WorldWideScience

Sample records for bomb attack investigation

  1. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Phillips; Lourdes Prieto; Manuel Fondevila; Antonio Salas; Antonio Gómez-Tato; José Alvarez-Dios; Antonio Alonso; Alejandro Blanco-Verea; María Brión; Marta Montesino; Angel Carracedo; María Victoria Lareu

    2009-01-01

    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a...

  2. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    Full Text Available The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48. Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The

  3. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  4. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  5. Research on First Attack Probability Model of an Attacker Level Bombing Anti-air Radars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Peng-cheng; MU Fu-ling; ZHOU Jing-lun

    2007-01-01

    The paper mainly studies the first attack probability (FAP) of an attacker level bombing anti-air radars through analyzing the radiant point orientation and attack (RPOA) process of attackers. Firstly, the searching target process is analyzed, and a corresponding target finding model is brought forward. Secondly, the target approaching process is concretely analyzed when the attacker levelly bombs the anti-air radar, and a corresponding target approaching model is presented. Finally, a demonstration is given to analyze the major factors in the model and prove its validity.

  6. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (200...

  7. Indicators of the need for ICU admission following suicide bombing attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Miklosh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Critical hospital resources, especially the demand for ICU beds, are usually limited following mass casualty incidents such as suicide bombing attacks (SBA. Our primary objective was to identify easily diagnosed external signs of injury that will serve as indicators of the need for ICU admission. Our secondary objective was to analyze under- and over-triage following suicidal bombing attacks. Methods A database was collected prospectively from patients who were admitted to Hadassah University Hospital Level I Trauma Centre, Jerusalem, Israel from August 2001-August 2005 following a SBA. One hundred and sixty four victims of 17 suicide bombing attacks were divided into two groups according to ICU and non-ICU admission. Results There were 86 patients in the ICU group (52.4% and 78 patients in the non-ICU group (47.6%. Patients in the ICU group required significantly more operating room time compared with patients in the non-ICU group (59.3% vs. 25.6%, respectively, p = 0.0003. For the ICU group, median ICU stay was 4 days (IQR 2 to 8.25 days. On multivariable analysis only the presence of facial fractures (p = 0.014, peripheral vascular injury (p = 0.015, injury ≥ 4 body areas (p = 0.002 and skull fractures (p = 0.017 were found to be independent predictors of the need for ICU admission. Sixteen survivors (19.5% in the ICU group were admitted to the ICU for one day only (ICU-LOS = 1 and were defined as over-triaged. Median ISS for this group was significantly lower compared with patients who were admitted to the ICU for > 1 day (ICU-LOS > 1. This group of over-triaged patients could not be distinguished from the other ICU patients based on external signs of trauma. None of the patients in the non-ICU group were subsequently transferred to the ICU. Conclusions Our results show that following SBA, injury to ≥ 4 areas, and certain types of injuries such as facial and skull fractures, and peripheral vascular injury, can serve

  8. Forensics Investigation of Web Application Security Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Lazzez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the security attacks targeting a web application every day, and hence improve its security. The aim of this paper is to carry out a detailed overview about the web application forensics. First, we define the web applications forensics, and we present a taxonomic structure of the digital forensics. Then, we present the methodology of a web application forensics investigation. After that, we illustrate the forensics supportive tools for a web application forensics investigation. After that, we present a detailed presentation of a set of the main considered web application forensics tools. Finally, we provide a comparison of the main considered web application forensics tools.

  9. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass examinations of the stomach were performed on 13,412 a-bomb survivors from Oct. 1975 to Mar. 1979. The necessity rate for detailed examinations was 13.6% on the average, and it was a little lower than the average in Japan. That in women was higher than that in men. The performance rate of detailed examinations was very high (91.8%), which might be influenced by active appeals to have detailed examinations. The estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer was 0.27% on the average, and it was higher than that in mass examinations of Chugoku and Shikoku districts. A relationship between the estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer and exposure conditions was not clarified. The discovery rate of stomach cancer was supposed to be influenced strongly by aging of a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Investigation of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourty two cases of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors experienced between 1971 and 1975 were compared to non-exposure cases with lung cancer, and discussed. The mean age of A-bomb survivors with lung cancer was 68.7 year old, and that of control cases was 60 year old. The incidence ratio of male to female in the group was 4 : 1, and that of control group was 5 : 1. Occupation was one of the predisposing causes, but patients who had engaged in the occupation which was considered to predispose lung cancer were three. Among 39 patients with lung cancer whose smoking histories were clarified, 20.5 per cent was nonsmoker, and 69.3 per cent was heavy smoker. Among 39 patients whose cancer histories were clarified, 28.2 per cent of the patients had family history of cancer. Subjective symptoms of this disease were cough, sputum, bloody sputum and chest pain, and some had no symptoms. Seventeen cases (40.5 per cent) were detected in the physical examination for the A-bomb survivors. For the early detection of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors, patients with high risk should be selected to have received clearly established diagnosis. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was seen in many cases, following adenoma, and undifferenciated large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Disturbances in pulmonary functions were obstructive ventilation, high rate of residual air, lowered diffusions ability. Therapy was operation in stage I, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in stage II and stage III. (Kanao, N.)

  11. Investigation for effects of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki. γ-ray measurements by Neher electrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neher electrometer, invented as an equipment to investigate the relationship of cosmic ray and terrestrial magnetism in 1930s, had excellent properties as an equipment to measure γ-ray outdoor and thus was used for measurement of radiation exposure after A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Nagasaki, measurement with this equipment enabled to locate the bombing center where the monument is standing now in the A-bomb Park. Measurement also revealed that the circular earth surface of 2000 m diameter had the induced radioactivity by neutron and that outside the area, the γ-ray intensity was virtually similar to the background level. Ash composing of Pu and other fission products moved over Konpira-san on the west wind, most of which came down with rainfall onto around Nishiyama reservoir. In the A-bomb movies, there is a scene that Neher electrometer was working for γ-ray measurement. (K.H.)

  12. Investigation for effects of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki. {gamma}-ray measurements by Neher electrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Ryohei [Nishina Memorial Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Neher electrometer, invented as an equipment to investigate the relationship of cosmic ray and terrestrial magnetism in 1930s, had excellent properties as an equipment to measure {gamma}-ray outdoor and thus was used for measurement of radiation exposure after A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Nagasaki, measurement with this equipment enabled to locate the bombing center where the monument is standing now in the A-bomb Park. Measurement also revealed that the circular earth surface of 2000 m diameter had the induced radioactivity by neutron and that outside the area, the {gamma}-ray intensity was virtually similar to the background level. Ash composing of Pu and other fission products moved over Konpira-san on the west wind, most of which came down with rainfall onto around Nishiyama reservoir. In the A-bomb movies, there is a scene that Neher electrometer was working for {gamma}-ray measurement. (K.H.)

  13. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  14. Investigation of Sulfate Attack by Experimental and Thermodynamic Means

    OpenAIRE

    Kunther, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates sulfate attack in complex sulfate environments by exposing different binder types to various sulfate solutions and comparing predicted phase and volume changes with experimental data. The most important aspects of this work can be grouped in three topics: The comparison of the predicted volume increase with the experimentally observed length changes. This part of the work shows that volume increase cannot be linked direct...

  15. DNS Pharming through PHP Injection: Attack Scenario and Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Rishi Sahu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in technology, Internet has provided set of tools and technologies which has enabled web programmers to develop effective websites. PHP is most widely used server side scripting language and more than twenty million of web sites are designed through PHP. It has used as a core script in Web Content Management System (WCMS, such as Joomla, WordPress, Drupal, SilverStripe etc. PHP has also security flaws due to the certain vulnerabilities such as PHP injection, remote file inclusion and unauthorized file creation. PHP injection is a variant of code injection attacks in which PHP script may be exploited to execute remote commands. The contribution of this paper is twofold: First, it presents a unifying view of PHP injection vulnerability, which causes alteration in the 'hosts file'; Second, It introduces an investigation process against alteration in 'hosts file' through PHP injection. This attack has been introduced as a type of DNS pharming. In this investigation process a chain of evidence has been created and an algebraic signature has been developed to detect explained attack.

  16. Love Bomb

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Love Bomb charts evidence of love and hate through a series of still lives constructed and informed by sourcery, chemistry and psychotherapy. The photographic work is a response to the breakup of relationship and metaphorical investigation of the links between the two emotions on wider scale. Restlessly the artist documents her attempts to stay in love, searching for love potions on the internet then making and photographing them in her studio. Interspersed amongst these attempts is the docum...

  17. Investigation of stomach disease in atomic bomb survivors. The 12th report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation can be an additional risk factor of stomach cancer (SC), of which major risk is said to be H. pylori infection in Japanese. This study was performed to see the correlation between A-bomb exposure and SC prevalence based on results of mass survey for stomach disease done from 2000 to 2009. Primary survey of A-bomb survivors was conducted by simple roentgenography followed by detailed examination of suspicious subjects for SC with gastric endoscope. Subjects with the detected cancer were classified in 3 groups of exposure situation of within-1.9 km close to (C), 2.0 km-distant from (D), and entrance in (E), the Hiroshima City. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test, and by relative and proportional attributable risk assumed on Poisson distribution. The total number of the survey subject was 65,864 involving 32,281 men. The proportion of subjects receiving the detailed examination was found as high as 89.3% (2000) and 93.9% (2009), and detection rate of SC was 0.34% in 2009 in contrast to the previous 0.25%. Relative and attributable risks of SC in C survivors were 2.24 and 55.8%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in D and E survivors. Proportion of SC at an early stage, 52.5%, was significantly lower in C survivors than that in E survivors, 68.4%. Further investigation was thought necessary as ICRP Pub 103 (2007) had concerned carcinogenic risk even at low dose (<20 mSv). (T.T.)

  18. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  19. Human bombing - a religious act

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of human bombing, which is popularly known as suicide bombing has become important in the Western world since the 9/11 and 7/7 attacks. Since then the issue of human bombing has become important to academia, the media, and security experts. This interest has resulted in much literature attempting to explain why human bombings take place and what motivates the bombers; for instance, the works of Gambetta (2006); Pape (2006); Merari (2010); Hafez (2006, 2007); Wright (2007); Bloom (20...

  20. Investigating bomb radiocarbon transport in the southern Pacific Ocean with otolith radiocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, G. L.; Fallon, S. J.; Izzo, C.; Wood, R.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    To explore the transport of carbon into water masses from the surface ocean to depths of ∼ 1000 m in the southwest Pacific Ocean, we generated time series of radiocarbon (Δ14C) from fish otoliths. Otoliths (carbonate earstones) from long-lived fish provide an indirect method to examine the "bomb pulse" of radiocarbon that originated in the 1950s and 1960s, allowing identification of changes to distributions of 14C that has entered and mixed within the ocean. We micro-sampled ocean perch (Helicolenus barathri) otoliths, collected at ∼ 400- 500 m in the Tasman Sea, to obtain measurements of Δ14C for those depths. We compared our ocean perch Δ14C series to published otolith-based marine surface water Δ14C values (Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) and nannygai (Centroberyx affinis)) and to published deep-water values (800-1000 m; orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)) from the southwest Pacific to establish a mid-water Δ14C series. The otolith bomb 14C results from these different depths were consistent with previous water mass results in the upper 1500 m of the southwest Pacific Ocean (e.g. World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Geochemical Ocean Sections Study). A comparison between the initial Δ14C bomb pulse rise at 400-500 m suggested a ventilation lag of 5 to 10 yr, whereas a comparison of the surface and depths of 800-1000 m detailed a 10 to 20 yr lag in the time history of radiocarbon invasion at this depth. Pre-bomb reservoir ages derived from otolith 14C located in Tasman Sea thermocline waters were ∼ 530 yr, while reservoir ages estimated for Tasman Antarctic intermediate water were ∼ 730 yr.

  1. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution of mortality risk in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-01-01

    While there are a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct expo...

  2. Investigation of cardio-vascular reflex in atomic bomb survivors, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrographic R-R interval variation was examined in a total of 915 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter (the ≤ 2,000 m group) and a total of 1,162 A-bomb survivors exposed at >3,000 m or entered the city after the A-bombing (the >3,000 m group). Coefficient of variation (CV) for R-R interval variation on ECG tended to be decreased with advancing age in the >3,000 m group, irrespective of sex. Especially for men in this group, CV values were significantly lower for the age group of 45 to 54 years than the groups of 65 to 74 years and 75 to 84 years. Similar tendency was observed for CV values at deep breath. Decreased CV values tended to be associated with a decrease in glucose tolerance in both men and women of the >3,000 m group. In comparing the aforementioned CV values with those in the ≤2,000 m group, there was no significant difference between the groups. R-R interval variation on ECG was found independent of exposure condition, although it was influenced by sex, age, and glucose tolerance. (N.K.)

  3. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  4. Time Bombs

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Hannah Allen

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in technology coupled with the perception of diminished public tolerance for casualties have increased the prominence and popularity of aerial bombing as a coercive tool, particularly for the United States. Despite interest from policy makers and support from the public, there has been little scholarly assessment of these coercive episodes. How successful are air campaigns, and what are the prospects for the future? In this article, I focus on the factors that cause bombing campa...

  5. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  6. Eksperimentalno ispitivanje aerodinamičkih karakteristika modela laserski vođene bombe / Experimental investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of the laser guided bomb model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Damljanović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani rezultati merenja aerodinamičkih sila i momenata, kao i vizualizacija strujanja u graničnom sloju na krilima i krmilima modela laserski vođene bombe. Ispitivanje je izvršeno u aerotunelu T-38. Analiziranje uticaj rastojanja vrha konusa tela, u odnosu na sekciju krmila, na aerodinamičke karakteristike modela za dva Mahova broja M∞ = 0,8 i 0,9 i otklon krmila δ=15°. Normalne sile koje se javljaju na modelu i krmilu merene su unutrašnjim aerovagama. Dobijeni rezultati merenja normalne sile na modelu i posebno na krmilu povezani su sa rezultatima vizualizacije strujanja metodom uljnih premaza. Priložene fotografije vizualizacije strujanja ilustruju promene strujanja oko modela i potvrđuju rezultate aerodinamičkih merenja. / Aerodynamic test results and boundary layer flow visualization on the wings and fins of laser guided bomb model are presented in this article. Test was performed in the T-38 wind tunnel. Influence of fin position relative to conic top of the model on aerodynamic characteristics was analyzed. Analysis was performed on aerodynamic characteristics of the model for two Mach numbers M∞ = 0,8 and 0,9 and fin deflection δ=15°. Normal forces present on the model and fin were measured by internal strain gauge balances. Obtained test results of normal force on the model and especially on the fin were associated with flow visualization results, which were performed by oil emulsion method. Presented images of flow visualization show changes of the flow around the model and confirm the results of the aerodynamic measurements.

  7. Are IRIS Bombs Connected to Ellerman Bombs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas (∼2–8 × 104 K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified 10 IBs. We find that 3 are unambiguously and 3 others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended {{{H}}}α wings without leaving an obvious signature in the {{{H}}}α core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) the O iv 1401.156 Å and 1399.774 Å lines are absent or very weak; (2) the Mn i 2795.640 Å line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg ii k line wing; (3) the Mg ii k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni ii 1393.330 Å and 1335.203 Å are very strong; and (5) the 1700 Å images obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal intense and compact brightenings. These properties support the formation of these bombs in the photosphere, demonstrating that EBs can be heated much more efficiently than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the Mg ii k and h lines can be used to investigate EBs similarly to {{{H}}}α , which opens a promising new window for EB studies. The remaining four IBs obviously have no connection to EBs and they do not have the properties mentioned above, suggesting a higher formation layer, possibly in the chromosphere.

  8. PCF INVESTIGATION TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF TORA – BASED MANET AGAINST JAMMING ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabbar Insaif Jasim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network became very important due to the nature of wireless communication between the nodes and the rapid movement of node which make Mobile Ad hoc Network vulnerable to Attackers. Jamming is a DoS attack’s special category used in wireless networks. The attacker disrespects the medium access control (MAC protocol and transmits on the shared channel; either periodically or continuously to target all or some communication, respectively. Distributed coordination function (DCF and Point coordination function (PCF are the two different media access control (MAC mechanisms which are specified by the IEEE 802.11standard. PCF can achieve higher throughput than DCF due to the nature of contention-free, therefore, this paper investigate the impact of PCF when integrated into the TORA – Based MANET and how it can improve the performance of the network. OPNET – Based simulation scenarios were created and the simulation was run and the results were collected which investigate that PCF provided a good functionality to improve deficiency caused by the Jammers this by increasing the throughput and decreasing the delay which is affected by the Jammers. PCF was a good improvement with different levels of Jammers’ transmission power.

  9. Worry, worry attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian refugees: a path analysis investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic in Massachusetts, USA. We found that worry was common in this group (65%), that worry was often about current life concerns (e.g., lacking financial resources, children not attending school, health concerns, concerns about relatives in Cambodia), and that worry often induced panic attacks: in the entire sample, 41% (83/201) of the patients had "worry attacks" (i.e., worry episodes that resulted in a panic episode) in the last month. "Worry attacks" were highly associated with PTSD presence. In the entire sample, generalized anxiety disorder was also very prevalent, and was also highly associated with PTSD. Path analysis revealed that the effect of worry on PTSD severity was mediated by worry-induced somatic arousal, worry-induced catastrophic cognitions, worry-induced trauma recall, inability to stop worry, and irritability. The final model accounted for 75% of the variance in PTSD severity among patients with worry. The public health and treatment implications of the study's findings that worry may have a potent impact on PTSD severity in severely traumatized populations are discussed: worry and daily concerns are key areas of intervention for these worry-hypersensitive (and hence daily-stressor-hypersensitive) populations. PMID:21663803

  10. Bomb-Pulse Chlorine-36 At The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Horizon: An Investigation Of Previous Conflicting Results And Collection Of New Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Cizdziel

    2006-07-28

    Previous studies by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) found elevated ratios of chlorine-36 to total chloride ({sup 36}Cl/Cl) in samples of rock collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) at Yucca Mountain as the tunnels were excavated. The data were interpreted as an indication that fluids containing 'bomb-pulse' {sup 36}Cl reached the repository horizon in the {approx}50 years since the peak period of above-ground nuclear testing. Moreover, the data support the concept that so-called fast pathways for infiltration not only exist but are active, possibly through a combination of porous media, faults and/or other geologic features. Due to the significance of {sup 36}Cl data to conceptual models of unsaturated zone flow and transport, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and implement a study to validate the LANL findings. The USGS chose to drill new boreholes at select locations across zones where bomb-pulse ratios had previously been identified. The drill cores were analyzed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for {sup 36}Cl/Cl using both active and passive leaches, with the USGS/LLNL concluding that the active leach extracted too much rock-Cl and the passive leach did not show bomb-pulse ratios. Because consensus was not reached between the USGS/LLNL and LANL on several fundamental points, including the conceptual strategy for sampling, interpretation and use of tritium ({sup 3}H) data, and the importance and interpretation of blanks, in addition to the presence or absence of bomb-pulse {sup 36}Cl, an evaluation by an independent entity, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), using new samples was initiated. This report is the result of that study. The overall objectives of the UNLV study were to investigate the source or sources of the conflicting results from the previous

  11. Bomb-Pulse Chlorine-36 At The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Horizon: An Investigation Of Previous Conflicting Results And Collection Of New Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) found elevated ratios of chlorine-36 to total chloride (36Cl/Cl) in samples of rock collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) at Yucca Mountain as the tunnels were excavated. The data were interpreted as an indication that fluids containing 'bomb-pulse' 36Cl reached the repository horizon in the ∼50 years since the peak period of above-ground nuclear testing. Moreover, the data support the concept that so-called fast pathways for infiltration not only exist but are active, possibly through a combination of porous media, faults and/or other geologic features. Due to the significance of 36Cl data to conceptual models of unsaturated zone flow and transport, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and implement a study to validate the LANL findings. The USGS chose to drill new boreholes at select locations across zones where bomb-pulse ratios had previously been identified. The drill cores were analyzed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 36Cl/Cl using both active and passive leaches, with the USGS/LLNL concluding that the active leach extracted too much rock-Cl and the passive leach did not show bomb-pulse ratios. Because consensus was not reached between the USGS/LLNL and LANL on several fundamental points, including the conceptual strategy for sampling, interpretation and use of tritium (3H) data, and the importance and interpretation of blanks, in addition to the presence or absence of bomb-pulse 36Cl, an evaluation by an independent entity, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), using new samples was initiated. This report is the result of that study. The overall objectives of the UNLV study were to investigate the source or sources of the conflicting results from the previous validation study, and to obtain additional data to

  12. Bomb tests attack the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, T. (Monash Medical School, Melbourne (Australia))

    1990-03-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

  13. Bomb-Pulse Chlorine-36 at the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Horizon: An Investigation of Previous Conflicting Results and Collection of New Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizdziel, James

    2006-07-31

    Previous studies Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) found elevated ratios of chlorine-36 to total chloride (36Cl/Cl) in samples of rock collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain (YM). The data were interpreted as an indication that fluids containing “bomb-pulse” 36Cl reached the repository horizon in the ~50 years since the peak period of above-ground nuclear testing. Due to the significance of 36Cl data to conceptual models of unsaturated zone flow, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) implemented a study to validate the LANL findings. The USGS drilled new boreholes at select locations across zones where bomb-pulse ratios had previously been identified. The drill cores were analyzed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Because consensus was not reached between the USGS/LLNL and LANL on several fundamental points including the presence or absence of bomb-pulse 36Cl, an evaluation by the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), was initiated. The overall objectives of the UNLV study were to investigate the source of the validation study’s conflicting results, and to obtain additional data on bomb-pulse isotopes at the repository horizon. UNLV engaged in discussions with previous investigators, reviewed reports, and analyzed archived samples. UNLV also collected new samples of rock from the ESF, soil profiles from the surface of YM, and samples of seep water from inside the ESF. Samples were analyzed for 36Cl/Cl ratios, and 99Tc and 129I in select samples. A column experiment was conducted mimicking the passage of bomb-pulse 36Cl through YM tuff. The work faced several obstacles including an extended shutdown of the tunnel. Only one sample yielded a background corrected 36Cl/Cl ratio that was higher than the accepted bomb-pulse threshold (1250 x 10-15). Specimen 01034214 obtained from the Drill Hole Wash fault (19+33) had a ratio of 1590 ± 80 (1σ) x10-15, whereas the other separate sample from this fault zone

  14. Karachi Commander Escapes Attack, 10 Dead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2004-01-01

    KARACHI: The army commander in the Pakistani city of Karachi narrowly① escaped assassination② yesterday when gunmen attacked his convoy③ with gunfire and a bomb, killing at least 10 and wounding his driver, officials said.

  15. INVESTIGATION ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING NATURAL POZZOLAN VOLCANIC ORIGIN DUE TO SULFATE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERIDA AHCENE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate attack and its effects are important from both scientific and industrial viewpoints. It is perceived that concretes containing pozzolan have better performance in sulfate solutions, since the pozzolanic reactions reduce the quantity of calcium hydroxide and increase calcium silicate hydrate. This paper investigates thecontribution of natural pozzolan volcanic origin on the physico - mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the concretes. When it is coupled to a water reducing superplasticizer by a correct adjustment of the composition, it greatly improves the concrete properties. The analysis of the experimental results on pozzolan concrete at 5% content and sharpness of 9600cm2/g, in a sulphated environment, showed that it contributes positively to the improvement of its mechanical characteristics and its durability with respect towater absorption, and to the permeability to the chlorine ions as well as to the resistance to the sulphates.

