effects of lower levels of ionizing radiation on sarcoma development are unknown. This study addressed the role of low to moderately high levels of ionizing radiation exposure in the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. Based on the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, 80,180 individuals were prospectively assessed for the development of primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Colon dose in gray (Gy), the excess relative risk, and the excess absolute rate per Gy absorbed ionizing radiation dose were assessed. Subject demographic, age-specific, and survival parameters were evaluated. One hundred and four soft-tissue sarcomas were identified (mean colon dose = 0.18 Gy), associated with a 39% five-year survival rate. Mean ages at the time of the bombings and sarcoma diagnosis were 26.8 and 63.6 years, respectively. A linear dose-response model with an excess relative risk of 1.01 per Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to 2.46; p = 0.019) and an excess absolute risk per Gy of 4.3 per 100,000 persons per year (95% CI: 1.1 to 8.9; p = 0.001) were noted in the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. This is one of the largest and longest studies (fifty-six years from the time of exposure to the time of follow-up) to assess ionizing radiation effects on the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. This is the first study to suggest that lower levels of ionizing radiation may be associated with the development of soft-tissue sarcoma, with exposure of 1 Gy doubling the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma development (linear dose-response). The five-year survival rate of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma in this population was much lower than that reported elsewhere.

  12. Detection of de novo single nucleotide variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors close to the hypocenter by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Makiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Chisa; Kinoshita, Akira; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Sato, Shinya; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro

    2018-03-01

    Ionizing radiation released by the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 caused many long-term illnesses, including increased risks of malignancies such as leukemia and solid tumours. Radiation has demonstrated genetic effects in animal models, leading to concerns over the potential hereditary effects of atomic bomb-related radiation. However, no direct analyses of whole DNA have yet been reported. We therefore investigated de novo variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We collected peripheral blood from three trios, each comprising a father (atomic-bomb survivor with acute radiation symptoms), a non-exposed mother, and their child, none of whom had any past history of haematological disorders. One trio of non-exposed individuals was included as a control. DNA was extracted and the numbers of de novo single nucleotide variants in the children were counted by WGS with sequencing confirmation. Gross structural variants were also analysed. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the study. There were 62, 81, and 42 de novo single nucleotide variants in the children of atomic-bomb survivors, compared with 48 in the control trio. There were no gross structural variants in any trio. These findings are in accord with previously published results that also showed no significant genetic effects of atomic-bomb radiation on second-generation survivors.

  13. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Kamada, Nanao; Uchino, Haruto; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    For investigation of delayed effects on atomic bomb survivors, age, the association with exposure conditions, and individual pathological conditions were examined on 200 survivors for whom hypoplastic anemia was suspected in a year, April 1, 1972-March 31, 1973. Anemia was prevalent among the aged: in the females (170 cases) the incidence according to age was 1.2% in those aged 29 or below, 8.8% in those aged between 30 and 39, 12.4% in those aged between 40 and 49, 21.2% in those aged between 50 and 59, 28.8% in those aged between 60 and 69, and 24.1% aged between 70 and 79. In the males (30 cases) it was 73.3% in those aged 60 or above. The incidence according to exposure distance in the females was 4.1% in the group of 0.9km or less, 36.5% in the group of 1.9km or less, and 41.8% in the group of 2km or more, and the incidence in the males was 43.3% in the group of 1.9km or less. Anemia was not necessarily frequent among the short-distance victims. As for the distribution of hemoglobin, anemia with 10g/dl or less was found in 18%, and a white blood cell count of less than 3000 was rather infrequent (12%). Although, according to age, the amount of hemoglobin showed a slight increase in the subjects aged 70 or above, there was no significant difference. Neither of the values showed any particular decrease in relation to exposure diatance. Up to present, however, anemia has not been improved in many of the subjects in whom a mean of more than 10 years has elapsed. In addition to senile anemia, iron deficiency anemia and posthemorrhagic anemia represented most cases. There were 22 cases of hypoplastic anemia, of which three were aplastic. The exposure distance in these three cases was 1.3km, 1.5km, and 2.5km, but its relation to the incidence was not found because of the small number. (Kanao, K.)

  14. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1984-01-01

    Of 108,739 atomic-bomb (A-bomb) victims enrolled in the population of life span survey by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 730 victims from October 1950 to December 1980 were selected as subjects of colorectal cancer based on death certificates, autopsy and operative findings, and clinicopathological reconfirmation of colorectal cancer. Tentative dose decided in 1965 (T65D) was used to estimate radiation doses of A-bomb victims. Although the incidence of colon cancer was found to be related to radiation, the relation of the incidence of rectal cancer to radiation was not confirmed. Radiation effects were dependent on the age of A-bomb victims at the time of the bombing, which was noted in A-bomb victims aged less than twenty years at that time. Dose-response relationship was found in cases of cancer of the sigmoid colon. Histological types of cancer were independent of radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Joint analysis of site-specific cancer risks for the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.; Preston, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical methods are presented for joint analysis of site-specific cancer risks for the atomic-bomb survivors. Previous analyses of these data, aside from those on leukemia, have been made either without regard to cancer type, or separately for types or classes of cancers. Clearly, analyses without regard to cancer type are less than satisfactory. The primary advantages of joint, rather than separate, analyses are that (1) models can be fitted with parameters common to cancer types, which can allow more-precise estimation of effects of interest, (2) significance tests can be used to compare type-specific risks, and (3) a clearer understanding may be obtained of risk-modification factors such as sex, age at exposure, and time since exposure. Joint analysis is straightforward, entailing primarily the incorporation of another factor for cancer type in the usual cross-tabulation of the data for analysis. The use of these methods is illustrated in an analysis of the three categories of cancer studied by the fifth Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR V): digestive, respiratory, and other solid tumors. Based on this analysis, some criticism is made of the BEIR V-preferred models. Since the proposed methods are applicable to models for either relative or absolute risks, some comments on the use of explicit models for the absolute excess risk are also given. Although some of the gains from joint analysis are apparent from the results here, it will be important to use these methods with a more suitable choice of cancer classes and for cancer incidence data in which the diagnoses are more accurate. (author)

  16. Congenital malformations, stillbirths, and early mortality among the children of atomic bomb survivors: A reanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, M.; Schull, W.J.; Neel, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Of all the data sets pertinent to the estimation of the genetic risks to humans following exposure to ionizing radiation, potentially the most informative is that composed of the cohort of children born to atomic bomb survivors. We present here an analysis of the relationship between parental exposure history and untoward pregnancy outcomes within this cohort, using to the fullest extent possible the recently revised estimates of the doses received by their parents, the so-called DS86 doses. Available for study are 70,073 terminations, but DS86 doses have not been or presently cannot be computed on the parents of 14,770. The frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes, defined as a pregnancy terminating in a child with a major congenital malformation, and/or stillborn, and/or dying in the first 14 days of life, increases with combined (summed) parental dose, albeit not significantly so. Under a standard linear model, when the sample of observations is restricted to those children whose parents have been assigned the newly established DS86 doses (n = 55,303), ignoring concomitant sources of variation and assuming a neutron RBE of 20, the estimated increase per sievert in the predicted frequency of untoward outcomes is 0.00354 (+/- 0.00343). After adjustment for concomitant sources of variation, the estimated increase per sievert in the proportion of such births is 0.00422 (+/- 0.00342) if the neutron RBE is assumed to be 20. A one-hit model with appropriate adjustments for extraneous sources of variation results in an almost identical value, namely, 0.00412 (+/- 0.00364)

  17. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid among atomic bomb survivors: tumor characteristics and radiation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuzo; Lagarde, Frederic; Tsuda, Nobuo; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Preston, Dale L; Koyama, Kojiro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ron, Elaine; Kodama, Kazunori; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2010-04-01

    : Radiation exposure is an established cause of clinical thyroid cancer, but little is known about radiation effects on papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid, a relatively common subclinical thyroid malignancy. Because the incidence of these small thyroid cancers has been increasing, it is important to better understand them and their relation to radiation. : PMCs were identified in a subset of 7659 members of the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors who had archived autopsy or surgical materials. We conducted a pathology review of these specimens and evaluated the histological features of the tumors and the association between PMCs and thyroid radiation dose. : From 1958 to 1995, 458 PMCs were detected among 313 study subjects. The majority of cancers exhibited pathologic features of papillary thyroid cancers. Overall, 81% of the PMCs were of the sclerosing variant and 91% were nonencapsulated, psammoma bodies that occurred in 13% and calcification was observed in 23%. Over 95% had papillary or papillary-follicular architecture and most displayed nuclear overlap, clear nuclei, and nuclear grooves. Several of these features increased with increasing tumor size, but no association was found with radiation dose. A significant radiation-dose response was found for the prevalence of PMCs (estimated excess odds ratio/Gy = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-1.55), with the excess risk observed primarily among women. : Exposure to low-to-moderate doses of ionizing radiation appears to increase the risk of thyroid PMCs, even when exposure occurs during adulthood. Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  18. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Role of neutrons in late effects of radiation among A-Bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Gilbert W.; Land, Charles E.; Jablon, Seymour

    1978-01-01

    Experimental findings of many kinds as well as the Rossi-Kellerer theory of dual radiation action suggest that neutrons and gamma rays may differ in their biological effects, especially carcinogenesis, upon man. In particular, for many but not necessarily all cancers the carcinogenic effect of neutrons may be linear, and that of gamma- or X-radiation, a more complex function with linear and quadratic terms; in addition, dose-response functions for both types of radiation probably require a modifying factor to account for the frequently observed turn-down of dose-response curves in the high-dose region. In a further analysis of leukemia among A-Bomb survivors, Ishimaru et al. have fitted the function y a 0 + a 1 n + a 2 γ 2 where the a's are constants and n and γ the respective neutron and gamma doses. They find not only that this function fits the data well, although not significantly better than a straight line, but also that the best estimate of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for neutrons is 44n -1/2 . In the present paper we report our efforts to re-analyze ABCC-RERF data on a variety of late radiation effects in an effort to distinguish between neutron and gamma radiation more sharply than has been possible in the past. The effects examined include: chromosomal aberrations, small heads and mental retardation, leukemia, thyroid cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, lymphomas. The results of fitting various models will be reported. Goodness of fit will be examined and efforts will be made to derive RBE estimates. (author)

  20. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Honda, Takeo; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10 -4 per gamete per generation. (author)

  1. Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Schull, W.J.

    1988-05-01

    In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

  2. Solid Cancer Incidence among the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Brenner, Alina; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sakata, Ritsu; Sadakane, Atsuko; Utada, Mai; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Milder, Caitlin M; Soda, Midori; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up. A total of 80,205 subjects had individual dose estimates and 25,239 were not in either city at the time of the bombings. The follow-up period was 1958-2009, providing 3,079,484 person-years of follow-up. Cases were identified by linkage with population-based Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cancer Registries. Poisson regression methods were used to elucidate the nature of the radiation-associated risks per Gy of weighted absorbed colon dose using both excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models adjusted for smoking. Risk estimates were reported for a person exposed at age 30 years with attained age of 70 years. In this study, 22,538 incident first primary solid cancer cases were identified, of which 992 were associated with radiation exposure. There were 5,918 cases (26%) that occurred in the 11 years (1999-2009) since the previously reported study. For females, the dose response was consistent with linearity with an estimated ERR of 0.64 per Gy (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.77). For males, significant upward curvature over the full dose range as well as restricted dose ranges was observed and therefore, a linear-quadratic model was used, which resulted in an ERR of 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28) at 1 Gy and an ERR of 0.010 (95% CI: -0.0003 to 0.021) at 0.1 Gy. The shape of the ERR dose response was significantly different among males and females (P = 0.02). While there was a significant decrease in the ERR with increasing attained age, this

  3. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Agreement between death-certificate and autopsy diagnoses among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Carter, R.L.; Jablon, S.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-11-01

    Using the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation series of over 5000 autopsies, we examined death-certificate accuracy for several disease categories and assessed the effect of potential modifying factors on this accuracy. For 12 cause-of-death categories, the overall percent agreement between death-certificate and autopsy diagnoses was only 52.5%. Although neoplasms had the highest detection rate (on the death certificate) in the study, still almost 25% of cancers diagnosed at autopsy were missed on the death certificate. Only for neoplasms and external causes of death were confirmation and detection rates above 70%. Confirmation rates were between 50% and 70% for infectious and parasitic diseases and heart and other vascular diseases. Detection rates reached a similar level for infectious and parasitic, cerebrovascular, and digestive diseases. Specificity rates were above 90% for all but the cerebrovascular disease category. Overall agreement decreased with increasing age of the decedents and was lower for deaths occurring outside of hospital vs those occurring in a hospital. There was some suggestion that agreement rates were higher for more-recent deaths but no indication that radiation dose, sex, city of residence, or inclusion in a biennial clinical-examination program influenced agreement. Because the inaccuracy of death-certificate diagnoses can have major implications for many aspects of health research and planning, it is important to be aware that death-certificate accuracy is low and can vary widely depending on the patient's age at death and the place of death. (J.P.N.)

  5. About disturbances of the skin and other organs, detected in atomic bomb survivors who were irradiated within 1 km from the hypocenter of Hiroshima and were examined by the human dry dock, at the 41st year after bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Masanobu; Takemoto, Masao; Fujii, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    Hiroshima City Funairi Hospital has performed periodic medical examinations for 32,397 A-bomb survivors up to 1988. This is an analysis of 266 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m from the hypocenter. At the time of A-bombing, 41, 26, and 132 A-bomb survivors had sustained both burns and injuries, burns, and injuries, respectively. According to the exposure status, the incidence of burns in the presence of shielding was one fifth that in the absence of shielding. Medical examinations revealed the highest incidence of cardiovascular and endocrine diseases in the middle-aged or elderly people. According to malignancy, one had gastric cancer, and one had liver cancer. There was no correlation between the exposure distance and both disease incidence and contents. People participating in periodic medical examinations at short-term intervals had smaller number of diseases in every age group, as compared with those participating at long-term intervals. The significance of periodic medial examinations is discussed. (N.K.)

  6. Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Tomonaga, Yuu.

    1982-03-01

    The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

  7. Risk of death among children of atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Furukawa, Kyoji; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sadakane, Atsuko; Takahashi, Ikuno; Utada, Mai; Shimizu, Yukiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2015-10-01

    No clear epidemiological hereditary effects of radiation exposure in human beings have been reported. However, no previous studies have investigated mortality into middle age in a population whose parents were exposed to substantial amounts of radiation before conception. We assessed mortality in children of the atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed 75 327 singleton children of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and unexposed controls, born between 1946 and 1984, and followed up to Dec 31, 2009. Parental gonadal doses of radiation from the atomic bombings were the primary exposures. The primary endpoint was death due to cancer or non-cancer disease, based on death certificates. Median follow-up was 54·3 years (IQR 45·4-59·3). 5183 participants died from disease. The mean age of the 68 689 surviving children at the end of follow-up was 53·1 years (SD 7·9) with 15 623 (23%) older than age 60 years. For parents who were exposed to a non-zero gonadal dose of radiation, the mean dose was 264 mGy (SD 463). We detected no association between maternal gonadal radiation exposure and risk of death caused by cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 Gy change in exposure 0·891 [95% CI 0·693-1·145]; p=0·36) or risk of death caused by non-cancer diseases (0·973 [0·849-1·115]; p=0·69). Likewise, paternal exposure had no effect on deaths caused by cancer (0·815 [0·614-1·083]; p=0·14) or deaths caused by non-cancer disease (1·103 [0·979-1·241]; p=0·12). Age or time between parental exposure and delivery had no effect on risk of death. Late effects of ionising radiation exposure include increased mortality risks, and models of the transgenerational effects of radiation exposure predict more genetic disease in the children of people exposed to radiation. However, children of people exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had no indications of deleterious health effects after 62

  8. Report on the recently-updated study of cancer mortality in the A-bomb survivors: insights for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima has recently released an updated study of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (The LSS is believed to contain about one-half of the total number of survivors who were within 2.5 km of the hypocentre.) The update has considerably more statistical power than previous studies because of five more years of follow-up(1986-1990 inclusive) and because of adding 10.536 survivors for whom DS86 dose estimates recently became available. Together these add about 550.000 person-years of follow-up compared to the previous report, which covered mortality to the end of 1985. Moreover, about 25% of the excess solid cancer deaths have occurred in these last five years of follow-up. Since the LSS is the most important source of information about the risk of induced cancer in humans following acute radiation exposures, this paper first summarizes this important new information. This is a keystone of radiation risk assessment and therefore of our radiation protection history; one cannot make sense of the current controversy concerning linearity without understanding what this data says and doesn't say. This communication then moves into a discussion of what implications there may be from this updated information, in the context of current debates about whether the linear-no threshold model is an appropriate one for radiation protection use. (DM)

  9. Study of the titers of Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the sera of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Cologne, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus antigens were determined in the sera of 372 atomic bomb survivors to evaluate the effect of the previous radiation exposure on immune competence against the latent infection of the virus. The proportion of persons with high titers (≥ 1:40) of IgG antibodies to the early antigen was significantly elevated in the exposed survivors. Furthermore, the distribution of IgM titers against the viral capsid antigen was significantly affected by radiation dose with an increased occurrence of titers of 1:5 and 1:10 in the exposed persons, although the dose effect was only marginally suggestive when persons with rheumatoid factor were eliminated from the analysis. These results suggest that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the latent stage occurs more frequently in the survivors, even though this might not be affected by the radiation dose. Otherwise, there was neither an increased trend in the prevalence of high titers (≥ 1:640) of IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen among the exposed people nor a correlation between the radiation exposure and distributions of titers of IgA antibodies to the viral capsid antigen or antibodies to the anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. (author)

  10. Long term effects of radiation exposure on telomere lengths of leukocytes and its associated biomarkers among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Ana; Shterev, Ivo; Geyer, Susan; Shi, Alvin; Hu, Yiqun; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Maki, Mayumi; Hayashi, Ikue; Furukawa, Kyoji; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2016-06-28

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a major source of cellular damage and the immediate cellular response to IR has been well characterized. But the long-term impact of IR on cell function and its relationship with aging are not known. Here, we examined the IR effects on telomere length and other biomarkers 50 to 68 years post-exposure (two time points per person) in survivors of the atomic bombing at Hiroshima during WWII. We found that telomere length of leukocytes was inversely correlated with the dose of IR (p=0.008), and this effect was primarily found in survivors who were exposed at younger ages; specifically those <12 years old (p=0.0004). Although a dose-related retardation of telomere shortening with age was observed in the cross-sectional data, longitudinal follow-up after 11 years did not show IR exposure-related alteration of the rate of telomere shortening with age. In addition, IR diminished the associations between telomere length and selected aging biomarkers that were observed in survivors with no dose. These included uric acid metabolism, cytokines, and blood T cell counts. These findings showed long-lasting detrimental effects of IR on telomere length of leukocytes in both dose- and age-at-exposure dependent manner, and on alterations of biomarkers with aging.

  11. Age- and dose-related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Zhou, Ou-Liang; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kohno, Nobuoki; Akiba, Suminori; Delongchamp, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was remarkable in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T-cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that, in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function has started to involute allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who have adequate processing T-cell activity. (author)

  12. RET/PTC rearrangements preferentially occurred in papillary thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors exposed to high radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Ito, Reiko; Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Taga, Masataka; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John; Soda, Midori; Arihiro, Koji; Fujihara, Megumu; Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2008-09-01

    A major early event in papillary thyroid carcinogenesis is constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway caused by alterations of a single gene, typically rearrangements of the RET and NTRK1 genes or point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes. In childhood papillary thyroid cancer, regardless of history of radiation exposure, RET/PTC rearrangements are a major event. Conversely, in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer among the general population, the most common molecular event is BRAF(V600E) point mutation, not RET/PTC rearrangements. To clarify which gene alteration, chromosome aberration, or point mutation preferentially occurs in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer, we have performed molecular analyses on RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation in 71 papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors (including 21 cases not exposed to atomic bomb radiation), in relation to radiation dose as well as time elapsed since atomic bomb radiation exposure. RET/PTC rearrangements showed significantly increased frequency with increased radiation dose (P(trend) = 0.002). In contrast, BRAF(V600E) mutation was less frequent in cases exposed to higher radiation dose (P(trend) < 0.001). Papillary thyroid cancer subjects harboring RET/PTC rearrangements developed this cancer earlier than did cases with BRAF(V600E) mutation (P = 0.03). These findings were confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. These results suggest that RET/PTC rearrangements play an important role in radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis.

  13. Effect of aging on the competence for physical defence among A-bomb survivors, (11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Takata, Noboru; Fujimura, Kingo; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ito, Chikako.