  16. The media and dirty bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recent Jose Padilla 'dirty bomb' scare, an indignant US citizen wrote to his local newspaper in Florida complaining that the news media were giving terrorists a recipe for making dirty bombs. 'Unless the media eases up on scaring us, he wrote, the public won't feel safe even leaving their homes. Or perhaps that is what they want, he said, 'us staying inside our homes watching the news on how terrorists can destroy us all.' It seems our real motivations have finally been uncovered we in the media want to scare them so much they won't leave their TV screens. Based on the previous event an analysis of the role of media and journalists is discussed. Leaders of the news media would, first of all, universally advise full and rapid and authoritative disclosure of what is known. If it isn't coming quickly from the highest levels, then the news will soon deteriorate to what's being heard on the streets, from police officers and fire fighters and other emergency personnel, and from passers-by. Journalists are the first to acknowledge their ignorance.That is why they ask questions. However, they seem to learn fast. It was found that that the term dirty bomb never appeared on Associated Press news wires before the 11 September 2001 attacks. Now it appears every day, and increasingly we are getting the facts right and helping to prepare our audience of millions for this dangerous new world

  17. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  18. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  19. Numerical investigation on properties of attack angle for an opposing jet thermal protection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hai-Bo; Liu Wei-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional Navier Stokes equation and the k- ε viscous model are used to simulate the attack angle characteristics of a hemisphere nose-tip with an opposing jet thermal protection system in supersonic flow conditions.The numerical method is validated by the relevant experiment.The flow field parameters,aerodynamic forces,and surface heat flux distributions for attack angles of 0°,2°,5°,7°,and 10° are obtained.The detailed numerical results show that the cruise attack angle has a great inflnence on the flow field parameters,aerodynamic force,and surface heat flux distribution of the supersonic vehicle nose-tip with an opposing jet thermal protection system.When the attack angle reaches 10°,the heat flux on the windward generatrix is close to the maximal heat flux on the wall surface of the nose-tip without thermal protection system,thus the thermal protection has failed.

  20. The neutron bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'weapon with increased radiation', as the neutron bomb is officially called, has become the subject of fervent discussions. As a substitute for nuclear bombs it is said to reduce the damage to the non-combatant population when tactically deployed, having a greatly reduced radius of action - that at least is what the military say, who are in favour of it. The article describes the radiation effect of the atomic bomb from the examples of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The report on the military concept and development of the neutron bomb is followed by a description of how might be constructed. (orig.)

  1. Vehicle bomb protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six-step methodology presented in this paper can be applied to nuclear power reactors to provide protection measures and considerations against vehicle bomb threats. The methodology provides a structured framework for examining the potential vulnerability of a plant to a postulated vehicle bomb and for developing contingency planning strategies for dealing with such a possibility. The six steps are as follows: (1) identify system options available to establish and maintain a safe reactor shutdown; (2) identify buildings or other structures containing critical components and equipment associated with each system option; (3) determine survival envelopes for the system options; (4) review site features to determine vehicle access approach paths and distances as they relate to the survival envelopes; (5) identify measures to limit or thwart vehicle access, and protect and preserve preferred system options; (6) prepare contingency plans and make advance arrangements for implementation of contingency measures for a vehicle bomb attack. Portions of this methodology related to blast effects from vehicle bombs on power reactor components are implemented using BombCAD, a proprietary computer-aided design (CAD)-based blast effects analysis technique

  2. Investigation of Strouhal numbers of iced cable models of cable-supported bridges with respect to angle of wind attack

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górski, P.; Tatara, M.; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Marušić, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 417-432. ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI3/654 Keywords : bridge cable * ice accretion * Strouhal number * angle of attack * vortex shedding frequency Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i8/i4/r56684/GorskiP_InvestigationsStrouhal.pdf

  3. Experimental investigation of separated shear layer from a leading edge subjected to various angles of attack with tail flap deflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Anand; S Sarkar

    2015-05-01

    Shear layer development over a thick flat plate with a semi-circular leading edge is investigated for a range of angles of attack under different pressure gradients for a Reynolds number of 2.44×105 (based on chord and free-stream velocity). The characteristics of the separated shear layer are very well documented through a combination of surface pressure measurement and smoke flow visualization. The instability of the separated layer occurs because of enhanced receptivity of perturbations leading to the development of significant unsteadiness and three-dimensional motions in the second-half of the bubble. The onset of separation, transition and the point of reattachment are identified for varying angles of attack and pressure gradients imposed by tail flap deflections. The data concerning bubble length, laminar portion and reattachment points agree well with the literature.

  4. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  5. Yields of the bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations reported in later chapters require knowing how many fissions took place in each bomb. The literature gives the average energy released per fission; so an equivalent quantity is the energy released by each bomb. The energy released is called the 'yield'. The yield is given in kilotons. Here 'kiloton' is used as a unit of energy, not of mass. It is defined as 1012 calories or approximately the energy released in the explosion of one kiloton (kt) of TNT. The bomb exploded over Hiroshima was a gun-type device using enriched uranium and was the only detonation ever made of this type of device. The bomb exploded over Nagasaki was an implosion device using plutonium and was the same type as the bombs tested at Trinity in New Mexico and at the Able and Baker tests of Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll in 1946. These test data were the primary source of information used in determining the yield of the Nagasaki bomb. The yield of the Hiroshima bomb was determined by comparison with effects observed in the two cities and by some of the other methods listed below. Because of the importance of the yields to the reassessment program, they have been studied many times

  6. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  7. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic Attack or Heart Attack? Diagnosing heart disease in women A Healthy Hearts Guide ® Heart disease in women is often mistaken for panic attack with shortness of breath, anxiety, palpitations and indigestion. ...

  8. Atomic bombs and the long-run effect on trust: Experiences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMURA, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan are the only cities in the world that have experienced an atomic bomb attack. This paper explores how this devastating experience affected victims’ tendency to trust others. Individual-level data were used to examine the long-term influence of experiencing an atomic bomb on individuals’ trust. After controlling for individual characteristics, I obtained the following key findings. Individuals who experienced the attack were more likely to trust others. Furtherm...

  9. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Luckey, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation,...

  10. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  11. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  12. Are IRIS bombs connected to Ellerman bombs?

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas ($\\sim$2--8$\\times$10$^{4}$ K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified ten IBs. We find that three are unambiguously and three others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended H$_{\\alpha}$ wings without leaving an obvious signature in the H$_{\\alpha}$ core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) The O~{\\sc{iv}}~1401.156\\AA{} and 1399.774\\AA{} lines are absent or very weak; (2) The Mn~{\\sc{i}}~2795.640\\AA{} line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k line wing; (3) The Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) Chromospheric absorption lin...

  13. How Dangerous are 'Dirty Bombs'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological weapon (or a radiation weapon) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactivity, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive), which spreads radioactive material. Recently, it has been called 'dirty bombs'. This term refers especially to a weapon that would disperse radioactive material through conventional explosives. The term was put in focus in June 2002, when U. S. officials announced they had captured an al-Qaida terrorist in Chicago who was allegedly planning for such a device. Designed to produce radiation sickness in a military force or a civilian population instead of destroying a target, Iraq developed and tested radiation weapons in 1980s, during the war with Iran with intention to produce health effects that would be difficult to explain. The project was abandoned because a radiation levels low enough to escape detection were also insufficient to cause significant medical problems in the weeks following an attack. Radiological weapons are therefore widely considered to be militarily useless for a state-sponsored army and are not believed to have been deployed by any military forces. However, these weapons have been suggested as a possible terror weapon in order to create fear and panic in densely populated areas and havoc to local economies. They do not require weapons-grade materials, and common materials such as 137Cs used in radiological medical equipment, could be used. Subsequent removal of urban radioactive contamination, i.e. cleanup efforts according to experiences from the radiological accident in a Brazilian city of Goiania could be long, difficult and costly. Therefore, the overall effects of exploded dirty bombs are hard to assess considering that: a) The health effects of low-level radiation are hotly contested. Namely, according to 'linear, no-threshold' dosimetric model, any increase over background is

  14. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  15. Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of a Subsonic Attack Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry A.; Healy, Frederick M.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation has been made of a 1/28-scale model of the Grumman A-6A airplane in the Langley spin tunnel. The erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the flight design gross weight loading and for a loading with full internal fuel and empty external wing fuel tanks. The effects of extending slats and deflecting flaps were investigated. Inverted-spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the flight design gross weight loading. The size of the spin-recovery tail parachute necessary to insure satisfactory spin-recovery was determined, and the effect of firing wing-mounded rockets during spins was investigated.

  16. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    OpenAIRE

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-01-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct expos...

  17. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-05-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. PMID:22302183

  18. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  19. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of at...... attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE....

  20. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  1. Atomic bombs and conspiracy theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been a number of articles in the press concerning Australia's bid to get the atomic bomb. These articles are based on the recent publication of a book, 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb' by Wayne Reynolds. The book at first sight appears to be very well researched, with many archival references from a number of countries, and the hypotheses appear to be well supported and argued. Its major shortcoming is the way that the science and technology involved is presented. The author seems to have a complete lack of understanding of basic science and engineering principles, and the manner in which scientists and politicians communicate with each other. This paper will attempt to redress these shortcomings, I shall look at the way communities of scientists and politicians present their ideas to each other and to the public at large. By investigating the backgrounds to the establishment of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and the later establishment of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, the author is able to explain how such a hypothesis ever saw the light of day

  2. TIGER -- A technology to improve the delivery capability of nuclear bombs and the survivability of the delivery aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-12-31

    The TIGER (Terminal guided and Extended-Range) Program was initiated in 1972 to study improved delivery capabilities for stockpiled tactical nuclear bombs. The Southeast Asia conflict fostered the development of air-delivered standoff conventional weapons utilizing terminal guidance systems. SNL initiated the TIGER program to determine if current nuclear bombs could be provided with a similarly accurate standoff capabilities. These conventional weapon delivery techniques, while allowing highly accurate attack, generally require entering the target area at high altitude to establish line of sight to the target. In parallel with the TIGER program, system studies analyzed this concept and showed marked improvement in aircraft and weapon survivability with moderate standoff (10--20 km) if low level deliveries (60 m) could be accomplished. As a result of this work, the TIGER program was redirected in early 1974 to demonstrate a standoff bomb with good accuracy (90 m CEP) when delivered from low flying aircraft. This program redirection resulted in the selection of an inertial guidance system to replace the earlier terminal guidance systems. This program was called the Extended-Range Bomb (ERB). In May 1974, a joint Air Force/DOE study identified the desirability of having a single tactical weapon which could be employed against either fixed, preselected targets, or mobile battlefield targets. Studies conducted on the ERB system showed that the inertially guided weapon could fly not only the standoff mission but also a return-to-target mission against the mobile battlefield targets whose locations are not known accurately enough to use a standoff delivery. The ERB program evolved from these initial investigations into an exploratory program to develop the hardware and demonstrate the technology required to fly standoff and return-to-target trajectories. The application of this technology in the form of field retrofit kits to the B61 bomb is called TIGER II.

  3. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... having another heart attack. These medicines include: aspirin, beta blockers, statins, ACE inhibitors and fish oil. Your doctor ... have had a stent placed in your heart. Beta blockers are a group of drugs that lower the ...

  4. Panic Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Scantamburlo, Gabrielle; Ansseau, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Panic attacks can occur unexpectedly and in almost any situation. The present article discusses the main features of anxiety states, the approach, the management and the practice guidelines for the treatment of panic disorder. Peer reviewed

  5. Leukemia among a-bomb survivors living in Hiroshima city, 1971-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The death from leukemia among Hiroshima citizens from 1971 to 1978 was investigated. The total number of dead citizens was 241, and 64 of them were a-bomb survivors. Thirty-seven of a-bomb survivors were exposed to a-bomb within 2 km from hypocenter. Seventy-seven of remaining 177 citizens were born after the explosion of a-bomb, but they were not children of a-bomb survivors exposed directly to a-bomb. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed near the hypocenter was 1.67 (within 2 km) - 2.51 (within 1.5 km) times that of those exposed far from the hypocenter. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed within 1.5 km was significantly high. The death risk from leukemia was significantly high in women. The estimated exposure dose was over 1 rad in 25 of abovementioned 37 a-bomb survivors, and it was over 10 rad in 21 and over 100 rad in 10 of 25. Seven of 10 a-bomb survivors exposed over 100 rad were women. The age at the exposure was under 10 years in 1, teens in 1, twenties in 2, and over thirty in 6. The type of leukemia was acute in 8 and chronic in 2. Both types were myelogenous leukemia. Five of these 10 a-bomb survivors died after 1976. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Ellerman bombs: fallacies, fads, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J; van der Voort, Luc H M Rouppe; Sütterlin, Peter; Vitas, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are short-lived brightenings of the outer wings of Halpha that occur in active regions with much flux emergence. We point out fads and fallacies in the extensive Ellerman bomb literature, discuss their appearance in various spectral diagnostics, and advocate their use as indicators of field reconfiguration in active-region topography using AIA 1700 A images.

  7. Dynamic Finite Element Investigation of Wave Attack on Sea Dikes: A Coupled Approach using Plate and Volume Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 400 kilometres of Dutch sea dikes are protected by bituminous concrete revetments to prevent damage from erosion and repeated wave attacks during storms. The numerical analysis of sea dikes subjected to cyclic wave loading needs to consider the behaviour of the bituminous concrete reve

  8. Dirty Bombs: A Discouraging Second Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Cheryl A.

    2004-05-01

    Dirty bombs, terrorist devices to spread intensely radioactive material with the intent to kill, sicken, or inflict economic damage, have been overestimated by some in the government and underestimated by many physicists. It is unlikely that a radiological dispersion device (RDD) will contaminate an area to such a level that brief exposures are lethal or even incapacitating. However, careful examination of the consequences of the accident in Goiânia, Brazil shows that it is highly likely that people in the contaminated region will inhale or ingest dusty or liquid radioactive material in sufficient quantities to cause acute radiation sickness, and in some cases enough to kill. Some forms of radiological attack could kill tens or hundreds of people and sicken hundreds or thousands. This paper provides a general overview of the nature and use of RDDs and examines readily available sources of large quantities of radioactive material, material which requires significantly greater protection than it is afforded today. Under many circumstances an RDD containing only a few curies of cesium-137, strontium-90, cobalt-60 or other industrial isotopes could force the razing of more buildings and inflict greater economic losses than did the September 11, 2002 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The National Defense University study proposes new policies for the federal government which would decrease the chances of an attack and reduce the cost in lives and money to the United States should one, nevertheless, occur.

  9. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  10. Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Dirty bombs: assesment of radiological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some countries, regulatory control of radioactive sources, used extensively in medicine and industry, remains weak. Global concerns about the security and safety of radioactive sources escalated following the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. There are fears that some radioactive sources could be used by terrorists as radiological dispersal devices (RDD's), or so called 'dirty bombs'. The radioactive material dispersed, depending on the amount and intensity, could cause radiation sickness for a limited number of people nearby if, for example, they inhaled large amounts of radioactive dust. But the most severe tangible impacts would likely be the economic costs and social disruption associated with the evacuation and subsequent clean-up of contaminated property. It has been shown that usage of realistic data in a first response decision making as to avoid inappropriate public reaction accompanied by economic and social consequences is necessary.(author)

  12. Bomb strike experiment for mine clearance operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The Bomb Strike Experiment for Mine Countermeasure Operations, currently sponsored through the Office of Naval Research mine impact burial prediction project, is part of a multi-year, comprehensive effort aimed at enhancing the Navyâ s fleet naval mine clearance capability and success. The investigation discussed in this paper examines the experimental and theoretical characteristics of a rigid body falling through the air, water, and sediment column at high speed. Several experiments were ...

  13. Investigation of Strouhal number of iced cable model of cable-supported bridges with respect to angle of wind attack

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górski, P.; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Tatara, M.; Marušić, Ante

    Lublin: Polish Association for Wind Engineering, 2014 - (Lipecki, T.; Flaga, A.), s. 103-104 ISBN 978-83-932544-9-1. [International Symposium on Environmental Effects on Buildings and People /7./. Lublin - Krakow (PL), 20.10.2014-22.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI3/654 Keywords : bridge cable * ice accretion * Strouhal number * angle of attack * vortex shedding frequency Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  14. Dynamic Finite Element Investigation of Wave Attack on Sea Dikes: A Coupled Approach using Plate and Volume Elements

    OpenAIRE

    S. Tan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 400 kilometres of Dutch sea dikes are protected by bituminous concrete revetments to prevent damage from erosion and repeated wave attacks during storms. The numerical analysis of sea dikes subjected to cyclic wave loading needs to consider the behaviour of the bituminous concrete revetment, and the behaviour of the subsoil including the generation and dissipation of the excess pore pressures, as well as the interaction between the revetment and subsoil. This thesis develops and...

  15. The neutron bomb and its physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical background of U.S. neutron bomb research and a brief history of the bomb are presented. The two important characteristics of neutron bombs, i.e. enhanced radiation and low burst yield, are explained in detail, and a comparison with common fission bombs is given. The physical principles are explained, i.e. the neutron bomb is a specially designed hydrogen bomb in which energetic neutrons released in the fusion of deuteron and triton is the main injurious factor. Finally, the functions and limitations of neutron bombs as well as the means of protection against them are discussed

  16. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  17. An Investigation of a Minimal-Contact Bibliotherapy Approach to Relapse Prevention for Individuals Treated for Panic Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Joseph H.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the efficacy of a bibliotherapy-relapse prevention (BT-RP) program for panic attacks in which the active BT-RP condition was compared to a waiting-list control condition. Prior to the administration of the six-month BT-RP program, all participants completed an initial BT intervention (Febbraro, 1997) based on the book Coping with Panic (Clum, 1990). The BT-RP program was designed to: (a) review major components of the initial intervention; (b) increas...

  18. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. PMID:22440534

  19. Detection of Logic Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh Bist

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer viruses are big threat to computer world; researchers doing work in this area have made various efforts in the direction of classification and detection methods of these viruses. Graph mining, system call arrangement and CFG analysis are some latest research activities in this field. The computability theory and the semi computable functions are quite important in our context of analyzing malicious activities. A mathematical model like random access stored program machine with the association of attached background is used by Ferenc Leitold while explaining modeling of viruses in his paper. Computer viruses like polymorphic viruses and metamorphic viruses use more efficient techniques for their evolution so it is required to use strong models for understanding their evolution and then apply detection followed by the process of removal. Code Emulation is one of the strongest ways to analyze computer viruses but the anti-emulation activities made by virus designers are also active. This paper involves the study of logic bombs.

  20. The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

  1. Allometric relationships of the dentition of the great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias, in forensic investigations of shark attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A

    1991-06-01

    As a result of a systematic morphometric study of shark dentitions, a system of notation for describing the location of shark teeth has been developed and is proposed as a standard to be adopted for use in similar studies in the future. The macroscopic morphology of White Shark teeth has been characterised in order to gain quantitative data which might assist in identification of these sharks from bite marks on victims or objects or from shark carcasses. Using these data, a nomogram has been developed which can be used to estimate the body length of a White Shark from measurements of tooth or bite mark morphology. An example of the forensic application of such allometric data is provided as it applied to a recent fatal attack on a diver by a White Shark. PMID:1814935

  2. Scientists and the atomic bombings of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, on the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the controversy about the use of nuclear weapons has been heated up. Still little-known or unknown to the general public are the efforts made by some scientists to prevent the atomic bombing, the formidable impediments encountered by such anti-bomb pleas; the support in summer 1945 from many notable A-bomb scientists for use of A-bomb, and the range of responses from such important scientists as J. Robert Oppenheimer, Leo Szilard, and Luis Alvarez, right after the use of atomic bomb in Japan

  3. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  4. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  5. Assessing Organizational Change in the Norwegian Police: A Comparative Study of How Police Investigators Perceive the Investigative Work and the Organizational Climate Before and After The July 22, 2011 Terror Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explore if the July 22 terror attacks and the subsequent structural changes in the Norwegian Police may have affected the police investigators’ perception of both the organizational climate and the quality of the investigative work. The second purpose is to investigate whether the findings can provide any empirical support to Burnes’ (2004a) “A framework for change” theory. A mixed-methods approach was applied. Data were collected from the 27 Norwegian Pol...

  6. Neutron bomb and European defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  7. Attack warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The North American Aerospace Defense Command, located at Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, is responsible for warning the United States and Canadian leaders that North America is under air, missile, or space attack. The Air Force has been developing a replacement for NORAD's communications computer system, and it expects to spend about $281 million on this program-about $72 million for block I and $209 million for block II. Block I of the replacement system has experienced significant schedule and performance problems, such as the inability to meet the requirement for the unit to restore full mission capability within 267 minutes after a total loss of power, and the incompatibility of the unit with other computer equipment due to the wiring standard. These problems have pushed the planned installation data from 1986 to 1999. The Air Force intends to have the contractor correct the deficiencies during block II development. This report discusses how the replacement program should be reassessed.

  8. Investigation of psychiatric nurses suffering from patientsˊ attacks%精神科护士遭受患者攻击的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕纪珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate psychiatric nurses suffering from patientsˊ attack. Methods:POPAS(perception of the prevalence of aggression scale)was be used to investigate 140 psychiatric nurses of Taian City,and the perception of factors were ana-lyzed. Results:The 140 subjects perceived the highest frequency of five attacks occurred:the plain language attack(shouting,cur-sing),minor physical violence(shoving,kicking),passive-aggressive behavior(irritability,resistance),insulting attack behavior (abuse),and the patientˊs own mild violence(head against the wall,etc. )The total variance of gender,job title,work experience, and the combined effects on perception of aggressive behaviors was 28% . Conclusions:The male nurses have more perception of ag-gressive behavior than female nurses,and the nurses with high titles and more than five yearsˊ work experience can perceive more ag-gressive behavior.%目的:了解精神科护士遭受患者攻击的现状。方法:采用攻击行为发生情况感知量表(POPAS)对本市140名精神科护士进行调查,并分析影响其感知的因素。结果:140名研究对象感知发生频率最高的5种攻击行为:普通语言攻击(喊叫,咒骂)、身体轻微暴力(推搡,踢打)、被动攻击(易激怒,抵抗)、侮辱性攻击(辱骂)、患者自身轻微暴力(头撞墙等)。性别、职称、工作年限,共同影响对攻击行为感知情况总变异为28%。结论:男护士在感知攻击行为多于女护士,而高职称及超过5年工作年限的护士能更易感知攻击行为。

  9. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Sutton

    Full Text Available Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events.

  10. Bombe udstiller Sinn Feins dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Natten til mandag den 12. april sprang en bombe lige udenfor Belfast. Hverken tid eller sted var tilfældigt. Bomben sprang nemlig på den dag, hvor det justitspolitiske område blev overført til Nordirland. Og den sprang lige bagved den bygning hvor den britiske sikkerhedstjeneste MI5 har deres nye...

  11. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter. PMID:26724069

  12. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  13. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  14. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. When 140 A-bomb survivors, collected from 31 medical facilities in Nagasaki and its surrounding areas, were analyzed using logistic regression model based on the data of 66,276 A-bomb survivors, the incidence of skin cancer was found to be significantly lower in A-bomb survivors exposed farther from the hypocenter. This was also noted when confining to either men or women. Among 25,942 A-bomb survivors, available using DS85 dosimetry system, in the RERF-Life Span Study sample and RERF-Adult Health Study sample (1958-1985), 47 A-bomb survivors were found to have skin cancer. For them, higher incidence of skin cancer was associated with larger radiation doses. Dose-response relationship for skin cancer was linear. Twenty five of the 47 A-bomb survivors (53%) histologically had basal cell carcinoma. Since 1975, an increased rate in the incidence of skin cancer has been noticeable in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,500 m than those exposed at ≥3,000 m. The number of excess cases of skin cancer was found to have been steadily increased since 1958. (N.K.)

  15. Explosive attack: Lessons learned in Seyed Al Shohada mosque attack, April 2008, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Paydar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The threat of explosive attacks has become a worldwide problem. Bombing is the preferred method of attacks. These attacks result in specific physical and psychiatric trauma. In this paper, we present an epidemiologic description of the physical injuries of patients who survived the explosive attack in Seyed Al Shohada mosque April 2008 Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: All medical records of the patients admitted at Shiraz Hospitals on April 2008 due to Seyed Al Shohada mosque bombing attacks, Shiraz, Iran, were reviewed. Results: A total of 202 patients were referred to the hospitals over 24 h following the terrorist attack. One hundred sixty-four patients were admitted for short periods of observation (<24 h. Thirty-eight patients needed more than 1 day of hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 (range 2 to 51 years. One hundred thirty-five (66.8% patients were males. Twenty-six (12.8% were children. Burn was the most prevalent cause of admission. Five (13.5% patients needed chest tube insertion and eight (21% needed skin grafts due to burn. Overall, 12 patients expired (5%. Three (25% of them were children (2 and 6, and 11 years old. Mortality rate was significantly higher among the children than adults (P value <0.05. The most important cause of death was head trauma which was seen in five (41.6% of the expired patients followed by burn (including air way burn in four (33%, and internal bleeding in three (25%. Patients with head trauma had significantly a higher rate of mortality than other patients (P value <0.05. Discussion: Following a bombing attack, numerous victims were brought to the emergency unit suffering from a combination of multi-organ injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries caused by shrapnel and other debris, and burns. It is important for a physician to be familiar with the clinical features and treatments of explosive attacks victims. Early management of patients at the scene and

  16. Uranium content in soil after bombing FRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of uranium enrichment process and its use is very dangerous and harmful. NATO has used DU ammunition in Yugoslav conflict during its air campaign against the tanks and bunkers. The estimated number of about 3,000-10,000 of 30 mm DU rounds as armor-piercing shells were fired from cannons fitted to A-10 aircraft and probably a usage in some of 1,500 launched Tomahawk Cruise missiles. We measured uranium content in the surface soil (0-5 cm depth) from bomb craters during NATO attack. Selected locations were Belgrade, Smederevo, Nis, Bor, Prahovo, Kadinjaca, Jadovnik, Raska, Sjenica, and Cape Arza. Total uranium concentration and isotopic ratio were determined using γ-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma method. Obtained results were in the range 21 - 762.000 Bq/kg dry soil. They were at the all locations except Cape Arza comparable to the uranium content found in off-side locations of soils. (author)

  17. Neutron bomb and detente policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines the strategic aspects of the neutron weapon, i.e. of those problems which result from the discussion on the neutron weapon and its connection with military detente. He discusses the events that happened until President Carter decided to delay the production of the neutron bomb. Furthermore, he examines its strategic function following this decision. He points out the problematic relationship between production and emplacement decision. Since the neutron bomb - according to its construction - will only be effective if it is located in Central Europe and primarily in the Federal Republic of Germany, the latter has to bear the final responsibility. Without a decision on its emplacement, there could be no decision in favour of its production. (HSCH)

  18. Unknown effects of neutron bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions surrounding the use of the neutron bomb as a tactical weapon are considered. In particlar the problem of what would happen to troops exposed to neutron bomb radiation is examined. The use of a 1 kilotonne enhanced radiation warhead, to WD-70 mod 3, detonated at a height of 130-200 metres would destroy buildings only 130 metres from a point below where it is detonated but the entire 1000 people in a tank crew in that area would receive lethal doses of radiation although some would not die for more than a month following exposure. All would however begin to suffer various forms of radiation sickness. The effect over time of whole-body radiation doses of 200 to 18000 rads for physically demanding work are shown graphically. The problem of treating the wounded and of reoccupying areas of high residual radiation are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Anatomy of the Lockerbie bombing: Libya’s role and reactions to al-Megrahi’s release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its long historical antecedents, terrorism is amongst the growing realities of the national history of contemporary sovereign states. With this emergence, destabilizing influence, and internationalization, terrorism has made the associated security challenge a major diplomatic headache for all key international actors and diplomats. This paper, which adopts a theoretical approach, assesses claims that Ghadafi’s Libya championed state-sponsored terrorism. It reviews the Lockerbie bombing and the conviction of al-Megrahi by the court in Netherland as well as his release from Scottish prison on compassionate grounds. It examines Libya’s use of available diplomatic tools and channels not only to prevent Abdelbaset Ali Mohammed al-Megrahi from facing justice but also to attain Ghadafi’s political and economic interests. This article documents the political communication that followed his release and calls for increased diplomatic investigations of the Lockerbie terrorist attack. Finally, the paper beckons on Libya’s new leaders and the leaderships of USA and Scotland to engage in a progressive multilateral strategic cooperation to unravel further facts on the Lockerbie bombing while promoting the current international “war” against terrorism

  20. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  1. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving mag...

  2. THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS OF WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte ATTACK ON THE AREA OF GUNJA IN 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Western Corn Rootworm (WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte is very important corn pest. The pest was spread in Croatia from 1995 to 1999 on 12,750 km2 . In the area of Stara Gunja, hybrid OSSK 444 was sown in order to investigate the possibilities of controls WCR with below ground insecticides - Counter G-5, Dursban G-7,5 and Dotan G-5. With checking root for larvae and cocoons 0.02 larvae was estimated on treated plots and 0.05 larvae on untreated plots. The number of cocoons was 0.12 in treated, and 0.25 on untreated plots. The number of imagoes on silk was 0.05–0.10 per plant. The imagoes of the WCR were caught with Pheromone and Multigard traps from the third decade of June until the first decade of October. On the traps settled on the treated plot (336 m2 , 1,376 imagoes were caught, compared to untreated plot (112 m2 where 431 imagoes were caught. The yield of corn was 8.03 t/ha in treatment with Dotan, 8.44 t/ha in treatment with Dursban, and 8.72 t/ha in treatment with Counter, while the lowest 7.98 t/ha was in control plot was. Low number of caught imagoes per plant, shows that, for now, the implementation of chemical preparations wasn’t justified. This kind of investigations should be continuing in the future, and the checking of corn roots must be done earlier in order to determine correct number of larvae on roots and the root damages.

  3. Sociological and socio-psycho-historical problems of A-bomb exposed twin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic bombing of Hiroshima brought many casualities on human society, and collapsed human communities. The purpose of this study is to make mainly on pairs of monozygotic twins one of whom was exposed and the other was not, or both of whom were exposed, a general socio-psycho-historical investigations through a twin control study to find whether the bombing, which can be considered to cause major environmental changes, has had any psychological effects on the individuals. Due to the limited sample of atomic bomb exposed twins, in numbers available for study, it is necessary to have an understanding for their condions of the living and identity they have developed from the numerous mental stress they suffered, and rapid socio-cultural changes they experienced, including for changes in life from birth until the atomic bombing and aftermath of the disaster. As the result of this study, by depth interview, projective psychological research and research on socio-psycho-history of exposed twin and the nonexposed before the A-bomb and aftermath of disaster, the following were obtained: a) Although at the age of four and eight they exposed, they still keep it in clear memory of the damage and suffering in the minds. b) The damage and suffereng of the family who belonged were relatively small, the effects of their psychological sufferings continued even after these thirtyseven years. c) In the aftermath of the A-bomb disaster, the psychological bond showed strengthen through crises and following social distress. d) During the long period since the bombing, those who did not experienced A-bombing, have shown high degree of support and co-operation on their familial and social role to their counterpart. e) Even though their social or medical effects of A-bombing are relatively limited, if their spouse or close relative suffer psychological stress caused by A-bomb, they too suffer from their similar experiences. (J.P.N.)

  4. Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Active Linkability Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Schnoor, Henning; Woizekowski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We study linking attacks on communication protocols. We show that an active attacker is strictly more powerful in this setting than previously-considered passive attackers. We introduce a formal model to reason about active linkability attacks, formally define security against these attacks and give very general conditions for both security and insecurity of protocols. In addition, we introduce a composition-like technique that allows to obtain security proofs by only studying small component...

  6. Radiative characteristics of depleted uranium bomb and it is protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the developing process of depleted uranium bombs described in the first part, the radiative characteristics and mechanism of depleted uranium bombs are analyzed emphatically. The deeper discussion on protection of depleted uranium bombs is proceeded

  7. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan. PMID:27158765

  8. Whispering through DDoS attack

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Jiri Slachta; Miroslav Voznak

    2016-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes o...

  9. Cumulative Exposure to Prior Collective Trauma and Acute Stress Responses to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Garfin, DR; Holman, EA; Silver, RC

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2015 The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metrop...

  10. Heisenberg's war. The secret history of the German bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of Second World War Germany's 'Uranium Project', which often is referred to as the 'myth of the German atomic bomb', has been attracting the mind's of secret service men, futurologists, historians and journalists since after the end of the war it has become possible to lift the veil of secrecy. Powers book adds another one to the many investigations published since them. His approach to the piece of history starts with Heisenberg's visit to the U.S.A. in summer 1939, describes the plans of the German Heereswaffenamt pursued with the Uranium Project, and their counterpart on the side of the Allied Forces where German scientists, as immigrants in England and in the U.S.A., were doing their best to launch research for the development of an atomic bomb. The end of this 'competition' is marked by the internment of the ten German scientists and bomb specialists in Fall Hall. The leading story of the book centers on the small group of scientists around Heisenberg, who cleverly 'torpedoed' the development of the German atomic bomb in the years from 1939 until 1944. (HP)

  11. Dirty Bomb Fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates-Anderson, D; Rasmussen, C; Fischer, R; Viani, B; Hu, Q; Sutton, M; McNab, W

    2007-05-02

    At present, there is a significant need to develop decontamination agents that can be used effectively after detonation of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) in an urban environment. There is also a need for the development of reproducible test surfaces to be used to determine the efficacy of the agent being developed. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DoE), conducted a field study to evaluate the deposition of an explosively dispersed radionuclide surrogate (CsCl) on grime-bearing and non-grime-bearing urban surfaces. The goal was to investigate the preparation and contamination of urban surfaces that closely mimic what one would expect to encounter following the detonation of an RDD. Migration of Cs into concrete surfaces was investigated in detail. Many non-proliferation, security and response organizations that have modeled RDD scenarios use cesium-137, as well as cobalt-60, strontium-90, americium-241 as the most likely RDD agents. Cesium-137 is an isotope of concern for possible use in an RDD due to its potential availability resulting from its widespread legitimate use in construction, geotechnical and medical industrial devices. In some Cs-containing instruments the Cesium-137 is present as the highly dispersible and water soluble salt, cesium chloride (CsCl). In this form Cs is able to rapidly disperse in the environment, as witnessed in the 1987 Goiania accident in Brazil, when inadvertent dispersal of a radiotherapy source resulted in fatalities and injuries.

  12. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: A replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, G. D.; Emergy, J. F.; Pace, J. V., III

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction of leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion.

  13. The current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors having been suffered from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors. (author)

  14. Jets and Bombs: Characterizing IRIS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Donald; Innes, Davina

    2014-06-01

    For almost two decades, SUMER has provided an unique perspective on explosive events in the lower solar atmosphere. One of the hallmark observations during this tenure is the identification of quiet sun bi-directional jets in the lower transition region. We investigate these events through two distinct avenues of study: a MHD model for reconnection and the new datasets of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Based on forward modeling optically thin spectral profiles, we find the spectral signatures of reconnection can vary dramatically based on viewing angle and altitude. We look to the IRIS data to provide a more complete context of the chromospheric and coronal environment during these dynamic events. During a joint IRIS-SUMER observing campaign, we observed spectra of multiple jets, a small C flare, and an Ellerman bomb event. We discuss the questions that arise from the inspection of these new data.

  15. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, F

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving magnetic insulation and GeV electrostatic potentials

  16. The bomb and the men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945, more than 2000 nuclear weapon tests have been performed in the world, with a perfect knowledge of the irradiation risks. This book tells this story. The one of the men who designed the bombs, who used and improved them. It tells also the story of these men who were injured by nuclear weapons and those who were directly impacted by the fallouts of these tests. Finally, the book does not forget to mention the men who voluntarily dissimulated the ravages of nuclear weapons before discretely recognizing them and thinking of repairing the damage

  17. Investigation of resistance against intergranular attack on welded high alloyed steels using the electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR-test). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lack of methods for detecting intergranular attack (IGA) of wear and corrosion resistant claddings from FeCrNiSiMn-type alloys. The EPR-test (electrochemical potentio-dynamic reactivation) detects IGA caused by M23C6 precipitates and Cr-depleted zones, but the method standardized for rolled austenitic steels doesn't fit welds. A suitable EPR-variante has been developed for testing claddings of the electrode types EB9/300rc and Tube S 17.8 Si, measuring the charge quotient of reactivation and passivation in 0,5 M H2SO4+0,01 M KSCN at 30 C using optimated parameters. The relations between thermal treatment, structur and IGA has been investigated using microanalytical (REM/EDX) methods. Results: The development method fits well claddings up to 30% δ-ferrite. In the as-welded state all claddings are resistant. After thermal treatment sensitization by carbide precipitations and by decomposition of δ-Ferrit may occure. The electrodes show rising resistance in the ranking order EB9-Tube S o.a. The method can be used as a proof for IGA resistance required by nuclear power plants and for assessment and development of welding electrodes mostly realised by small firms. (orig.)

  18. A man, a plan, a bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki justified? Was it necessary? Were there other - better - options available, either to the scientists who built the bombs or the generals who ordered them dropped? Nearly 70 years later, there are still no settled answers to these questions, and Tom Morton-Smith's new play Oppenheimer wisely avoids dwelling on the "what ifs" of atomic history.

  19. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  20. Nuclear terrorism: Reactors and radiological attacks after September 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The terrorists responsible for the attacks on 11 September may have considered flying aeroplanes a nuclear facility. Although reactors might withstand a small plane colliding with the building, larger planes would have catastrophic effects. Avoiding such attacks requires preventing hijackings as much as reinforcing nuclear facilities. However, two familiar dangers remain more likely than the plane threat: truck bombs and insiders. Truck bombs have been used to considerable destructive effect by many groups and for many objectives. It is questionable whether reactors would withstand such attacks, but there are countermeasures that can improve the situation. Insiders, especially if collaborating with outside groups, may pose a threat not only of material theft, but also of sabotage because such insiders are more likely to be aware of vulnerabilities in a reactor's operating procedures or facilities. Historically, attacks against reactors have been committed for symbolic reasons with the object of either disrupting the facility's operations or creating fear. Assaults on reactors have rarely sought to cause casualties as the primary goal of the attack, and this is a trend that is likely to continue as there remain more straightforward means of causing casualties if that is the terrorists' principal objective. Apart from reactors, other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle are vulnerable to attack: reprocessing facilities and transport between sites are two key examples. Terrorists have sought also to use radiological weapons, mostly on a small scale. If the terrorist group's intention is a radiological attack, then destroying a reactor is only one, albeit very public and dangerous, way to achieve this goal. Reactors and nuclear facilities may not be the most likely terrorist targets but the potential consequences of such an attack should compel both governments and the international community to seek new ways of protecting such sites. (author)

  1. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine] [and others

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10{sup 5} persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  2. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, T; Hayakawa, N; Hoshi, M; Sumida, M; Kurisu, K; Oki, S; Kodama, Y; Kajikawa, H; Inai, K; Kamada, N

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10(5) persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. PMID:10408177

  3. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 105 persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  4. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  5. Investigations into Outbreaks of Black Fly Attacks and Subsequent Avian Haemosporidians in Backyard-Type Poultry and Other Exposed Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Johnson, Nora; Yang, Sharon; Stokes, John; Smith, Whitney; Wills, Robert; Goddard, Jerome; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In late spring of 2009 and 2010, there were reports of severe black fly (Simulium spp., shown in Fig. 1) outbreaks in various counties in Mississippi, especially those in and around the Mississippi River Delta. Complaints were of black flies attacking multiple species of backyard poultry and causing high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. At several affected locations, black flies were readily observed swarming around and feeding on birds. A large number of these parasites were easily trapped on fly strips (Fig. 2). Multifocal to coalescing cutaneous hemorrhagic lesions, consistent with fly bites, were seen on the birds. Upon necropsy examination, a large number of black flies were also observed in the digestive tract (Fig. 3). Although black flies may cause disease directly, such as cardiopulmonary collapse and anaphylactoid reactions, detection of Leucocytozoon in blood smears (Fig. 4) of affected birds prompted further investigations of this protozoan as a cause of disease. Leucocytozoon spp. are known to be transmitted by black flies and may be associated with morbidity and mortality in birds such as poultry. From June 2009 through July 2012, the investigation included a total collection of 1068 individual blood samples, representing 371 individual premises in 89 counties/parishes across Mississippi (59), Alabama (10), Louisiana (4), and Tennessee (16). Of the 371 premises where blood samples were collected, 96 (26%) were either positive or highly suspected to be positive for Leucocytozoon spp. by blood smear analysis, and 5 (1.2%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. by blood smear analysis. Attempts to diagnose Leucocytozoon spp. by PCR analysis and sequencing were complicated by coinfections with two closely related haemosporidians (Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp.). A novel technique involving flow cytometry was also explored. This study discusses the black fly field outbreak, the involvement of haemosporidians, molecular methods for detection

  6. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  7. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  8. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  9. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack. Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  10. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  11. Uranium tetrafluoride reduction closed bomb. Part I: Reduction process general conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General conditions about the metallo thermic reduction in small bombs (250 and 800 gr. of uranium) has been investigated. Factors such as kind and granulometry of the magnesium used, magnesium excess and preheating temperature, which affect yields and metal quality have been considered. magnesium excess increased yields in a 15% in the small bomb, about the preheating temperature, there is a range between which yields and metal quality does not change. All tests have been made with graphite linings. (Author) 18 refs

  12. Pros and cons on ''Hitlers' bomb''. Studies on nuclear research in Germany; Fuer und Wider ''Hitlers Bombe''. Studien zur Atomforschung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsch, R.; Petermann, H. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. The succeeding book titled above enlarges the spectra of contributions from Saenger PLan to attack New York, researches on minimization of critical mass, the attempt to calculate TNT-equivalence as the presentation of important acteurs occuring during the researches. (GL)

  13. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ARGOS decision support system is currently being extended to enable estimation of the consequences of terror attacks involving chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological substances. This paper presents elements of the framework that will be applied in ARGOS to calculate the dose contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a 'dirty bomb' explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city of different types of conceivable contaminants from a 'dirty bomb' are discussed.

  14. Mortality among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have conducted a long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 120,000 atomic bomb survivors and non-exposed controls since 1950. The most recent findings regarding cancer mortality during the period 1950-85 in this cohort, based on the DS86 doses are as follows: The dosimetry change does not alter the list of radiation-related cancers. Some city differences in dose-response previously thought to be real are no longer significant with the DS86 doses. Assuming a linear dose-response, and using estimated organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetries are very similar. If larger RBE values are assumed, the disparity between the two dosimetries increases because the neutron dose is much greater in the T65 dosimetry. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also have been demonstrated increases in cancers of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which cancer is normally prone to develop (the so-called 'cancer age'), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality in the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher generally for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) than for those who were older ATB. Non-cancer mortality in the period 1950-78, based on the T65 doses, which is the most recent published report, did not show an increase with dose, but now, with the accumulation of seven more years of follow-up, there seems to be an excess in the very high dose range, particularly for the younger age ATB cohort. (author)

  15. Features of the Transformation of Small Water Droplets and Large Water Bombs in Free Fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Roman S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a series of experimental studies to determine the basic characteristics and features of the transformation of small water droplets (3–6 mm and large water bombs (50–100 mm in free fall. Investigations have been carried out using cameras “Phantom V411” and “Phantom Miro M310”. Software “Tema Automotive” have been used for data processing from video recordings. The regulations of the surface transformations of small droplets and large water bombs have been established. The stages of transformation (disintegration have been established for large water bombs. The mechanisms of deformation have been defined for small droplets. The characteristic times have been determined for the defined stages of transformation. The study demonstrates the influence of the initial size of droplets and water bombs on the times and velocities of considered processes.

  16. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypo-centres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypo-centres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing. (authors)

  17. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Kawano, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypocentres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypocentres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing. PMID:21914640

  18. Outline of developing projects of atomic bomb in Japan and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of the title connecting with the World War II is described hoping that younger researchers of nuclear physics could know some of the facts that scientists and the military of Japan and USA, respectively, had have developing projects of atomic bomb by fission reaction, although there are no official documents of those in Japan, even if there are some unofficial documents that are uncertain partly in Japan. Described are a chronological table, the content of research and development of atomic bombs, Japan's experiments by Kikuchi Laboratory of Osaka Imperial University and Nishina Laboratory of RIKEN, as well as the USA's action such as production of fissile nuclide, Pu-239 and U-235, selection of the site to fabricate atomic bomb, investigation the state of research and development of atomic bombs in Germany, Italy and Japan. (S.Y.)

  19. An assessment of environmental damage caused by NATO bombing of NIS Jugopetrol facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper present our investigation of the effects of NATO bombing of the Jugopetrol facilities in Serbia during the Spring of 1999. Concentrations of hazardous material in air, water and soil have been measured and compared to the situation before the bombing. Only partial results are presented in this paper. High concentrations of hydrocarbons were detected in the air immediately after the bombing and the destruction of installations, due to burning and evaporation of oil derivatives. A great amount of spilled mineral oils has been detected in water and soil near the destroyed installations. We have detected a noticeable increase in pollution after the NATO bombing. In addition to above mentioned pollution, the destruction of large parts of waste treatment system within the Jugopetrol's installations caused severe environmental problems. The recovery of the destroyed installation and waste treatment systems require considerable amount of money and time, and cannot be accomplished without the help of foreign investment. (author)

  20. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Borkin, Michael [None; Kraus, Robert [Solutionary, Inc.

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  1. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  2. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, J. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations ...

  3. Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

  4. Flight Investigation of a Roll-stabilized Missile Configuration at Varying Angles of Attack at Mach Numbers Between 0.8 and 1.79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarovsky, Jacob; Gardiner, Robert A

    1957-01-01

    A missile research model was flown at supersonic speed to determine the quality of automatic roll stabilization at varying angles of attack. Aerodynamic rolling and pitching derivatives were determined from the flight record. It was concluded that the combination of the gyro-actuated automatic pilot with wing-tip ailerons provided adequate roll stabilization under conditions encountered in flight.

  5. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the flow ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  6. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes a Heart Attack? Coronary Heart Disease A heart attack happens if ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  7. Life After a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  8. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  9. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  10. Percolation of localized attack on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.

  11. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  12. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  13. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  14. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between $\\lta80$ and 800 dyne~cm$^{-2}$ before explosion, i.e. between $\\lta850$ and 550 km above $\\tau_{500}=1$. This places the phenomenon's origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfv\\'enic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  15. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. PMID:26674127

  16. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  17. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of J...

  18. Atomic Bomb and Leukemia : II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Masao; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for CML in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. In the distribution of AML subtypes of FAR classification, there was no M3 cases in 1Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells...

  19. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  20. Myelodysplastic syndromes in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous hematological group characterized by an ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in a variety of cytopenias, morphological abnormalities of blood cells, chromosomal aberrations, and an increases risk of transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. Despite of its nature of close relation to leukemia, MDS has been not well investigated in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with over 80,000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki to assess the incidence of MDS and its relation with A-bomb exposure status. In a preliminary analysis, we confirmed 162 MDS cases during 1980 to 2004. The median age at diagnosis was 71 years old. The incidence rate was higher in men than women, and an inverse relationship was observed between incidence of MDS and the distance from the hypocenter. We suggest that A-bomb radiation may affect the occurrence of MDS in A-bomb survivors even more than 50 years passed after the explosion. Further detail analyses are necessary to confirm these results. (author)

  1. Nocturnal panic attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Fabiana L; Nardi Antonio E; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M.; Zin Walter A.

    2002-01-01

    The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sle...