    1984-01-01

    Thrombogenic factors were examined in relation to the frequency and progress of microangiopathy in 7 A-bomb exposed patients (age, 56+-13 years) and 52 non-exposed patients (age, 52+-15 years) who had diabetes mellitus. There was positive correlation between the duration of diabetes mellitus and plasminogen (Plg) levels, and negative correlation between blood platelet counts and fibrinogen (Fbg) levels in A-bomb exposed patients. However, these correlations were contradictory in non-exposed patients. Regarding the other coagulation factors, similar tendency was seen in both groups. The frequency of nephropathy and neuropathy tended to be low in only non-exposed patients who responded well to therapy. A-bomb exposed diabetic patients developing microangiopathy disclosed increased blood platelet counts, an increased mean platelet volume, high Fbg levels, low antithrombin III levels, low Plg levels, and low plasmin inhibitor levels. Increased adenosin diphosphate aggregation was more frequently observed in the following order: A-bomb exposed patients developing microangiopathy, non-exposed patients developing microangiopathy, and non-exposed patients without complications. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Incidence of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors belonging to a fixed cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Belsky, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation was examined in relation to age at the time of the bomb (ATB), calendar time, and type of leukemia over the period 1950-71. Confirmed cases of leukemia in the Leukemia Registry, a fixed cohort of 109,000 subjects and the T65 dose calculations provided the basis for the analysis. Calendar time was divided into three periods, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-26 years after the bombs. The larger the exposure dose and the younger the age ATB, the greater was the effect in the early period and the more rapid was the decline in risk in subsequent years. In the oldest group, aged 45 or over ATB, the increase in risk appeared later and was sustained in the period 1960-71. Chronic granulocytic leukemia contributed substantially to the total leukemogenic effect initially but made little contribution after 1955. Sensitivity to the leukemogenic effect of atomic radiation not only depended on age ATB but its expression varied by type of leukemia and with time after exposure. Although the effect of atomic radiation on the incidence of leukemia in the atomic survivors is now greatly reduced and apparently on the wane, in the period 1966-71 the incidence was still greater than expected, especially in Hiroshima. In the Nagasaki sample, no case of leukemia was observed among the high-dose subjects from July 1966 to the end of 1971. (author)

  15. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinogenesis in the atomic-bomb survivor population: p53 and PTCH gene alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Terumi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Kishikawa, Masao; Nakashima, Eiji; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Iwamoto, Keisuke S

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that UV exposure from sunlight is the major etiology for skin cancers, both melanocytic and non-melanocytic. However, the radiation-related risk for skin cancer among atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is primarily derived from the excess risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), with no demonstrable excess in squamous cell carcinoma or melanoma. The BCCs in this cohort are therefore unusual in being potentially attributable to two types of radiation-UV and ionizing (IR). BCCs have been associated with PTCH and/or p53 tumor suppressor gene alterations. To investigate the roles of these genes in relation to IR and UV exposures, we analyzed both genes in BCC samples from atomic bomb survivors. We examined 47 tumors, of which 70% had non-silent base-substitution p53 mutations independent of IR or UV exposure. However, the distribution of mutation type depends on UV and/or IR exposure. For example, C-to-T transitions at CpG sites adjacent to pyrimidine-pyrimidine (PyPy) sequences were more prevalent in tumors from UV-exposed than UV-shielded body areas and CpG-mutations at non-PyPy sequences were more prevalent in tumors from UV-shielded body areas with high-IR (>or=1 Gy) than low-IR (<0.2 Gy) exposure. And notably, although p53 deletion-frequencies demonstrated no IR-dose associations, deletions at the PTCH locus were more frequent (79% versus 44%) in tumors with high-IR than low-IR exposure. Moreover, 60% of high-IR tumors harbored both p53 and PTCH abnormalities compared with 23% of low-IR tumors. Therefore, alteration of both genes is likely to play a role in radiation-induced basal cell carcinogenesis.

  16. Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, I.M.; Guralnick, L.

    1979-10-01

    This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

  17. Atomic bomb irradiation-induced leukemias revisited. Summary data of 50 years-long term follow up study on survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Disease Inst.; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Preston, D.L.; Bennett, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) on 93,741 survivors (fixed cohort) and the Open City Study (OCS) on all survivors (unfixed) irrespective of whether they belonged to LSS or not, have been conducted in parallel over 45 years to ensure reliable case detection. We adopted the FAB classification for acute leukemias and for exposure dose of individual survivors, the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86). In LSS, 221 leukemia cases were analysed. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but not for adult T-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There was also significant difference between three major types with respect to the effects of age at bombing and sex, and in the temporal pattern of the elevated risks. For AML the dose response function was non-linear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for ALL and CML. The hypothesis of a 0.5 Gy threshold could be rejected for three major types of leukemia. Excess Absolute Risk (EAR) estimates in cases per 10,000 Person Year Sievert (PYSv) were 0.6, 1.1, 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding relative risk at 1.0 Sv were 9.1, 3.3, 6.2, respectively. Although childhood exposure <15 age at bombing apparently induced three major types, the age-related highest risk was observed for ALL. In OCS, 413 cases with DS86 estimates were used for analysis. Type specific incidence rates were calculated indirectly by using the over all incidence of leukemia from LSS data and multiplying these values by the corresponding proportions of cases in OCS. In conjunction with LSS data, the effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidences of ALL and CML than on that of AML. In the high dose group there was a strong evidence for shorter incubation time and faster decline of elevated risk for ALL and CML than for AML. AML risk was apparently persistent through 1980. (K.H.)

  18. Atomic bomb irradiation-induced leukemias revisited. Summary data of 50 years-long term follow up study on survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Preston, D.L.; Bennett, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) on 93,741 survivors (fixed cohort) and the Open City Study (OCS) on all survivors (unfixed) irrespective of whether they belonged to LSS or not, have been conducted in parallel over 45 years to ensure reliable case detection. We adopted the FAB classification for acute leukemias and for exposure dose of individual survivors, the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86). In LSS, 221 leukemia cases were analysed. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but not for adult T-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There was also significant difference between three major types with respect to the effects of age at bombing and sex, and in the temporal pattern of the elevated risks. For AML the dose response function was non-linear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for ALL and CML. The hypothesis of a 0.5 Gy threshold could be rejected for three major types of leukemia. Excess Absolute Risk (EAR) estimates in cases per 10,000 Person Year Sievert (PYSv) were 0.6, 1.1, 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding relative risk at 1.0 Sv were 9.1, 3.3, 6.2, respectively. Although childhood exposure <15 age at bombing apparently induced three major types, the age-related highest risk was observed for ALL. In OCS, 413 cases with DS86 estimates were used for analysis. Type specific incidence rates were calculated indirectly by using the over all incidence of leukemia from LSS data and multiplying these values by the corresponding proportions of cases in OCS. In conjunction with LSS data, the effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidences of ALL and CML than on that of AML. In the high dose group there was a strong evidence for shorter incubation time and faster decline of elevated risk for ALL and CML than for AML. AML risk was apparently persistent through 1980. (K.H.)

  19. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  20. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  1. A comparison between the risks of childhood leukaemia from parental exposure to radiation in the Sellafield workforce and those displayed among the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The cases of childhood leukaemia found near the Sellafield plant and those observed in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using a relative risk model. The leukaemia relative risk coefficients for total paternal (whole-body) pre-conception exposure for the Sellafield children are found to be about 50 to 80 times higher than the (gonadal) coefficients applying to the offspring of the bomb survivors. This difference is statistically significant, and in particular the risk coefficients for the Sellafield cohort are significantly positive, unlike those for the Japanese. If the assumption is made that the excess relative risk estimated from the Sellafield data lasts for the whole of the life of the offspring, the apparent population leukaemia risk to the first-generation offspring (for an England and Wales population) would be between 4% Sv -1 and 5% Sv -1 . (author)

  2. Report of a workshop on the application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A workshop, entitled 'application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of atomic-bomb survivors,' was held on November 12-14, 1991, which was presided over by Mortimer Mendelsohn and Toshiyuki Kumatori, co-chairmen of the RERF Scientific Council. The purpose of this workshop was to evaluate the status of the emerging DNA-oriented techniques for the study of mutation and to discuss possible developments that would bear upon the program. Although specific genetic follow-up studies of children of A-bomb survivors were addressed, it was clear to the participants that their discussions had much-wider implications -- most notably, the Chernobyl accidents of 1986. This report summarizes the contents of the lively 2.5-day meeting. A complete list of the invited participants is shown in the Appendix. (N.K.) 79 refs

  3. Comparisons of lung tumour mortality risk in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the Colorado Plateau uranium miners: support for the ICRP lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the ratio of risks for exposure to radon progeny relative to low-LET radiation based on human lung cancer data, taking account of possible time and age variations in radiation-induced lung cancer risk. Fitting two sorts of time- and age-adjusted relative risk models to a case-control dataset nested within the Colorado Plateau uranium miner cohort and to the Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivor mortality data. If all A-bomb survivors are compared with the Colorado data, there are statistically significant (two-sided p model with exponential adjustments for the effects of radiation for time since exposure and age at exposure, and 1.9 x 10(-2) Sv WLM(-1) (95% CI 6.2 x 10(-3), 1.6 x 10(-1)) using a model with adjustments for the effects of radiation proportional to powers of time since exposure and attained age. Estimates of the risk conversion factor calculated using variant assumptions as to the definition of lung cancer in the Colorado data, or by excluding miners for whom exposure estimates may be less reliable, are very similar. The absence of information on cigarette smoking in the Japanese A-bomb survivors, and the possibility that this may confound the time trends in radiation-induced lung cancer risk in that cohort, imply that these findings should be interpreted with caution. There are no statistically significant differences between the male A-bomb survivors data and the Colorado miner data in the pattern of variation of relative risk with time after exposure and age at exposure. The risk conversion factor is very close to the value suggested by the latest ICRP lung model, albeit with substantial uncertainties.

  4. Capsule summary of results of radiation studies on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1945-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, I.M.

    1978-04-01

    This is a summary in capsule form of the more significant findings of studies that have been conducted over the past 30 years. The growth and development in terms of height, weight, and head and chest circumferences were less for children in utero whose mothers were proximally exposed. Smaller head size and mental retardation appeared to be associated with radiation exposure. Mortality especially during infancy, was significantly higher among children exposed in utero, and increased with dose. Delayed effects of disease occurrence, particularly neoplasms, have been observed. Of special significance is the increased leukemia incidence with a clear-cut dose response relationship with the peak coming 6 years after exposure. Although the leukemia rates in the high dose groups have declined persistently from 1950 to 1972, they have not yet reached the level experienced by the general population. For the solid tumors, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, salivary gland tumors, breast cancer, cancer of the esophagus, stomach and the urinary tract, and lymphomas have been found to be associated with A-bomb radiation exposure. The latent period for the solid tumors appears to be less than 20 years. After a latent period of about 15 years, children who received 100 rad or more A-bomb radiation have begun to develop an excess of malignancies. Some 25 years or more after exposure, the accumulated increase of cancer is relatively high, with no indication that a peak has been reached. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations in survivors continue to persist, and the aberration frequency is, in general, proportional to the radiation dose received. To date, there is no evidence of a relationship between radiation dose and the other diseases. (author)

  5. Frequency of malignant tumors during the first two decades of life in the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Neel, J.V.; Kato, Hiroo; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Schull, W.J.; Soda, Midori; Eto, Ryozo.

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of cancer prior to age 20 has been determined in children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of childhood tumors such as retinoblastoma and Wilms' tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated using the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children whose parents' (one or both) DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom a dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of: 1) a cohort of 31,150 liveborn children, one or both of whose parents received ≥ 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the A-bombings (an average conjoint gonad exposure of 0.435 Sv), and 2) two suitable comparison groups, totaling 41,066 children. A total of 92 cancer cases at age less than 20 years was confirmed; 49 and 43 cases, respectively, in the 0 Sv and ≥ 0.01 Sv groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0 % to 5.0 % of the tumors of childhood observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. These is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings of Nomura in a mouse system. (author)

  6. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Setlow, R.B.; Bender, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and one man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X rays or to fission neutrons from a 252 Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S 0 = A[1-(1-e kD ) N ], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single-hit model, S/S 0 = Ae kD , fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. These was no difference in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups, or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that A-bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation. (author)

  8. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  9. A case of refractory anemia with chromosomal abnormality (5q-) in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Miyuki; Ikeda, Shuichi; Tomonaga, Yu; Sadamori, Naoki; Matsunaga, Masako

    1978-01-01

    Although assumed to be almost free from the effect of A-bomb radiation on the basis of the estimated dose, this case had progressive anemia with a specific manifestation and disclosed a clone with chromosomal abnormality (5q - ). In pure leukemia, a clone of abnormal chromosome is considered exactly that of leukemia. However, the presence of clones with chromosomal abnormality which are found in polycythemia vera or myelofibrosis do not always denote the leukemic changes. There is no established theory as to the significance of the clones with chromosomal abnormality in refractory anemia. Thus the interpretation of chromosomal abnormality in blood diseases is very difficult. Therefore analysis of chromosomes will be made actively in leukemia and related diseases as well as refractory anemia and preleukemia, and those will be compared in detail to search the relation between on occurrence of leukemia and chromosomal abnormality and also that between chromosomal abnormality and exposure to radiation. (Ueda, J.)

  10. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S.C.; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao.

    1988-01-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at ≤9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to ≥100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Report on the result of the eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Ishioka, Shinichi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kawano, Michimura; Sasaki, Yoshioki; Hirakami, Kojiro

    1999-05-01

    The atomic bomb survivors emigrating in the South America were 189 in total (160 in Brazil, 4 in Paraguay, 8 in Bolivia, 14 in Argentina and 3 in Peru) in November, 1998. Ninety-three persons (49%) took a medical examination (72 in Brazil, 3 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 9 in Argentina and 3 in Peru). The mean age was 68.6 years in male, and 68.1 years in female. They had hypertension (21.5%), diabetes (8.6%), cancer (6.5%), heart disease (5.4%), and thyroid gland diseases (4.3%). The subjective symptoms with high frequency were complete exhaustion or fatigue (58.1%), loss of vigor (55.9%), heat intolerance (49.5%) and numbness or tingling (47.1%). Electrocardiogram abnormality, total protein decrement, hypercholesterolemia and corpulence were almost the same as the last time. There was no change of a ratio of persons who needed tests on treatments. (K.H.)

  12. Report on the result of the eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Michiya; Ishioka, Shinichi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kawano, Michimura; Sasaki, Yoshioki; Hirakami, Kojiro

    1999-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors emigrating in the South America were 189 in total (160 in Brazil, 4 in Paraguay, 8 in Bolivia, 14 in Argentina and 3 in Peru) in November, 1998. Ninety-three persons (49%) took a medical examination (72 in Brazil, 3 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 9 in Argentina and 3 in Peru). The mean age was 68.6 years in male, and 68.1 years in female. They had hypertension (21.5%), diabetes (8.6%), cancer (6.5%), heart disease (5.4%), and thyroid gland diseases (4.3%). The subjective symptoms with high frequency were complete exhaustion or fatigue (58.1%), loss of vigor (55.9%), heat intolerance (49.5%) and numbness or tingling (47.1%). Electrocardiogram abnormality, total protein decrement, hypercholesterolemia and corpulence were almost the same as the last time. There was no change of a ratio of persons who needed tests on treatments. (K.H.)

  13. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  14. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  15. Exact solutions of the clonal expansion model and their application to the incidence of solid tumors of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, W.F.; Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    We derive explizit hazard functions for the clonal expansion model in the ''exact formulation'' and in the ''epidemiological approximation'' for the spontaneous rate and for short-time exposure. We investigate which combination of the biological parameters can be determined from the incidence function, and which cannot. We then analyze the incidence data of all solid tumors of atomic bomb survivors (1958-1987). We restrict ourselves to adults at exposure (>20 years) and to attained age <80 years, and we consider the two cities (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and the two sexes separately. With four parameters, we find good fits in each case, comparable to the quality of fit of epidemiological age-at-exposure and age-attained models used for comparison. The parameters which describe the spontaneous risk agree very well for the two cities, while they are quite different for the two sexes. The apparent flattening of the risk for elderly men can be described with the exact formulation of the clonal expansion model, but may be due to other causes than the mechanisms modeled. The dose-response parameters differ by more than two standard deviations (factor 2 to 3) between the two cities, when considering the same sex. They are bigger for the men of Nagasaki and the women of Hiroshima. One example for model application to tumors of specific organs (men's lung tumor) is considered. (orig.). With 15 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Kamada, Nanao; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Ito, Chikako.

    1976-01-01

    An actual condition of anemia in A-bomb survivors was discussed from the periodical health examination of the fiscal years 1972 and 1973. Under 11.5 g/dl of hemoglobin was determined as anemia. An actual number of cases with anemia in both fiscal years was nearly the same, but ratio of anemia to the total number of recipient of periodical health examination increased 1.9% in the fiscal year 1973. 35.3% of the subjects with anemia in both fiscal years was the same persons. In the following examination of 478 subjects with under 10.0 g/dl of hemoglobin, in the fiscal year 1972, 96 subjects (20.1%) still showed under 10.0 g/dl of hemoglobin in the fiscal year 1975. Characteristics of anemia were that hypochromic anemia was comparatively frequent in the young, and normochromic anemia was frequent in the aged. In the former, marked decrease of value of iron in serum was recognized, and in the latter, fall of hematopoiesis by old age and secondary anemia were recognized. Marked relationship between exposure distance and anemia in each group was not recognized. 17.9% of cases with moderate anemia showed positive in stool guaiac test and 8.9% and past history of duodenal or peptic ulcer. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    Status of leukopenia in a-bomb survivors was studied on 202 cases in which leukopenia (white cell count of below 3900) was recognized during successive 3 years in the periodical health examination of the fiscal years from 1973 to 1975. A white cell count of below 3900 was recogenized in about 4% of the total subjects of the year, and the half overlapped in other years. Incidence of leukopenia was higher in the aged, and there was not a marked difference according to the distance from the explosion center. As to a relationship to anemia, hemoglobin amount of below 11.5 g/dl was recognized in 98 of 202 cases, and aplastic anemia was recognized in 3 cases under medical treatment. Concerning a relationship to other disease, chronic liver dysfunction was recognized in 33 of 202 cases, and anemia, in 14 cases. As to classification of leukocyte, abnormality (neutrocytopenia, lymphocytosis) was not recognized in 70 of 202 cases. About a relationship to anemia and liver dysfunction in cases of lymphocytic abnormality, the incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction (23 of 33 cases of chronic liver dysfunction, 69.7%), and there was not difference between cases of anemia alone and cases without anemia and liver dysfunction (54 of 84 cases, 64.3%). The incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction and cases without anemia. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. A study on aging by physical measurements among female A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurihara, Minoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ikeuchi, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two women living in Hiroshima underwent physical measurements in 1970 and 1976. Those in the short-distance group (60) were directly exposed to the a-bomb within 1 km of the center of explosion. Those in the long-distance group (92) either were directly exposed over 3 km from the center of explosion, entered the city on or following the 4th day after the explosion, or nursed the exposed and disposed of the dead. Changes in physical measurement values were determined. Systolic pressure was more elevated and grasping power and vital capacity decreased more in the short-distance group than in the long-distance group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups. There were few other differences between the groups. Regarding those under the age of 29 at the time of exposure, the physiological age, estimated from physical abilities (8 items were measured), was about 1 year older than the actual age at the time of the investigation. However, as the actual age increased, the physiological age tended to greatly decrease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F[sub 1]) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F[sub 2]) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F[sub 1] fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F[sub 2] fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. (author).

  20. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F 1 ) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F 2 ) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F 1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F 2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F 1 and F 2 . (author)

  1. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kobuke, Kyoko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Jones, S.L.; Olson, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on the immune competence of man, the proportions of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (subpopulations) were determined by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence microscopy. The study was based on a total of 104 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima, including 29 individuals exposed to 100 + rad, 46 exposed to 1 - 99 rad, and 29 0 rad controls. No change in the proportion of Leu-1 positive cells (total T cells) and Leu-2a positive cells (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells) and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a was observed with age, while Leu-3a positive cells (helper/inducer T cells) decreased with age and HLA-DR positive cells (B cells and monocytes) increased with age, with the differences occurring predominantly in the oldest age group (age > 75). The proportion of HLA-DR positive cells was higher in males, but there was no significant sex difference in the proportions of other cell types and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. Radiation exposure did not significantly affect the proportions of Leu-1, Leu-2a, Leu-3a, and HLA-DR positive cells and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. No interaction between the effects of age and radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

  2. Brain abnormalities among the mentally retarded prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Nishitani, Hiromu; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Kobayashi, Takuro; Goto, Ikuo.

    1992-07-01

    An increased occurrence of severe mental retardation, with or without accompanying small head size, at specific gestational ages has been the most conspicuous effect on brain development of prenatal exposure to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A variety of biological mechanisms could be responsible for this finding, including cell killing and mismanaged neuronal migration. We describe here the findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the brains of five of these mentally retarded individuals, all of whom were exposed in the 8th through the 15th weeks following fertilization, the gestational period shown to be the most vulnerable to radiation-related damage. In the two cases exposed at the 8th or 9th week following fertilization, large areas of ectopic gray matter are seen, strong evidence of a failure of the neurons to migrate to their proper functional sites. The two individuals exposed in the 12th or 13th week show no readily recognized ectopic gray areas but do show mild macrogyria, which implies some impairment in the development of the cortical zone. Moreover, both have mega cisterna magna. Finally, the one individual seen who was exposed still later in development, in the 15th week, shows none of the changes seen in the other four individuals. This person's brain, though small, appears to have normal architecture. These findings are discussed in terms of the embryological events transpiring at the time of the prenatal exposure of these individuals to ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Masao; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Matsuo, Tatsuki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-03-01

    Characteristic features of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for CML in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. In the distribution of AML subtypes of FAB classification, there was no M3 cases in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral blood of proximal survivors. (author).