  2. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  3. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  4. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Prowell, Stacy; Borkin, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service War Dialing Penetration "Testing" Protocol Tunneling Spanning Tree At

  5. A Field Investigation of Bacillus anthracis Contamination of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Other Washington, D.C., Buildings during the Anthrax Attack of October 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, James A.; Cooper, Mary; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda; Black, Scott; Miller, David; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Manthey, Erlynn; Breeze, Roger; Perdue, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    In response to a bioterrorism attack in the Washington, D.C., area in October 2001, a mobile laboratory (ML) was set up in the city to conduct rapid molecular tests on environmental samples for the presence of Bacillus anthracis spores and to route samples for further culture analysis. The ML contained class I laminar-flow hoods, a portable autoclave, two portable real-time PCR devices (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device [RAPID]), and miscellaneous supplies and equipment to pr...

  6. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced 14C had doubled the 14C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO2 cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing 14C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing 14C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the 14C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, 14C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of 14C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  7. Chromosome survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate chromosomes from children of A-bomb survivors, cytogenetic survey has been started in 1967 by the ABCC and completed in 1985 by the succeeding RERF. This paper is designed to overview the cytogenetic survey and to discuss the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation. A cohort of 16,298 children of A-bomb survivors, which were collected from mortality survey population in 1974, was enrolled in this survey and was divided into two groups: the proximally exposed group (n=8,322, whose parents exposed to estimated doses of 0.01 Gy or more within 2,000 m from the hypocenter) and the distally exposed group (n=7,976, those exposed to 0.005 Gy or less far from 2,500 m or not in the city). Three chromosomal aberrations were identified: sex chromosome aberrations consisting mainly of XYY, XXY, and mosaic; structural abnormality of autosomes consisting mainly of translocation and inversion; and trisomy of autosomes. Overall, the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was higher in the distally exposed group (6.39%) than the proximally exposed group (5.17%). According to the type of chromosomal aberrations, the incidences of both sex chromosomes and structural abnormality of autosomes were slightly higher in the distally exposed group (0.30% and 0.34%) than the proximally exposed group (0.23% and 0.28%). Trisomy of autosomes was identified in only one child in the proximally exposed group. These findings failed to demonstrate the rationale for the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation; however, cytogenetic risk of radiation has not been denied completely. (N.K.)

  8. Reevaluation of atomic bomb dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Report Vol. 1 of the US-Japan Joint Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which was carried out under the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, was released on July 8, 1987. Major contents of the Report are outlined here. The bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are respectively estimated to be equivalent to 22 kt and 12.5 kt of TNT. The number of leakage neutrons from the bombs was 1.07 x 1023 n/kt in Hiroshima and 1.65 x 1023 n/kt in Nagasaki while the number of leakage photons was 3.04 x 1021 γ/kt in Hiroshima and 3.79 x 1022 γ/kt in Nagasaki. The effects of the scattering at the ground surface and atmospheric humidity on the kerma in tissue in Hiroshima are shown. Investigation of the contributions of prompt and delayed neutrons and gamma rays to the kerma in tissue reveals that the dose of delayed gamma rays is increasingly greater than that of prompt gamma rays at points closer to the blast center. The soft tissue kerma values estimated from TL measurements made by various research institutes are compared to calculations. Measurements of neutron-induced radioactivity are also compared to calculations. Some model houses to be used for evaluation of the shielding performance of houses are proposed. Some applications of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), a procedure for calculating the exposure dose of victims of the bombs developed in 1986 are also described. (Nogami, K.)

  9. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  10. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-15

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  11. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  12. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment

  13. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  14. Magnetic Flux Cancellation in Ellerman Bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, A; Doyle, J G; Scullion, E; Henriques, V; Nelson, C; Ray, T

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use H$\\alpha$ imaging spectroscopy along with Fe I 6302.5 \\AA\\ spectro-polarimetry from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. The EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. We find, using NICOLE inversions of the spectro-polarimetric data, that on average (3.43 $\\pm$ 0.49) x 10$^{24}$ ergs of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during the EBs burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 10$^{14}$ - 10$^{15}$ Mx s$^{-1}$, and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux and the EBs are f...

  15. Magnetic Flux Cancellation in Ellerman Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E.; Nelson, C. J.; Henriques, V.; Ray, T.

    2016-06-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found to be co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use Hα imaging spectroscopy along with Fe i 6302.5 Å spectropolarimetry from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory, to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. Using NICOLE inversions of the spectropolarimetric data, we find that, on average, (3.43 ± 0.49) × 1024 erg of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during EB burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 1014–1015 Mx s‑1 and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate the near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux, resulting in the formation of the EBs. We also show that these EBs can be fueled further by additional, faster moving, negative magnetic flux regions.

  16. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  17. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  18. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  19. Mathematical Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad K. Salah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the most common attacks against Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA cryptosystem are presented. We describe the integer factoring attacks, attacks on the underlying mathematical function, as well as attacks that exploit details in implementations of the algorithm. Algorithms for each type of attacks are developed and analyzed by their complexity, memory requirements and area of usage.

  20. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  1. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Zaki, M Mohd; Marliza, R

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. For the purpose of this paper, only Blaster variants were used during the experiment. This paper proposes a multi-step worm attack model which can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  2. SURVEY OF PACKET DROPPING ATTACK IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Janani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is an application of wireless network with self-configuring mobile nodes. MANET does not require any fixed infrastructure. Its development never has any threshold range. Nodes in MANET can communicate with each other if and only if all the nodes are in the same range. This wide distribution of nodes makes MANET vulnerable to various attacks, packet dropping attack or black hole attack is one of the possible attack. It is very hard to detect and prevent. To prevent from packet dropping attack, detection of misbehavior links and selfish nodes plays a vital role in MANETs. In this paper, a omprehensive investigation on detection of misbehavior links and malicious nodes is carried out.

  3. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  4. Thermal analysis of pyrotechnic mixture-fireworks, atom-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sound level produced from two varieties of sound producing fireworks of atom-bomb, cake bomb and thunder bomb were measured. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO3/S/Al(H3BO3) of compositions 57.5/19.9/22.1(0.5)% very much similar to commercial atom-bomb were taken and five cake bomb and seven thunder bomb with different net weight of chemicals were manufactured specifically for analysis. Cake bomb with 1g pyrotechnic mixture and thunder bomb with 2g pyrotechnic mixture produce -3. Ignition temperature of the mixture is above the melting point of the metallic fuel, Al (660 deg C) and self propagating decomposition occurred at high temperature. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO3/S/Al(H3BO3) is a safe mixture from accidental factor, static electricity. DSC studies indicate slight formation of potassium nitrite with evolution of NO above 400 deg C. (author)

  5. Nocturnal panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Fabiana L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.

  6. The impact of the A-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty years after the throwing of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki this book is published as the expression of a profound longing for peace and disarmament. It is based on a comprehensive compilation of results published in 1979; it sums up the main parts of that work and adds new materials which illustrate the actual conditions at the time of the bombing. The experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is to become the joint possession of all peoples and to enhance the commitment of mankind to peace. The individual chapters describe the devastations, atomic destruction, the victims who suffered injuries, the acute stage of the A-bomb disease, scars that failed to heal, the survivors, life in the ruins, medical care and assistance, the search for peace, the path to a world without nuclear arms. (HSCH)

  7. Signs of a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  8. Ultrasonic Device Would Open Pipe Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raheb, Michael S.; Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, energized by frequency generator and power supply, vibrates shell of pipe bomb while hardly disturbing explosive inner material. Frequency-control circuitry senses resonance in shell and holds generator at that frequency to induce fatigue cracking in threads of end cap. In addition to disarming bombs, ultrasonically induced fatigue may have other applications. In manufacturing, replaces some machining and cutting operations. In repair of equipment, cleanly and quickly disassembles corroded parts. In demolition of buildings used to dismember steel framework safely and controllably.

  9. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent a...... catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  10. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and burn injury or blast and crush injur y, are common during an explosive event. Knowledge about nature of injuries is essential for medicolegal and postmortem reports.

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  12. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  13. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for...

  14. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  15. A Secure Localization Approach against Wormhole Attacks Using Distance Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Honglong Chen; Wei Lou; Xice Sun; Zhi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Wormhole attacks can negatively affect the localization in wireless sensor networks. A typical wormhole attack can be launched by two colluding attackers, one of which sniffs packets at one point in the network and tunnels them through a wired or wireless link to another point, and the other relays them within its vicinity. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the wormhole attack on the localization and propose a novel distance-consistency-based secure localization scheme against worm...

  16. Migraineurs with exercise-triggered attacks have a distinct migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Koppen, Hille; van Veldhoven, Peter LJ

    2013-01-01

    Background Sport as a migraine trigger has been reported, but extensive information on these triggered attacks and the patients experiencing these attacks is lacking. Goal of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of exercise triggered migraine attacks in migraine patients and if patients with exercise triggered attacks experience specific prodromal or ictal migraine symptoms. Methods 103 consecutive migraine patients seen during their first visit at a Dutch headache clinic wer...

  17. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  18. Health status of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    405 atomic bomb survivors, 223 men and 182 women, in Hap-cheon Gun of Kyeong Sang Nam Do in South Korea were investigated from 1973 to 1977. Diseases with chronological change, sex, age, and conditions at exposure were listed. Infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes mellitus decreased every year, whereas diseases of the respiratory organs, bone, muscle, and connective tissue increased. Only burns showed the relationship to the exposure level. The diseases of the survivors in South Korea were compared with those in Hiroshima. However, due to marked differences of socioeconomical conditions, statistical comparison was difficult. (Nakanishi, T.)

  19. French Ministry of Health's response to Paris attacks of 13 November 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Jean-Marc; Brahic, Olivier; Carli, Pierre; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Vallet, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    On Friday November 13th at 9:20 pm, three kamikaze bombs went off around the Stade de France a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris, 4 different shootings took place and bombings in Paris and hundreds of people were held hostage in a theater.This multi-site terrorist attack was the first of this magnitude in France. Drawing the lessons of these attacks and those which occurred in other countries from a health perspective is essential to continuously adapt and improve the French response to possible future attacks.Several issues would need to be further explored: Management of uncertainties: When to trigger the plans: after the 1st attack, the 2nd? When do attacks end and when to release mobilized resources? Management of victims: How to ensure that all victims are secured or taken care of? How to provide assistance when attacks are ongoing? Management of teams: Proper follow-up of persons involved in the response: health professionals, police and firemen, emergency call centers but also civil servants within administration that contributed to the response. Communication: Reactivity of all is a key element to secure appropriate resource is mobilized for the response. All actors have to be able to communicate quickly in a secured way. PMID:27039082

  20. Robustness of Complex Networks against Attacks Guided by Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yanghua; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Extensive researches have been dedicated to investigating the performance of real networks and synthetic networks against random failures or intentional attack guided by degree (degree attack). Degree is one of straightforward measures to characterize the vitality of a vertex in maintaining the integrity of the network but not the only one. Damage, the decrease of the largest component size that was caused by the removal of a vertex, intuitively is a more destructive guide for intentional attack on networks since the network functionality is usually measured by the largest component size. However, it is surprising to find that little is known about behaviors of real networks or synthetic networks against intentional attack guided by damage (damage attack), in which adversaries always choose the vertex with the largest damage to attack. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to understanding damage attack and behaviors of real networks as well as synthetic networks against this attack. To this end, existing ...

  1. Recycling Of Bomb Produced Cl 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, V.; Blinov, A.; Huber, Th.; Kubo, F.; Nolte, E.

    The success of accelerated mass-spectrometry (AMS) has allowed the measuring of very small quantities of radioactive nuclides with the ratio to their stable isotope up to 10-14. With the help of this method the concentration of 36Cl in natural samples can be investigated. The main sources of 36Cl in the atmosphere are a) The natural production in nuclear reactions induced by the interaction of high energy cosmic rays with atmospheric Ar. b) The production by the interaction of high neutron fluxes emitted by the nuclear weapon tests with stable chlorine. c) The production in different reactors with the following release (e.g. Chernobyl accident). The analysis of 36Cl time profile in Greenland showed the fast removal of chlorine from the atmosphere so that nowadays only the natural production of 36Cl is of importance. However the measurement of 36Cl in modern precipitation revealed the significant excess of its concentration over the simulated predictions. The recycling of chlorine as an explanation of the observed discrepancy is ar- gued. The biosphere could take up a part of the fallen down bomb produced 36Cl and releases it into the troposphere in the form of CH3Cl. To check the hypothesis the experiment to collect methyl chloride from the air and to measure 36Cl was set up. The high observed ratio 36 Cl/Cl proves that the chlorine recycling really takes place. Additionally, in order to get more information about the distribution of 36Cl the measurements of its concentration in lakes with long flushing times were performed. With the help of modeling the different sources of 36Cl can be distinguished. The dominant source of 36Cl in many Alpine lakes is chlorine, released during the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

  2. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  5. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  6. Reassessment of Atomic Bomb radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past several years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence produced by gamma rays in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). To be useful in radiation risk assessment, DS86 must be individualized or applied to the assertions of particular individuals as to their whereabouts at the time of the bombing. New DS86 estimates, in terms of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs, are available for 106,001 of the 141,635 individuals in current follow-up study populations. For the other individuals, it has been impossible to make DS86 estimates for 9,026 exposed individuals, and there are 26,608 unexposed individuals who were not in either city at the time of bombing. The DS86 estimates are discussed and compared with early dose estimates which were designated as Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D) and were used as a basis for radiation risk assessment throughout the 1970's

  7. From Hiroshima to the neutron bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of thermonuclear reaction is explained and the destructive action is briefly outlined of the projected neutron bomb. Using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions as a warning of the consequences of the misuse of nuclear energy, an appeal is made for disarmament as the sole safeguard of peace. (L.O.)

  8. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  9. The 'secureplan' bomb utility: A PC-based analytic tool for bomb defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates a recently developed, PC-based software system for simulating the effects of an infinite variety of hypothetical bomb blasts on structures and personnel in the immediate vicinity of such blasts. The system incorporates two basic rectangular geometries in which blast assessments can be made - an external configuration (highly vented) and an internal configuration (vented and unvented). A variety of explosives can be used - each is translated to an equivalent TNT weight. Provisions in the program account for bomb cases (person, satchel, case and vehicle), mixes of explosives and shrapnel aggregates and detonation altitudes. The software permits architects, engineers, security personnel and facility managers, without specific knowledge of explosives, to incorporate realistic construction hardening, screening programs, barriers and stand-off provisions in the design and/or operation of diverse facilities. System outputs - generally represented as peak incident or reflected overpressure or impulses - are both graphic and analytic and integrate damage threshold data for common construction materials including window glazing. The effects of bomb blasts on humans is estimated in terms of temporary and permanent hearing damage, lung damage (lethality) and whole body translation injury. The software system has been used in the field in providing bomb defense services to a number of commercial clients since July of 1986. In addition to the design of siting, screening and hardening components of bomb defense programs, the software has proven very useful in post-incident analysis and repair scenarios and as a teaching tool for bomb defense training

  10. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  11. High-resolution AMS 14C dating of post-bomb peat archives of atmospheric pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodsite, Michael E.; Rom, Werner; Heinemeier, Jan; Lange, Todd; Ooi, Suat; Appleby, Peter G.; Shotyk, William; Van Der Knaap, W. O.; Lohse, Christian; Hansen, Torben S.

    Peat deposits in Greenland and Denmark were investigated to show that high-resolution dating of these archives of atmospheric deposition can be provided for the last 50 years by radiocarbon dating using the atmospheric bomb pulse. 14C was determined in macrofossils from sequential one cm slices...... using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Values were calibrated with a general-purpose curve derived from annually averaged atmospheric 14CO2 values in the northernmost northern hemisphere (NNH, 30°-90°N). We present a thorough review of 14C bomb-pulse data from the NNH including our own measurements...... range of the bomb-pulse (from the mid-1950s on). Comparing the 14C AMS results with the customary dating method for recent peat profiles by 210Pb, we show that the use of 137Cs to validate and correct 210Pb dates proves to be more problematic than previously supposed. As a unique example of our...

  12. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsun Wang; Ching-Hao Mao; Hahn-Ming Lee

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of...

  13. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  15. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  16. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rusinowitch; Ghazi Maatoug; Hatem Ghabri

    2013-01-01

    Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically g...

  17. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  18. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic changes by exposure was discussed based on the data in United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1972) with mice and author's investigation on children of the atomic-bomb survivors. According to the experiment with mice reported in the UNSCEAR, the incidence of translocation in the spermatogonium increased in accordance with increased doses of neutron, x-ray and γ-ray irradiation, and decreased after a certain amount of doses, the peaks being 100 rad in neutron irradiation, 700 rad in x-ray and γ-ray irradiation. Such decreased of spermatogonium possessing translocation in itself indicated the fact that these cells might be naturally selected under the irradiation with high amount of dose. As the result, manifested abnormality in the first spermatocyte decreased. The investigation on the children of atomic-bomb survivors was done in two groups; a group of children whose parents were non-exposed or exposed below 1 rad of exposure and a group of children whose parent or both parents were exposed above 1 rad of exposure. The results were compared to the data on the newborn groups. The incidence of aberration in the number of the chromosomes was slightly higher in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group, however, there were no significant differences between them. It might be because unbalanced type abnormality was naturally selected by abortion and balanced type abnormality wouldn't manifested. Further abnormality would be selected naturally either. (Mukohata, S.)

  19. The Japanese aerial attack on Hanford Engineer Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles W.

    The day before the Pearl Harbor attack, December 6, 1941, the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory was given four goals: design a plutonium (Pu) bomb; produce Pu by irradiation of uranium (U); extract Pu from the irradiated U; complete this in time to be militarily significant. A year later the first controlled nuclear chain reaction was attained in Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1). In January 1943, Hanford, WA was chosen as the site of the Pu factory. Neutron irradiation of 238U was to be used to make 239Pu. This was done by a larger version of CP-1, Hanford Reactor B, which went critical in September 1944. By July 1945 it had made enough Pu for two bombs: one used at the Trinity test in July; the other at Nagasaki, Japan in August. I focus on an ironic sidelight to this story: disruption of hydroelectric power to Reactor B by a Japanese fire balloon attack on March 10, 1945. This activated the costly coal-fired emergency backup plant to keep the reactor coolant water flowing, thwarting disaster and vindicating the conservative design of Hanford Engineer Works. Management of the Hanford Engineer Works in World War II, H. Thayer (ASCE Press 1996).

  20. Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Nishi, Nobuo; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko; Soda, Midori; Grant, Eric J; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sakata, Ritsu; Moriwaki, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikiko; Konda, Manami; Shore, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. Design Prospective cohort study with more than 50 years of follow-up. Setting Atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants 86 611 Life Span Study cohort members with individually estimated radiation doses from 0 to >3 Gy (86% received

  1. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  2. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  3. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  4. Panic on the streets of London: police, crime and the july 2005 terror attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Draca, Mirko; Machin, Stephen; Witt, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the causal impact of police on crime by looking at what happened to crime before and after the terror attacks that hit central London in July 2005. The attacks resulted in a large redeployment of police officers to central London boroughs as compared to outer London – in fact, police deployment in central London increased by over 30 percent in the six weeks following the July 7 bombings. During this time crime fell significantly in central relative to outer London. Stud...

  5. Fatal crocodile attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out. PMID:24237838

  6. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at a Mach Number of 2.01 of the Aerodynamic Characteristics in Combined Angles of Attack and Sideslip of Several Hypersonic Missile Configurations with Various Canard Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. B.

    1958-01-01

    An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of several hypersonic missile configurations with various canard controls for an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg to about 28 deg at sideslip angles of about 0 deg and 4 deg at a Mach number of 2.01 has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel. The configurations tested we re a body alone which had a ratio of length to diameter of 10, the b ody with a 10 deg flare, the body with cruciform fins of 5 deg or 15 deg apex angle, and a flare-stabilized rocket model with a modified Von Karman nose. Various canard surfaces for pitch control only were te sted on the body with the 10 deg flare and on the body with both sets of fins. The results indicated that the addition of a flared afterbody or cruciform fins produced configurations which were longitudinally and directionally stable. The body with 5 deg fins should be capable of producing higher normal accelerations than the flared body. A l l of the canard surfaces were effective longitudinal controls which produced net positive increments of normal force and pitching moments which progressively decreased with increasing angle of attack.

  7. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  8. Mass cancer survey of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an outcome of mass screening for breast and uterine cancers performed in A-bomb survivors during the period from August 1988 through March 1990. Among 1,770 participants in mass screening for breast cancer, detailed examination was judged to be necessary in 6.1%. The rate of participation in the subsequent examination was 81.5%. Breast cancer was detected in 6 patients, which was all invasive ductal carcinoma. The estimated detection rate for breast cacer was 0.47%. There were 1,648 participants in mass screening for uterine cancer. The rate of detailed examination required was 2.0%, and the rate of participation was 66.7%. Uterine cancer was detected in 5 A-bomb survivors, one of whom had metastasis of rectal cancer. The estimated detection rate was 0.45%. (N.K.)

  9. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  10. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), has been conducting a long-term follow-up of a cohort of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The continuing follow-up of this population, known as the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, has been a major source of epidemiological data for radiation risk assessment. Periodic analyses of the LSS mortality data have resulted in a series of reports that describe and quantify radiation effects on cancer mortality. More recently, a series of comprehensive reports of cancer incidence for this cohort has also been published. The latest report on the LSS cancer mortality data through 1990 will soon be published. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an updated overview of the LSS cancer and leukemia data. (author)

  11. Biochemical genetics study of children of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate genetic effect of radiation, especially the rate of mutation, the presence of protein variants in plasma and blood cells of children (F1 generation) of A-bomb survivors was examined. Twenty four kinds of protein consisting of 6 serum proteins and 18 hemoglobin, sampled from 2,800 children have been studied to data by using starch gel electrophoresis. Variants were detected in 13 kinds of proteins in 91 samples and among which the variants were observed often in transferrin, phosphoglucomutase and phosphohexose isomerase. To know whether detected variant types were induced by mutation, 54 cases of parents were tested. Results indicated that same variant types were observed in either of their parents. From these findings, it was confirmed that the variation is genetic and was not related to A-bomb radiation to their parents. Though the incidence of variant types was different in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, The number of samples, is not big enough to conclude it to be regional difference. (Iwagami, H.)

  12. A study on the trend of international radioactive material regulation since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Qaeda and other terrorist groups have tried to obtain the radioactive material which could be used to make a dirty bomb, and their documents relating to dirty bombs were found in the January 2003. International communities especially, the United States has made efforts to improve infrastructure of radiation regulation and security of radioactive material for protecting its people from radiological attacks. This study examines the likelihood of radiological terrorism and the radiological dispersal devices which could be used by determined terrorists, and the trend of international communities to respond it through improvement on radiation regulation and security

  13. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  14. Radiological Situation at the Bomb Test Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of radiological situation at the selected bomb test sites is presented. The report is based on the reports and measurements performed by IAEA while the author was a head of its Physics-Chemistry-Instrumentation Laboratory. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll (USA testing ground), Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls (French testing ground) and Semipalatinsk (SSSR testing ground) have been discussed in some details. (author)

  15. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  16. Hyperparathyroidism among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One thousand and thirty men and 2229 women, including A-bomb survivors, have underwent serum routine examinations from August 1986 through December 1987 at Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Hyperparathyroidism was detected in 3 men and 12 women. On the basis of the DS86 system, this cohort was divided into four groups, with the purpose of examining the relationship between atomic bombing and hyperparathyroidism. There were significant differences between exposure doses and the incidence of hyperparathyroidism (0.3% in the 0-9 mGy group vs 1.7% in the ≥1000 mGy group for women; 0.4% in the 10-499 mGy group vs 1.1% in the ≥1000 mGy group for men). Higher serum levels of calcium were significantly associated with exposure doses in both men and women. A similar tendency was observed when patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. Serum levels of phosphorus did not show any significant correlation with the bombing, although these were slightly lower in the ≥1000 mGy group. (N.K)

  17. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988. PMID:2889042

  18. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred and sixty cases of breast cancer were collected from among the 63,000 female members of the RERF extended Life Span Study sample which includes atomic bomb exposed women and controls of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The relationship of these breast cancer cases to A-bomb radiation was sought, and in studying 5-year survival, the following conclusions were obtained concerning its relationship to histopathological findings: 1) The prognosis of the 50+ rad high dose group is the best, followed by the nonexposed group and the low dose group; 2) The apparently better survival may be due, at least in part, to the fact that this group is heavily weighted in favor of those who were younger at the time of the bomb; 3) There is no specificity of the histologic type of breast cancer in the survivors by dose; 4) Nor, is any significant difference observed in the distribution of tumor size and histological grade; 5) Cellular reaction is significantly marked at the stroma of carcinoma tissue in the high dose group; 6) Immune reaction is considered to be strong at the affected site of breast cancer in the high dose group and this can be regarded as a finding suggestive of good prognosis; 7) Further extended studies are therefore warranted. (author)

  19. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2012-01-01

    Applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are growing tremendously in the domains of habitat, tele-health, industry monitoring, vehicular networks, home automation and agriculture. This trend is a strong motivation for malicious users to increase their focus on WSNs and to develop...... and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered....... The second aim of the paper is to simulate these attacks on hybrid MAC mechanisms, which shows the performance degradation of aWSN under the considered attacks. The modelling and implementation of the security attacks give an actual view of the network which can be useful in further investigating secure...

  20. Cell Counting Attack and Browser Attack against TOR Network

    OpenAIRE

    Swati

    2014-01-01

    The onion router (TOR) allows to hide your identity various software under this categories are available that allows online anonymity network, supporting TCP applications over the Internet. It doesn't allow network surveillance or traffic analysis to get tracked but most of these software used equal size of cells (512B). In this paper we are comparing cell-counting attacks and browser attacks against TOR. Different from cell-counting attacks, these attacks can confirm anonymou...

  1. Influence on social life of atomic bomb, chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 3 ''Influence on social life'', the following matters are described: relations of the atomic bombings to society; destroyed societies such as disruption of regional societies and loss of wealth; life of the sufferers such as occupation, marriage, hardships of life, orphans, livelihood variation, and suffering of foreigners; and mental process of the sufferers. (J.P.N.)

  2. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  3. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it could take years to find it. Depending on the password's length and complexity, there could be trillions of possible combinations. To speed things up a bit, a brute-force attack could start with dictionary words or slightly modified dictionary words because most people will use those rather than a completely random password. These attacks are called dictionary attacks or hybrid brute-force attacks. Brute-force attacks put user accounts at risk and flood your site with unnecessary traffic. Hackers launch brute-force attacks using widely available tools that utilize wordlists and smart rule set to intelligently and automatically guess user passwords. Although such attacks are easy to detect, they are not so easy to prevent

  4. ATTACK PATTERNS FOR DETECTING AND PREVENTING DDOS AND REPLAY ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MADHURI,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the methods for detecting and preventing the DDoS Attacks and Replay Attacks, which have been posing the problems for the Internet. We explained a scheme AMFDR (AttackPatterns for Marking Filtering DoS and Replay attacks that identifies the attack packets from the packets that are sent by legitimate users and filters the attack packets. A Denial of service attack is generally launched to make a service unavailable even to an unauthorized user. If this attack uses many computers across the world, it is called Distributed Denial of service attack. Replay attack is retransmission of a data transmission which used to gain authentication in a fraudulent manner. These replayed packets or attack packets are identified. This scheme is less expensive and the implementation of this scheme needs minimal interaction with routers. The scheme is like firewall system, so that the occurrence of an attack is recognized quickly and a punitive action is taken without any loss genuine packets.

  5. Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors in Nagasaki 1

    OpenAIRE

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kishikawa, Masao

    1991-01-01

    In 1945, an atomic bomb was exploded on Nagasaki. The Scientific Data Center for the Atomic Bomb Disaster was founded in Nagasaki University to analyse radiation effects on atomic bomb survivors. There were about 110,000 victims registered living in Nagasaki as of 1968. Since then, data of 2,000,000 items of health examination has been stored in the computer in the Scientific Data Center. The analysed results of the mortality, the survival and the risk estimation were presented.

  6. On the anti-neutron bomb movement in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports on activities of the Dutch activists group Stop the neutron bomb in his country: Collection of signatures, statements made by about a hundred well-known theologians, two-thirds majority in parliament against the production and emplacement of the neutron bomb, International Forum 1978 in Amsterdam with mass demonstrations. President Carter is said to have been forced to delay the production of the neutron bomb temporarily by means of this international pressure. (HSCH)

  7. Simultaneous Attacks by Terrorist Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Deloughery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While terror attacks that are a part of a coordinated effort receive attention in the popular media, they have not received much attention in the academic literature. The decision to carry out simultaneous attacks should be examined as one of the choices a terrorist organisation makes about the method of attack. Determining the impact of simultaneous attacks vis-à-vis a single attack can explain why groups would use this method. Up to one quarter of all attacks coded in two major databases, GTD and ITERATE, may be part of a simultaneous campaign. Empirical analysis shows simultaneous attacks are more likely to be successful and cause more fatalities, though not in a one-to-one fashion. These results underline the importance of considering simultaneous attacks in empirical analysis.

  8. When women attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart. PMID:26399945

  9. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  10. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  11. Predetonation probability of a fission-bomb core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2010-08-01

    An undergraduate-level derivation of the probability that a uranium or plutonium fission bomb will suffer an uncontrolled predetonation due to neutrons liberated in spontaneous fissions in the fissile material is developed. Consistent with what was learned by Los Alamos bomb designers during World War II, it is shown why uncontrolled predetonation was not a problem for a U-235 bomb of the Little Boy "gun" design but necessitated development of implosion engineering for the Pu-239 Trinity and Fat Man bombs where the cores were contaminated with highly spontaneously fissile Pu-240.

  12. LITERATURE SURVEY ON WORMHOLE ATTACK

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash S. Bundela

    2015-01-01

    Security plays an important role in Mobile Ad Hoc Network when data transmission is performed within un - trusted wireless scenario. Various attacks like Black hole, Wormhole, Gray hole and many more have been identified & corresponding solutions have been proposed. These attacks are caused by the malicious node hence ad hoc wireless network is unprotected from the attacks of the malicious node. Between all these attacks the wormhole att ...

  13. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  14. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Symptoms of Depression in Israeli Adolescents Following a Suicide Bombing: The Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P.; Grogan, Kathryn E.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Shahar, Golan

    2012-01-01

    This report investigated the potential role of gender in moderating the effects of terror attack exposure on depression symptoms in middle school students from Dimona, Israel (N = 90). Specifically, the effects of three aspects of terror attacks were investigated: physical exposure, relational exposure, and media exposure. Ninety early adolescents…

  16. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  17. Towards Understanding Man-In-The-Middle Attacks on IEC 60870-5-104 SCADA Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Peter; McLaughlin, Kieran; Haberler, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates cyber attacks on ICS which rely on IEC 60870-5-104 for telecontrol communications. The main focus of the paper is on man-in-the-middle attacks, covering modification and injection of commands, it also details capture and replay attacks. An initial set of attacks are preformed on a local software simulated laboratory. Final experiments and validation of a man-in-the-middle attack are performed in a comprehensive testbed environment in conjunction with an electricity dis...

  18. Attack on a classical analogue of the Dunjko, Wallden, Kent and Andersson quantum digital signature protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Derrick

    2015-01-01

    A quantum digital signature (QDS) protocol is investigated in respect of an attacker who can impersonate other communicating principals in the style of Lowe's attack on the Needham-Schroeder public-key authentication protocol. A man-in-the-middle attack is identified in respect of a classical variant of the protocol and it is suggested that a similar attack would be effective against the QDS protocol. The attack has been confirmed through initial protocol modelling using a automated theorem p...

  19. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  20. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-Hsun; Lee, Hahn-Ming; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.2

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM) as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model...

  1. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults

  2. Oscillatory thermal instability - the Bhopal disaster and liquid bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    Thermal runaway reactions were involved in the Bhopal disaster of 1984, in which methyl isocyanate was vented from a storage tank of the liquid, and occur in liquid peroxide explosions, yet to date there have been few investigations into the mechanism of thermal runaway in such liquid thermoreactive systems. Consequently protocols for storing thermally unstable liquids and deactivating liquid bombs may be suboptimal. In this work the hydrolysis of methyl isocyanate and the thermal decomposition of triacetone triperoxide were simulated using a gradientless, continuous-flow reactor paradigm. This approximation enabled stability analyses on the steady state solutions of the dynamical mass and enthalpy equations. The results indicate that thermal runaway in both systems is due to the onset of a large amplitude, hard thermal oscillation initiated at a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. This type of thermal misbehaviour cannot be predicted using classical ignition theory, and may be typical of liquid thermoreactive syst...

  3. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks that are...... caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  4. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  5. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study

    OpenAIRE

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support ...

  6. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  7. CALCULATION OF PER PARCEL PROBABILITY FOR DUD BOMBS IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tavakkoli Sabour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth’s surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  8. Effects of the atomic bomb: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic bomb was aimed at the heart of the multifunctional regional center in he Hiroshima Bay. The buildings were reduced to rubble and ashes by a combination of the blast wave and heat rays. Determining the number of persons exposed to the atomic bomb and those killed is most difficult due to many movements of the people at that time and due to loss of records in the bombing, but from various sources the total physically present population in Hiroshima on the bombing day is estimated to 340,000-350,000. Body injuries resulting from the atomic bombing included burns, trauma and serious body injuries due to radiation. Compared to Hiroshima, blast damage to buildings was more severe in Nagasaki, damage by fire defied all imagination. Population in Nagasaki is estimated at 240,000 on the dy of bombing. Body injuries from exposure to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were classified as acute A-bomb injuries in the initial stage, secondary injuries, after-effects, and delayed effects. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experience is the starting point for projecting and absolute necessity for preventing, the irreversible devastation that would result from the use of current nuclear weapons

  9. Quality improvement program for the B83 bomb hand truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loll, M.B.; Buck, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the problems, issues, and history of the H1347 bomb hand truck for the B83 bomb after the bomb was put into stockpile in the mid-1980s. Major issues that were reported in Unsatisfactory Reports (URs) were cracking problems on stacking fixture welds, cracked welds on the caster bracket receptacles on the cradle, cracked caster mounting brackets, casters unlocking from the swivel lock position, and caster tires rubbing and binding on the stacking frame. Resolution of these and other problems is described. The introduction of the H695B storage-only bomb hand truck to alleviate a shortage of bomb hand trucks in the mid-1990s is described. The development and qualification of the H1347A bomb hand truck as a replacement for the H695 B is covered. The results from load test evaluations on the stacking fixture, cradle, and casters for the H1347 are described along with towing results on one and two-high stack configurations of B83 bombs in bomb hand trucks. New towing and truck/trailer transport procedures are described. Development, evaluation, and production recommendations for a stronger caster mounting bracket are described.

  10. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the...

  11. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment for a heart attack can ... or years after the procedure. Other Treatments for Heart Attack Other treatments for heart attack include: Medicines Medical ...

  12. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  13. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  14. Radiological preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Cold War, every information about weapons of mass destruction was treated as top secret, regardless of whether the information concerned friend or foe. The most serious threat in our post Cold War era are terrorist radiological dispersal devices. Dirty nukes are what you may choose to build if you're unable to create a real nuclear bomb, i.e. one whose explosion is based on a nuclear reaction. A dirty bomb is a conventional explosive salted with radioactive isotopes in order to spew out that nuclear material and contaminate a wide area. The military usefulness of such devices have always been in dispute. In fact, the TNT in such a bomb may still be more dangerous than the nuclear material. Its destructive power would really depend on the size of the conventional bomb, and the volume and nature of nuclear material. This paper addresses the possibilities of decontamination and preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or accident.(author)

  15. H-alpha features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, R J

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for H-alpha, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10,000 - 20,000 K and hydrogen densities around 10^15 cm^-3. Similar arguments likely hold for H-alpha visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  16. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  17. Estimation of neutron doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the radiation doses in the Hiroshima and the Nagasaki atomic bombings, the estimated values of T65D (in the United States) have been used. In recent years, however, these values are being restudied. On the basis of the neutron spectra from atomic bombings published from LANL in 1976, the neutron doses in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings were estimated. It was pointed out that the neutron doses of T65D were overestimated. The results of calculation in this estimation were that at the distance from 1 km to 2 km, the neutron doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were from 1/5 to 1/9 and about 1/3, respectively, as compared with those in T65D. The estimation of the neutron doses in the atomic bombings by calculation, the difference from T65D and the comparison with the measured radioactivities immediately after atomic bombings are described. (Mori, K.)

  18. Effect of migraine attacks on paracetamol absorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Tokola, R A; Neuvonen, P J

    1984-01-01

    The absorption of effervescent paracetamol (1000 mg) was investigated in nine female patients during a migraine attack and in the same patients when headache free. Migraine attack decreased (P less than 0.05) the areas under the serum paracetamol concentration-time curves (AUC) of 0-2 h, 0-4 h and 0-6 h and the peak serum concentration. The severity of nausea correlated significantly with the decrease in the AUC values. Our results support findings of delayed gastric emptying in migraine atta...

  19. Detecting and Localizing Wireless Network Attacks Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Aldasouqi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase employee productivity within a feasible budget, we have to track newtechnologies, investigate and choose the best plan and implementation of these technologies.WLAN is vulnerable to malicious attacks due to their shared medium in unlicensed frequencyspectrum, thus requiring security features for a variety of applications.This paper will discuss some techniques and approaches which can help to detect, localize andidentify wireless network attacks, which present a unique set of challenges to IT and securityprofessionals. All efforts were focusing on the ability to identity based attacks in which amalicious device uses forged MAC addresses to masquerade as a specific client or to createmultiple illegitimate identities. Also, to be sure that the network is able to robustly identify eachtransmitter independently of packet contents, allowing detection of a large class of identity-basedattacks with high probability.The attacker can listen to all wireless traffic, compromise encryption and Use attenuators,amplifiers, directional antennas, software radios, but he cannot be at the location of user or at thelocation of access points. However, we have to choose the best design, implementation, andevaluation techniques in order to secure our network from attackers, where our choice willdepend on a technical implementation to mitigate the risk on the enterprise network infrastructure.

  20. A Secure Localization Approach against Wormhole Attacks Using Distance Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglong Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attacks can negatively affect the localization in wireless sensor networks. A typical wormhole attack can be launched by two colluding attackers, one of which sniffs packets at one point in the network and tunnels them through a wired or wireless link to another point, and the other relays them within its vicinity. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the wormhole attack on the localization and propose a novel distance-consistency-based secure localization scheme against wormhole attacks, which includes three phases of wormhole attack detection, valid locators identification and self-localization. The theoretical model is further formulated to analyze the proposed secure localization scheme. The simulation results validate the theoretical results and also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  1. Intrusions into Privacy in Video Chat Environments: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xinyu; Han, Richard; Liu, Xue; Mishra, Shivakant

    2010-01-01

    Video chat systems such as Chatroulette have become increasingly popular as a way to meet and converse one-on-one via video and audio with other users online in an open and interactive manner. At the same time, security and privacy concerns inherent in such communication have been little explored. This paper presents one of the first investigations of the privacy threats found in such video chat systems, identifying three such threats, namely de-anonymization attacks, phishing attacks, and man-in-the-middle attacks. The paper further describes countermeasures against each of these attacks.

  2. The genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the genetic effects of the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been in progress since 1946. The indicators of potential genetic damage in the children of exposees which have been employed are: (1) untoward pregnancy outcomes (major congenital defect and/or stillbirth and/or neonatal death), (2) death of liveborn infants prior to average age 28.8 years, (3) cancer of onset prior to age 20, (4) sex chromosome aneuploidy, (5) mutations affecting protein electrophoretic mobility and/or activity, (6) chromosomal reciprocal translocations, (7) sex-ratio in the children of exposed mothers, and (8) physical development at birth, at 9-months, and at school age. There is no statistically significant effect of parental exposure to the bombs on any of these indicators. The net regression of indicator(s) on dose is, however, positive. On the basis of these regressions and assumptions concerning the contribution of spontaneous mutation to the indicator values in the controls, the gametic doubling dose of acute ionizing radiation under these circumstances is estimated to be 2 Sv. With a dose rate factor of 2, which seems appropriate to these circumstances, the doubling dose for chronic radiation is placed at 4 Sv. This is a substantially higher estimate than previous extrapolations to man from murine experiments

  3. A-bomb and skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury and influence in the skin given by A-bomb are reviewed from the dermatological aspect. As an acute injury, primary and secondary thermal burns, flash and flame, respectively, are generally caused by high-energy heat. More than 90% people present within 1 km diameter area of the hypocenter died in a week and about 30% of whom did due to burns. Alopecia appeared in those who had been exposed to A-bomb radiation within 2.5 km diameter region of the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and purpura, an important measure of radiation injury, occurred maximally 20-30 days after explosion in most of those people above. Late injury involves keloid and malignant skin tumor. The former, hypertrophic scar, was seen mainly in the curing process of the burns in 60-80% and was of somewhat different morphology after flash and flame injuries. In 1987, the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposed dose was recognized in 20,348 survivors in Nagasaki. In the period from 1958 to 1987, the incidence of basal cell carcinoma was found increased in the comparative studies of about 90,000 people consisting of survivors and non-exposed control. Skin examination is pointed out from the aspect to be important in those people exposed to the higher radiation dose than general population, like workers in the nuclear power plant and medical field as well as in those enrolled in a nuclear accident. (R.T.)

  4. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  5. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (>2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. (author)

  6. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  7. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi, S; K. Duraiswamy

    2013-01-01

    Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the ...

  8. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  9. Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Shema, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting web applications? Then you need Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to web applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. .. .. Attacks detailed in this book include: ..: ..; Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) ..; Cross-Site Request Fo

  10. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  11. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses. PMID:25948837

  12. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose- responses. (authors)

  13. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  14. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ''Dosimetry System 1986'' (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of 152Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron 32P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  15. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence among atomic-bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Lönn, Stefan; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Egawa, Hiromi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2010-01-01

    While radiation increases the risk of lung cancer among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors, there are still important questions about the nature of its interaction with smoking, the predominant cause of lung cancer. Among 105,404 LSS subjects, 1,803 primary lung cancer incident cases were identified for the period 1958–1999. Individual smoking history information and the latest radiation dose estimates were utilized to investigate the joint effects of radiati...

  16. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  17. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B.; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, signif...

  18. Neural network classifier of attacks in IP telephony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Mikulec, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Various types of monitoring mechanism allow us to detect and monitor behavior of attackers in VoIP networks. Analysis of detected malicious traffic is crucial for further investigation and hardening the network. This analysis is typically based on statistical methods and the article brings a solution based on neural network. The proposed algorithm is used as a classifier of attacks in a distributed monitoring network of independent honeypot probes. Information about attacks on these honeypots is collected on a centralized server and then classified. This classification is based on different mechanisms. One of them is based on the multilayer perceptron neural network. The article describes inner structure of used neural network and also information about implementation of this network. The learning set for this neural network is based on real attack data collected from IP telephony honeypot called Dionaea. We prepare the learning set from real attack data after collecting, cleaning and aggregation of this information. After proper learning is the neural network capable to classify 6 types of most commonly used VoIP attacks. Using neural network classifier brings more accurate attack classification in a distributed system of honeypots. With this approach is possible to detect malicious behavior in a different part of networks, which are logically or geographically divided and use the information from one network to harden security in other networks. Centralized server for distributed set of nodes serves not only as a collector and classifier of attack data, but also as a mechanism for generating a precaution steps against attacks.

  19. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  20. Radioepidemiology of the A-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, W J

    1996-06-01

    Estimation of the risk of cancer and other health effects following exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remains largely empirical, and the models used to adduce risk incorporate few, if any, of the advances in molecular biology of the past decade or so. These facts compromise the estimation of risk where the epidemiologic data are weakest, namely, at low doses and dose rates. Although the risk estimates may be sufficient for regulatory purposes, without a better understanding of the molecular and cellular events ionizing radiation initiates or promotes, it seems unlikely that the estimates will be as intellectually satisfying as they might be. Nor will the situation improve further without attention to the identification and estimation of the effects of those host and environmental factors that enhance or diminish risk of cancer or the effects on the developing brain. PMID:8635903

  1. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  2. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.)

  3. Multiwavelength spectropolarimetric observations of an Ellerman bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, R.; Beck, C.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are enhanced emission in the wings of the Hα line in the solar spectrum. Aims: We study the structure of an EB in the photosphere and chromosphere. Methods: We analyze simultaneous observations of four chromospheric lines (Hα, Ca ii H, Ca ii IR 854 nm, and He i 1083 nm) as well as two photospheric lines (Fe i 630 and Si i 1082.7 nm) along with high-cadence 160 and 170 nm ultraviolet (UV) continuum filtergrams. Full Stokes data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) are used to trace the temporal evolution of the magnetic structure. Results: We identify the EB by excess emission in the wings of the Hα line, a brightening in the UV continuum, and large emission peaks in the core of the two Ca ii lines. The EB shows a blueshift in all chromospheric lines, while no shifts are observed in the photospheric lines. The blueshift in the chromospheric layer causes very asymmetric emission peaks in the Ca ii H line. The photospheric Si i spectral line shows a shallower line depth at the location of the EB. The UV continuum maps show that the EB was substantially brighter than its surroundings for about 30 min. The continuum contrast of the EB from 170 nm to 1080 nm shows a power-law dependency on the wavelength. The temperature enhancement amounts to 130 K in the low photosphere and 400 K at the temperature minimum level. This temperature excess is also seen in an LTE inversion of the Ca ii spectra. The total thermal and radiative energy content of the EB is about 1020 J and 1018 J in the photosphere and chromosphere, respectively. The HMI data hints at a photospheric magnetic flux cancellation as the driver of the EB. Conclusions: Ellerman bombs release the energy in a height range of several pressure scale heights around the temperature minimum such that they affect both the photosphere and the lower chromosphere.

  4. Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007488.htm Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report ... myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology ...

  5. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2011-01-01

    information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security of...... string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...... several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  6. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed. PMID:25527240

  7. Circular asymmetry of cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry of cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method, and controlling for age at the time of the bomb, sex, follow-up year, distance from hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that cancer mortality in Hiroshima was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer was higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki also cancer mortality, notably lung cancer mortality, was significantly higher in the westerly direction. Discussed are possible sources of the asymmetry, particularly the possibilities of asymmetry of epidemiologic variables and of radiation exposure, and indications for future work. (author)

  8. A cytogenetic study of the F1 generation of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a cytogenetic study on the F1 generation (born before December 1958) of 4,332 a-bomb survivors (estimated exposure dose of one or both parents, over 1 rad) and 2,348 controls (estimated dose of their parents, below 1 rad or not exposed) are discussed. Structural abnormalities of autosomes were observed in 0.07% of the children in the control group and in 0.34% of the children in the exposed group in Hiroshima. The statistical differences in abnormalities were suggested by the results of T-tests. No effects of exposure to the a-bomb were observed in children in Nagasaki. In 4 of 8 cases the type of chromosomal abnormality was reciprocal translocation. Its frequency was 0.34%, indicating the usefulness of abnormal chromosomes as an index in this investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by periodical health examination, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin was determined in A-bomb survivors, and its significance was evaluated. A low-ferritin group included many of the females under the age of 50, who mostly had iron deficient anemia. A high-ferritin group included many older-aged A-bomb survivors who had secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and multiple myeloma. Secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, PNH, leukemia, and sideroblastic anemia was detected in those who were old and had underlying moderate or severe anemia with a high ferritin level. As the results of this investigation, blood examination combined with serum ferritin determination is valuable for diagnosis of anemia and detection of underlying diseases. (Ueda, J.)