  4. Is the excess risk of childhood leukemia at Sellafield consistent with the experiences of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize briefly selected studies relevant to the difference between the apparent pre-conception radiation-associated leukemia risks in the offspring born in the area near the Sellafield plant and to the atomic bomb survivors. Although no doubt exists about the hypothesis that radiation damages the genetic material in reproductive cells, it is important to recognize how small the effect in the first generation would be based on the various genetic endpoints. Generally only a small fraction of leukemia cases are inherited -- the proportion among all spontaneous cases does not exceed 10 %. Because there is still uncertainty and controversy about the genetic effects of radiation, the possible complex confounding factors are also briefly mentioned. It is clear that the studies of the atomic bomb survivors are pertinent to the possible genetic effect due to radiation-induced mutations in the spermatogonia and oocytes while the observations in Sellafield are, as suggested by Gardner et al. pertinent to the in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. No significant effect of atomic bomb radiation can be shown on the risk of leukemia as well as other genetic effect endpoints, such as the frequency of mutations associated with specific proteins, cytogenetic abnormalities, survival, and so on. (author)

  5. The effect of changes in dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates in the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Pierce, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    In the spring of 1986, RERF received a new dosimetry system which was developed by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report presents the comparisons of leukemia and nonleukemia cancer mortality risk estimates under the old and new dosimetries. In terms of total kerma (essentially whole-body gamma-ray plus neutron exposure), the risk estimates for both types of cancer are 75 %-85 % higher with the new dosimetry. This and other summary comparisons here make some allowance for possible nonlinearity at high estimated doses. It is also important to consider the changes in relation to organ doses and assumptions about the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons. Without regard to RBE, the risk estimates for total organ dose are essentially unchanged by the dosimetry revision. However, with increasing assumed values of RBE, the estimated low-LET risk decreases much less rapidly under the new dosimetry, due to the smaller neutron component. Thus at an assumed constant RBE of 10, for example, the effect of the dosimetry revision is to increase organ dose risk estimates, relative to those based on the old dosimetry, by 30 % for nonleukemia and 80 % for leukemia. At an RBE of 20 these increases are 72 % and 136 %, respectively. A number of other issues are discussed. The city difference in dose-response is smaller with the new dosimetry, and is no longer statistically significant, even at an RBE of one. Estimation of RBE is even less feasible with the new dosimetry. There is substantial question of the linearity in dose-response, in the sense of a leveling off at higher doses. Finally, some indication is given of how estimated lifetime risks from this dosimetry may compare to widely-used estimates based largely on the RERF data with the previous dosimetry. (author)

  6. Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

    2011-03-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study.

  7. Mortality among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors, 1946-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Schull, W.J.; Kato, Hiroo; Neel, J.V.

    1991-03-01

    We compare deaths occurring in the years 1946-85 in a cohort of 31,159 children born to parents one or both of whom were exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, and received a combined (i.e., joint) gonadal dose of 0.01 Sv or more, with deaths in a comparable control group, totaling 41,069 children. The average combined gonadal dose equivalent for the exposed parents was 0.435 Sv. Gonadal doses were calculated using the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for whom a DS86 dose could not be computed for one or both parents. The mean age of living members of the cohorts was 28.8 years. When a linear relative risk model is fitted to the data, no statistically significant increase in the risk of mortality attributable to diseases other than neoplasms is noted following parental exposure, the excess relative risk being 0.030 (±0.046) per sievert based on the subset of individuals with DS86 doses, assuming the RBE of neutrons to be 20. For fatal cancer, in confirmation of an earlier report on cancer incidence below the age of 20 in this same group, again no statistically significant effect was observed as parental radiation dose increased. This model was also fitted to the data used in the relative risk estimate to provide some continuity with the past. The results give an intercept of 0.0420(±0.0015) and a linear regression coefficient of 0.00169 (±0.00157) per sievert. This leads to the calculation of a (statistically nonsignificant) excess relative risk of 0.040, in good agreement with the excess obtained by fitting the relative risk model. An analysis based on the full sample, using not only the DS86 dose group but also the ad hoc dose group, yields essentially the same result as the analysis restricted to the DS86 dose group. (J.P.N.)

  8. A longitudinal study of growth and development among prenatally exposed atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.; Izumi, Shizue.

    1994-05-01

    Growth retardation due to A-bomb exposure has been evaluated for 455 individuals with nine repeated measurements of stature at age 10-18 yr using growth curve analysis and either two covariates, Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) uterine absorbed dose and postovulatory age (weeks), or three covariates, DS86 uterine dose, DS86 uterine dose squared, and postovulatory age. Of the several comparisons made by city, sex, DS86 dose, and postovulatory age, the largest significant difference was found. However, on the basis of a linear-quadratic (L-Q) dose response, no significant difference was found. A highly significant growth retardation due to DS86 uterine absorbed dose was observed for all trimesters combined and for the first and second trimesters. In the first trimester, all parameter estimates based on a linear (L) or L-Q dose-response relationship were negative in relation to DS86 uterine absorbed dose. The parameter estimates in the second trimester were negative for a constant term and positive for an L or L-Q term. Radiation-related growth retardation at age 10-18 yr is clearly evident. The dose effect in the third trimester was not significant with either the L or the L-Q model. A growth analysis, based on an L dose-response relationship, was made for 704 and 838 children with four repeated measurements of stature from ages 10-13 and 15-18 yr, respectively. The retardation effect is clearly evident at age 10-13 and continues at age 15-18. Growth retardation in age 10-13 was highly significant for all trimesters combined but suggestive only for the first trimester. The group age 15-18 revealed a highly significant growth retardation for both the first and second trimesters. The relationship between birth weights and repeated measurements of stature in adolescence was discussed on the basis of the results obtained by a growth curve analysis. (J.P.N.)

  9. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Cullings, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy -1 (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  10. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R. [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany); Cullings, H.M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy{sup -1} (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  11. Dose-responses for mortality from cerebrovascular and heart diseases in atomic bomb survivors: 1950-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, Helmut; Eidemüller, Markus; Cullings, Harry M; Simonetto, Cristoforo; Neff, Frauke; Kaiser, Jan Christian

    2018-03-01

    The scientific community faces important discussions on the validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation-associated cardiovascular diseases at low and moderate doses. In the present study, mortalities from cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) and heart diseases from the latest data on atomic bomb survivors were analyzed. The analysis was performed with several radio-biologically motivated linear and nonlinear dose-response models. For each detrimental health outcome one set of models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. This set was used for multi-model inference (MMI), a statistical method of superposing different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. MMI provides a more accurate determination of the dose response and a more comprehensive characterization of uncertainties. It was found that for CeVD, the dose-response curve from MMI is located below the linear no-threshold model at low and medium doses (0-1.4 Gy). At higher doses MMI predicts a higher risk compared to the LNT model. A sublinear dose-response was also found for heart diseases (0-3 Gy). The analyses provide no conclusive answer to the question whether there is a radiation risk below 0.75 Gy for CeVD and 2.6 Gy for heart diseases. MMI suggests that the dose-response curves for CeVD and heart diseases in the Lifespan Study are sublinear at low and moderate doses. This has relevance for radiotherapy treatment planning and for international radiation protection practices in general.

  12. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates.

  13. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellnberger, H.; Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P. [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences, Neuherberg (Germany); Walsh, L. [BfS-Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates. (orig.)

  14. Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko.

    1982-03-01

    The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

  15. Carcinogenesis model analysis for breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors and the implications for cancer risk estimate for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is the highest risk due to radiation among atomic bomb survivors. The excess relative risk of the early-onset breast cancer seems to be remarkably high for the youngest age-at-exposure groups. The cancer risk estimate of breast cancer is a current issue in radiological protection. We used a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis to analyze the breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors (Kai, et al. Radiat. Res. 1997). Our purpose is to examine the dependence of radiation risk on age at exposure using the two-stage model and how to transfer it to other populations for radiological protection. We fitted the model assuming that radiation acts as an initiator and that the rate of radiation-induced mutation and background initiation mutation leading to baseline cancer are additive. We took two age-dependence, not attained age but age at exposure, of the spontaneous process into account. First, age-dependence of spontaneous initiation was expressed by a linear model. We also modeled the age-dependence of spontaneous net growth rate of initiated cells by a linear function. As far as radiation-induced initiation is concerned, we took a stepwise function other than a liner function into account. The analysis did not show that the radiation mutation for the youngest age-at-exposure groups below age 10 was higher than for the older groups. Furthermore, the incidence of female breast cancer in Japan is increasing and the birth cohort effect can be observed in atomic bomb survivors. Our model assumed that an acute exposure to atomic radiation can only initiate cancers and do not influence other stages of carcinogenesis, whereas spontaneous initiation and promotion are age-dependent to consider birth cohort effects. When these cohort effects are properly accounted for, the shape of the age-specific incidence curve in Japan is remarkably similar to the age-specific incidence in western populations (shown in figure). Recently Little and

  16. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  17. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  18. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  19. A study on social life and mental health of middle-aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors. Analysis of general health questionnaire (GHQ-30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuyuki; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Toriyama, Fumiko; Sugasaki, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological state of middle aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors was analyzed by GHQ, which had been done from September to November, 1992. Subjects were 1,399 Nagasaki survivors of the average age of 61.3 y and 1,054 non-irradiated people of 62.2 y living in the countryside of Nagasaki prefecture as the control. Analyses were performed with χ square method and t-test. When the subordinate measure derived from factor analysis of GHQ was compared with that of the control group, the score possibly attributable to anxiety reaction to the stress was significantly higher in the survivors. However, the two scores attributable to obstacle in personal relations and to avoidance of social activities were significantly lower, which suggested that the survivors are able to have rich personal and social interactions. Besides, it was suggested that the GHQ score was increased possibly by anxiety for the future in the essential part of life such as loss of feeling of healthiness and dissatisfaction for the present life conditions. It was confirmed that systematic and continuous examinations are necessary from the bio-psycho-social viewpoint. (H.O.)

  20. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  1. Lung, Laryngeal and Other Respiratory Cancer Incidence among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors: An Updated Analysis from 1958 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Grant, Eric; Brenner, Alina V; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Utada, Mai; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors is comprised of a large, population-based cohort offering one of the best opportunities to study the relationship between exposure to radiation and incidence of respiratory cancers. Risks of lung, laryngeal and other cancers of the respiratory system were evaluated among 105,444 LSS subjects followed from 1958 to 2009. During this period, we identified 2,446 lung, 180 laryngeal and 115 other respiratory (trachea, mediastinum and other ill-defined sites) first primary incident cancer cases. Ten additional years of follow-up, improved radiation dose estimates, revised smoking data, and updated migration information were used to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking using Poisson regression methods. For nonsmokers, the sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) for lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) was estimated as 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.18) with a female-to-male ratio of 2.83. There was no evidence of curvature in the radiation dose-response relationship overall or by sex. Lung cancer risks increased with pack-years of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Similar to the previously reported study, which followed cohort members through 1999, the ERR/Gy for lung cancer was significantly higher for low-to-moderate smokers than for heavy smokers, with little evidence of any radiation-associated excess risk in heavy smokers. Of 2,446 lung cancer cases, 113 (5%) could be attributed to radiation exposure. Of the 1,165 lung cancer cases occurring among smokers, 886 (76%) could be attributed to smoking. While there was little evidence of a radiation effect for laryngeal cancer, a nonsignificantly elevated risk of other respiratory cancers was observed. However, significant smoking effects were observed for both laryngeal (ERR per 50 pack-years = 23.57; 95% CI: 8.44, 71.05) and other respiratory cancers (ERR per 50

  2. Relative risks of radiation-associated cancer: comparison of second cancer in therapeutically irradiated populations with the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Thomas, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the radiation-associated relative risks of second primary cancer incidence in groups treated for first primary cancer by radiotherapy are compared with radiation-associated relative risk estimates in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence data. For four cancer sites, namely lung cancer, bone cancer, ovarian cancer and leukaemia, the relative risks in the comparable (age at exposure, time since exposure, sex matched) subsets of the Japanese data are significantly greater than those in the majority of second cancer studies. Even when the differences between the relative risks in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the medical series do not approach conventional levels of statistical significance, relative risks tend to be higher in the Japanese data than in the second cancer studies. At least for leukaemia, the discrepancy between the Japanese and second cancer risks can be largely explained by cell- sterilisation effects. There are few indications of modification of radiation-associated second cancer relative risk among those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, nor are there strong indications of modification of radiation- associated relative risk by heritable genetic factors. If anything, there is evidence that second cancer relative excess risks are lower among those patients with cancer-prone disorders than among non-susceptible patients. However, the higher underlying cancer risk in some of these medically exposed populations should also be considered, in particular for those with cancer-prone conditions, so that the absolute excess risk is sometimes higher than in the Japanese data. (orig.)

  3. An analysis of leukaemia, lymphoma and other malignancies together with certain categories of non-cancer mortality in the first generation offspring (F1) of the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Wakeford, R.; Charles, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The absence of any significant excess of childhood leukaemia in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors has provided strong evidence against a causal interpretation of the association between paternal preconception radiation dose and the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the offspring of employees at the Sellafield nuclear installation, West Cumbria. The use of the Japanese data has, however, been questioned on the basis that leukaemia cases may have been under-recorded in the years immediately following the bombings. In order to investigate possible misdiagnoses of leukaemia cases in the first generation offspring (F 1 ) of the Japanese bomb survivors, analyses have been undertaken of cases of leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and all other malignancies, together with deaths due to blood diseases, deaths due to infectious diseases and deaths from unknown causes. (author)

  4. Recent mortality statistics for distally exposed A-bomb survivors: The lifetime cancer risk for exposure under 50 cGy (rad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaum, R.H.; Belsey, R.E.; Koehnlein, W.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of mortality statistics from the most recent Life Span Study reports of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors (covering both the 1950-1982 and the 1950-1985 follow-up periods) indicates a significant difference (p < 0.001) in cancer mortality rates between two distally exposed groups of survivors with organ-absorbed radiation doses under 40 cSv. This implies a mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (exclusive of leukemias) of about 25 excess fatal cancers per 10,000 persons exposed to one additional cSv (rem) of ionizing radiation for persons who had been exposed to doses in the range 1-40 cSv above background levels. This risk value is independent of whether the original (T65DR) dosimetry assignments (choosing a value of 10 for the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons) or the new dosimetry estimates (DS86) are used. The present estimate of A-bomb survivor radiogenic cancer risk associated with low dose exposure was obtained directly from the observed cancer deaths in the low-dose exposure groups without reliance on model-dependent extrapolation from high-dose data. This low-dose risk estimate is about ten times larger than the risk estimates adopted previously by national and international radiation commissions as a basis for current radiation safety guidelines for workers and the general public. (author)

  5. A tale of two studies of two disasters: comparing psychosocial responses to disaster among Oklahoma City bombing survivors and Hurricane Katrina evacuees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S

    2010-08-01

    An accumulation of disaster mental health research literature in the last few decades has contributed knowledge to direct disaster mental health interventions. However, no single set of principles can necessarily outline all anticipated mental health needs to be encountered in a particular disaster. To illustrate how different disaster scenarios may yield a divergence of mental health needs, this article compares mental health findings from two distinctly different studies of two very different populations affected by two very different disasters: directly exposed survivors the Oklahoma City bombing and sheltered evacuees from Hurricane Katrina. Research on the two disasters reviewed illustrates many facets and complexities of postdisaster mental health needs in different populations in different settings after different types of disasters. The major findings of the Oklahoma City bombing study related to posttraumatic stress disorder and the main findings of the Hurricane Katrina study involved need for treatment of preexisting chronic mental health and substance abuse problems. The disaster studies in this review diverged in type of disaster, affected populations, setting, and timing of the study, and these studies yielded a divergence of findings. One disaster mental health model clearly cannot adequately describe all postdisaster scenarios.

  6. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.

  7. Participation in leisure activities after stroke: A survey of community-residing stroke survivors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace; Blasu, Cephas

    2016-01-01

    Leisure provides pleasure and relaxation, and has health benefits even after a stressful and life-changing event such as a stroke. This study examined leisure participation among a sample of community-residing stroke survivors in Nigeria. Fifty-five stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation were consecutively recruited from two government hospitals in Northern Nigeria. Data on pre- and post-stroke participation, and socio-demographic (age, sex, marital, employment, and educational status) and clinical (level of disability, post-stroke duration, stroke type and side of hemiplegia/hemiparesis) attributes of the stroke survivors were obtained. Leisure participation was assessed in four domains of recreational, social, cognitive, and productive/creative activities. Associations between leisure participation and the socio-demographic and clinical variables were examined using bivariate analysis. Mean (SD) age of the stroke survivors was 53.55 (14.39) years. Prevalence of leisure participation was 89.1%. Participation in specific leisure domains however varied thus: social (83.6%), cognitive (60%), recreational (41.8%), productive/creative activities (30.9%). Significant associations were observed between participation in cognitive, productive/creative, and recreational leisure activities, and specific socio-demographic and clinical attributes. Leisure participation was high in a general sense but marginal in recreational and productive/creative activities. The observed socio-demographic and clinical associations with post-stroke leisure participation may assist in providing effective leisure rehabilitation strategies.

  8. A search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of proximally and distally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hamilton, H.B.; Otake, Masanori; Goriki, Kazuaki; Kageoka, Takeshi; Fujita, Mikio; Neriishi, Shotaro; Asakawa, Jun-ichi.

    1981-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests based on 28 different protein phenotypes, employing one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of 'proximally exposed' parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure dose of between 31 and 39 rem from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of 'distally exposed' parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure. (author)

  9. Autopsy findings of human fetuses of descendant (F1, F2) of the A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Hori, Hiroshi; Ito, Akihiro

    1990-01-01

    An analysis was made of autopsy population of human fetuses and neonates (652 cases for F 1 and 115 cases for F 2 ) obtained from A-bomb exposed and non-exposed groups. In a study of delivery mode, the incidence of abnormal findings, including congenital anomaly, was found higher in the group of spontaneous delivery than the group of artificial delivery. Anomaly of the heart or great vessels was the most common, followed by anomaly of the central nervous system and urinary system in both F 1 and F 2 groups. Abnormal findings in the group of spontaneous delivery were observed in a total of 148 cases. For evaluable 32 cases in which the exposure distance was confirmed, these abnormalities were not related to distance from the hypocenter. Anomaly in this group was seen in 74 cases, in which autosomal dominant inheritance had induced chondrodystrophy (two cases) and polycystic kidney disease (one). For F 2 , anomaly was observed in 22 cases in the group of spontaneous delivery. Polycystic kidney disease was seen in each one case exposed at ≤2,000 m or 2,000-4,000 m from the hypocenter. The incidence of other anomalies was independent of exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure to A-bombing. Nor was correlation between the incidence of macerated fetuses and exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure. (N.K.)

  10. A preliminary study measuring the number of T-cell receptor-rearrangement excision circles (TRECs) in peripheral blood T-cell populations of A-bomb survivors and control populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2006-01-01

    More than a half century after damage of the immune systems by the radiation from A-bomb, we can still observe significant decreases in the percentages of naieve CD4 and CD8 T cells among the survivors. To investigate whether the observed decreases in the naieve T-cell populations may have resulted from reduction in thymic T-cell production ability of survivors, we established a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to examine the number of T-cell receptor-rearrangement excision circles (TRECs) in peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations. The real-time PCR quantitatively detected TREC sequences with a good reproducibility in human laboratory controls. In the 445 survivors so far been examined, multiple regression analysis indicated that the number of TRECs in the CD4 T-cell fraction was significantly higher in females than in males and decreased significantly with age in both males and females. This analysis also suggested a possible dose-dependent decrease in the number of TRECs in the CD4 T-cell fraction of the survivors who were less than 20 years of age at the time of bombing (p=0.09). A similar statistically significant trend for gender difference or age was observed in the CD8 T-cell fraction of the survivors. However, there was no effect of radiation exposure on the number of TRECs in the CD8-T cell fraction. The results indicate the possibility that A-bomb radiation exposure may have induced a long-term impairment in thymic CD4 T-cell production. Further investigations in a larger study population are necessary to test this hypothesis. (author)

  11. A clinicopathological study on gastric cancer of the atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, by autopsy cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Osamu; Yoshida, Kuniko; Nakatani, Akira; Nakano, Masato.

    1986-01-01

    Autopsy findings of gastric cancer were examined in 265 patients consisting of those exposed at ≤ 2,000 m from the hypocenter (group 1), those exposed at > 2,000 m or those entering the city after the bombing (group 2), and non-exposed controls (group 3). The largest number of patients was in their sixties and seventies, irrespective of exposure status. Overall, the ratio of men to women was 1.6 : 1. The incidence of gastric cancer decreased up to 1975 in all groups. Thereafter, it began to increase, especially in group 1. The most common site of cancer was the pyloric antrum in all groups. Histologically, poorly differentiated type was observed most frequently in group 1; however, this was not statistically significant. Multiple primaries, which were unlikely to be related to exposure, were observed in 22 autopsy cases. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4. Combined analysis of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S.C.; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao.

    1988-03-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at less than or equal to9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. RELATIVE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUTRONS DERIVED FROM THE EXCESS RELATIVE RISK MODEL WITH THE ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS DATA MANAGED BY HIROSHIMA UNIVERSITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kenichi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2017-09-23

    According to an analysis of the Life Span Study cohort data conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the sex-averaged excess relative risk (ERR) of all solid cancers was 0.42 Gy-Eq-1. On the other hand, analysis of the atomic bomb survivors (ABS) cohort data at Hiroshima University indicated the ERR value was 0.28 Gy-Eq-1 in Hiroshima. In both cases, initial radiation doses were derived from the dosimetry system DS02, in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was assumed to be a constant value of 10. To clarify the validity of the RBE, the authors investigated the possibility of different contributions of neutrons by using the ABS. Although there were no statistically significant differences among the estimated value of RBE (=65) and the ordinal value (=10), the corresponding ERR decreased by 30%, which might affect the interpretation of radiation health assessments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M. and others

    1988-06-01

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure.

  15. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure. (author)

  16. Bone mineral density of the spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Masuko; Kohno, Tsuneaki; Morikawa, Akira [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Casualty Council (Japan); Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa

    1996-03-01

    Bone mineral density, a risk factor for osteoporosis, of the spine of 3,414 survivors was measured using Hologic QDR2000 DEXA apparatus. Decrease of the density was shown correlated with age and was statistically significant in forties and fifties as compared with other ages. No significance was seen between the density and the distance of irradiation. Menopause, fracture, experience for osteoporosis examination and that for its treatment were significantly correlated with the density decrease. No significance was observed in meals, exercise and sunlight exposure. High significance (p<0.01) was detected in coffee and alcohol intakes. In groups having twice examinations, no significance was seen between changes in the density and in the meals, exercise and go-out period. (H.O.)

  17. Bone mineral density of the spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Masuko; Kohno, Tsuneaki; Morikawa, Akira; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa.

    1996-01-01

    Bone mineral density, a risk factor for osteoporosis, of the spine of 3,414 survivors was measured using Hologic QDR2000 DEXA apparatus. Decrease of the density was shown correlated with age and was statistically significant in forties and fifties as compared with other ages. No significance was seen between the density and the distance of irradiation. Menopause, fracture, experience for osteoporosis examination and that for its treatment were significantly correlated with the density decrease. No significance was observed in meals, exercise and sunlight exposure. High significance (p<0.01) was detected in coffee and alcohol intakes. In groups having twice examinations, no significance was seen between changes in the density and in the meals, exercise and go-out period. (H.O.)

  18. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Goriki, Kazuaki; Asakawa, Jun-ichi; Fujita, Mikio; Takahashi, Norio; Kageoka, Takeshi; Hazama, Ryuji.

    1990-04-01

    A sample of children whose parents were proximally exposed at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (i.e., within 2,000 m of the hypocenter) and a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. Combining these two series, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed is thus 0.60 x 10 -5 /locus/generation, with 95 % confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10 -5 , and in the comparison children, 0.64 x 10 -5 /locus/generation, with 95 % intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10 -5 . The average conjoint gonad doses of the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. Assigning a relative biological effectiveness of 20 to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose of the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (author)

  19. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: a study 30 years after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Isao; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Sato, Kenshi; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, Sadahisa; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1986-08-01

    A study of individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were under 20 years of age at the time of atomic bomb exposure and who had been exposed to 100+ rad was conducted to determine the frequency of thyroid disorders as well as the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), antithyroglobulin antibody, and thyroglobulin (TG), 30 years after exposure. Thyroid disorders were detected in 56 of the 477 subjects of the 100+ rad exposed group and in 39 of the 501 subjects of the 0 rad exposed group, the prevalence being significantly higher in the former group (X 2 = 3.872, P = 0.049). This increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the 100+ rad exposed group was due to the increased occurrence of thyroid cancer and nontoxic uninodular goiter. Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed individuals, all of whom belonged to the 100+ rad group; statistically, the prevalence was significantly higher (X 2 = 7.919, P = 0.005). Nontoxic uninodular goiter was observed in 13 cases of the 100+ rad exposed group and 3 cases of the 0 rad exposed group, the prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group being significantly higher (X 2 = 6.584, P = 0.010). In these cases no increase of serum TSH or TG levels was observed. Mean serum TSH levels in individuals without thyroid disorders were 1.64 ± 1.89 μU/ml (n = 421) in the 100+ rad exposed group and 1.54 ± 1.86 μU/ml (n = 462) in the 0 rad exposed group. Mean serum TG levels were 13.49 ± 13.88 ng/ml (n = 421) in the 100+ rad exposed group and 14.76 ± 15.69 ng/ml (n = 462) in the 0 rad exposed group. Thus, these differences between the two groups were not significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between the 100+ rad and 0 rad exposed groups in the mean serum TSH and TG levels of the subjects who had thyroid diseases but had not been treated for the diseases, and the subjects who had no thyroid diseases. (J.P.N.)

  20. First response, rehabilitation, and outcomes of hand and upper limb function: survivors of the bali bombing disaster. A case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Dale Wesley; Wood, F; Goodwin-Walters, A

    2006-01-01

    In October 2002, two bombs exploded in Bali injuring hundreds, and killing 202 people. The purpose of this paper is to report the organization of the first response, rehabilitation strategies, and outcome of a series of patients evacuated to the Royal Perth Hospital (RPH), a civilian hospital in Australia. The initial medical response in Bali was primarily conducted by holidaying health professionals supporting the hospital on the island. The Australian Defence Force was primarily responsible for the ongoing acute clinical management during the evacuation and repatriation of survivors to all major burn units in Australia. At the RPH, hospital adaptations included novel staffing and treatment strategies to sustain a team effort beyond the acute phase of the disaster to manage the surge of 28 patients (15% of yearly admissions) in 7 days. Data collected were related to service delivery and patient outcomes (shoulder active range of motion, grip strength, and the Burns Specific Health Scale). Data were compared to baseline, similar data collected during normal practice and population norms. Bali patients received 3.2% more therapy treatment sessions and 6.8% less contact hours than usual protocols. Shoulder AROM recovered to normal limits by 3 months postdischarge. Grip strength for women was shown to reach population norms by 1 month after discharge and by 6 months for males. Self-rated physical recovery exceeded major burn population norms at 6 months postdischarge. Physical therapy outcome measures demonstrated upper limb recovery as usual in the Bali group, despite a mass casualty situation. To achieve this required support from the multidisciplinary team, in combination with community, government, and hospital administrative assistance.

  1. A comparison of the risk of stillbirth associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation in the Sellafield workforce with that of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome among Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison is made of the relative risks associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome (stillbirths, congenital malformations, neonatal deaths) in the offspring of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers. It is concluded that the pre-conception exposure risks of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers are statistically incompatible with the Japanese data at the 5% level. Other human and experimental data relating to the induction of congenital abnormalities are briefly reviewed. (author)

  2. Increased frequency of CD4{sup -}8{sup -}T cells bearing T-cell receptor {alpha}{beta} chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoichiro Kusunoki; Seishi Kyoizumi; Yuko Hirai; Shoichiro Fujita; Mitoshi Akiyama [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4{sup -z}8{sup -}{alpha}{beta} cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4{sup -}8{sup -} T cells in peripheral-blood {alpha}{beta} T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4{sup -}8{sup -}{alpha}{beta} T-cell decreased significantly with the subject`s age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Independent analysis of the radiation risk for leukaemia in children and adults with mortality data (1950-2003) of Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Jan Christian [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    A recent analysis of leukaemia mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors has applied descriptive models, collected together from previous studies, to derive a joint excess relative risk estimate (ERR) by multi-model inference (MMI) (Walsh and Kaiser in Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011). The models use a linear-quadratic dose response with differing dose effect modifiers. In the present study, a set of more than 40 models has been submitted to a rigorous statistical selection procedure which fosters the parsimonious deployment of model parameters based on pairwise likelihood ratio tests. Nested models were consequently excluded from risk assessment. The set comprises models of the excess absolute risk (EAR) and two types of non-standard ERR models with sigmoidal responses or two line spline functions with a changing slope at a break point. Due to clearly higher values of the Akaike Information Criterion, none of the EAR models has been selected, but two non-standard ERR models qualified for MMI. The preferred ERR model applies a purely quadratic dose response which is slightly damped by an exponential factor at high doses and modified by a power function for attained age. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study reports similar point estimates and confidence intervals (CI) of the ERR from MMI for doses between 0.5 and 2.5 Sv. However, at lower doses, the point estimates are markedly reduced by factors between two and five, although the reduction was not statistically significant. The 2.5 % percentiles of the ERR from the preferred quadratic-exponential model did not fall below zero risk in exposure scenarios for children, adolescents and adults at very low doses down to 10 mSv. Yet, MMI produced risk estimates with a positive 2.5 % percentile only above doses of some 300 mSv. Compared to CI from a single model of choice, CI from MMI are broadened in cohort strata with low statistical power by a combination of risk extrapolations from several models

  4. Independent analysis of the radiation risk for leukaemia in children and adults with mortality data (1950-2003) of Japanese A-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    A recent analysis of leukaemia mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors has applied descriptive models, collected together from previous studies, to derive a joint excess relative risk estimate (ERR) by multi-model inference (MMI) (Walsh and Kaiser in Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011). The models use a linear-quadratic dose response with differing dose effect modifiers. In the present study, a set of more than 40 models has been submitted to a rigorous statistical selection procedure which fosters the parsimonious deployment of model parameters based on pairwise likelihood ratio tests. Nested models were consequently excluded from risk assessment. The set comprises models of the excess absolute risk (EAR) and two types of non-standard ERR models with sigmoidal responses or two line spline functions with a changing slope at a break point. Due to clearly higher values of the Akaike Information Criterion, none of the EAR models has been selected, but two non-standard ERR models qualified for MMI. The preferred ERR model applies a purely quadratic dose response which is slightly damped by an exponential factor at high doses and modified by a power function for attained age. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study reports similar point estimates and confidence intervals (CI) of the ERR from MMI for doses between 0.5 and 2.5 Sv. However, at lower doses, the point estimates are markedly reduced by factors between two and five, although the reduction was not statistically significant. The 2.5 % percentiles of the ERR from the preferred quadratic-exponential model did not fall below zero risk in exposure scenarios for children, adolescents and adults at very low doses down to 10 mSv. Yet, MMI produced risk estimates with a positive 2.5 % percentile only above doses of some 300 mSv. Compared to CI from a single model of choice, CI from MMI are broadened in cohort strata with low statistical power by a combination of risk extrapolations from several

  5. Dose-response relationship of leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors and their controls by absorbed marrow dose and two types of leukemia Hiroshima and Nagasaki, October 1950 - December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Otake, Masanori; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of the relationship of the incidence of leukemia to gamma and neutron dose among atomic bomb survivors until 1971 has been reported previously by RERF. The present inquiry was prompted by the extension of case finding to 1978 and by the recent availability of new dose estimates for this fixed cohort. It is focused on the relationship of absorbed marrow dose of gamma rays and neutrons to the incidence of two types of leukemia in the fixed cohort of A-bomb survivors and their controls, the Life Span Study extended sample, in the period October 1950-December 1978. Three dose-response models have been fitted to the data on acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. The relationship of the incidence of acute leukemia to gamma and neutron dose again suggests that the ''best'' fitting model involves a dependence on the square of the gamma dose and a linear dependence on neutrons. The estimated relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in the induction of acute leukemia is approximately 44/√Dn(Dn = neutron dose) under this model. Based on the 95% confidence limits of the estimated RBE, the risk of this disease is estimated as 0.0026 - 0.0072 cases per million person-years per rem 2 of marrow dose. This analysis has failed, however, to produce a significant dose-response function for the incidence of chronic granulocytic leukemia in relation to the two kinds of radiation. (author)

  6. Unmet supportive care needs of haematological cancer survivors: rural versus urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Flora; Paul, Christine L; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W; Campbell, H Sharon; Bradstock, Kenneth; Carey, Mariko L; Williamson, Anna

    2018-03-10

    Due to fewer cancer services in rural locations, rural survivors may have unique unmet needs compared to urban survivors. This study compared among rural and urban haematological cancer survivors the most common "high/very high" unmet supportive care needs and the unmet need scores for five domains (information, financial concerns, access and continuity of care, relationships and emotional health). Survivors' socio-demographics, rurality, cancer history and psychological factors associated with each unmet need domain were also explored. A total of 1511 haematological cancer survivors were recruited from five Australian state cancer registries and 1417 (1145 urban, 272 rural) allowed extraction of their residential postcode from registry records. A questionnaire that contained the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey was mailed to survivors. Dealing with feeling tired was the most common "high/very high" unmet need for rural (15.2%) and urban (15.5%) survivors. The emotional health domain had the highest mean unmet need score for rural and urban survivors. Rurality was associated with a decreased unmet emotional health domain score whereas travelling for more than 1 h to treatment was associated with increased unmet financial concerns and unmet access and continuity of care. Depression, anxiety and stress were associated with increased unmet need scores for all five domains. Unmet need domain scores generally did not differ by rurality. Travelling for more than 1 h to treatment was associated with increased unmet need scores on two domains. Telemedicine and increased financial assistance with travel and accommodation may help those travelling long distances for treatment.

  7. 75 FR 78806 - Agency Information Collection (Residency Verification Report-Veterans and Survivors) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... service-connected compensation benefits and survivors receiving service connected death benefits at the... direction of the Secretary: Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. BILLING CODE 8320-01...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for depressive reaction among resident survivors after the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Matsubara

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a gigantic tsunami which devastated coastal areas of northern Japan on 11 March 2011. Despite the large number of 'resident survivors' who continued to reside in their damaged houses on the second or upper floors, research on the mental health of these individuals has been limited. This study explored the prevalence of depressive reaction and risk factors for depressive reaction among these resident survivors.A cross-sectional household health support needs screening was conducted for resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi prefecture, two to four months after the tsunami. The health interview that was conducted including mental status, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2.Of 5,454 respondents, 8.1% had depressive reaction. After adjustment by the number of weeks from the tsunami and the mortality rate at each respondent's place of residence, depressive reaction was significantly associated with house flooding below or above the ground floor (odds ratios of 1.92, 2.36, respectively, the unavailability of gas supply (odds ratio, 1.67, being female (odds ratio, 1.47, middle aged or elderly (odds ratios of 2.41, 2.42, respectively, regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s since before the tsunami (odds ratio, 2.53 and the presence of one to five or more than six cohabiters (odds ratios of 0.61, 0.52, respectively.The results suggest a considerable psychological burden (depressive reaction following the tsunami among resident survivors. Special supports for families with psychiatric problems need to be considered among resident survivors. Restoration of lifeline utilities and the strengthening of social ties of persons living alone may help prevent depressive reaction among resident survivors after a tsunami.

  9. The risks of leukaemia and non-cancer mortality in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors and a comparison of leukaemia risks with those in the offspring of the Sellafield workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of leukaemia and mortality from various causes other than cancer observed in offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using linear and exponential forms of a relative risk model. Relative risk coefficients for leukaemia as a function of total pre-conception dose in the offspring of the Japanese and those for children of the Sellafield workforce are compared, and statistically significant differences are found. The statistical significance of these differences is no less marked if attention is restricted to those born before the end of 1950 in the Japanese cohort; therefore it is unlikely that the differences between the preconception irradiation leukamia risks in the Japanese and Sellafield datasets are a result of different distributions of parental ages at exposure in the two groups, or of different lengths of time between exposures of spermatogonia and conception. (Author)

  10. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. Spatial consideration of black rainfall region using geographical information system and based on witness of A-bomb survivors and newspaper articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuya; Satoh, Kenichi; Shimamoto; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    The black rainfall area after the A-bomb explosion was investigated using informational materials in the title because orographic precipitate is important for radioactive substances to spread. Witnesses were collected from questionnaires about exposure done by Asahi Newspapers (Apr., 2005) and by Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations (Nov., 1985-Mar., 1986); from Newspaper Data Base in Hiroshima University about articles concerning A-bomb, exposure and black rain; and about geography, from National Digital Cartographic Data Base of Geographical Survey Institute. Geographical Information System was used for identifying the valley and ridge to plot the keywords about the above exposure, black rain and so on. It was found that black rain was experienced in Hiroshima City alone whereas witness of seeing the mushroom cloud was obtained at many places nearby around the City, suggesting the biased black rainfall region within the City. Particularly, when the black rain witnesses in the City were summing up for each region, they were found biased in the west to northern west areas of the hypocenter, that were downwind of the first ridge from the explosion site. Thus the black rainfall was found localized western to northern western from the hypocenter, which was thought to be further confirmed by other evidence like soil analysis. (T.T.)

  12. A case of generalized morphoea occurring in an A-bomb survivor and about it's course cured by negative electric charge therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofuji, Michio

    1986-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with generalized morphaea was exposed to A-bomb within a wooden house at 1,100 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima at the age of 25 years. Subcutaneous hemorrhage-like erythema occurred in the left leg two years after exposure, and spread over the bilateral legs. Electric charge therapy was performed twice a day. In addition to improvement of her general symptoms, the glossy, dried, atrophied, sclerotic skin lesions became soft, moist, and smooth. Swelling of the legs and seven ulcerated sites healed, leaving scars. These findings suggest the potential physiological benefits of this therapy. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Biologically based analysis of lung cancer incidence in a large Canadian occupational cohort with low-LET low-dose radiation exposure, and comparison with Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.D.; Curtis, S.B.; Moolgavkar, S.H.; Hutchinson, F.; Krewski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g. initiation with one or more stages, clonal expansion, or malignant conversion. Fixed lag or lag distributions are used to model time from first malignant cell to incidence. Background rates are analyzed by gender, job classification and birth cohort. Lacking individual smoking data, surrogate doses based on US annual per capita cigarette consumption appear to account for much of the birth cohort effect. Males, with mean cumulative exposure for gamma and tritium of 11.5 mSv and 322 incident lung cancer cases have a significant dose-response with 33 cases attributable to radiation. Female dose-response, with mean cumulative exposure of 1.7 mSv and 78 incident cases, appears similar but is not statistically significant. Findings for males include an inverse-dose-rate effect (increased risk with protraction of a given dose) and dose-response effects on initiation, promotion and malignant conversion, although the effect on initiation is not statistically significant. The excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) depend on age at exposure, duration, dose, and age at follow-up. The ERR increases with dose, tapering off at higher doses, making a plot of ERR against dose concave-downward, similar to apparent low-dose results seen below 1 Sv for solid tumor mortality of atomic bomb survivors. The concave-downward trend of ERR and the inverse-dose-rate effect are both counter to prevailing beliefs about effects of low

  14. Falls among community-residing stroke survivors following inpatient rehabilitation: a descriptive analysis of longitudinal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunsaker Amanda E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke victims are at relatively high risk for injurious falls. The purpose of this study was to document longitudinal fall patterns following inpatient rehabilitation for first-time stroke survivors. Methods Participants (n = 231 were recruited at the end of their rehab stay and interviewed monthly via telephone for 1 to 32 months regarding fall incidents. Analyses were conducted on: total reports of falls by month over time for first-time and repeat fallers, the incidence of falling in any given month; and factors differing between fallers and non fallers. Results The largest percentage of participants (14% reported falling in the first month post-discharge. After month five, less than 10% of the sample reported falling, bar months 15 (10.4% and 23 (13.2%. From months one to nine, the percentage of those reporting one fall with and without a prior fall were similar. After month nine, the number of individuals who reported a single fall with a fall history was twice as high compared to those without a prior fall who reported falling. In both cases the percentages were small. A very small subset of the population emerged who fell multiple times each month, most of whom had a prior fall history. At least a third of the sample reported a loss of balance each month. Few factors differed significantly between fallers and non-fallers in months one to six. Conclusion Longitudinal data suggest that falls most likely linked to first time strokes occur in the first six months post discharge, particularly month one. Data routinely available at discharge does not distinguish fallers from non-fallers. Once a fall incident has occurred however, preventive intervention is warranted.

  15. The influence of follow-up on DS02 low-dose ranges with a significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer in the Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda; Schneider, Uwe [University of Zuerich, Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Determinations of the lowest colon dose, D{sub min}, below which there is a statistically significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer, when analyses are restricted to the range [0, D{sub min}], are of current interest in research related to radiation protection and risk assessment. In reviewing recent cancer mortality reports on the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors, reported D{sub min} values were found to vary between different reports. The report 12 (follow-up: 1950-1990) found a D{sub min} of 50 mGy, but the most recent report 14 (follow-up: 1950-2003) found a D{sub min} of 200 mGy. There were small dosimetry changes between report 12, which used DS86, and report 14, which used DS02, but these changes are unlikely to account for a difference in D{sub min} of a factor of 4. This short communication examines the reasons for this difference in D{sub min} by presenting further investigations into D{sub min} using different trial values for D{sub min} and various follow-up time spans, all with the same DS02 dosimetry. Magnitudes of the low-dose risks in different dose ranges are also presented. It is shown here that the main influence on D{sub min} comes from the length of follow-up and a D{sub min} of 50 mGy may also be obtained with the most recent LSS mortality data and DS02, if a restricted follow-up is analyzed. A systematic trend was evident of lower D{sub min} values for earlier mortality follow-up periods, consistent with information from earlier LSS reports. Although it may seem surprising that the D{sub min} increases with longer follow-up and better statistics, this systematic trend appears to be a consequence of decreasing mortality risks with longer follow-up, even though the error bars on the risks are getting smaller with increasing follow-up. These systematic trends also persisted after accounting for differences between baseline cancer rates for two groups of survivors who were either proximal or distal to the A-bomb

  16. Stopping the greenhouse effect - recommendations submitted by the Bundestag Enquete Commission. - Why nuclear energy cannot solve the global-warming problem - on the urgency of a low-risk, efficient future energy economy. - The latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki A-bomb survivors - a higher radiation risk at dose rates below 50cGy (rad) - consequences for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.; Kohler, S.; Koehnlein, W.