  10. Lung cancer incidence among Japanese A-bomb survivors, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese A-bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on histopathological examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histologic types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001): based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± s.e.) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (ATB; p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  11. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  12. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection. PMID:25910268

  13. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  14. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2011), s. 181-186. ISSN 1845-8319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * chromosphere * Ellerman bomb Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  16. SURVEY ON SURVIVAL APPROACHES IN WIRELESS NETWORK AGAINST JAMMING ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARAZ AHSAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks are more depicted to intentional or unintentional threats than their wired based equivalent networks. Major reason being the wireless medium which can be approached by others, who can listen and interfere in an on-going valid communication. In the absence of a collision detection mechanism and relying mainly on cooperation of each other for packet routing, the standard defined for wireless network is unable to identify any malicious activity, by default. Among attacks the ones which create isolation of the nodes on the network are considered more severe. If they last long enough, can result in denial-of-service and hence network collapses completely. The simplest form of such attacks is jamming attack which can block any current legitimate communication. It is easy to launch as no especial hardware is required and the area in range for a particular time can be jammed for any legal communication. Jamming is a specialized Denial of Service attack in which purpose is not to overflow buffers, instead to choke the physical communication channel, hence avoiding jammer is much harder than other forms of denial of service attacks. Unlike other attacks, especially routing attacks, no network parameter and topology etc need to be known in advance before launching jamming attack. However, if the network parameters are known and the attack is intelligently placed, a jammer can last longer resulting in more survival time on the network and damage. This paper surveys on different types of jamming attack and the mitigation techniques generally used. Besides this, we investigate about the approaches proposed that are considered efficient to survive in a jammed region, actively. Finally, we conclude by highlighting the potential areas which can be targeted to optimize in minimizing the effects of a jamming attack, as future directions.

  17. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, M.; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement ...

  18. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  19. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  20. Angiosarcoma arising from skeletal haemangiomatosis in an atomic bomb survivor

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kurosaka, M; Minami, R

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a unique case in which an angiosarcoma arose from skeletal haemangiomatosis in a 72 year old man. This patient had a history of atomic bomb irradiation more than 50 years ago. Radiographically, the patient had multiple sclerotic foci of benign haemangiomas in the pelvis, the sacrum, and the left femur. The patient developed a high grade angiosarcoma in the left pubic bone. It is thought that atomic bomb irradiation played an important role in the development of the malignan...

  1. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  2. An Active Defense Mechanism for TCP SYN flooding attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become a serious problem. To assure that network services will not be interrupted and more effective defense mechanisms to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Another problem is single-point defenses (e.g. firewalls) lack the scalability needed to handle an increase in the attack traffic. We have designed a new defense mechanism to detect the SYN flood attacks. First, we introduce a mechanism for detecting SYN flood traffic more accurately by taking into consideration the time variation of arrival traffic. We investigate the statistics regarding the arrival rates of both normal TCP SYN packets and SYN flood attack packets. We then describe a new detection mechanism based on these statistics. Through the trace driven approach defense nodes which recei...

  3. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozick, Linda Karen (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  4. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  5. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and ≥3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.)

  6. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  7. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying the...... security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  8. Suicide Attacks on the Rise

    OpenAIRE

    CCS Research Staff

    2008-01-01

    This article was published in Culture and Conflict Review (March 2008), v.2 no.2 "The last six weeks has brought some of the worst violence in Afghanistan since 2001. In 2007, there were more than 230 Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks and 145 suicide attacks. Casualty rates were at least 25 percent higher in 2007 than the previous year. In the past 18 months, IED attacks have targeted numerous police and army busses, a group of legislators outside a factory at Baghlan, a five-star ...

  9. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  10. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  11. Strategies and scenarios of CSRF attacks against the CAPTCHA forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we’ve tried to examine the hypothesis of the robustness of a form by using CAPTCHA against CSRF and login CSRF attacks. Our investigations showed that unlike public opinion, common attacks to bypass CAPTCHAs such as Optical Character Recognition (OCR and 3rd party human attacks are not applicable in the CSRF case and instead, Clickjacking is the most important scenario of CSRF and login CSRF attacks against a secure session-dependent CAPTCHA form. Remember that the Clickjacking is also applicable to bypass the well-known CSRF protections, such as the secret token and the Referer header. Therefore, although the frequent application of CAPTCHA on every page of a website negatively impacts the user experience, but the robustness of a robust session-dependent CAPTCHA against the CSRF and login CSRF attacks is almost the same as the session-dependent security token. Moreover, when a website is using a session-independent or week pattern of CAPTCHA, attackers can bypass the CAPTCHAs and launch the CSRF or login CSRF attacks by using XSS, session hijacking, replay attacks or submitting a random response.

  12. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  13. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  14. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes. PMID:27223827

  15. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been thought that A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing were exposed to residual A-bomb radiation both externally and internally (through inhalation, food, drink or skin). This paper summarizes the data on estimated radiation doses in A-bomb survivors who entered Hiroshima within 3 days after A-bombing based on the chromosome staining analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood taken from A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 40 A-bomb survivors; according to a stay period and a history of medical irradiation, they were divided into four: group A with a long stay, group B with a long stay + medical irradiation, group C with a short stay, and group D with a short stay + medical irradiation. A mean estimated radiation dose was 4.8 rad (one rad or less to 13.5 rad) in group A, 13.9 rad (one rad or less to 71.2 rad) in group B, one rad or less in group C, and 1.9 rad (one rad or less to 21.2 rad) in group D. The highest rate of chromosomal aberrations was 3.1% in group B, followed by 2.1% in group A, 0.83% in group D, and 0.73% in group C. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was coincident with the duration of stay in the city. Furthermore, medical irradiation seemed to have contributed to the additional effects of A-bomb radiation. (N.K.)

  16. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Masazumi Akahoshi; Saeko Fujiwara; Kei Nakachi; Yoichiro Kusonoki; Thomas Seed; Yoshiaki Kodama; Eiji Nakashima; Naoko Kamada; Sachiyo Funamoto; Yoshimi Tatsukawa; Miles, Edward F.; Kazuo Neriishi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results...

  17. Dose estimation for atomic bomb survivor studies: its evolution and present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Grant, Eric J; Kerr, George D; Preston, Dale L

    2006-07-01

    In the decade after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, several large cohorts of survivors were organized for studies of radiation health effects. The U.S. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its U.S./Japan successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have performed continuous studies since then, with extensive efforts to collect data on survivor locations and shielding and to create systems to estimate individual doses from the bombs' neutrons and gamma rays. Several successive systems have been developed by extramural working groups and collaboratively implemented by ABCC and RERF investigators. We describe the cohorts and the history and evolution of dose estimation from early efforts through the newest system, DS02, emphasizing the technical development and use of DS02. We describe procedures and data developed at RERF to implement successive systems, including revised rosters of survivors, development of methods to calculate doses for some classes of persons not fitting criteria of the basic systems, and methods to correct for bias arising from errors in calculated doses. We summarize calculated doses and illustrate their change and elaboration through the various systems for a hypothetical example case in each city. We conclude with a description of current efforts and plans for further improvements. PMID:16808610

  18. Why 159°?: a story about the dropping of the Hiroshima atom bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Sean L.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the evasive manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot of the Enola Gay aircraft following the dropping of the first uranium bomb. The pilot was instructed to make a 159° turn following the bomb’s release in order to acquire the greatest distance from the point at which the bomb explodes. Accordingly, the objective here is to investigate why the angle should be exactly 159°. The optimum flight-path to maximize the distance from the detonation point is analysed by considering the escape or exit angle taken by the aircraft following a turning-manoeuvre that points it directly away from the detonation site. A range of escape angles are predicted based on the requirement to exit the turning radius prior to detonation. By using information that appeared in a historical account of the event regarding the manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot following the release of the bomb, an estimate is made of the escape angle. Despite the fact that the result shows reasonable agreement with the value of 159°, some uncertainty is expressed as to the close coincidence obtained. In addition, the location of the aircraft and the time of arrival of the shock wave following detonation are also briefly discussed.

  19. Late A-bomb effects on proliferation and mitotic inhibition of T- and B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate late effects of ionization radiation and aging on T- and B-lymphocytes, mitotic ability of T- and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of 266 A-bomb survivors was examined by determining the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were used as inducers. Furthermore, mitotic inhibition of lymphocytes induced by a lymphatic inhibitor which was in part prepared from ulex seed extracts (USE) was examined. A decreased reaction of peripheral lymphocytes to PHA was seen in men exposed to 100-199 rad; a decreased reaction to PWM was seen in women exposed to more than 200 rad. According to the age group at examination, these decreased reactions were remarkable in men aged 60 years or younger and women aged 60 years or older. Among men less than 60-year-old exposed to 100-199 rad, PWM-induced mitosis of lymphocytes tended to be inhibited remarkably by USE. These results suggest the involvement of late A-bomb effects in mitotic regulation of T- and B-lymphocytes of aged A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Epidemiological studies among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of results of surveys for the frequency of malignant tumors during the period 1946-1982 and mortality during the period 1946-1985 among the offspring of A-bomb survivors, genetic effects of A-bombing were retrospectively investigated. Among 67,574 children born to parents whose gonad doses could be estimated, 83 in the age group of 20 years or younger were found to develop cancer. Of these, only 18 were considered to have genetic cancers, such as retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and embryonal carcinoma. The other 31 and 34 patients had leukemia and other cancers, respectively. No significantly increased incidence of cancer was associated with radiation doses received in their parents. Genetic effects of A-bombing were considered responsible for 3% to 5% of spontaneously induced malignant tumors. Among 67,586 children born to parents whose gonad doses could be estimated, 3852 (5.7%) were dead during the period 1946-1985. Of these, 76% had died before the age of 4. Survey for mortality has also showed that there is no significant correlation between gonad doses in parents and cancer risk for their offspring. (N.K.)

  1. Social Engineering:A Partial Technical attack

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.Maan; Manish Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests the crystal clear concept behind the social engineering attack. Basically social engineering is a non technical attack. But social engineering attack is an attack on human psychology to get the information, but using what? Basically it is an attack on human psychology by using some technical skills or technology. Social engineering attack has many types like fake mail, telephonic cheat etc. which are impossible without any technical skills, so in this paper we suggest that...

  2. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  3. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size

  4. An operated case with post-traumatic epilepsy following atomic bombing injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case was 54-years-old man who was bombed at 4-years old 1.5 km apart from the center of explosion in Hiroshima, and had intractable epilepsy after 10 years or more. He suffered from systemic convulsion from 18 years old and took anti-convulsant drugs from 23 years old. The frequency of seizure increased from once a half year to thrice 2 months for these 3-4 years. The attack mainly occurred at night, and it was generalized tonicoclonic convulsion accompanied with unconsciousness and urinary incontience. Valproate (1,800 mg) and clonazepam (1 mg) failed to control the attack, and then he was referred to author's hospital. By CT scanning, MRI and HMPAO-SPECT, the area around the ossified lesion in the right frontal lobe was considered the focus of the epilepsy, and the focus was removed on June 4, 1998. No neurodegeneration and convulsive seizure occurred after surgery. The ossified lesion was confirmed to be bone tissue containing osteoblasts from histological findings and was accompanied by severe gliosis to the brain surface. A large number of active astrocytes were found around the nerve cells in the cortex showing spine-like wave focus, but there were no significant changes in blood vessels in the brain. (K.H.)

  5. An operated case with post-traumatic epilepsy following atomic bombing injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio Shunji; Muraishi; Mitsuteru; Hisada, Kei; Takase, Keiichirou; Matsukado, Koichiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Ohta, Michiya

    1999-12-01

    The case was 54-years-old man who was bombed at 4-years old 1.5 km apart from the center of explosion in Hiroshima, and had intractable epilepsy after 10 years or more. He suffered from systemic convulsion from 18 years old and took anti-convulsant drugs from 23 years old. The frequency of seizure increased from once a half year to thrice 2 months for these 3-4 years. The attack mainly occurred at night, and it was generalized tonicoclonic convulsion accompanied with unconsciousness and urinary incontience. Valproate (1,800 mg) and clonazepam (1 mg) failed to control the attack, and then he was referred to author's hospital. By CT scanning, MRI and HMPAO-SPECT, the area around the ossified lesion in the right frontal lobe was considered the focus of the epilepsy, and the focus was removed on June 4, 1998. No neurodegeneration and convulsive seizure occurred after surgery. The ossified lesion was confirmed to be bone tissue containing osteoblasts from histological findings and was accompanied by severe gliosis to the brain surface. A large number of active astrocytes were found around the nerve cells in the cortex showing spine-like wave focus, but there were no significant changes in blood vessels in the brain. (K.H.)

  6. Behavioral response of people in Belgrade to the bombing campaign during 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In contrast to numerous reports on long-term psychological consequences of disasters, the literature addressing the acute impact of intentional collective disaster is limited. Objective. This research aimed to examine the impact of the bombing campaign on the behavior of people living in Belgrade during the air attacks in 1999. Methods. The questionnaire was designed and administered to 231 participants. Psychological distress symptoms were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R. Results. Participants reported fear and anger as dominant feelings, and the majority of them complained about sleep disturbance, body weight change, and loss of interest for sexual activity. Regression analysis of the scores of the SCL-90-R revealed significant effects of the duration of living under the stress of air attacks, age and gender of the participants and living in the risky areas of the city, upon the scores on Anxiety and Depression dimension. Conclusion. The results of the study contributed to our understanding of the processes through which individuals pass during a long lasting bombardment. It can be beneficial for mental health services in evaluating which actions of care and support could be most suitable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

  7. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Garcia Samir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violent death in the world and the first of disability. Many risk factors favor the presentation of these events and some of them are susceptible of modification and therfore are objetives of primary prevention just as the control of diabetes, hypertension and the practice of healthy habits of life. The advances in the knowledge of the physiopatology, had taken to sustantial change in the nomenclature and management of ischemic ACS. Within these changes it was substituted the term cerebrovascular accident fo acute stroke, making emphasis in the key rol of a timely management with goals of time similiar to the acute coronary syndrome. It was redefined the time of acute ischemic attack to a one hour. Once stablished the cerebrovascular attack the semiology of symtoms with frecuency will led us make a topographic diagnosis of the in injury that joined to the cerebral TAC will allow us to exclude an hemorragic event and to start the treatment. In the management of these patients its essential the coordination of the differents teams of work, from the early recognition of symtoms on the part of patients andthe family, the rapid activation and response of emergency systems and the gearing of health care institutions. Are pillars of treatment: the abcde of reanimatiion, to avoid the hiperpirexis, the seizures, the hipoglicemy, the hiperglicemy, to achieve the thrombolysis in the first three hours of the begining of symtoms, to use antiplatelets, antithrombotic profilaxis

  8. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Rejean; Beaudry, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of panic attacks and panic disorders have progressed markedly during the last decade. Unlike phobic disorders, the key feature of panic disorders is the many panic attacks that are mostly spontaneous or not caused by a particular situation. Recent studies linking its pathogenesis with lactate infusion tests are reviewed. For treatment, psychotherapy combined with in vivo exposure and pharmacotherapy is more efficacious than either treatment alone. In most cases, ps...

  9. Impersonation Attack on EKE Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Shirisha Tallapally

    2010-01-01

    The key exchange protocol is one of the most elegant ways of establishing secure communication between pair of users by using a session key. The passwords are of low entropy, hence the protocol should resist all types of password guessing attacks. Recently ECC-3PEKE protocol has been proposed by Chang and Chang. They claimed the protocol is secure, efficient and practical. Unless their claims Yoon and Yoo presented an Undetectable online password guessing attack on the above protocol. A key r...

  10. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Bigal Marcelo; Brawn Jennifer; Pendse Gautam; Nutile Lauren; Becerra Lino; Maleki Nasim; Burstein Rami; Borsook David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unr...

  11. Social Engineering:A Partial Technical attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Maan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests the crystal clear concept behind the social engineering attack. Basically social engineering is a non technical attack. But social engineering attack is an attack on human psychology to get the information, but using what? Basically it is an attack on human psychology by using some technical skills or technology. Social engineering attack has many types like fake mail, telephonic cheat etc. which are impossible without any technical skills, so in this paper we suggest that , it is a partial technical attack and can be divided in human based and typical computer based social engineering attack.

  12. Cancer developing among atom-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer (with the exception of leukemia) which had often been observed among atom bomb survivors was discussed. Prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was high in the people who had been exposed to more than 50 rad of the atomic radiation. A great difference in prevalence of cancer was seen between irradiated people whose age had been under 20 years at the time of exposure and non-irradiated. More women than men had papillary adenocarcinoma. The highest prevalence was seen 16 to 20 years after exposure to atomic radiation, but there was no difference in prevalence between those from Hiroshima and from Nagasaki. Lung cancer comprised 89% of all cancers of the people whose age was 50 years and over. Most of them had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 300 rad. The type was cellular retrograde cancer. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma was low, and breast cancer occurred at an early age before menopause. The occurrence of cancer in juvenile survivors was several times higher in the patients who had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 100 rad than in non-irradiated. These values indicate that cancer occurs more frequently than leukemia does in such survivors. (Kanao, N.)

  13. Simulating an Exploding Fission-Bomb Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    A time-dependent desktop-computer simulation of the core of an exploding fission bomb (nuclear weapon) has been developed. The simulation models a core comprising a mixture of two isotopes: a fissile one (such as U-235) and an inert one (such as U-238) that captures neutrons and removes them from circulation. The user sets the enrichment percentage and scattering and fission cross-sections of the fissile isotope, the capture cross-section of the inert isotope, the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the number of ``initiator'' neutrons, the radius of the core, and the neutron-reflection efficiency of a surrounding tamper. The simulation, which is predicated on ordinary kinematics, follows the three-dimensional motions and fates of neutrons as they travel through the core. Limitations of time and computer memory render it impossible to model a real-life core, but results of numerous runs clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical mass for a given set of parameters and the dramatic effects of enrichment and tamper efficiency on the growth (or decay) of the neutron population. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  14. Nuclear policies: fuel without the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essays, developed from studies conducted by the California seminar on arms control and foreign policy, address technical, political, and economic aspects of nonproliferation. How to halt nuclear proliferation commands worldwide attention today. The search for new energy resources by industrial as well as nonindustral nations has led to the spread of nuclear technology and the production of weapons grade fuel materials such as plutonium and enriched uranium in the name of energy independence. The background and consequences of this growing danger and possible solutions to it are the substance of the essays. Conceding the desirability (if not necessity) of developing nuclear power as an energy source, the writers focus on the different reactor technologies; an historical perspective of proliferation through the example of India; the rationales for stringent international monitoring; and finally, the link between proliferation and the spread of nuclear weapons. The chapters are: Nuclear technology: essential elements for decisionmakers, Robert Gillette; Must we decide now for worldwide commerce in plutonium fuel, Albert Wohlstetter; US peaceful aid and the Indian bomb, Roberta Wohlstetter; International discipline over the uses of nuclear energy, Victor Gilinsky; and Nuclear energy and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, Victor Gilinsky

  15. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality

  16. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the “neutron discrepancy problem” – the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima – was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  17. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between multiple myeloma in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the estimated exposure dose is discussed. From October 1950 to December 1976 multiple myeloma was observed in 22 of 72,802 a-bomb survivors (54,116 in Hiroshima; 18,686 in Nagasaki) who were examined periodically in a life span survey by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The incidence per 1,000 was roughly 0.97 in a group exposed to over 100 rad, 0.30 in a group exposed to 1 to 99 rad, and 0.21 in a group exposed to less than 1 rad. There was a statistical difference (p<0.05) in relative risk which standardized city, sex, and age according to the controls exposed to less than 1 rad. An increase in risk in a group exposed to a large dose was marked in survivors aged 20 to 59 at the time of exposure. Multiple myeloma was not observed in those under 20 or over 60 years. An increase in risk in the group exposed to a large dose became marked 15 years after exposure. It is believed that the age factor, in addition to radiation, specifically influenced the occurrence of disease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Ellerman Bombs with Jets: Cause and Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, A; Scullion, E; Doyle, J G; Shelyag, S; Gallagher, P

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both datasets show that EBs are connected to the foot-points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the H$\\alpha$ blue wing connects to the EB initially fuelling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of H$\\alpha$. In the disk dataset, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes (IGLs). Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5-10 km s$^{-1}$, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50-80 km s$^{-1}$....

  19. Observations and NLTE modeling of Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived and compact structures that are observed well in the wings of the hydrogen H-alpha line. EBs are also observed in the chromospheric CaII lines and in UV continua. H-alpha line profiles of EBs show a deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the line wings. Similar shapes of the line profiles are observed for the CaII IR line at 8542 ang. It is generally accepted that EBs may be considered as compact microflares located in lower solar atmosphere. However, it is still not clear where exactly the emission of EBs is formed in the solar atmosphere. High-resolution spectrophotometric observations of EBs were used for determining of their physical parameters and construction of semi-empirical models. In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the H-alpha and CaII H lines. We also used NLTE numerical codes for the construction of grids of 243 semi-empirical models simulating EBs structures. In this way, the observed emission could be compared with th...

  20. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  1. Small-Scale Structuring Of Ellerman Bombs at Solar Limb

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, C J; Doyle, J G; Freij, N; Erdélyi, R

    2014-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied in recent years due to their dynamic, explosive nature and apparent links to the underlying photospheric magnetic field implying that they may be formed by magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. Despite a plethora of researches discussing the morphologies of EBs, there has been a limited investigation of how these events appear at the limb, specifically, whether they manifest as vertical extensions away from the disc. In this article, we make use of high-resolution, high-cadence observations of an AR at the solar limb, collected by the CRISP instrument, to identify EBs and infer their physical properties. The upper atmosphere is also probed using the SDO/AIA. We analyse 22 EB events evident within these data, finding that 20 appear to follow a parabolic path away from the solar surface at an average speed of 9 km s^(-1), extending away from their source by 580 km, before retreating back at a similar speed. These results show strong evidence of vertical motions ...

  2. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date. PMID:26115644

  3. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    OpenAIRE

    Künzell Stefan; Schweikart Florian; Köhn Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% o...

  4. Exploring Windows Domain-Level Defenses Against Authentication Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Curtis, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the security resilience of the current Windows Active Directory (AD) environments to Pass-the-Hash and Pass- the-Ticket credential theft attacks. While doing this, we discovered a way to trigger the removal of all previously issued authentication credentials for a client, thus preventing their use by attackers. After triggered, the user is forced to contact the domain administrators and to authenticate to the AD to continue. This could become the basis for a response that arrests the spread of a detected attack. Operating in a virtualized XenServer environment, we were able to carefully determine and recreate the conditions necessary to cause this response.

  5. Attack Interference in Non-Collaborative Scenarios for Security Protocol Analysis [Extended Version

    CERN Document Server

    Fiazza, M Camilla; Viganò, Luca

    2011-01-01

    In security protocol analysis, the traditional choice to consider a single Dolev-Yao attacker is supported by the fact that models with multiple collaborating Dolev-Yao attackers have been shown to be reducible to models with one Dolev-Yao attacker. In this paper, we take a fundamentally different approach and investigate the case of multiple non-collaborating attackers. After formalizing the framework for multi-attacker scenarios, we show with a case study that concurrent competitive attacks can interfere with each other. We then present a new strategy to defend security protocols, based on active exploitation of attack interference. The paper can be seen as providing two proof-of-concept results: (i) it is possible to exploit interference to mitigate protocol vulnerabilities, thus providing a form of protection to protocols; (ii) the search for defense strategies requires scenarios with at least two attackers.