    1991-01-01

    The report compiles three contributions two of which discuss the issues of global warming, trace gases and ozone depletion. The measures proposed by a German enquete commision to stop the greenhouse effect, i.e. utilization of renewable energy sources, nuclear phaseout because nuclear power is not supposed to solve the global-warming problem, are described. The third contribution gives the latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki a-bomb survivors while taking into account the higher radiation risk due to low dose rates. (DG) [de

  17. Studies on the health effects of a-bomb radiation exposure appeared in health examinations of adult survivors by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    2006-01-01

    The Research Foundation has conducted the health examinations in the title since 1958, based on which studies of a cohort type have been performed, and their results at present are summarized in this paper. Subjects have included a cohort of about 120000 cases in total. They have been those 4993 initial cases (the center group) exposed to estimated radiation doses of 4 -6 Gy within the distance of 2 km from the hypocenter and with acute exposure symptoms either in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, and 19961 cases (exposed ones within 2 km from the hypocenter but without the symptoms, exposed residents in the city 3 km far from the hypocenter, or ones absent in the city at explosion) matched to the above center group in the city, age and sex. Lower statures and weights are noted in some of the center group who were in growing ages at exposure. Increases of prevalence or incidence rate are suggested in malignant tumors, diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid, uterine myoma, chronic liver diseases, cataract, circulatory diseases, abnormal hemoglobin value, and psychological states. Relative risk at 1 Gy for incidence of non-cancer diseases is calculated and presented. Results are not always consistent with those of such population exposed to <6 Gy as that of Chernobyl Accident, of radiation technologist and of people accidentally exposed to environmental radiation. The Foundation is to continue the study and more profound results of radiation effects are expected to be obtainable. (T.I)

  18. Effects of A-bomb radiation on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikato; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    This publication consists of contributions by 39 authors in Hiroshima who are active in the forefront of research, diagnosis and treatment concerning atomic bomb survivors. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are described. All of the 45 chapters are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Relationship between radioactivity from atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke

    1975-01-01

    A study was made on the atomic bomb survivors in whom leukemia subsquently occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of leukemia averaged 30 per one million people 5--26 years after they had been exposed to less than one rad. Among the atomic bomb survivors who had been exposed to 1--99 rads, leukemia occurred within 5--10 years, which showed a slightly higher incidence than that among those who had been exposed to one rad. Among survivors exposed to more than 100 rads, leukemia occurred within 5--10 years on an average of 900 per one million, which was more than 30 times as high as that among those with one rad. Among those aged 15--29 years at the time of bombing, it was high 10--15 years afterward, but was low among those aged 30--44 years at the time of bombing. Among people over 45 years, it became high within 10--15 years, and was still high 15--26 years after bombing. It was suspected that it took 2--3 years after the bombing to develop. From 1950 to 1961, among survivors with exposure to more than 50 rads in Hiroshima, there was a higher incidence of leukemia than there was in Nagasaki. This suggests that neutron-rays have a stronger effect on the incidence of leukemia than have γ-rays. Survivors who had been exposed to neutron-rays in Hiroshima, often had acute or chronic leukemia. On the other hand, some of the survivors with exposure to γ-rays in Nagasaki had only acute leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  20. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays-leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  1. A synthetic medical and sociological study of A-bomb exposed twin, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoji; Satow, Yukio; Kyo, Taiichi

    1984-01-01

    The status of A-bomb exposure and family or relative relationship were investigated in seven twin pairs exposed to A-bomb (14 survivors). The survivors ranged in age between 4 and 24 years when they were exposed to A-bomb. Twins' relationship was comparatively strong. Both of the twins who were exposed to A-bomb tended to be closely connected with each other because of the fearful experience of A-bomb exposure and the subsequent hard social life. Even though one of the pair was not exposed to A-bomb, he (she) was likely to continue to help the other for a long time to restore from the disaster. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Medical and sociological study on the A-bombed twins, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Okamoto, Naomasa; Watanabe, Shoji; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kurihara, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    Three A-bomb exposed and nonexposed pairs of monoxygotic twins were investigated. In two pairs of them, environmental factors had no apparent influence, and genetic factors were dominant. In the other one pair, one of which was a A-bomb survivor exposed at 1.5 km from the explosion center, environmental factors and various effects on them. (Ueda, J.)

  3. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  4. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Risk of Aspiration in Elderly Cancer Survivors Residing in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantravadi, S

    2017-04-01

    Aspiration can occur in patients of any age group, but it can be prevented. The primary population at risk is made up of survivors of cancer because of their increased risk of mucositis, mucosal atrophy, and dysphagia associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the disease process itself. The rate of incidence of aspiration cannot be quantified, because minor cases of aspiration often go unreported. Sequelae ensuing from aspirations can include pneumonia, end-stage kidney disease, dialysis, and death. Analyses of cost, decision-tree modeling, and cost effectiveness were performed to compare a hypothetical, interventional model based on best practices with usual (standard) care. A societal perspective was used as the economic view point. Direct costs, caregiver time, and market values for wages were estimated for the 2 interventions. Effectiveness values for the cost-effectiveness and decision-tree analyses were obtained from the literature. The incremental-cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated and used to compare the intervention with usual care. The interventional method was more costly but more effective than usual care. A sensitivity analysis considered the uncertainty of event probability (aspiration vs no aspiration). The interventional protocol for aspiration reduction continued to be more cost effective than usual care. Aspiration takes a financial toll on all facets of health care, including on nurses, skilled nursing facilities, patients, their families, and insurers, among others. Implementing guidelines that describe best practices for aspiration appears to be a cost-effective strategy for reducing aspirations among cancer survivors - especially elderly patients - who live in skilled nursing facilities.

  6. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraeda, Kanji

    1992-01-01

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  7. Proceedings of 41st Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-09-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title of the special review lecture concerning the late effect research, the symposium concerning the Tokai JCO criticality accident (6 presentations: radiation quality and dose assessment, treatment of highly-irradiated patients, medical preparedness, health care with its global standard for the residents, health management of public, and proposal from a view of medical care supporting A-bomb survivors) and 47 general presentations. The general presentations included 6 concerning the health care and management of the survivors, 3, hematological examinations, 2, cancer risk (lung and mammary gland), 1, blood pressure, 1, urinary occult blood, 4, thyroid diseases involving its cancer, 5, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Belarus-Chernobyl, 4, experimental studies using animals, 4, cytological studies like gene mutation, 17, basic radiation biology studies such as those on gene expression, cloning (human REV1), mutation, abnormal protein expression, apoptosis, and gene therapy of hepatoma cells. (K.H.)

  8. The articles on atomic bomb of the newspaper in the past 15 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubuki, Satoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hatano, Hiroko

    1990-01-01

    A-bomb hazards are given publicity by journalism every year from the end of the 1960s, especially in July and August, in Japan. This is generally termed 'the publication of A-bomb articles'. This paper outlines 'the publication of A-bomb articles' and introduces the actual conditions of A-bomb hazard problems. Articles were selected from three major national newspapers and two domestic newspapers (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) during the past 15 years from 1975 through 1989. Contents of the articles were divided into 20 categories and subdivided into 92 categories. According to newspaper, the Hiroshima domestic newspaper published the articles in the largest number (approximately 30% of all the articles). Overall, approximately 21% of the articles were published in August. The most common article content was A-bomb survivors' experiences, accounting for 47% before 1981 and 60% since 1982. (N.K.)

  9. Pathology of atomic bomb casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, S

    1982-01-01

    Thirty seven years ago, 6 August 1945 marks the date of the first atomic bombing never experienced in human history. It was dropped on Hiroshima and this was followed by a second bombing three days later on Nagasaki. The total deaths following exposure to the bomb by the end of 1945 totalled 140,000 (+/- 10,000) in Hiroshima and 70,000 (+/- 10,000) in Nagasaki. The present article described and outline of the physical effects of the atomic bomb and injury to the human body by exposure to the bomb.

  10. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed.

  11. Potential influence of new doses of A-bomb after re-evaluation of epidemiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.

    1983-01-01

    Since the peaceful use of atomic energy appears essential for future human existence, we must provide risk estimates from low-dose exposures to human beings. The largest body of human data has been derived from the studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Recently, it was proposed by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory group that the current free-in-air doses of atomic bombs are significantly different from the doses recalculated on the basis of the new output spectra of neutrons and gamma rays from the atomic bombs which were declassified by the US Department of Energy in 1976. A joint commission on dose re-evaluation of the United States of America and Japan was established in 1981 to pursue the dose reassessment programme between US and Japanese research groups and to decide an agreed best estimate of organ or tissue doses in survivors as soon as possible. The paper reviews the physical concepts of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb doses and discusses the potential influence of new dosimetric parameters on the epidemiological studies of the atomic bomb survivors in future, although the re-assessment programme is still in progress. (author)

  12. Resilience emotions and acute stress reactions in the population of Dimona and the general population of Israel two days after the first suicide bombing attack in Dimona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amital, Daniela; Amital, Howard; Shohat, Galit; Soffer, Yechiel; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2012-05-01

    On 4 February 2008, two terrorists armed with suicide bombs arrived atthe open market in the southern Israeli city of Dimona. One detonated his bomb at approximately 10:30 a.m. causing multiple casualties. Short-term emotional effects and acute stress reactions usually appear among survivors after such incidents. To compare the differences in emotions and in disturbances of daily life activities that emerge a couple of days following such an event and to identify patterns of stress development among resilient and low-resilient members of the population in Dimona and in the general population of Israel. A telephone survey of two randomly selected representative samples of adults (428 Israeli residents and 250 Dimona residents) was conducted 2 days afterthe event. A higher prevalence of stress and fear and a lower prevalence of joy were reported among the population of Dimona compared to the general population in Israel (P population of Dimona was categorized by its personal degree of resilience (P population in Dimona (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that following a public terror event, self-reported low-resilient subjects have a higher prevalence of disturbances in daily life activities, as well as adverse emotional responses. These differences must be addressed by the relevant social service agencies for immediate public intervention.

  13. Mental disorders in 37 cases of 'Hibakusya' 40 years after exposure to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Takeshi; Tohyama, Teruhiko; Nakazawa, Masao; Ando, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Hirofumi

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, 40 years after the bombing, 37 (8 %) of a total of 814 A-bomb survivors living in Tokyo visited the Department of Neuro-Psychiatry. This is an analysis of these A-bomb survivors suffering from mental disorders. There were 11 men and 26 women. They ranged in age from 45 to 87 years with a median of 61. Eighteen survivors (55 %) were exposed within 2,000 m from ground zero, and 21 (66 %) presented with acute radiation symptoms. According to the classification of DSM-III, features of mental disorders fell into five types: (1) organic psychotic conditions (n = 7), (2) endogenous psychotic conditions (n = 14), (3) delution (n = 3), (4) anxiety somatization (n = 11), and (5) personality disorder (n = 2). Psychotic conditions characterized by mixed atypical symptoms, variable clinical features during the process, and undefined somatic symptoms were noticeable in this series. This is in contrast to the previous reports dealing with neurasthenic A-bomb survivors. The etiology of psychotic conditions must await further study. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Effect of low dose of A-bomb radiation on risk of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki

    1992-01-01

    Among about 100,000 A-bomb survivors registered at Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 290 male subjects exposed to 50-149 cGy showed significantly lower mortality from non-cancer death than age-matched unexposed males. This was deduced from the fitting of a U-shaped dose-response relationship. (author)

  15. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hideo [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management and Promotion Center (Japan); Nakane, Yoshibumi [Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Bio-medicine (Japan); Suzuki, Gen [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  16. Late effects of radiation on survivors of Shintoku Women's High School students exposed at the Central Telephone Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kurihara, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Niimi, Masanobu; Aisaka, Tchuichi; Ito, Chikako; Kato, Hiroo.

    1984-01-01

    A cohort study was made on late radiation effects, particularly on the incidence of breast cancer, in A-bomb survivors of Shintoku Women's High School students exposed at the central telephone office. Fifty-six percent of the students died at the central telephone office. Cytogenetical and physical examinations estimated that the survivors had been exposed to approximately 400 rad. The incidence of breast cancer was 24.9 times higher in the A-bomb survivors than in the control group. Data obtained support the previous reports describing the relationship between breast cancer and exposure to the A-bombing, and suggest that breast cancer occurs more frequently among A-bomb survivors exposed during puberty. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  18. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Saito, Mayumi; Cologne, J.B.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Anti-Epstein-Barr (EV) virus antibody titers were measured in age- and sex-matched three groups of each 124 A-bomb survivors who had exposed to 1 Gy. These serum samples showed positive antibodies against viral capsid antigens (VCA). Antibody titers to anti-VCA-IgM or anti-EA-IgG were significantly higher in the groups of 0.01-1 Gy and >1 Gy than in the group of <0.01 Gy, reflecting decreased immune response ability for EV virus. When precursor frequency of cytotoxic cells against autologous EB virus LCL was determined in 68 other A-bomb survivors, no definitive influence of A-bombing was observed. However, serological study revealed that there was inverse correlation between precursor frequency and anti-EA-IgG antibody titer. These findings suggest that the immune response ability for EB virus may have been damaged and that biological reactivity of EB virus may occur frequently in A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  19. Dirty Bomb Risk and Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relative risk and impact of a dirty bomb employing Co-60 and Cs-137, the two most common high activity source materials. We found that the risk of an area denial dirty bomb attack is greater for Cs-137 due to the form and chemistry of CsCl, the soft, powdery salt form currently in use for high activity Cs-137 sources, found in blood and research irradiators.

  20. Medicine and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    In the last of four articles giving a medical view of nuclear war, the attitudes towards civil defence and the psychological effects of nuclear war are examined. The general training and information programmes on civil defence in the West are briefly discussed particularly in relation to fallout shelters. Psychological reactions to the threat of attack, the discomforts of being confined in a fallout shelter, the large numbers of dead and injured who will not be rescued, an eventual emergence into a society where normal services and supplies are disrupted may well disable otherwise healthy survivors and hamper their efforts at recovery. (U.K.)

  1. Late effects of radiation: Neglected aspects of A-bomb data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W. [Dept. of Public Health and Epidemiology, Birmingham Univ., Edgbaston (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Both from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers, and from recent surveys of nuclear workers at Hanford and Oak Ridge, have come risk estimates for cancer effects of radiation that are much higher than the ones based on a life span study cohort of A-bomb survivors. Furthermore, relations between the age when exposed and the cancer risk were radically different for workers and survivors. Therefore, there was clearly a need to discover whether the LSS cohort was a normal homogeneous population or, alternatively, whether persons who had shown signs of acute radiation effects constituted a special, radiosensitive subgroup of survivors. Statistical tests of the alternative hypotheses revealed significant differences between 63,072 survivors who denied having any of the following injuries and 2,601 survivors who claimed two or more of them: radiation, burns, purpura, oropharyngeal lesions and epilation. The tests also showed that the group differences were largely the result of exposures before 10 or after 55 years of age being exceptionally dangerous; that cancer was not the only late effect of the A-bomb radiation, and that it was only among the survivors with multiple injuries that the leukaemia death rate was exceptionally high. (orig.)

  2. Some aspects of readaptation of atomic survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of some aspects of psycho social readaptation of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima is presented. Reports from 31 survivors, 8 men and 23 women, were used as data for the analysis. The reports were collected individually through a structured interview, in one of the two hospitals in Hiroshima which deliver services to the survivors. The data were grouped according to the following areas: family, work, health and psychological readaptation. These data were analysed considering the psycho social aspects of disasters and the characteristics of the japanese culture. (M.A.C.)

  3. Mental disorders in 37 cases of 'Hibakusya' 40 years after exposure to the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Takeshi; Tohyama, Teruhiko; Nakazawa, Masao; Ando, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Hirofumi

    1987-07-01

    In 1985, 40 years after the bombing, 37 (8 %) of a total of 814 A-bomb survivors living in Tokyo visited the Department of Neuro-Psychiatry. This is an analysis of these A-bomb survivors suffering from mental disorders. There were 11 men and 26 women. They ranged in age from 45 to 87 years with a median of 61. Eighteen survivors (55 %) were exposed within 2,000 m from ground zero, and 21 (66 %) presented with acute radiation symptoms. According to the classification of DSM-III, features of mental disorders fell into five types: (1) organic psychotic conditions (n = 7), (2) endogenous psychotic conditions (n = 14), (3) delution (n = 3), (4) anxiety somatization (n = 11), and (5) personality disorder (n = 2). Psychotic conditions characterized by mixed atypical symptoms, variable clinical features during the process, and undefined somatic symptoms were noticeable in this series. This is in contrast to the previous reports dealing with neurasthenic A-bomb survivors. The etiology of psychotic conditions must await further study. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Neutron bomb and European defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-01-01

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  5. Neutron bomb and European defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  6. BombCAD - A new tool for bomb defense in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, D.J.; Howard, J.W.; Sturm, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new tool for analysis of the specific vulnerability of diverse facilites to bomb attack and for computer-aided-design (CAD) of siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. BombCAD combines the extensive architectural and engineering data base and graphics capabilities of modern architectural CAD systems with the bomb effects computational capability of the ''SECUREPLAN'' BOMB UTILITY. BombCAD permits architects/engineers, security professionals and facility managers to analytically estimate and graphically display facility vulnerability and changes (reductions) in vulnerability which result from the adoption of various bomb defense measures

  7. Effects of radiation on aging in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Ichimaru, Michito; Koike, Masahiko; Yamashita, Kazukuni

    1980-01-01

    Promotion of aging was studied on women over the age of 40 years exposed within 1.4 km from the center of the explosion in Nagasaki in whom exposure doses were proved to be over 100 rad (a exposed group). Women exposed over 2.5 km whose ages were the same as those of the exposed group were selected as controls. The age of the exposed group was estimated from stepwise regression equation based on the measurement of hair, grip strength, systolic blood pressure, an amount of potassium in the whole body, and erythrocyte count, which changed remarkably with time. The estimated age of the exposed group was over one year older than that of controls. Especially, mean estimated age of the exposed group in their forties (the age at the time of exposure, teens) was 1.4 year older than the actual age, which suggests that radiation promote aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Statistical analysis of the main diseases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Nambu, Shigeru

    1988-01-01

    Diseases found in 2,104 consequetive inpatients between April 1981 and March 1986 were statistically analyzed. The incidence of disease increased in the following order: diabetes mellitus > heart disease > cerebrovascular disorder > malignancy > hypertensive disease > arteriosclerosis > osteoarthritis. Malignancy is the most common cause of death or the highest mortality rate, followed by heart disease, cerebrovascular disorder, and liver cirrhosis. For the number of autopsy, the order of diseases was: malignancy, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, respiratory tract disease, endocrine disease, and hematopoietic disease; for the incidence of autopsy, the order was: liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, and heart disease. Malignancy accounted for 23 % of the inpatients. The incidence of malignancy increased in the following organs: stomach > liver > colon > lung > breast > biliary tract > esophagus. The incidence of leukemia was low. There was no definitive correlation between the incidence of malignancy and exposure distance, although the incidence of breast cancer tended to be high in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter. According to age class, gastric cancer was frequent in patients less than 40 years and more than 60 years. Liver cancer was the most common in the sixtieth decade of life of men. The incidence of lung cancer increased with advancing age; the incidence of breast cancer was higher in younger patients. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. The Children of atomic bomb survivors: a genetic study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neel, James V; Schull, William J

    ... Washington, D.C. 1991 i Copyrightline as original; publication to the this true are version of breaks print Page files. the use Please typesetting inserted. original accidentally from been not have book, may paper errors the original typographic the files XML from from some created retained, cannot be recomposed however, has been formattin...

  10. Lymphocyte subsets and response to PHA among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Noguchi, Kyouichi; Eida, Kazuyuki; Tashiro, Kazunori; Hayashida, Ken

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the effect of radiation exposure on immune competence in man, the number of lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets, and the percentage of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation of lymphocytes were determined in 66 cancer patients, 25 of whom were exposed to atomic radiation at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero and 41 others were not exposed. The number of lymphocytes was decreased with increasing age at exposure. The percentage of OKT3-positive cells tended to be lower in exposed patients who were in their twenties at the time of exposure than the non-exposed patients. Among patients in their teens and twenties at the time of exposure, there was a tendency toward decreased percentage of OKT4-positive cells (T4) and increased percentage of OKT8-positive cells (T8). The T4/T8 ratio was reduced. Patients who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure tended to have decreased OKIa 1-positive cells, and increased Leulla-positive cells. Patients exposed in their twenties and thirties had slightly decreased percentage of PHA-induced transformation of lymphocytes. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Development of chronic myelocytic leukemia in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Oguma, Nobuo; Tanaka, Ruji; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of the evaluation of laboratory findings in 102 cases including 20 cases which were diagnosed as very early stage chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML), chronological orders of the histopathological pictures of CML were shown as follows; myeloid occupation with Ph 1 -positive cells (leucocyte count 10 10 /L)--basophilic leucocytosis thrombocytosis and low activity of neutrocyte-AP (1 - 2 x 10 10 /L)--appearance of immature granulocytes more than 5% in the peripheral blood (2 x 10 10 /L)--increase of serum Vit. B 12 (2.5 x 10 10 /L)--splenomegaly (5 x 10 10 /L)--appearance of subjective symptoms (7 x 10 10 /L or more). The relation between an actual number of Ph 1 -positive cells and time of their appearance (months) can be expressed as log Y = 0.053 + 10.023. It was estimated that it takes about 8 years since one Ph 1 -positive cell appears in the body until the leucocyte count becomes 10 11 /L and the patient consult a doctor. The idea that Ph 1 -positive cells can be transformed to more malignant clones is helpful to understand the pathological feature of acute transformation of CML. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Thyroid diseases among atomic bombs survivors in Nagasaki, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Naokata; Toyama, Kyoko; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Morimoto, Isao; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1986-01-01

    This is an interim report of the population-based study on the incidence of thyroid diseases in Nagasaki prefecture. Included in this study were 885 patients receiving detailed examination for suspected thyroid disease, consisting of 575 exposed persons (Group I) and 310 non-exposed persons (Group II). Thyroid diseases occurred in 157 (27 %) of Group I and in 65 (21 %) of Group II. According to the type of thyroid disease, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, non-toxic uninodular and multinodular goiters were more common in Group I than Group II. The incidence of hypothyroidism was higher in Group I than Group II; however, the incidence of Graves' disease or chronic thyroiditis did not differ in the two groups. A trend toward a slightly higher incidence of thyroid cyst was observed in Group I than Group II. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1948-12-02

    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  14. Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Osamu; Toyoda, Shigeki; Tsuno, Sumio; Mukai, Hideaki; Uemura, Seiji

    1976-01-01

    Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Maintaining physical therapy standards in an emergency situation: solutions after the Bali bombing disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D; Wood, F; Goodwin-Walters, A

    2005-08-01

    In a mass casualty event, treatment is traditionally provided in a 'best for the most' fashion. This paper examines the challenges encountered by physical therapists while providing rehabilitation to 28 survivors who suffered burns after the terrorist bombing in Bali, Indonesia. Individual patient input was achieved with routine outcome measures and workload statistics. Workforce expansion, maintenance of treatment quality, and other practical initiatives used in order to achieve this goal are discussed.

  16. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  17. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  18. Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    to have ties to drug traffickers. The Mexico City newspaper Universal reported that police said members of the family of Rafael Caro Quintero...targets of attack and likely the first to respond to a bomb scene. Police and other local level responders (emergency medical services), the Cruz Rojo

  19. 'DIRTY BOMB' and its countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shanqiang; Zou Shiya; Zhang Wenzhong

    2008-01-01

    'Dirty bomb', one of the three nuclear and radiological terrorism attack events, is a kind of weapon using conventional explosive to disperse radioactive materials, which leads to harmful and serious environmental contamination with α, β, γ rays and neutron having high radioactivity activity. This paper mainly introduces the characteristics and hazards, and puts forward some recommendations to counter RDD based on current international and national situations in nuclear and radiological terrorisms. (authors)

  20. The media and dirty bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    During the recent Jose Padilla 'dirty bomb' scare, an indignant US citizen wrote to his local newspaper in Florida complaining that the news media were giving terrorists a recipe for making dirty bombs. 'Unless the media eases up on scaring us, he wrote, the public won't feel safe even leaving their homes. Or perhaps that is what they want, he said, 'us staying inside our homes watching the news on how terrorists can destroy us all.' It seems our real motivations have finally been uncovered we in the media want to scare them so much they won't leave their TV screens. Based on the previous event an analysis of the role of media and journalists is discussed. Leaders of the news media would, first of all, universally advise full and rapid and authoritative disclosure of what is known. If it isn't coming quickly from the highest levels, then the news will soon deteriorate to what's being heard on the streets, from police officers and fire fighters and other emergency personnel, and from passers-by. Journalists are the first to acknowledge their ignorance.That is why they ask questions. However, they seem to learn fast. It was found that that the term dirty bomb never appeared on Associated Press news wires before the 11 September 2001 attacks. Now it appears every day, and increasingly we are getting the facts right and helping to prepare our audience of millions for this dangerous new world

  1. Summary of fifty years research on the late effects of atomic bomb irradiation in Japan with special reference to possible similar late effects by nuclear weapons tests in Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, M.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation clearly demonstrated statistically significant increases of risks for acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors including thyroid cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, lung cancer, hepatoma and skin cancer. The excess relative risks was highest for acute lymphoid leukemia, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid cancer. The increased risk for leukemia has almost completely disappeared after 50 years, whereas the risks for cancers are apparently persisting giving a great threat to general health of atomic bomb survivors. These observations can be directly referred to the possible late effects of the acute and chronic exposure to irradiation caused by nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk region. Recent dose-estimation efforts by Kazakhstan, US and Japanese scientists indicated that there had been Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bomb equivalent high-dose exposure in some residents around the test sites. Some researchers suggested increased risks for malignant diseases such as leukemia and cancers. Unfortunately there was a lack of high-quality statistics in the Semipalatinsk survey, providing a considerable difficulty in interpreting the estimated incidences of such malignant diseases

  2. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the survivors. The reckoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1977-01-01

    At a recently held meeting of 44 scientists from 14 countries organised by the International Peace Bureau a great deal of information on the physical, biological, medical, genetic, social and psychological effects of the atomic bombs was made specially available by Japanese scientists including the results of comprehensive surveys of the personal and social disabilities of the survivors. The immediate fire, blast and radiation effects are here summarized and the causes of death upto the end of 1945 are considered. The delayed effects are perhaps the most terrifying and these are examined. (U.K.)

  3. Public-private partnership from theory to practice: Walgreens and the Boston Public Health Commission supporting each other before and after the Boston bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Atyia; Williams, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the public health and medical services continuity of operations, response and recovery efforts in the aftermath of the Boston bombings. Countless public and private organisations and agencies came together to support the community and the survivors. The efforts of these organisations define what it means to be Boston Strong.

  4. The survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: delayed effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of controlled clinical and epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors are presented. Fewer than 100 children irradiated in utero suffered brain damage and microcephaly. Many persons who received more than 100 rads developed posterior lenticular cataracts. Up to 15% of lymphocytes of survivors showed some small chromosomal change, and the percentage and degree of abnormality were directly related to radiation dose. The cumulative rate of myelogenous leukemia was highly dose-related, with a 50-fold increase in those receiving 200 rads. Now, more than 35 years after the bombing, the solid tumor rate is still increasing. Data indicate that a dose as small as 10 rads is carcinogenic, making a so-called safe dose threshold unlikely. Psychologic damage has affected all aspects of life

  5. The bomb and the men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Since 1945, more than 2000 nuclear weapon tests have been performed in the world, with a perfect knowledge of the irradiation risks. This book tells this story. The one of the men who designed the bombs, who used and improved them. It tells also the story of these men who were injured by nuclear weapons and those who were directly impacted by the fallouts of these tests. Finally, the book does not forget to mention the men who voluntarily dissimulated the ravages of nuclear weapons before discretely recognizing them and thinking of repairing the damage

  6. Comparison of rescue and relief activities within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunari, Yuko; Yoshimoto, Nao

    2013-12-01

    To clarify the factors and reasons for the differences in the outcomes of rescue and relief efforts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mainly focusing on the numbers of rescue/relief staffs and casualties in the period within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in August 1945. By retrieving the data and information from the records and reports concerning the disasters in the two cities, together with other publications as to the damages by the atomic bombings and subsequent rescue-relief activities, and restoration activities. It seems that there was less damage in Nagasaki, where a stronger atomic bomb was used than in Hiroshima. There were crucial geographic factors that led to the different effects in terms of the numbers of victims; however, systematic organization and mobilization of rescue and relief staffs, maintenance of functional transportation, and advanced medical knowledge and public warning with regard to disaster all may have contributed to a lower death toll and increase in survivors in Nagasaki.

  7. Atomic bombs and conspiracy theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    There have been a number of articles in the press concerning Australia's bid to get the atomic bomb. These articles are based on the recent publication of a book, 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb' by Wayne Reynolds. The book at first sight appears to be very well researched, with many archival references from a number of countries, and the hypotheses appear to be well supported and argued. Its major shortcoming is the way that the science and technology involved is presented. The author seems to have a complete lack of understanding of basic science and engineering principles, and the manner in which scientists and politicians communicate with each other. This paper will attempt to redress these shortcomings, I shall look at the way communities of scientists and politicians present their ideas to each other and to the public at large. By investigating the backgrounds to the establishment of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and the later establishment of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, the author is able to explain how such a hypothesis ever saw the light of day

  8. Clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings: Travel phobia or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Rachel V.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Scragg, Peter; Ehlers, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Following the London bombings of 7 July 2005 a “screen and treat” program was set up with the aim of providing rapid treatment for psychological responses in individuals directly affected. The present study found that 45% of the 596 respondents to the screening program reported phobic fear of public transport in a screening questionnaire. The screening program identified 255 bombing survivors who needed treatment for a psychological disorder. Of these, 20 (8%) suffered from clinically significant travel phobia. However, many of these individuals also reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]. Comparisons between the travel phobia group and a sex-matched group of bombing survivors with PTSD showed that the travel phobic group reported fewer re-experiencing and arousal symptoms on the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (Brewin et al., 2002). The only PTSD symptoms that differentiated the groups were anger problems and feeling upset by reminders of the bombings. There was no difference between the groups in the reported severity of trauma or in presence of daily transport difficulties. Implications of these results for future trauma response are discussed. PMID:19765946

  9. Apparently beneficial effect of low to intermediate doses of A-bomb radiation on human life-span

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Y.; Ichimaru, M.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, S.

    1991-01-01

    Among about 100,000 A-bomb survivors registered at Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 290 male subjects exposed to 50-149 cGy showed significantly lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than age-matched unexposed males. This was deduced from the fitting of a U-shaped dose-response relationship. Reasons for this effects in males, but not in females, are discussed with reference to selection of individuals and to hormesis. (author)

  10. DBA Survivor

    CERN Document Server

    LaRock, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    DBA Survivor is a book to help new DBAs understand more about the world of database administration. More and more people are moving into the DBA profession, and many are looking for a getting-started guide. Blogs are written about how to be an exceptional DBA and what to do in your first 100 days. This book takes a different approach, injecting some humor into helping you understand how to hit the ground running, and most importantly how to survive as a DBA. And it's not just survival that matters. Author Thomas LaRock wants much more for you than mere survival. He wants you to have excellence

  11. The hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging and the mortality of Japanese A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.; Land, C.E.; Kato, H.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates aging is extremely difficult to investigate in man except at the level of mortality. Among the 82000 Japanese A-bomb survivors being followed for mortality, there were 14400 deaths from non-neoplastic diseases from October 1950 to September 1974, and this experience has been analysed for evidence of a non-specific mortality differential associated with radiation dose (kerma). Cause of death has been classified as follows: neoplastic diseases individually and in various groupings, tuberculosis, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases other than cerebrovascular, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of the digestive system, all other non-neoplastic diseases, and all non-neoplastic diseases. Although there is clear evidence of a radiation effect for many forms of cancer, mortality from other diseases contains little suggestion of a relationship to radiation dose. A superficial association between mortality from diseases of blood and blood-forming organs and radiation rests entirely on the carcinogenic effect of radiation, especially the leukaemogenic effect. Deaths from digestive diseases seem related to radiation dose but only in the 1971-74 period and among the Hiroshima survivors; the excess is small but occurred in all age groups. Thus far the mortality experience of the Japanese A-bomb survivors suggests that the life-shortening effect of whole-body human exposure to ionizing radiation derives from its carcinogenic effect, not from any acceleration of the aging process

  12. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kohno, Nobuoki; Zhou, Ou-Liang; Akiba, Suminori

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to examine whether or not natural killer (NK) cell activation with IL-2 was influenced by atomic bombing, NK cell activity, the ratio of lymphocytes seropositive for NK cell-related antigens, and NK cell activation with IL-2 were examined in 328 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima. NK activity and the ratio of lymphocytes seropositive for Leu 7, Leu 11 and OKM 1 antigens were higher in men than women. These findings became more marked with advancing age in both men and women. An activation of NK cells was significantly stimulated with IL-2. This was significantly correlated with an increase in the seropositive rate for Leu 11 antigen. NK cell activation, as expressed as stimulation index, was significantly higher in women than men. In neither men nor women was there correlation between stimulation index and both aging and exposure doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1989-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activities were determined in peripheral lymphocytes from 62 A-bomb survivors, with the purpose of evaluating their relation to age, sex, and estimated exposure doses (DS86). NK activity in fresh lymphocytes was significantly higher in men than women; a significantly increased activity was associated with aging. However, LAK activity, obtained on the culture medium in the presence of IL-2, was independent of sex and aging. These findings suggest that the cell group involved in LAK activity may be different from that involved in NK activity. The present series failed to reveal the influences of A-bombing on both NK and LAK activities. (N.K.)

  14. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Bertrand R.

    2016-01-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a sign...

  15. How Dangerous are 'Dirty Bombs'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A radiological weapon (or a radiation weapon) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactivity, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive), which spreads radioactive material. Recently, it has been called 'dirty bombs'. This term refers especially to a weapon that would disperse radioactive material through conventional explosives. The term was put in focus in June 2002, when U. S. officials announced they had captured an al-Qaida terrorist in Chicago who was allegedly planning for such a device. Designed to produce radiation sickness in a military force or a civilian population instead of destroying a target, Iraq developed and tested radiation weapons in 1980s, during the war with Iran with intention to produce health effects that would be difficult to explain. The project was abandoned because a radiation levels low enough to escape detection were also insufficient to cause significant medical problems in the weeks following an attack. Radiological weapons are therefore widely considered to be militarily useless for a state-sponsored army and are not believed to have been deployed by any military forces. However, these weapons have been suggested as a possible terror weapon in order to create fear and panic in densely populated areas and havoc to local economies. They do not require weapons-grade materials, and common materials such as 1 37C s used in radiological medical equipment, could be used. Subsequent removal of urban radioactive contamination, i.e. cleanup efforts according to experiences from the radiological accident in a Brazilian city of Goiania could be long, difficult and costly. Therefore, the overall effects of exploded dirty bombs are hard to assess considering that: a) The health effects of low-level radiation are hotly contested. Namely, according to 'linear, no-threshold' dosimetric model, any increase over background is

  16. The birth of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Louis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an overview of fifty years of researches and works which resulted in the fabrication and use of an atomic bomb. Thus, he evokes the discovery of radioactivity, experiments made by Rutherford, the discovery of nuclear fission induced uranium bombardment by slow neutrons, the discovery of a possibility of chain reaction with a very low critical mass, the first works on the development of a bomb in the USA and United-Kingdom, and finally the Manhattan project and the realisation of the first bombs, tests, and their use in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  17. Forensic dental and medical response to the Bali bombing. A personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Russell; Griffiths, Chris; Hilton, John M N

    2003-10-06

    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, once the survivors had been treated or evacuated, many dead, severely burned and fragmented bodies were left. Formal identification was required before any remains could be released to grieving families. Australia sent a team to assist the Indonesians in this daunting and disturbing task. The "disaster victim identification" process eventually confirmed 202 people as dead, including 88 Australians. Personal and professional relationships between the Indonesians and our team were important factors in our acceptance into the Indonesian emergency response.

  18. Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2005-01-01

    Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

  19. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pterrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 750 Pound M117 Bomb Transportability Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, William

    1999-01-01

    The US Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) Validation Engineering Division (SIOAC-DEV) was tasked by the US Army Pacific, Fort Shafter, HI to conduct transportability tests on modified 750 pound bombs...

  1. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  2. Health examination of residents and its task after the Chernobyl Nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Described is the outline of health effects after the Chernobyl Accident (CA, Apr. 26, 1986) and of health examination/its future task, for learning to make use of means for the recent Fukushima Accident (FA). Total released radioactivity of the Level 7 CA is estimated to amount to 5.20 million TBq, 6-10 times as high as the same level of FA. Different from the Fukushima, no rapid means were taken by old Soviet Union to restrict the distribution and ingestion of contaminated foods, which was the major cause of internal radioiodine exposure. Afterward, in 1990s, WHO, European and other countries began to investigate CA, and markedly increased incidence of thyroid cancer was shown by health examination of 160 thousands children by a project of Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation. In 2006, WHO and IAEA evaluated published literatures to summarize health effects related directly or possibly unrelated to CA: as for thyroid cancer, its prevalence tended to move in adolescence or older, and surgery and therapy for metastasis with radioiodine were significantly effective to improve their prognosis; however, their long term follow-up and treatment are continuously needed. Not observed was the increased incidence of leukemia, which is different from A-bomb survivors, and other cancers as well as benign diseases, but resident's concern about their health and effects on the next generation is increasing. Currently, systems of self-monitoring of foods are being established by residents around Chernobyl. Instructions and means learned from CA and A-bomb experiences are applied to this FA, but assurance of health of all these concerned people should be a future task against its fading with time. (T.T.)

  3. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-15

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  4. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, S.

    1985-01-01

    More is known about ionizing radiation as a cause of human cancer than about any other carcinogen. Most of this knowledge is derived from the studies conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and Radiation Effects Research Foundation on about 100,000 Japanese survivors of the atomic bombing in 1945. The importance of these studies is based on the large size of the exposed population and the fact that individual estimates of radiation dose were possible. These factors and the combined excellence of the centralized vital statistics reporting and population registration systems in Japan have made feasible the continuing longitudinal studies of cancer mortality by site in relation to radiation dose over a span of more than 30 years. Excellent voluntary cooperation by the survivors has enabled the continuation of a biennial physical examination program which has made possible the acquisition of blood for studies of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the level of specific genes. Similarly, with the cooperation of local universities, hospitals, and physicians, tumor and tissue registries necessary for the study of cancer incidence have been developed. An autopsy pathology program has enabled study of the accuracy of cause of death certification

  5. Risk of cancer among children exposed in utero to A-bomb radiations, 1950-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.; Texas Univ., Houston

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the risk of cancer (incidence) over 40 years among in-utero exposed survivors of atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did the observed cancers occur earlier in the 0.30+ Gy dose group than in the 0 Gy dose group but incidence continues to increase, and crude cumulative incidence rate, 40 years after A-bombing, is 3.9-fold greater in the 0.3+ Gy group. In the observation period 1950-84, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus as estimated by the 1986 dosimetry system (DS86), the relative risk of cancer at 1 Gy is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For the entire 0.01 + Gy dose group the average excess risk per 10 4 person-year-gray is 6.57 (0.07-14.49) and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9-90.2%). (author)

  6. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Mieko

    1999-01-01

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  7. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohani, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  8. Thermal analysis of pyrotechnic mixture-fireworks, atom-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Jeya; Thanulingam, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    Sound level produced from two varieties of sound producing fireworks of atom-bomb, cake bomb and thunder bomb were measured. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) of compositions 57.5/19.9/22.1(0.5)% very much similar to commercial atom-bomb were taken and five cake bomb and seven thunder bomb with different net weight of chemicals were manufactured specifically for analysis. Cake bomb with 1g pyrotechnic mixture and thunder bomb with 2g pyrotechnic mixture produce -3 . Ignition temperature of the mixture is above the melting point of the metallic fuel, Al (660 deg C) and self propagating decomposition occurred at high temperature. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) is a safe mixture from accidental factor, static electricity. DSC studies indicate slight formation of potassium nitrite with evolution of NO above 400 deg C. (author)

  9. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  10. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the first volume. The 8 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  13. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  14. The Approach to Suicide Bombing Attacks: Changing Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almgody, Gidon; Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I

    2008-06-01

    Suicide bombing attacks have emerged as a lethal weapon in the hands of terrorist groups. Our aim was to review the medical experience acquired in Israel, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States in managing terrorist attacks, and prepare medical systems for the difficult task of managing these events. EMS protocols are amended to deal with a large number of victims in an urban setting who must be rapidly evacuated to a medical center where resuscitative as well as definitive care is delivered. A combination of extensive soft tissue damage caused by penetrating injuries, blast injury to the lungs and tympanic membranes, and burns are common among survivors. Preparation must include establishment of a clear chain-of-command lead by a general surgeon who manages the event and is responsible for decisions regarding OR preferences and ICU admissions. The emergency department is re-organized to handle the influx of numerous severely injured casualties. Professional personnel and resources are recruited and re-directed away from routine tasks towards treating the victims. This is achieved by deferring non-urgent operations, procedures and imaging studies. Victims are frequently re-assessed and re-evaluated to control chaos, minimize missed injuries and ensure delivery of an adequate level of care.