  6. A method to detect low-level 63Ni activity for estimating fast neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Shibata, T; Imamura, M; Shibata, S; Nogawa, N; Uwamino, Y; Shizuma, K

    1999-06-01

    The Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs resulted in the worst reported exposure of radiation to the human body. The data of survivors have provided the basis for the risk estimation for ionizing radiation, and thus are widely used as the basis of radiation safety. In this report we have studied a new method to detect the low-level 63Ni activity in copper samples in order to estimate the fast neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Only 0.8 x 10(-3) Bq g(-1) of 63Ni is expected to be produced by the atomic bomb in a copper sample with the 63Cu(n, p)63Ni reaction at a distance of 500 m from the hypocenter. Our method has the required level of sensitivity for determination of the fast neutron fluence out to distances of at least 500 m, and perhaps as far as 1,000 m. We have already investigated and collected some bomb-irradiated copper samples for further study. PMID:10334579

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  10. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  11. ESR dosimetry for atomic bomb survivors and radiologic technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko

    1987-06-01

    An individual absorbed dose for atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and radiologic technologists has been estimated using a new personal dosimetry. This dosimetry is based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of the CO 33- radicals, which are produced in their teeth by radiation. Measurements were carried out to study the characteristics of the dosimetry; the ESR signals of the CO 33- radicals were stable and increased linearly with the radiation dose. In the evaluation of the absorbed dose, the ESR signals were considered to be a function of photon energy. The absorbed doses in ten cases of A-bomb victims and eight cases of radiologic technologists were determined. For A-bomb survivors, the adsorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, were consistent with the ones obtained using the calculations of the tissue dose in air of A-bomb, and also with the ones obtained using the chromosome measurements. For radiologic technologists, the absorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, agreed with the ones calculated using the information on the occupational history and conditions. The advantages of this method are that the absorbed dose can be directly estimated by measuring the ESR signals obtained from the teeth of persons, who are exposed to radiation. Therefore, the ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the accidental exposure and the long term cumulative dose.

  12. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  13. VoIP Malware: Attack Tool & Attack Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Mohamed; State, Radu; Festor, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    With the appearance of new Internet services like Voice over IP and IP television, malwares are in the way to update and extend their targets. In this paper, we discuss the emergence of a new generation of malwares attacking VoIP infrastructures and services. Such malwares constitute a real threat to the currently deployed VoIP architectures without strong security measures in place. We present one implemented environment that can be used to evaluate such attacks. Our ``VoIP bots'' support a ...

  14. RESIST SRP AGAINST WORMHOLE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks refer to temporary or interim networks which form for special purposes. Actually they are wireless networks with mobile nodes. These networks use no network assisting element for path routing and in these networks available nodes are responsible for path routing. Therefore when malicious nodes want to find a way to interfere with the path routing then the existence of a secure route protocol (SRP can prevent the interference. SRP protocol is one of the secure algorithms of path routing protocol but it is notresistant against wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is considered as a subtle attack in which two malicious nodes make a short connection in network's topology through private or implicit connection and represent two non neighbor nodes as neighbors and prevent the correctoperation of path routing protocol by using this method. One of the methods of preventing wormhole attack is by using packet leashes. We try to decrease the wormhole attack occurrence in this routing protocol by a kind of packet leashes called temporal leashes. We alsowill minimize problems resulting from using temporal leashes by different methods and modifications in its structure.

  15. A Framework to Prevent QR Code Based Phishing Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Dayaratne, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Though the rapid development and spread of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) making people's life much more easier, on the other hand it causing some serious threats to the society. Phishing is one of the most common cyber threat, that most users falls in. This research investigate on QR code based phishing attacks which is a newly adopted intrusive method and how to enhance the awareness and avoidance behavior of QR based phishing attacks through the user centric security educat...

  16. SECURITY CHALLENGESASA FACTOR AFFECTINGTHE SECURITY OFMANET: ATTACKS, AND SECURITY SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Nabeel Zanoon; Dr.Nashat Albdour; Dr.Hatem S. A. Hamatta; RashaMoh'd Al-Tarawneh

    2015-01-01

    The Ad Hoc mobile network (MANET) is a wireless network with properties which may constitute challenges and weaknesses before the security progress in MANET network. It causes weakness in security, which leads to increased attacks on MANET. In this paper the challenges and attacks likely to threaten MANET will be investigated. As a corollary, security solutions will be discussed, the relationship between them will be concluded and architectural security solutions in MANET will beproposed.

  17. Intrusions into Privacy in Video Chat Environments: Attacks and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xinyu; Dang, Jianxun; Han, Richard; Liu, Xue; Mishra, Shivakant

    2010-01-01

    Video chat systems such as Chatroulette have become increasingly popular as a way to meet and converse one-on-one via video and audio with other users online in an open and interactive manner. At the same time, security and privacy concerns inherent in such communication have been little explored. This paper presents one of the first investigations of the privacy threats found in such video chat systems, identifying three such threats, namely de-anonymization attacks, phishing attacks, and ma...

  18. Sweden and the bomb. The Swedish plans to acquire nuclear weapons, 1945 - 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid-50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The prime minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  19. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  20. Extension lectures: the effects of radiation from atomic bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 56,000 A-bomb survivors are living in Nagasaki city even today. Nagasaki citizens, whether they are A-bomb survivors or not, can not live without concerns on the existence of radiation effects. They have fears of any amount of radiation and are afraid that it may harm their life. As results of studies in the university on radiation effects are not familiar to the citizens, we have started extension lectures on 'the effects of radiation from A-bombing' to them since 1990. We discuss the problems as well as significance of the extension lectures by reporting the details of the extension lectures which we have managed in the past. (author)

  1. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  2. Radiation risks related to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of the atomic bombs dropped down on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are studied in detail. There is no significant genetic effect on the children of survivors. The genetic damage on survivors is a linear or quadratic function of the dose. The connection between cancerous tumours and the dose is studied in detail for small doses. Significant difference was found between the effects of the two bombs. Its main reason is that the radiation of the bomb on Nagasaki was primarily gamma radiation, while that of Hiroshima radiated fast neutrons and γ rays. It is shown that the mortality rate in people who received small dose of radiation is lower compared to those who did not receive radiation at all. (K.A.) 6 figs

  3. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  4. Epidemiologic study of meningioma in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five A-bomb survivors (10 men and 35 women) with surgically proven meningioma were examined, whose ages ranged from 45 to 80 years. According to distance from the hypocenter, 18 A-bomb survivors were exposed at <2,500 m and the other 27 were exposed at ≥2,500 m. The incidence of meningioma was significantly decreased in A-bomb survivors exposed farther from the hypocenter, revealing a high correlation between exposure distance and the incidence of meningioma. Since 1980, the incidence of meningioma was significantly increased in the <2,500 m exposed group than the ≥2,500 m exposed group. (N.K.)

  5. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  6. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša; Zotović Marija; Hautekèete Marc

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005) meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990) provided ...

  7. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors: a survey in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen; Kinoshita, Hirohisa; Moon, Deok Su; Ohtsuru, Akira; Bahn, Geonho; Shibata, Yoshisada; Ozawa, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those ...

  8. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (

  9. (41)Ca in tooth enamel. Part I: a biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, A; Rühm, W; Rugel, G; Nakamura, N; Arazi, A; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Maier, H J; Korschinek, G

    2010-08-01

    The detection of (41)Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, (41)Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable (40)Ca. Thus any (41)Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural (41)Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean (41)Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 +/- 0.05) x 10(-14) in the control samples and increased to 2 x 10(-14) for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The (41)Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that gamma-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors). PMID:20681780

  10. Genetic instability in leukemic cells from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MSI (Micro Satellite Instability) analysis was enforced for 29 patients with AML (atomic bomb survivors 13 cases, unexposed persons 16 cases) who developed from 1986 to 1994. When the cases that alterations at two or more parts were recognized in micro-satellite analyses of leukemic cell were defined as MSI, 2 of 16 unexposed persons and 10 of 13 survivors were positive, and significant high rate was recognized (p<0.01) among survivors. This result suggest genetic instability in leukemic cell of atomic bomb survivors. (K.H.)

  11. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  12. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  13. Early Bomb Radiocarbon Detected in Palau Archipelago Corals

    OpenAIRE

    Glynn, Danielle; Druffel, Ellen; Griffin, Sheila; Dunbar, R. B.; Osbourne, M.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the variability in surface water masses in the western Pacific warm pool, we report high-precision radiocarbon measurements in annual and seasonal bands from Porites lutea corals collected from the Palau Archipelago (7°N, 134°E). Annual coral bands from 1945 to 2008 and seasonal samples from 1953 to 1957 were analyzed to capture the initial early input of bomb 14C from surface thermonuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Results show a pre-bomb average Δ14C valu...

  14. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  15. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  16. Degenerative diseases of the nervous system in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenerative diseases (DD) of the nervous system were observed in 169 of 23,418 A-bomb survivors enrolled in a cohort adult health survey. Senile dementia and parkinsonism accounted for 76 % of the DD. The incidence of DD tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses for women. This was significant for younger women at the time of bombing. No dose-dependence was seen for occurrence of DD in men. There was no significant difference in the incidence of DD between Hiroshima's and Nagasaki's survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Why didn't Hitler get the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author reports his historical studies on the Nazi's nuclear activities as, by the end of the 1930's, Germany was probably the leader in this domain. He mentions and describes the various programs that were launched between 1939 and 1945, discusses some evidences related to the fact that the Germans probably tried to master nuclear energy production, and that they might have tested a weapon containing fissile materials (probably a dirty bomb). The author analyses the reasons of the failure of this nuclear sector: a lack of organization, war and bombings, and a relative lack of interest of political authorities

  18. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, J.; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  19. 49 CFR 173.160 - Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). 173.160 Section 173.160 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.160 Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). Bombs, smoke, non-explosive...

  20. Art, Education, and the Bomb: Reflections on an International Children's Peace Mural Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social change can be evidenced in the absence of an image. Discusses how murals painted by children 50 years after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki do not depict "the bomb," but it pervades the murals nonetheless. Shows that viewers draw unintended analogies between the images and the bombings. (DSK)

  1. Bomb Tritium in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1959--1973 bomb-produced tritium was monitored in surface seawater from 15 stations in the Pacific Ocean. Some 500 tritium determinations were carried out. Between 1965 and 1972 a series of subsurface samples from 49 locations in the Pacific Ocean was measured, and tritium concentrations as a function of depth were determined. The determinations had a standard error of +-4% and an uncertainty in the zero value of about 0.17 tritium unit. The most significant oceanographic conclusions that must be drawn from these data can be summarized in the following way: (1) Lateral flow along contours of constant density is the major factor controlling the tritium distribution in the surface and subsurface waters of the Pacific Ocean. Input of tritium into the water below the mixed layer occurs between 45 degree and 30 degree N and south of 60 degree S. The sinking of water in the mid-Pacific at 30 degree N and its flow toward the equator was previously recognized from the presence of a salinity maximum below the thermocline. The southward component of the rate of this flow is estimated to be 1.3+-0.5 cm/s. In many other areas the tritium content of water under the mixed layer is undoubtedly also due to local sinking of surface water and subsequent lateral subsurface flow. (2) An upper limit for the coefficient of vertical eddy diffusion can be calculated. This upper limit of 0.3 cm2/s is well below estimates derived by other methods, but it agrees well with the upper limit of 0.2 cm2/s derived from tritium measurements in the Sargasso Sea. It appears that transport across lines of constant density is much slower than previously assumed. (3) The mean lifetime of water in the mixed layer of the North Pacific Ocean varies greatly with geographical location. North of 10 degree N the average residence time is between 9 and 15 years, depending on the assumed rate of the molecular exchange of water between atmosphere and ocean

  2. KAMEDO Report 90: terrorist attacks in Madrid, Spain, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Roger; Ehrlin, Ylva; Forsberg, Rebecca; Rüter, Anders; Soest, Vivian; Vikström, Tore; Ortenwall, Per; Brändström, Helge

    2007-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the medical responses to the bombings by terrorists in Madrid on 11 March 2004. The nature of the event, the human damage, and the responses are described. It describes the: (1) nature and operations associated with the alarm; (2) assignment of responding units and personnel; (3) establishment and operations of casualty collection points; (4) medical transport and distribution of injured victims; (5) prioritization and command; (6) hospital care; (7) psychosocial care; (8) identification of the dead; and (9) police investigation and actions. Each of these descriptions is discussed in terms of what currently is known and the implications for future planning, preparedness, and response. PMID:17894223

  3. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  4. A SURVEY ON PROTOCOLS & ATTACKS IN MANET ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamic wirelessnetwork that can be formed without any pre-existinginfrastructure in which each node can act as a router.MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible toboth legitimate network users and malicious attackers. Inthe presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challengesin MANET is to design the robust security solution that canprotect MANET from various routing attacks. Differentmechanisms have been proposed using variouscryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routingattacks against MANET. However, these mechanisms arenot suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limitedbandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavytraffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper,the current security issues in MANET are investigated.Particularly, we have examined different routing attacks,such as flooding, blackhole, link spoofing, wormhole, andcolluding misrelay attacks, as well as existing solutions toprotect MANET protocols.

  5. Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.

  6. Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.

  7. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica...

  8. Television Journalism During Terror Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on the major American networks in the fi rst ...

  9. Television journalism during terror attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on major American networks the first 24 hours...

  10. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  11. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of a...

  12. Anti-Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type-I Antibodies in Atomic-Bomb Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Nakashima, Eiji; Carter, Randolph L.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Kinoshita, Ken-Ichiro; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito

    1995-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), induced by human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I), is endemic in Nagasaki, Japan. To investigate the effects of atomic-bomb radiation on development of this specific type of leukemia, 6182 individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERE) Adult Health Study sample in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were examined for positive rate of HTLV-I antibody. Several lymphocyte parameters were also studied for 70 antibody-positive subjects in Nagasaki. The HTLV-I a...

  13. Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

  14. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  15. Performance of attack strategies on modular networks

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Bruno Requião

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities of complex networks have became a trend topic in complex systems recently due to its real world applications. Most real networks tend to be very fragile to high betweenness adaptive attacks. However, recent contributions have shown the importance of interconnected nodes in the integrity of networks and module-based attacks have appeared promising when compared to traditional malicious non-adaptive attacks. In the present work we deeply explore the trade-off associated with attack procedures, introducing a generalized robustness measure and presenting an attack performance index that takes into account both robustness of the network against the attack and the run-time needed to obtained the list of targeted nodes for the attack. Besides, we introduce the concept of deactivation point aimed to mark the point at which the network stops to function properly. We then show empirically that non-adaptive module-based attacks perform better than high degree and betweenness adaptive attacks in networks ...

  16. Reducing the Impact of Attacks against Healthcare by Curbing the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas: Developments at the Global Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Attacks against healthcare in situations of armed conflict have emerged as an issue of increasing concern with explosive weapons - such as aircraft bombs, mortars and improvised explosive devices - accounting for more deaths, injuries and damage than any other type of weapon in attacks on healthcare facilities. While this is perhaps unsurprising, it offers some insight into a possible course of action for dealing with the problem of attacks against healthcare - by curbing the use of explosive weapons in populated areas. There has been growing recognition in recent years of the humanitarian problems caused by the use of such weapons in populated areas. Steps are now being taken at the global level to curb this use which could, in time, make an important contribution to reducing the incidence and devastating impact of attacks against healthcare. PMID:27358016

  17. Robustness of correlated networks against propagating attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Takehisa; Nemoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    We investigate robustness of correlated networks against propagating attacks modeled by a susceptible-infected-removed model. By Monte-Carlo simulations, we numerically determine the first critical infection rate, above which a global outbreak of disease occurs, and the second critical infection rate, above which disease disintegrates the network. Our result shows that correlated networks are robust compared to the uncorrelated ones, regardless of whether they are assortative or disassortative. This behavior is related to the layered network structure inevitably generated by a rewiring procedure we adopt to realize correlated networks.

  18. Radioactivity in atomic-bomb samples from exposure to environmental neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, S; Shizuma, K; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Rühm, W; Egbert, S D; Hoshi, M

    2007-12-01

    For about one decade, activation measurements performed on environmental samples from a distance larger than 1 km from the hypocenter of the atomic-bomb explosion over Hiroshima suggested much higher thermal neutron fluences to the survivors than predicted. This caused concern among the radiation protection community and prompted a complete re-evaluation of all aspects of survivor dosimetry. While it was shown recently that secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation and other sources have probably been the reason for the high measured concentrations of the long-lived radioisotope 36Cl in these samples, the source for high measured concentrations of the short-lived radionuclides 152Eu and 60Co has not yet been investigated in detail. In order to quantify the production of 152Eu and 60Co in environmental samples by secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, thermal neutron fluxes were measured by means of a He gas proportional counter in various buildings where these samples had been and still are being stored. Because a 252Cf neutron source has been operated occasionally close to one of the sample storage rooms, additional neutron flux measurements were carried out when the neutron source was in operation. The thermal neutron fluxes measured ranged from 0.00017 to 0.00093 n cm(-2) s(-1) and depended on the floor number of the investigated building. Based on the measured neutron fluxes, the specific activities from the reactions 151Eu(n,gamma)152Eu and 59Co(n,gamma)60Co in the atomic-bomb samples were estimated to be 7.9 mBq g(-1) Eu and 0.27 mBq g(-1) Co, respectively, in saturation. These activities are much lower than those recently measured in samples that had been exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons. It is therefore concluded that environmental and moderated 252Cf neutrons are not the source for the high activities that had been measured in these samples. PMID:17993849

  19. Stock Market Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: Empirical Evidence from a Front Line State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The world financial markets have reacted in a highly consistent pattern to the incident of 9/11 in the United States, suicide blasts at night clubs at Bali in 2002, the Madrid and London train bombings in 2004-2005 and a series of continuous blasts and suicide attacks in Pakistan. In this study, we examined the effect of terrorist attack news on returns and volatility for the Karachi Stock Exchange. We employ the EGARCH model proposed by Engle and Ng (1993as it allows good and bad news to have a different impact on volatility. Our results indicate that terrorist attack news has negative impact on the returns of all the sector indices. However, news of these events increased the volatility of KSE100 index and financial sector index. Further it is concluded that the results of oil and gas, and industry are not statistically significant in response to terrorist attack news, indicating that such type of news does not affect the volatility of these two sectors. Moreover, volatility asymmetry is negative in all of the sectors including KSE100 confirming leverage effect.

  20. Network robustness under large-scale attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Ruifang

    2012-01-01

    Network Robustness under Large-Scale Attacks provides the analysis of network robustness under attacks, with a focus on large-scale correlated physical attacks. The book begins with a thorough overview of the latest research and techniques to analyze the network responses to different types of attacks over various network topologies and connection models. It then introduces a new large-scale physical attack model coined as area attack, under which a new network robustness measure is introduced and applied to study the network responses. With this book, readers will learn the necessary tools to

  1. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, David P.

    2006-01-01

    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  2. Dietary factors and cancer mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary factors such as fruit and vegetables are thought to reduce the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. We investigated the effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables against the long-term effects of radiation exposure on the risk of cancer. A cohort of 36,228 atomic-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for whom radiation dose estimates were currently available, had their diet assessed in 1980. They were followed for a period of 20 years for cancer mortality. The joint-effect of fruit and vegetables intake and radiation exposure on risk of cancer death was examined, in additive (sum of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) and multiplicative (product of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) models. In the additive model, a daily intake of fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the risk of cancer deaths by 13%, compared to an intake of once or less per week. Radiation exposure of 1 Sievert (Sv) increased significantly the risk of cancer death by 48-49%. The additive joint-effects showed a lower risk of cancer among those exposed to 1 Sv who had a diet rich in vegetables (49%-13%=36%) or fruit (48%-13%=35%). The multiplicative model gave similar results. The cancer risk reduction by vegetables in exposed persons went from 52% (effect of radiation alone) to 32% (product of effect of vegetables and radiation), and cancer risk reduction by fruit was 52% (radiation alone) to 34% (product of effect of fruit and radiation). There was no significant evidence to reject either the additive or the multiplicative model. A daily intake of fruit and vegetables was beneficial to the persons exposed to radiation in reducing their risks of cancer death

  3. Hidden Attacks on Power Grid: Optimal Attack Strategies and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Baldick, Ross; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Real time operation of the power grid and synchronism of its different elements require accurate estimation of its state variables. Errors in state estimation will lead to sub-optimal Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solutions and subsequent increase in the price of electricity in the market or, potentially overload and create line outages. This paper studies hidden data attacks on power systems by an adversary trying to manipulate state estimators. The adversary gains control of a few meters, and is...

  4. Aplastic anemia and related disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the incidence of aplastic anemia significantly increases due to the later effect of atomic-bomb radiation was studied. After the data of aplastic anemia which occurred within 1950 - 1973 were evaluated and the diagnoses of the cases were certified, the incidence of aplastic anemia per 109,000 inhabitants of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was calculated and compared according to the dose of atomic-bomb radiation. There was no increase in the incidence according to an increase in radiation dose, and there was no fact that aplastic anemia increased in a certain period either. Most of the atomic-bomb survivors who were close to the epicenter and were clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia had leukemia lesion or myeloid proliferating lesion, and it is likely to be that pathological changes resembling aplastic anemia may appear in a certain phase of myeloid proliferation or as a phenotype of myeloid proliferation. An evaluation was made on cases of aplastic anemia of other groups, but the doses of atomic-bomb radiation which they received were not so much to give effect on the bone marrow except only two cases. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Experimental simulation of A-bomb gamma ray spectra: Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported recently that the A-bomb gamma ray spectra received by the colon of the average Japanese survivor of Hiroshima and Nagasaki may be experimentally simulated using a hospital-based Philips SL15 linear accelerator. The simulated A-bomb gamma radiation may be used in radiobiology experiments to determine, amongst other things, the biological effectiveness of the A-bomb gamma radiation. However, in that study, the electron beams from the linear accelerator were poorly defined and photon contamination was ignored. In the study reported here, a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator has been used for the same purpose but with photon contamination included in better defined output electron beams. It is found that the A-bomb gamma radiation can still be matched to an acceptable degree (<10%). The cause of the slightly poorer fit was due mainly to the different ranges of energies available from the linear accelerators used. The absorbed dose received by model breasts was also estimated in this study for the same situations as in the previous study. The ratio of the breast to colon doses was found to be only (3.9 ± 4.0)% low compared with the expected values of 1.17 and 1.16 for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. These results provide further confirmation of the acceptability of the simple cylindrically symmetrical body models employed in these studies to represent the average Japanese survivor. (authors)

  6. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity of colchicine in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxicity of colchicine for the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 151 Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors and their controls was determined. No radiation effect was found, but modest age-related changes for the initial number of vialble cells and for the cytotoxicity of colchicine were observed. (author)

  7. Lack of strategic insight: the "dirty bomb" effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Multiple countries including the United States and France are investing heavily in countermeasures to the threat of a "dirty bomb." All of the machinery simply involves a variation on a Geiger counter that picks up excess photon irradiation. Classically, a "dirty bomb" is defined as a dangerous radioactive material mixed in a variety of ways with high explosive, so when detonated, radioactive material is dispersed. Solid radioactive material such as Cesium or Cobalt sends off very penetrating ('hard') photons from which one cannot simply be protected by sheet lead or a heavy door. For official occasions with dignitaries of State, such a bomb could prove a modest distraction, but simple radiation physics suggests such a bomb would be limited in the damage it could cause, would largely be a mess to be cleaned up by an appropriately trained crew, would involve a very confined area, and thoroughly fails to comprehend the mentality of al-Queda 'central' that wishes to follow 9/11 with an equal or greater show of terrorist force. The author would argue this sort of mind-think occurs when you have too few people in the hard sciences in your intelligence sections. PMID:19739461

  8. Satisfaction in life of elder A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1500 A-bomb survivor aged more than 65 are sampled and the questionnaire was performed by mailing. 1329 (88.6 %) responded and 937 from the age less than 80 were statistically anylized. Fairly good satisfaction was felt on their daily life, including dwelling, income, work, health and family. (J.P.N.)

  9. Pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon in fish otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, John M.