  15. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  16. Ultrasonic Device Would Open Pipe Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raheb, Michael S.; Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, energized by frequency generator and power supply, vibrates shell of pipe bomb while hardly disturbing explosive inner material. Frequency-control circuitry senses resonance in shell and holds generator at that frequency to induce fatigue cracking in threads of end cap. In addition to disarming bombs, ultrasonically induced fatigue may have other applications. In manufacturing, replaces some machining and cutting operations. In repair of equipment, cleanly and quickly disassembles corroded parts. In demolition of buildings used to dismember steel framework safely and controllably.

  17. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  18. Risk of cancer among in utero children exposed to A-bomb radiation, 1950-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the risk of cancer (incidence) over a period of 40 years among the inutero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report which was confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did the observed cancers occur earlier in the ≥ 0.30 Gy dose group than in the 0 Gy dose group but the incidence continues to increase and the crude cumulative incidence rate, 40 years after the A-bombing, is 3.9-fold greater in the ≥ 0.30 Gy group. In the observation period 1950-84, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus, as estimated by the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), the relative risk of cancer at 1 Gy is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For the entire ≥ 0.01 Gy dose group the average excess risk per 10 4 person-year-gray is 6.57 (0.07-14.49) and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9%-90.2%). These results, when viewed in the perspective of fetus doses, suggest that susceptibility to radiation-induced cancers is higher in pre- than in postnatally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). However, definitive conclusions must await further follow-up studies. (author)

  19. MK-82 bomb characterization for the sympathetic detonation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, R.A.; Hantel, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radiographic, and electronic pin techniques were used to evaluate the fragmentation of tail- and side-initiated MK-82 MOD 1 general purpose bombs. They were found to contain large voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the Tritonal explosive fill. Characteristics of the void-side performance of the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  1. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Cassidy, D.

    1995-01-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  3. William Hayes and His Pallanza Bomb Shell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. William Hayes and His Pallanza Bomb Shell. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 16 Issue 10 October 2011 pp 911-921. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/10/0911-0921 ...

  4. The 'secureplan' bomb utility: A PC-based analytic tool for bomb defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper illustrates a recently developed, PC-based software system for simulating the effects of an infinite variety of hypothetical bomb blasts on structures and personnel in the immediate vicinity of such blasts. The system incorporates two basic rectangular geometries in which blast assessments can be made - an external configuration (highly vented) and an internal configuration (vented and unvented). A variety of explosives can be used - each is translated to an equivalent TNT weight. Provisions in the program account for bomb cases (person, satchel, case and vehicle), mixes of explosives and shrapnel aggregates and detonation altitudes. The software permits architects, engineers, security personnel and facility managers, without specific knowledge of explosives, to incorporate realistic construction hardening, screening programs, barriers and stand-off provisions in the design and/or operation of diverse facilities. System outputs - generally represented as peak incident or reflected overpressure or impulses - are both graphic and analytic and integrate damage threshold data for common construction materials including window glazing. The effects of bomb blasts on humans is estimated in terms of temporary and permanent hearing damage, lung damage (lethality) and whole body translation injury. The software system has been used in the field in providing bomb defense services to a number of commercial clients since July of 1986. In addition to the design of siting, screening and hardening components of bomb defense programs, the software has proven very useful in post-incident analysis and repair scenarios and as a teaching tool for bomb defense training

  5. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  6. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  7. Wide-ranging impacts reported by NZ cancer survivors: is supporting cancer survivor resilience a health sector role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Inga; Signal, Louise; Sarfati, Diana

    2018-04-01

    Cancer survivor numbers are on the rise but little is known about New Zealand (NZ) survivors' experiences with management of cancer-related impacts and vulnerability. This study explored the experiences and resilience of NZ cancer survivors and the experiences of healthcare practitioners who work with cancer survivors. There is a focus on indigenous Māori survivors. This study used qualitative methods to explore survivors and healthcare practitioners' views on cancer-related impact and management strategies. Two focus groups were conducted with mainly colorectal cancer survivors residing in the central regions of NZ. There was one Māori-only group (n = 6 participants) and one multicultural group (n = 18 participants). The Māori-only focus group was purposefully organised to provide a culturally safe setting for the research. In addition, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with healthcare practitioners between October 2011 and March 2012. Wide-ranging survivorship impacts were described by survivors across physical, emotional, spiritual and social domains. Shame resilience and relationships, particularly with healthcare practitioners, were indicated as useful supports. Healthcare practitioners' time constraints and role priorities were identified as barriers to their ability to provide survivorship support. This study generated qualitative data on survivorship impacts and components of survivor resilience in NZ. It also provided insights into the need for better strategies and pathways to help the NZ health system be more responsive to both Māori and non-Māori survivors. Survivor impacts create vulnerabilities that are experienced and described differently by individuals and groups in NZ. Tailored survivor support that can enhance resilience and support relationships is needed in NZ.

  8. Pain in cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladosievicova, B.

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a common problem among cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain. Overall prevalence of all types pain is about 40% in some cancer survivors with previous specific diagnosis. Until recently, impact of pain in cancer survivors have largely been unexamined. This complication can be predicted by type of malignancy, its therapy, time elapsed from completion of anticancer treatment and effectivity of previous pain interventions. As the purpose of this article is to update readers on more recent data about prevalence of pain in cancer survivors and common treatment-related chronic pain etiologies in patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase, previously known information about acute pain, pain in terminally ill patients. Some new studies in certain subpopulations of cancer survivors will be explored in more detail. (author)

  9. Black-hole bomb and superradiant instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2004-01-01

    A wave impinging on a Kerr black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole if certain conditions are satisfied, giving rise to superradiant scattering. By placing a mirror around the black hole one can make the system unstable. This is the black-hole bomb of Press and Teukolsky. We investigate in detail this process and compute the growing time scales and oscillation frequencies as a function of the mirror's location. It is found that in order for the system black hole plus mirror to become unstable there is a minimum distance at which the mirror must be located. We also give an explicit example showing that such a bomb can be built. In addition, our arguments enable us to justify why large Kerr-AdS black holes are stable and small Kerr-AdS black holes should be unstable

  10. Redesigning the rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Henoc; Mentado, Juan; Amador, Patricia; Torres, Luis Alfonso; Campos, Myriam; Rojas, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data of the standard enthalpy of combustion of compounds containing sulfur or halogen atoms, a new calorimetric rotating-bomb system has been set up. Around a platinum lining Parr 1004 C combustion bomb, an isoperibolic calorimeter has been designed, constructed and tested. The calorimeter was calibrated by using standard benzoic acid and the resulting equivalent in energy was ε(calor)=(14321.2+/-2.4)J.K -1 . Combustion measurements using thianthrene were made in order to verify the accuracy of the device, leading to the value of Δ c u o =-(33462.9+/-5.7)J.g -1 , in agreement with the recommended one

  11. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  12. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent a...... of torture. Finally, I offer an explanation of what it means to regard the prohibition of torture as absolute....

  13. The Bali bombing: civilian aeromedical evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh D; Garner, Alan A; Morrison, Ion; Sharley, Peter H; Griggs, William M; Xavier, Colin

    2003-10-06

    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, many injured Australians required evacuation to Darwin, and then to burns units around Australia. Many patients were evacuated from Denpasar by Qantas, with assistance from staff of civilian medical retrieval services. The transport of patients from Darwin to specialist burns units involved a coordinated response of civilian and military services. Some issues in responding to such disasters were identified, and a national coordinating network could improve future responses.

  14. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  15. Influence on social life of atomic bomb, chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 3 ''Influence on social life'', the following matters are described: relations of the atomic bombings to society; destroyed societies such as disruption of regional societies and loss of wealth; life of the sufferers such as occupation, marriage, hardships of life, orphans, livelihood variation, and suffering of foreigners; and mental process of the sufferers. (J.P.N.)

  16. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, B.

    1997-01-01

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  17. Mass-casualty terrorist bombings in Istanbul, Turkey, November 2003: report of the events and the prehospital emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkümen; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Tokyay, Rifat; Ersoy, Gurkan; Cetiner, Serkan; Yücel, Tayfun

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the two mass-casualty, terrorist attacks that occurred in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2003, and the resulting pre-hospital emergency response. A complex, retrospective, descriptive study was performed, using open source reports, interviews, direct measurements of street distances, and hospital records from the American Hospital (AH) and Taksim Education and Research State Hospital (TERSH) in Istanbul. On 15 November, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in trucks were detonated outside the Neve Shalom and Beth Israel Synagogues, killing 30 persons and injuring an estimated additional 300. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, AH, a private hospital located six km from both synagogues, received 69 injured survivors, of which 86% had secondary blast injuries and 13% were admitted to the hospital. The TERSH, a government hospital located 1 km from both synagogues, received 48 injured survivors. On 20 November, IEDs in trucks were detonated outside the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) headquarters and the British Consulate (BC), killing 33 and injuring an estimated additional 450. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, TERSH, located 18 km from the HSBC site and 2 km from the the BC received 184 injured survivors, of which 93% had secondary blast injuries and 15% were hospitalized. The AH, located 9 km from the HSBC site and 6 km from the BC, received 16 victims. The twin suicide truck bombings on 15 and 20 November 2003 were the two largest terrorist attacks in modern Turkish history, collectively killing 63 persons and injuring an estimated 750 others. The vast majority of victims had secondary blast injuries, which did not require hospitalization. Factors associated with the maldistribution of casualties to medical facilities appeared to include the distance from each bombing site, the type of medical facility, and the personal preference of injured survivors.

  18. On the anti-neutron bomb movement in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, T. van.

    1978-01-01

    The author reports on activities of the Dutch activists group Stop the neutron bomb in his country: Collection of signatures, statements made by about a hundred well-known theologians, two-thirds majority in parliament against the production and emplacement of the neutron bomb, International Forum 1978 in Amsterdam with mass demonstrations. President Carter is said to have been forced to delay the production of the neutron bomb temporarily by means of this international pressure. (HSCH) [de

  19. Non-cancer effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    A slight rearrangement of the data included in a recent report from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has shown differences between cardiovascular and other non-malignant diseases of A-bomb survivors which probably result from two factors: selection effects of early infection deaths and residual effects of marrow damage. Both effects were dose related but neither was obvious because one reduced the risk of later infection deaths and the other increased the risk. Allowance for these factors is bound to alter present RERF estimates for cancer effects of radiation and the change will probably be in an upward direction, thus bringing these estimates closer to ones based on radiation workers. (author)

  20. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  1. Low dose radiation risks for women surviving the a-bombs in Japan: generalized additive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Greg

    2016-11-24

    Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy. For all solid cancer incidence, RR estimated from 0 - 100 mGy and 0 - 20 mGy subcohorts is significantly raised. The response tapers above 150 mGy. At low doses, RR increases with age-at-exposure and decreases with time-since-exposure, the preferred covariate. Using the empirical cumulative distribution of dose improves model fit, and capacity to detect non-linear responses. RR is elevated over wide ranges of covariate values. Results are stable under simulation, or when removing exceptional data cells, or adjusting neutron RBE. Estimates of Excess RR at 10 mGy using the cumulative dose distribution are 10 - 45 times higher than extrapolations from a linear model fitted to the full cohort. Below 100 mGy, quasipoisson models find significant effects for all solid, squamous, uterus, corpus, and thyroid cancers, and for respiratory cancers when age-at-exposure > 35 yrs. Results for the thyroid are compatible with studies of children treated for tinea capitis, and Chernobyl survivors. Results for the uterus are compatible with studies of UK nuclear workers and the Techa River cohort. Non-linear models find large, significant cancer risks for Japanese women exposed to low dose radiation from the atomic bombings. The risks should be reflected in protection standards.

  2. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -...

  3. A search for genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1978-08-01

    A comparative study to detect possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of offspring of A-bomb survivors was made on a group of senior high school students 15 to 17 years of age born to survivors and to nonexposed parents in Hiroshima using as variables weight, sitting height, and chest circumference. Using data from students born to nonexposed parents, regression analysis was made to determine the effect of parental age on the weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of the offspring, but no statistically significant relation was observed. The mean and variance values of weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of offspring of nonexposed parents were compared to those of offspring born to exposed father and nonexposed mother, and of offspring born to exposed mother and nonexposed father, but very few statistically significant differences were found. The mean and variance values of weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of offspring born to nonexposed parents were compared to those of offspring born to parents both exposed, and again there were very few statistically significant differences. No specific tendency was observed in relation to the combined radiation dose of both parents. (author)

  4. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  5. Epidemiology of large intestinal cancer in Nagasaki city with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973∼1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shingo; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Sakai, Hidetaka; Matsuo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological studies were conducted on 1098 cases of large intestinal cancer (615 cases of colon cancer and 483 cases of rectum cancer) registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence in atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that in non-exposed persons, but the incidence in persons exposed at a young age tends to be higher, particularly the incidence of colon cancer in females. By site, about 56% of all colorectal cases investigated were shown to originate in the colon. In the colon, sigmoid cancer was the most frequent in both males and females, but there was no difference with regard to exposure status. In a comparison of the incidence during the first and second halves of the period examined, colorectal cancer revealed a general increasing trend, particularly for colon cancer in males and rectum cancer in females. Histologically, over 90% was differentiated adenocarcinoma and showed no difference by age, sex or exposure status. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that musinous carcinoma was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in non-exposed people. Further analysis of the incidence, site and histologic type of colorectal cancer, especially in the group exposed at a young age, is necessary. (author)

  6. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  7. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Manzar; Bari Muhammad Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed wi...

  8. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manzar; Bari, Muhammad-Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue. At 6 months'follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  9. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  10. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  11. Contraception for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepka, Jakub; Malmur, Mariusz; Zalewski, Kamil; Gózdz, Stanisław; Bidziński, Mariusz

    2013-11-01

    Modern methods of diagnosis and treatment allow for better survival outcomes and, more importantly, for higher curability of cancer. Female cancer survivors often need effective advice concerning the choice of birth control methods. The majority of gynecologists are reluctant to propose anything other than barrier methods due to lack of information concerning safe use of more effective contraceptives. The aim of the paper was to summarize indications and contraindications to different methods of contraception available to cancer survivors in Poland.

  12. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the aircraft...

  13. Radiographic study for sympathetic detonation of 500-lb bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flash radiography have determined the size and velocity vectors in the near field of fragments from tail- and side-initiated MK 82 MOD 1, general-purpose bombs. Excellent radiographs have been acquired from nine separate tests. Unlike arena tests, the radiographs were taken 75 to 125 cm from the case and show that the fragments peel off the case in long strips. A major concern in the design and execution of the experiments was the protection of the 450-kV x-ray heads and the film cassettes from fragments and blast produced by the 500-lb bombs. The velocity and size data, along with optical and electronic pin data, were used to characterize the fragments of the donor bomb in a donor-acceptor sympathetic detonation system study. The bombs were found to contain large shrink voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the explosive Tritonal fill. Characteristics of the fragments from the void side if the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the fragments characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. Such mitigation systems may be required for mass storage methods to meet the evolving insensitive munition requirements. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  14. A search for genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1978-10-01

    In a search for possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of offspring of A-bomb survivors a survey was made in 1965 on approximately 200,000 children of all primary schools, junior high schools, and senior high schools in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Of the collected data, those pertaining to senior high school students 15 to 17 years of age of Hiroshima City were analyzed to determine if there was any genetic effect of A-bomb radiation on stature. Comparisons were made with regard to the mean stature and variance of the offspring and the covariance and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and offspring for the exposed group and the nonexposed group. The observed differences included those with both positive and negative signs, but none were statistically significant nor did they demonstrate any specific tendency. A comparison was made with a similar study reported by Neel and Schull. Furthermore, estimation of the regression coefficients of the mean stature, variance, covariance, and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and offspring by parental radiation dose also did not show any specific tendency. Though the genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on stature could not be accurately estimated in the current series of analyses, the stature data of 6- to 14-year-old children in Hiroshima and those of 6- to 17-year-old children in Nagasaki Will soon be studied, which should permit a more comprehensive and extensive analysis and evaluation of the possible genetic effects of radiation on stature. (author)

  15. Delayed effects occurring within the first decade after exposure of young individuals to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1956-01-01

    The review of the literature and the data presented in this report describe the late effects of exposure of young subjects to ionizing radiation or to nuclear weapons as known in the early part of 1955. The new information may be useful in the further definition of the tolerance of humans to ionizing radiation. In 6 years ending in December 1954, 19 persons who were within 2100 meters of the hypocenter have developed leukemia before attaining the age of 19 years. The annual incidence of this disease among those who were within 1500 meters and who were younger than 19 years of age at the time of exposure is 1:1000. There are no cataracts that impair vision among the present pediatic group. An increased incidence of a mild visual disability, the cause of which is thus far indefinite, has been found among those now 16 through 19 years of age who were within 1800 meters of the bomb center. The incidence of chronic otitis media is the same for the 2 exposure groups, as are the means of the hematologic values for the patients with this ailment. There is no increase in the tumor incidence of the exposed children as compared with the nonexposed. There are no data to prove it, but the impression is that among the survivors the fear of late effects may be common and potentially disabling. Of those 19 years of age and younger, there were 2771 within 3000 meters of the hypocenter at the time of detonation of the bomb who were examined in 1954. Twenty-four of these had sequelae of the blast or thermal effects of the bomb other than well-heated scars. No other abnormalities related to atomic bomb exposure have been identified.

  16. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  17. The health and welfare of rural and urban cancer survivors in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Homan, Sherri; Weaver, Kathryn E; Jeffe, Donna B; Yun, Shumei

    2013-09-12

    An estimated 2.8 million cancer survivors reside in rural areas in the United States. We compared the risk behaviors, psychosocial factors, health outcomes, quality of life, and follow-up care of rural and urban cancer survivors in Missouri. We used 2009-2010 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine various health outcomes, behaviors, and psychosocial factors among rural and urban cancer survivors and their respective rural and urban counterparts without a cancer history. Cancer survivors also were asked about receipt of survivorship care plan components. Sociodemographic factors, access to medical care, and chronic conditions were examined as potential explanatory factors for differences among the 4 groups. An estimated 9.4% of rural and 7.9% of urban Missourians aged 18 years or older reported a cancer history. Rural survivors reported the highest rates of poor self-reported health, physical distress, and activity limitation; however differences between rural and urban survivors were attributable largely to sociodemographic differences. Both rural and urban cancer survivors reported more fatigue than their respective counterparts without a cancer history. Rural survivors also were less likely to meet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for physical activity than their rural controls. The prevalence of smoking among rural survivors was higher than among urban survivors. Only 62% of rural survivors versus 78% of urban survivors reported receiving advice about cancer follow-up care. Rural cancer survivors face many health challenges. Interventions to improve quality of life and health behaviors should be adapted to meet the needs of rural cancer survivors.

  18. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. What Survivors Want: Understanding the Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro-Kramer, Michelle L.; Dulin, Alexandra C.; Gaither, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sexual assault is a pervasive crime on our college campuses and many survivors do not seek post-assault resources. This study will explore components of alternative interventions to consider in the development of campus-based interventions for sexual assault survivors. Participants: Three stakeholder groups including survivors (n = 8),…

  20. Survivor shielding. Part C. Improvements in terrain shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.; Kaul, Dean C.; Roberts, James A.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    A number of atomic-bomb survivors were affected by shielding provided by terrain features. These terrain features can be a small hill, affecting one or two houses, or a high mountain that shields large neighborhoods. In the survivor dosimetry system, terrain shielding can be described by a transmission factor (TF), which is the ratio between the dose with and without the terrain present. The terrain TF typically ranges between 0.1 and 1.0. After DS86 was implemented at RERF, the terrain shielding categories were examined and found to either have a bias or an excessive uncertainty that could readily be removed. In 1989, an improvement in the terrain model was implemented at RERF in the revised DS86 code, but the documentation was not published. It is now presented in this section. The solution to the terrain shielding in front of a house is described in this section. The problem of terrain shielding of survivors behind Hijiyama mountain at Hiroshima and Konpirasan mountain at Nagasaki has also been recognized, and a solution to this problem has been included in DS02. (author)

  1. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  2. Dirty bombs: assesment of radiological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunovic, D.; Koukouliou, V.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries, regulatory control of radioactive sources, used extensively in medicine and industry, remains weak. Global concerns about the security and safety of radioactive sources escalated following the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. There are fears that some radioactive sources could be used by terrorists as radiological dispersal devices (RDD's), or so called 'dirty bombs'. The radioactive material dispersed, depending on the amount and intensity, could cause radiation sickness for a limited number of people nearby if, for example, they inhaled large amounts of radioactive dust. But the most severe tangible impacts would likely be the economic costs and social disruption associated with the evacuation and subsequent clean-up of contaminated property. It has been shown that usage of realistic data in a first response decision making as to avoid inappropriate public reaction accompanied by economic and social consequences is necessary.(author)

  3. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  4. Who are the cancer survivors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovaldt, Hanna Birkbak; Suppli, N P; Olsen, M H

    2015-01-01

    was compared by social position with the non-cancer population. Results: Cancer survivors composed 4% of the Danish population. Somatic comorbidity was more likely among survivors (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.57-1.60) and associated with higher age, male sex, short education, and living alone among survivors...

  5. Study on defense function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in A-bomb survivors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Suzuki, Kazuo; Imanaka, Fumio; Sakatani, Tatsuichiro; Fujikura, Toshio; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents data on lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion production in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from 91 exposed persons and 105 non-exposed persons matched for age and sex. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and β-glucuronidase (BGL) activities in PMN supernatants and % release of released activity divided by total activity were determined. Superoxide anion production was stimulated with synthetic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalamine and/or cytochalasin B. There was a significant influence of exposure doses on MPO activity (p < 0.05), although this was of borderline significance in the % release. BGL activity was independent of exposure doses. Age did not influence MPO activity but influenced BGL activity only marginally. The two enzyme activities seemed to be age-dependent. Regarding superoxide anion production, there was no influence of exposure doses. However, there was a significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups in the superoxide anion production. Neither sex nor age had any effect on it. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Early detection of abnormality by a logistic analysis of atomic bomb survivor's serially performed examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Toyoda, Shigeki; Morikawa, Akira.

    1986-01-01

    It is important to establish a method of using periodic medical examination results for disease screening. A method is described of logistically analyzing results from four or more periodic examinations for the early detection of abnormality. This method was applied to 308 patients who died of gastric cancer and 3,002 normal controls. The logistic analysis showed that the ability to differentiate normal from abnormal findings was better when using the results of the periodic examinations than when using the data of the one particular examination. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes in aplastic anemia among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Nobutaka; Inada, Tominari; Asaoku, Hideki; Abe, Kazuhiro; Oguma, Nobuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1986-01-01

    In 6 patients with aplastic anemia and 3 patients with pernicious anemia, lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood were measured, before and after steroid therapy, with a fluorescence-activated cell sorder using various monoclonal antibodies. The ratio of OKT4-positive lymphocytes (T4) to OKT8-positive lymphocytes (T8) in the peripheral blood was reduced in 2 patients (20 %). The T4/T8 ratio returned to normal during remission of anemia. Hematological improvement was seen after a large amount of steroid therapy in 3 patients. The number of Tac-positive cells tended to decrease and the T4/T8 ratio tended to return to normal with hematological improvement, although there was no correlation to hydrocortisone reaction. Some patients were supposed to have abnormal number of suppressor and inducer T cells. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masaki.

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning a number of environmental and individual factors was obtained by a mail questionnaire survey conducted in 1965 on 11,724 males aged 40 - 69 years in the JNIHABCC Life Span Study sample. In the ensuing 10 year period, some 2,834 deaths occurred in this population. This is a study of mortality as related to certain environmental and socioeconomic factors. The following observations may be made from this study: high death rates for all causes of death, cerebrovascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and stomach cancer were associated with lower socioeconomic status. Smoking was a significant risk factor for all causes of death, ischemic heart disease, all malignant neoplasms, stomach cancer, and cancers of the trachea, bronchus, and lung. The death rate for cardiovascular disease was significantly higher for those with higher body weight. A tendency was noted for higher death rates for all causes, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and stomach cancer for those who were married earlier in life. This may be related to age at first marriage and social status. (author)

  9. Statistical analysis on main cause of death among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the patho-statistical analysis in 2306 autopsied patients (1237 exposed patients and 1069 non-exposed patients), focusing on the difference in the main cause of death between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The most common cause of death was malignancy in both exposed and non-exposed groups. The incidence of cardiovascular, respiratory tract, and hematologic diseases was higher in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The incidence of various types of malignancy varied in the following order: lung cancer > stomach cancer > leukemia > liver cancer in patients exposed at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero; stomach cancer > lung cancer > liver cancer > leukemia in those exposed at > 2,000 m or who were not in city; and liver cancer > stomach cancer > lung cancer > leukemia in non-exposed patients. Cancers of the lung and stomach were more frequently observed in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The incidence of stomach cancer tended to increase with aging in the exposed group, as opposed to that of leukemia, although still observed in younger patients, decreasing with time. Older women tended to have liver cancer more frequently in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; however, this tendency was not seen in men. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. An overview of the cancer mortality data on the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.

    1989-11-01

    A brief description is given of the cancer mortality data at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, with the aim of providing some general perspective on the extent of the excess cancer mortality, for those who may not be inclined to glean this information from the more comprehensive reports on the Life Span Study. In addition, a summary is given of the changes in dosimetry given by the recently installed DS86 system. Even a cursory view of these changes requires consideration of several factors; changes in air doses, in environmental and organ shielding factors, in the extent of the neutron component, and in effects of truncation of exposures at 6 Gy. Finally, a brief discussion is given of the evolution of radiogenic cancer risk estimates during the past 10-15 years. (author)

  11. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ezaki, Haruo; Nishimori, Issei.

    1985-10-01

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

  12. Comments on ''ESR dosimetry for atomic bomb survivors and radiologic technologists''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, J.E.; Pass, B.

    1988-01-01

    After renormalization it has been shown that the data of Tatsumi-Miyajima agree very closely with our data. It is suggested that further information on the origin of the radiation exposure could be obtained by using the differential attenuation properties of the tooth itself. (orig.)

  13. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Land, C.E.; Yamamoto, T.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.

    1987-01-01

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did not differ between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women under 10 years of age at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any time during the first four decades of life, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. An unresolved question is whether breast cancer risk is increased by radiation exposure at ages older than 40

  14. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  15. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  16. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  17. Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  18. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  19. Hitlers' bomb. The secret story of Germanys' nuclear weapon tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, R.

    2005-01-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. (GL) [de

  20. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  1. Dirty bombs : the technical aspects of radiological dispersion devices

    OpenAIRE

    Visger, Benjamin Felix

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Considering the ever-rising threat of terrorist attack and disruption of the economy and of daily activity, the potential strength of a radiological dispersion device must be evaluated. A "dirty bomb" is a weapon in the terrorist arsenal that is highly effective in creating chaos, panic and disruption. All of the immediate deaths caused by a "dirty bomb" are due to blast effects, however the public association with radiation and nucle...

  2. Differential effects of atomic bomb irradiation in inducing major leukemia types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Carter, R.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report we utilize data from the additional 517 cases from the leukemia registry together with the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort data to study the effects of atomic bomb irradiation on major leukemia types. The French-American-British classification and other improved diagnostic methods were used to reclassify cases into 21 categories, including new disease entities such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). These categories were then grouped into four major types for analysis: (1) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), (2) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), (3) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and (4) OTHER types including ATL. Analyses of radiation effects were based on the updated Dosimetry System 1986(DS86). Incidence rates of all four leukemia types increased with increasing exposure level. The effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidence of ALL and CML than on that of AML and OTHER. In the two lowest dose categories (1-49 and 50-499 mGy), estimated incidence either remained constant or increased slightly as the population of survivors aged. In the two highest dose categories (500-1,499 and ≥ 1,500 mGy). Among unexposed persons, the estimated risk of CML in Nagasaki relative to Hiroshima was significantly less than that of AML, whereas that of OTHER types was significantly greater. The time to onset of ALL, AML, and CML declined with increasing dose. The rate of decline, however, was greater for ALL and CML than for AML. The resulting differences at high doses reflect shorter incubation times for atomic-bomb-induced ALL and CML than for AML. (J.P.N.)

  3. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  4. Permanent resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  5. ELLERMAN BOMBS WITH JETS: CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Scullion, E.; Gallagher, P. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Shelyag, S., E-mail: areid29@qub.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2015-05-20

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5–10 km s{sup −1}, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s{sup −1}. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  6. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2000-01-01

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  7. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    In January 1949, Norris Bradbury gave a lecture at the National War College which summarized the progress Los Alamos had made since the end of the war. The transcript of the talk was filed and forgotten until it surfaced fifty years later. It is, perhaps, one of the best summaries of the state of the United States nuclear weapons program in 1949. It is also evidence of how Bradbury saw the future of atomic weapons. It is presented in full, with minor editing, and begins as follows: Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  8. Characterizing the Performance of Pipe Bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Bernier, Evan T; Sandstrom, Fredrick; Weiss, Gregory G; Recht, Gunther W; Schatzer, David

    2018-01-01

    Pipe bombs of steel or PVC fragment in reproducible patterns when similarly configured. The power of the explosion correlates with number, mass, and size of the fragments recovered, where a large number of small, low-mass fragments indicate a high-power event and vice versa. In discussing performance, describing pipe fragmentation pattern by fragment weight distribution mapping (FWDM) or fragment surface area distribution mapping (FSADM) was useful. When fillers detonated, detonation velocities of ~4.4 mm/μs were measured. In such cases, side walls of the pipe were thrown first; the average fragment velocity was ~1000 km/s. In deflagrations, the end cap was first thrown; fragment velocities were only ~240 km/s. Blast overpressures varied; at 10 feet, 2 × 12 inch steel pipes containing ~550 g of detonable mixture produced overpressures of 5-6 psi; similar nondetonating pipes produced less than 2 psi. Maximum fragment throw distances were 250-300 m, with an average of ~100 m. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Simulating an Exploding Fission-Bomb Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    A time-dependent desktop-computer simulation of the core of an exploding fission bomb (nuclear weapon) has been developed. The simulation models a core comprising a mixture of two isotopes: a fissile one (such as U-235) and an inert one (such as U-238) that captures neutrons and removes them from circulation. The user sets the enrichment percentage and scattering and fission cross-sections of the fissile isotope, the capture cross-section of the inert isotope, the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the number of ``initiator'' neutrons, the radius of the core, and the neutron-reflection efficiency of a surrounding tamper. The simulation, which is predicated on ordinary kinematics, follows the three-dimensional motions and fates of neutrons as they travel through the core. Limitations of time and computer memory render it impossible to model a real-life core, but results of numerous runs clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical mass for a given set of parameters and the dramatic effects of enrichment and tamper efficiency on the growth (or decay) of the neutron population. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  10. Iraqi violence, Saudi attack and further bombings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)

  11. Sources of Radioactive Isotopes for Dirty Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, Joel

    2004-05-01

    From the security perspective, radioisotopes and radioactive sources are not created equal. Of the many radioisotopes used in industrial applications, medical treatments, and scientific research, only eight, when present in relatively large amounts in radioactive sources, pose high security risks primarily because of their prevalence and physical properties. These isotopes are americium-241, californium-252, cesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, radium-226, plutonium-238, and strontium-90. Except for the naturally occurring radium-226, nuclear reactors produce the other seven in bulk commercial quantities. Half of these isotopes emit alpha radiation and would, thus, primarily pose internal threats to health; the others are mainly high-energy gamma emitters and would present both external and internal health hazards. Therefore, the response to a "dirty bomb" event depends on what type of radioisotope is chosen and how it is employed. While only a handful of major corporations produce the reactor-generated radioisotopes, they market these materials to thousands of smaller companies and users throughout the world. Improving the security of the high-risk radioactive sources will require, among other efforts, cooperation among source suppliers and regulatory agencies.

  12. MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATION IN ELLERMAN BOMBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Nelson, C. J.; Henriques, V. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Scullion, E. [Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Ray, T., E-mail: areid29@qub.ac.uk [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2016-06-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found to be co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use H α imaging spectroscopy along with Fe i 6302.5 Å spectropolarimetry from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory , to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. Using NICOLE inversions of the spectropolarimetric data, we find that, on average, (3.43 ± 0.49) × 10{sup 24} erg of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during EB burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 10{sup 14}–10{sup 15} Mx s{sup −1} and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate the near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux, resulting in the formation of the EBs. We also show that these EBs can be fueled further by additional, faster moving, negative magnetic flux regions.

  13. Characteristics of colon cancer among atomic bomb exposure obtained from autopsy specimen at data and specimens center of atomic bomb disaster at Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology of Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiro; Kagawa, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Kiichi; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masami

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy data of colon cancer from 135 A-bomb survivors (Group A) found during the period 1952-1981 were analyzed in terms of sex, age, site of occurrence, distance from the hypocenter, and histology. Control data were collected from 72 patients with surgery or biopsy proven colon cancer (Group B) found during the period 1983-1987. Patients consisted of 76 men and 59 women in Group A, and 44 men and 28 women in Group B. According to age groups, patients aged ≤50 years, between the ages of 51 and 70, and ≥71 years accounted for 16%, 44%, and 40%, respectively, in Group A. The corresponding figures in Group B were 18%, 36%, and 46%. The commonest site in Group A was the rectum (45.9%), followed by the descending colon and sigmoid colon (27.4%), and the ileocecum and ascending colon (20%). In Group B, the descending colon and sigmoid colon were the commonest site (41.7%), followed by the rectum (40.3%) and the ileocecum and ascending colon (9.7%). Patients in Group A tended to have colon cancer on the right side; it was observed in 23% of A-bomb survivors exposed at up to 2500 m from the hypocenter and in 14.8% of those exposed at a distance of over 2500 m. Histology revealed well differentiated adenocarcinoma in 78% in both groups. Both poorly differentiated and mucocellular adenocarcinomas occupied 13.4% in Group A, as compared with 4.2% in Group B. (N.K.)

  14. Contraception for Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Hess, Rachel; Trussell, James

    2009-01-01

    Women who have survived cancer may need guidance in choosing a method of contraception. This paper reviews the evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of available methods of contraception for cancer survivors and concludes that the Copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD), a highly effective, reversible, long-acting, hormone-free method should be considered a first-line contraceptive option for women with a history of a hormonally mediated cancer. However, the levonorgestrel-containing IUD...

  15. Telestroke in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jacques; Joubert, Lynette B; de Bustos, Elizabeth Medeiros; Ware, Dallas; Jackson, David; Harrison, Terrence; Cadilhac, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a high-frequency disorder placing a significant burden on the health care systems, being the foremost cause of complex chronic disability in adults. Devising systems that can enhance the prevention of stroke recurrence is an important priority and challenge in both the developed and the developing world. The potential for recurrent stroke can be substantially reduced by effective management of vascular risk factors. Telestroke is a tool with potential application to improve risk management of stroke survivors. Lack of acknowledgment of existing practices as well as lack of awareness of potential financial barriers to diffusion of telestroke can lead to limited implementation. Telestroke offers service providers the opportunity to access large numbers of stroke survivors targeting secondary prevention. The ideal 'telestroke model' provides service support, education for the patient and caregiver, as well as integration of specialist and primary care services. Effective use of technological advances, with adequate recognition of the importance of human interaction in the long-term management of a largely elderly population of stroke survivors is challenging but possible. Telestroke should be systems- and not technology-driven. Barriers in the implementation of telestroke have been identified as insufficient planning of IT infrastructure, lack of long-term vision for sustainability, a lack of contextual perspective as well as poor communication across domains. Future telestroke models should provide effective action in an integrated model of care recognizing and involving all existing players and practices. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth

    2007-01-01

    time and life; (2) awareness of time increases, time is verbalized and reflected; and (3) the informants appropriate time. A diagnosis of cancer, even for a survivor, means a confrontation with death. It means a disruption of continuous clock and calendar time. Survivors appropriate time......, and prioritize how and with whom they want to spend their time. CONCLUSION: With an increasing number of people being cured following a cancer diagnosis, nurses and oncology nurse specialists who work with cancer survivors must be aware of the fact that time is a central theme in understanding cancer survivors...

  17. The course of postdisaster psychiatric disorders in directly exposed civilians after the US Embassy bombing in Nairobi, Kenya: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gus; North, Carol S; Narayanan, Pushpa; Kim, You-Seung; Thielman, Samuel; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2013-02-01

    While disasters are common in Africa, disaster studies in Africa are underrepresented in the published literature. This study prospectively examined the longitudinal course of psychopathology, coping, and functioning among 128 directly exposed Kenyan civilian survivors of the 1998 US Embassy bombing in Nairobi. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement assessed predisaster and postdisaster psychiatric disorders and variables related to coping, functioning, safety, and religion near the end of the first and third postdisaster years. Total postdisaster prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at the 3-year follow-up was 49; 28% of the sample still had active PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD was not observed. Posttraumatic symptoms decayed more slowly in individuals with than those without PTSD. PTSD was more prevalent and chronic than major depression. Those with current PTSD or major depression reported more functioning problems than those without. The length of hospitalization for injuries after the bombing predicted major depression remission, but no predictors of PTSD remission were found. Despite differences in coping and social variables, longitudinal psychopathology in the Nairobi terrorism survivors appeared broadly similar to results in Western disaster populations. These findings contribute to the understanding of disaster mental health in Africa and may have implications for generalizability of psychiatric effects of terrorist attacks around the globe.

  18. Maladaptive behavior in survivors: dysexecutive survivor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to answer the question: why does normal, goal-directed, purposeful, and coordinated behavior fragment in a survival situation? Events accompanying the initial impact phase of a survival incident are characterized by speed, danger, violence, and uncontrollability. The following recoil phase is known to produce behavioral and cognitive impairment that leads to a reduced ability to produce a response that is meaningful and may result in tonic immobility. The author argues that the commonly witnessed responses among survivors comprise a subset of known behaviors, including loss of initiative, stereotypy, perseveration of thought and action, hyperkinesia, hypokinesia, and, in extreme cases, akinesia or cognitive paralysis. These behaviors are characteristic of executive dysfunction and a model is given suggesting how this condition may arise under survival conditions. The case is presented that during the initial phase of a survival incident, victims show a transient, nonclinical dysexecutive syndrome. This model should aid survival training and provide a context for conducting behavioral autopsies by accident investigators.

  19. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  20. Impact of the terrorist bombings of the Hong Kong Shanghai Bank Corporation headquarters and the British Consulate on two hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, in November 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkümen; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Yücel, Tayfun; Tokyay, Rifat; Ersoy, Gurkan; Cetiner, Serkan

    2005-07-01

    The authors sought to estimate the impact of the terrorist bombings of the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation headquarters and the British consulate in Istanbul, Turkey, on November 20, 2003, on two nearby hospitals, in terms of epidemiologic outcomes, resource utilization, and time course of emergency needs. The authors used data from hospital records of injured survivors who used the emergency departments (EDs) at the Taksim Education and Research State Hospital (TERSH) and the American Hospital (AH) in Istanbul on November 20, 2003, to determine the totals and rates of mortality (early, late, and critical), injury, critical injury (Injury Severity Score > 15), ED use, hospitalization, operative care, and in-hospital overtriage and the time intervals of ED arrival. The TERSH received 184 victims in the first hour after the initial blast, of which 88 (48%) were brought by emergency medical services, 171 (93%) had lacerations, 7 (4%) had penetrating eye injuries, 28 (15%) were hospitalized, 18 (10%) received operative care, and 7 (4%) were critically injured. Three deaths occurred in critically injured survivors, including one early death in the operating room and two late deaths on days 5 and 6. The AH received 16 victims, of which 14 (88%) had lacerations, 3 (19%) were hospitalized, 2 (13%) received operative care, and 1 (6%) was critically injured. An additional 4 victims were transferred to the AH from other hospitals, of which 3 were hospitalized and none were critically injured. No early or late deaths occurred. Mortality, injury, and hospitalization rates at both hospitals were consistent with previous reports of open-air mass-casualty terrorist bombings. The TERSH experienced an unprecedented demand for ED surge capacity in an open-air bombing.

  1. Reassessing the Bunbury Bombing: Juxtaposition of Political and Media Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate O’Donnell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an Australian newspaper’s coverage of the bombing of an export port terminal in Bunbury, Western Australia on 19 July, 1976. We wanted to see how The West Australian newspaper framed the story, its precursor events, and the events that followed. We were particularly interested in whether the bombing was reported as an act of terrorism because the then Premier of Western Australia, Sir Charles Court, immediately decried it as “a gross act of terrorism.” We find the newspaper resisted the lure to apply this label, and couched the story in terms of serious criminality. However, it did so before the 1978 Hilton Hotel bombing; an event the news media heralded as the “arrival” of terrorism in Australia. Also, this occurred before what could be argued the sensationalist and politicised reporting of terror-related events became normalised.

  2. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  3. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  4. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14 C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14 C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14 C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14 C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  5. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up.

  6. Rehabilitation interventions for cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of three contextual parameteres in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. It is based on ethonographic fieldwork.......The present study examines the influence of three contextual parameteres in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. It is based on ethonographic fieldwork....

  7. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  8. The Bali bombing: the Royal Darwin Hospital response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Didier J; Stephens, Dianne; Fisher, Dale A; Spain, Brian; Read, David J; Notaras, Len

    2003-10-06

    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, injured Australians were evacuated to Darwin. The first patients arrived at the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) 26 hours after the blasts. RDH assessed and resuscitated 61 patients (including 20 intensive care patients, with 15 requiring ventilation, 19 surgery and more than 20 escharotomies). RDH evacuated 48 patients to burns centres around Australia within 36 hours of the first patient arrivals at the hospital and 62 hours after the bomb blasts. The response was successful, but improvements are needed in coordination between the different groups involved in such operations.

  9. Why didn't Hitler get the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevassus-au-Louis, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author reports his historical studies on the Nazi's nuclear activities as, by the end of the 1930's, Germany was probably the leader in this domain. He mentions and describes the various programs that were launched between 1939 and 1945, discusses some evidences related to the fact that the Germans probably tried to master nuclear energy production, and that they might have tested a weapon containing fissile materials (probably a dirty bomb). The author analyses the reasons of the failure of this nuclear sector: a lack of organization, war and bombings, and a relative lack of interest of political authorities

  10. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  11. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  12. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  13. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  14. Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Robert T.; Barnes, John M.; Azmy, Yousry Y.; Kerr, George D.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Cullings, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the f