    1993-02-01

    Measurements of radiocarbon in seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), or suitable proxies such as hermatypic corals, are a valuable source of information on carbon flux and ocean circulation. However, knowledge of the global distribution of both pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon is limited due to the sources of these data. Suitable hermatypic corals are restricted to shallow tropical and subtropical waters and oceanographic collections of seawater are prohibitively expensive. What is needed is a proxy for ocean radiocarbon that can be collected at most latitudes and depths, and which can be reliably aged. Here I report accelerator mass spectrometry analyses of radiocarbon from selected regions of fish otoliths and show that such measurements are suitable for determining both pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon in all oceans and at most depths. Radiocarbon data obtained from otoliths can extend our knowledge of carbon flux in the oceans and atmosphere and help to develop further understanding of the fate of atmospheric CO 2 and ocean circulation. The data presented here represent the first pre- and post-bomb time series of radiocarbon levels from temperate waters. Furthermore, I demonstrate that the dramatic increase in radiocarbon in the atmosphere and oceans, attributable to the atmospheric testing of thermonuclear bombs during the 1950's and 1960's, provides a chemical mark on fish otoliths that is suitable for the validation of age in fishes.

  10. Ahab's Speeches: Bombs or Bombastics? A Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadely, Dean

    In an attempt to define rhetorical discourse, the paper examines the speeches of Ahab, the main character from Herman Melville's book, "Moby-Dick." The paper first determines if Ahab's speeches actually fall into the category of rhetorical discourse by examining his major speeches, and then ascertains whether his speeches are bombs (successful…

  11. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  12. Gamma-ray spectrum of the radiaoctive dust produced by the super-hydrogen bomb test explosion on March 1, 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The super-hydrogen bomb test explosion, the so-called Bravo test of a fission-fusion-fission bomb, was carried out on Bikini Atoll in the mid-Pacific on March 1, 1954. Twenty-three Japanese fishermen on board a fishing boat about 90 miles north-east of the test site were attacked unexpectedly by the fallout, radioactive fine debris of coral reef. Within several months after the accident by radiochemical analysis about 20 different nuclides of fission products and, in addition, a considerable amount of 235U were discovered from the fallout. As we have been preserving a minute amount of the original fallout dust collected on board the fishing boat 31 years ago, measurements of γ rays from it have recently been used to find some active nuclides, if still existing. In the γ-ray spectrum observed there exist evident peaks of γ and X-rays from 241Am, 155Eu, 137Cs and 60Co. Absolute intensities of these four nuclides, still remaining 31 years after the explosion of the bomb, have been estimated. Some discussion on our finding is presented. (orig.)

  13. Perfection of Recent Attacks using IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RENGARAJAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet threat monitoring (ITM systems have been deployed to detect widespread attacks on the Internet in recent years. However, the effectiveness of ITM systems critically depends on the confidentiality of the location of their monitors. If adversaries learn the monitor locations of an ITM system, they can bypass the monitors and focus on the uncovered IP address space without being detected. In this paper, we study a new class of attacks, the invisible LOCalization (iLOC attack. The iLOC attack can accurately and invisibly localize monitors of ITM systems. In the iLOC attack, the attacker launches low-rate port-scan traffic, encoded with a selected pseudo noise code (PN-code, to targeted networks. While the secret PN-code is invisible to others, the attacker can accurately determine the existence of monitors in the targeted networks based on whether the PN-code is embedded in the report data queried from the data center of the ITM system. We formally analyze the impact of various parameters on attack effectiveness. We implement the iLOC attack and conduct the performance evaluation on a real-world ITM system to demonstrate the possibility of such attacks. We also conduct extensive simulations on the iLOC attack using real-world traces. Our data show that the iLOC attack can accurately identify monitors while being invisible to ITM systems. Finally, we present a set of guidelines to counteract the iLOC attack.

  14. Survival Analyses of Atomic Bomb Survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, 1968-1982. : Cancer Mortality Risk among Early Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    We examined the mortality risk due to all causes of death and due to malignant neoplasms during 1968-82 among 204,209 atomic bomb survivors, including 49,215 early entrants. We used data compiled by the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine at Hiroshima University, which conducts mortality surveillance of these survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether there was any relationship between exposure status and mortality risk a...

  15. Dose–responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Schöllnberger, H.; Kaiser, J. C.; Jacob, P.; Walsh, L

    2012-01-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose–response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the mode...

  16. Automatic behavior sensing for a bomb-detecting dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Nans, Adam; Talke, Kurt; Candela, Paul; Everett, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    Bomb-detecting dogs are trained to detect explosives through their sense of smell and often perform a specific behavior to indicate a possible bomb detection. This behavior is noticed by the dog handler, who confirms the probable explosives, determines the location, and forwards the information to an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team. To improve the speed and accuracy of this process and better integrate it with the EOD team's robotic explosive disposal operation, SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific has designed and prototyped an electronic dog collar that automatically tracks the dog's location and attitude, detects the indicative behavior, and records the data. To account for the differences between dogs, a 5-minute training routine can be executed before the mission to establish initial values for the k-mean clustering algorithm that classifies a specific dog's behavior. The recorded data include GPS location of the suspected bomb, the path the dog took to approach this location, and a video clip covering the detection event. The dog handler reviews and confirms the data before it is packaged up and forwarded on to the EOD team. The EOD team uses the video clip to better identify the type of bomb and for awareness of the surrounding environment before they arrive at the scene. Before the robotic neutralization operation commences at the site, the location and path data (which are supplied in a format understandable by the next-generation EOD robots—the Advanced EOD Robotic System) can be loaded into the robotic controller to automatically guide the robot to the bomb site. This paper describes the project with emphasis on the dog-collar hardware, behavior-classification software, and feasibility testing.

  17. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  18. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  19. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  20. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s. PMID:20518158

  1. What do therapy linacs and A-bombs have in common?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Japanese survivors of the atomic-bomb blasts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are the main source of information on the biological effects of low doses of low LET radiations. The epidemiological studies of the survivors are supplemented by laboratory-based radio-biological studies. Whereas the survivors were exposed to radiation with a large component of high-energy radiations, >1 MeV, past radio-biological studies have predominantly used lower energy radiations. Recent radio-biological studies suggest that the biological effectiveness of low LET radiations is not independent of energy, as implicitly assumed in current radiation protection philosophy, but that RBE and energy are inversely related. Radio-biological studies comparing test radiations with atomic-bomb-like radiations should extend the generality of the epidemiological studies. A recent study (Pattison et al, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 2001, in press) has shown the feasibility of using therapy linacs to simulate atomic-bomb radiations. In that study, a Philips SL15 linac was utilized as photon contamination of the electron beams was known to be small (<3%) and was ignored. In this study, a Varian 2100C linac was investigated as its output is well-characterized (Rogers et al, Medical Physics, 1995, 22, 503-524) allowing the effect of photon contamination to be investigated. The photon fluence spectra that were incident on the survivors were obtained partly from the DS86 report, and partly from George Kerr of ORNL. The photon radiation was transported through a model body representing the average survivor, using EGS4, in order to obtain the electron fluence spectra passing through the colon. The various radiations from the linac were transported, similarly, and in turn, through an experimental set-up in order to obtain the electron fluence spectra at a cell culture. Combinations of the linac radiations were then determined which produced a similar electron fluence spectrum through a cell

  2. Intermittent hypoendorphinaemia in migraine attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, E; Salmon, S; Anselmi, B; Spillantini, M G; Cappelli, G; Brocchi, A; Sicuteri, F

    1982-06-01

    Beta-endorphin (RIA method, previous chromatographic extraction) was evaluated in plasma of migraine sufferers in free periods and during attacks. Decreased levels of the endogenous opioid peptide were found in plasma sampled during the attacks but not in free periods. Even chronic headache sufferers exhibited significantly lowered levels of beta-endorphin, when compared with control subjects with a negative personal and family history of head pains. The mechanism of the hypoendorphinaemia is unknown: lowered levels of the neuropeptide, which controls nociception, vegetative functions and hedonia, could be important in a syndrome such as migraine, characterized by pain, dysautonomia and anhedonia. The impairment of monoaminergic synapses ("empty neuron" condition) constantly present in sufferers from serious headaches, could be due to the fact that opioid neuropeptides, because of a receptoral or metabolic impairment, poorly modulate the respective monoaminergic neurons, resulting in imbalance of synaptic neurotransmission. PMID:6290072

  3. Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159557.html Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death Study points to need for better coordinated care, ... people with diabetes have a higher risk of death after a heart attack. "We knew that following ...

  4. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000080.htm Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke To use the sharing features on ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure ...

  5. Heart attack - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000231.htm Heart attack - what to ask your doctor To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of ...

  6. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  7. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  8. DULOXETINE-RELATED PANIC ATTACKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients’ trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who respon...

  9. Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Robert M.; Baker, Rex O.; Bennett, Joe R.; Coolahan, Craig C.

    2004-01-01

    Coyote attacks on humans and pets have increased within the past 5 years in California. We discuss documented occurrences of coyote aggression and attacks on people, using data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources. Forty-eight such attacks on children and adults were verified from 1998 through 2003, compared to 41 attacks during the period 1988 through 1997; most incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interfac...

  10. Sybil attack in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami.K; Santhi.B

    2013-01-01

    Wireless network is very susceptible to different types of attack. The main attack is Sybil attack, which allows forming other attacks on the network. Security is very important to the wireless network. In wireless sensor network, to verify node identities by cryptographic authentication but this is not easy because sensor node which contains limited resources. Therefore the current research is going on how to handling the situation of different traffic levels and transmission power for secur...

  11. Faked states attack and quantum cryptography protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Leveraging quantum mechanics, cryptographers have devised provably secure key sharing protocols. Despite proving the security in theory, real-world application falls short of the ideal. Last year, cryptanalysts completed an experiment demonstrating a successful eavesdropping attack on commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. This attack exploits a weakness in the typical real-world implementation of quantum cryptosystems. Cryptanalysts have successfully attacked several protocols. In this paper, we examine the Kak quantum cryptography protocol and how it may perform under such attacks.

  12. Panic attacks simulate presence of somatic illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Latas Milan; Soldatović Ivan; Stamenović Marko; Starčević Vladan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Panic attacks are characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous somatic symptoms, such as palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vertigo. The objective of this study was to analyze symptoms of panic attacks in patients with panic disorder, especially, to determine the specific relationship of somatic and neurological symptoms of panic attacks in boundaries of somatic systems. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 97 patients with primary diagnos...

  13. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  14. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  15. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack Updated:Aug 2,2016 Knowledge is power, so ... medication. This content was last reviewed June 2016. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) • ...

  16. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    foreseeable while the rounds are performed. ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) is used as a public key crypto system with the key purpose of creating a private shared between two participants in a communication network. Attacks on ECC include the Pohlig-Hellman attack and the Pollard's rho attack. Furthermore...

  17. A Novel Attack against Android Phones

    CERN Document Server

    Backes, Michael; von Styp-Rekowsky, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2011, Android has become the top-selling operating system for smartphones. In this paper, we present a novel, highly critical attack that allows unprompted installation of arbitrary applications from the Android Market. Our attack is based on a single malicious application, which, in contrast to previously known attacks, does not require the user to grant it any permissions.

  18. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. PMID:26761543

  19. Measurement of residual 60Co activity induced by atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and background contribution by environmental neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual 60Co activity in five steel samples induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured within about 1000 m from the hypocenter. The chemical separation of cobalt and nickel from steel samples was performed, and cobalt-enriched samples were prepared for all samples. Gamma-ray measurements were carried out with a low-background well-type germanium detector. The gamma-ray spectra for five samples were compared with the spectrum of a control sample to ensure that the observed 60Co was actually induced by A-bomb neutrons. The activation of cobalt by environmental neutrons was also investigated. It has been shown that the present 60Co data are consistent with earlier Hashizume's data. (author)

  20. Measurement of residual 60Co activity induced by atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and background contribution by environmental neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Oka, Takamitsu; Shimazaki, Tatsuya; Okumura, Yutaka; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2002-12-01

    Residual 60Co activity in five steel samples induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured within about 1000 m from the hypocenter. The chemical separation of cobalt and nickel from steel samples was performed, and cobalt-enriched samples were prepared for all samples. Gamma-ray measurements were carried out with a low-background well-type germanium detector. The gamma-ray spectra for five samples were compared with the spectrum of a control sample to ensure that the observed 60Co was actually induced by A-bomb neutrons. The activation of cobalt by environmental neutrons was also investigated. It has been shown that the present 60Co data are consistent with earlier Hashizume's data. PMID:12674203

  1. 36Cl deposition rate reconstruction from bomb pulse until present: A study based on groundwater records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We investigate the origin of chloride of multi-layered aquifers of the Venice region. • We reconstruct 36Cl deposition rate at a unique location since thermonuclear bomb pulse until 2008. • We calculate a natural 36Cl fallout average rate of 49 at m−2 s−1, from 14C dated groundwater between 2000 and 8000 years. • 36Cl deposition rate decrease sharply from bombpulse to 1980 and tends to a slowly decreasing plateau since then. - Abstract: The radioactive isotope 36Cl, with a half-life of 301 ka, is a valuable chronometer for estimation of groundwater residence time up to 2 millions of years. Aerial thermonuclear fission bomb tests, performed during the late 1950s, injected a massive amount of this isotope into the atmosphere, which exceeded the natural fallout signal. Since this bomb pulse, atmospheric 36Cl deposition tends to return to natural fallout rate. The monitoring of this attenuation can provide a good opportunity to extend the use of this chronometer to shorter time spans. Venice’s lagoon alimentation zone shows groundwaters with residence times distributed over last fifty years. This permits the estimation of a continuous 36Cl deposition curve, free from latitudinal and seasonal variations of the signal. Three old groundwater samples, with residence times comprised in the range −900 to −8000 BP, allow the estimation of a mean natural deposition of 49 at m−2 s−1 and are in good agreement with 36Cl fallout observed for the last 40,000 years by (Plummer et al., 1997). For the bomb pulse period, a fallout of 5300 at m−2 s−1 was calculated. This was followed by a strong attenuation period, taking place until the 1980s, during which the fallout reached values ranging between 167 and 354 at m−2 s−1. The attenuation reached then a plateau: it experienced a slower lowering until the actual deposition, with fallout values calculated between 124 and 252 at m−2 s−1. This persistence of high deposition rate was

  2. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (author)

  3. Mortality of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data base of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki has been maintained at Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute at Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The data base include personal histories, records of health checks and cause of death. We have published the mortality of non-cancerous disease of A-bomb survivors using old dose estimation system, T65D, elsewhere. The mortality of non-cancerous disease was lower than controls for a dose range 50-99 cGy in male. We reanalyzed the mortality of non-cancerous disease using new dose estimation system, ABS93D. It's result was lower than controls for a dose range 31-40cGy in male. We compared the results of A-bomb survivors in our database with those or LSS's population, RERF. (1) Radiation dose for survivors in Nagasaki have been estimated by Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). To study the mortality rates of A-bomb survivors for the period of 1971 through 1994, we selected 2,743 persons (dose estimate available) and age-matched 8,229 persons as control who were alive in 1971. (2) Another population is Life Span Study by Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF). RERF opened the data from 1950 to 1985. The data on deaths are stratified by city, sex, age radiation dose, the observed period and cause of death, yielding 3,640 strata. (1) The study resulted in that males exposed to 31-40cGy showed lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than that of control. (2) Relative risk of mortality from all causes is lower than controls for a dose range 6-19cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. Relative risk of mortality from non-cancerous disease is significantly lower than controls for a dose range 6-49cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. But result of adjusted for city is no difference. (author)

  4. Methods of Identifying and Preventing SQL Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojken Shehu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by identifying the organizations which are vulnerable to the SQL attack referred to as an SQL injection attack. The term SQL injection attack is defined and a diagram is used to illustrate the way that attack occurs. In another section, the paper identifies the methods used to detect an attack to SQL, whereby the techniques are discussed extensively using relevant diagrams for illustration. The other sections cover the preventive methods, where the methods are also discussed with an illustration using diagrams.

  5. Analysis, classification and detection methods of attacks via wireless sensor networks in SCADA systems

    OpenAIRE

    Botvinkin, Pavel Viktorovich; Kamaev, Valery Anatolevich; Nefedova, Irina Sergeevna; Finogeev, Aleksey Germanovich; Finogeev, Egor Alekseevich

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of information security of automated process control systems, as well as of SCADA, depends on data transmissions protection technologies applied on transport environments components. This article investigates the problem of detecting attacks on WSN (wireless sensor networks) of SCADA systems. As the result of analytical studies the authors developed the detailed classification of external attacks on sensor networks and brought the detailed description of attacking impacts on com...

  6. Degree-Based Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Under Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Tselikis, C.; Mitropoulos, S.; Komninos, N.; Douligeris, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the behavior of degree-based clustering algorithms with respect to their stability and attack-resistance. Our attack scenario tries to bias the clustering head selection procedure by sending faulty degree claims. We propose a randomized variant of the highest degree algorithm which is proved, through experimental results, attack-resistant without imposing significant overhead to the clustering performance. In addition, we extend our proposal with a cooperative con...

  7. Influence of self-compacting concrete composition on sulfuric acid attack

    OpenAIRE

    Feys, Dimitri; Liu, Zanqun; Heirman, Gert; De Schutter, Geert; Boel, Veerle; Desmet, Bram; Vantomme, John; Cizer, Özlem; Vandewalle, Lucie; Gemert, Dionys van

    2009-01-01

    Sulfuric acid attack on concrete has been reported for over a century. Many scientific papers deal with the issue of concrete damage due to sulfate and sulfuric attack. The introduction of self-compacting concrete introduces new questions related to the behaviour of powder-rich mixtures in a sulfate environment. This paper describes a simple testing method to investigate the influence of the concrete composition on the sulfuric acid attack. Concrete samples have been submerged in a sulfate...

  8. Memory from the Vel d'Hiv to the H bomb; Memoires du Vel d'Hiv a la bombe H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R

    2007-07-01

    Robert Dautray plays a major role in the french scientist and military history. He is in particular the father of the french H bomb. He relates in this book the bomb history and in particular the help of other countries via the secret services. He brings his account of the french civil and military nuclear, its hopes and risks. (A.L.B.)

  9. Attacking Embedded Systems through Power Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sastry JKR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Embedded Systems are being used for the development and implementation of Safety and Mission Critical Systems. Malfunctions of such type of embedded systems will lead to disasters at times. The embedded systems must be fully secured from outside intervention in order to have effective functioning as well as to provide protective environment to these mission critical systems. There are several attacking systems discussed in the literature each requiring a kind of counter attacking system. Power Analysis and variations of power analysis are the significant attacking mechanisms discussed in the literature. Crypto servers are the main areas of attacking as they deal with securing the data that flow in-between several components of the embedded systems. Most of the attacking systems suggested in the litterer suffer from lack of experimental models to emulate the attacking system. An attacking system could be amply proved when several samples of data are used for attacking and the samples of data provides for knowledge base. In this paper an experimental setup is proposed which is an embedded system itself for creation of a Knowledgebase which shall form the basis for attacking. The experimental setup required for undertaking the actual attacking with the usage of the knowledgebase is also presented. Further the proposed attacking system is applied for mission critical system and the experimental results obtained through the simulation are also presented.

  10. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  11. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  12. Study of biochemical examination among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical findings were compared in 1003 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤1900 m from the hypocenter and 1003 age- and sex-matched A-bomb survivors exposed at ≥3,000 m. Mean and abnormal values for lung function, such as total protein, GOT and GPT, did not differ in two groups of both men and women. However, mean values of both total cholesterol and neutral fat were significantly higher in the ≤1900m group than in the ≥3000 m group, irrespective of sex. Similarly, the ≤1900 m group had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal values for these items than the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  13. Problems in dosimetry study in the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry study 1986 (DS86) was constructed by the effort of US and Japanese groups and used afterward at Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The DS86 has been used to estimate radiation risks for cancer induction of radiation based on the epidemiological study of atomic bomb survivors. However, discrepancy between neutron-induced data and calculation based on DS86 has been observed. The discrepancy was found in the evaluated neutron dose in Hiroshima. To find the reason of the discrepancy, experimental study were continued for more than 10 years among Japanese and US groups. However there was no answer. In this review, the activities of the Japanese groups are explained and a model to explain the discrepancy is shown. The new US and Japan joint study is beginning and effort to evaluate atomic bomb dose for survivors are still continuing. (author)

  14. By emotion, no atomic bomb and no blackhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-10-01

    As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. As for me, I believe when there is atomic bomb, than anytime it has to blow out the world each time of we are living. So the atomic bomb we thinking is just accident and not by the atomic theory. Also when there is blackhole, than there must be the wall to block me forever and never to walk again. So there are no blackhole. And these two subject is the best two subject for the physic.

  15. Physicists and the 1945 Decision to Drop the Bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Byers, N

    2002-01-01

    In 1943 fear that the German war machine might use atomic bombs was abating and among physicists another fear was taking its place - that of a postwar nuclear arms race with worldwide proliferation of nuclear weapons. Manhattan Project scientists and engineers began to discuss uses of nuclear energy in the postwar world. Niels Bohr, Leo Szilard, James A. Franck and others launched a concerted effort to lay groundwork for international control of the technology. Realizing the devastation nuclear weapons could cause and that they could be made and delivered much more cheaply than conventional weapons of the same power, they tried to persuade policy makers to take into account long range consequences of using atomic bombs and not base their decisions on short range military expediency alone. They met with little success. The scientists' main message, unheeded then and very relevant now, is that worldwide international agreements are needed to provide for inspection and control of nuclear weapons technology. Thei...

  16. Analytic treatment of the black-hole bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bosonic field impinging on a rotating black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole, a phenomenon known as superradiant scattering. If in addition the field has a nonzero rest mass μ, the mass term effectively works as a mirror, reflecting the scattered wave back towards the black hole. In this physical system, known as a black-hole bomb, the wave may bounce back and forth between the black hole and some turning point, amplifying itself each time. Consequently, the field grows exponentially over time and is unstable. In this paper we study analytically for the first time the phenomenon of superradiant instability (the black-hole bomb mechanism) in the regime Mμ=O(1) of greatest instability. We find a maximal instability growth rate of τ-1=1.7x10-3M-1. This instability is 4 orders of magnitude stronger than has been previously estimated.

  17. Bombing beyond Democracy. Remembering the Ruins of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    to rewrite national narratives of the war that of course have served very different purposes. The case in point will be the debate on the allied, specifically the British bombing strategy in World War II, which has evolved since the end of the Cold War. In Britain as well as in the Germany, the...... become – a part of European identity. The paper will discuss the possibility of a new transnational remembering of the Ruins of Europe and show some of the still remaining difficulties. If the experience of two World Wars, including the long cold war to follow, plays a decisive role in creating a more...... debate involves questions as: Was the British bombing campaign legitimate to the very end of the war? Do the Germans have any right to commemorate their being victim to the allied air raids, considering the Holocaust and the German conduct towards other countries? How can experiences like this even be...

  18. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change. (Kobatake, H.)

  20. Destroying of chemical and oil industry, bombing of energy sources and use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the NATO bombing of the FR Yugoslavia from March 24 to June 10, 1999, according to NATO's data, there were 34 250 takeoffs of the 1200 aircrafts; 367 000 tonnes of kerosine were consumed; there were 400 Tomahawk cruise missiles and 130 air-to-ground missiles. It is estimated that 22 000-79 000 tonnes of explosives were dropped; in addition to 20 000 smart bombs and 5000 conventional bombs of various weight and purposes. The bombing had the characteristics of an ecological war, among other things. During the air strikes A-10 aircrafts fired shells with depleted uranium from 30 mm guns. According to NATO estimates, around 31 000 projectiles were fired (298 g of depleted uranium for each bullet, and more than 10 tonnes of uranium-238 as a contaminating agent), and according to the Yugoslav Army estimated, around 50 000 were fired. Some radiological, chemical and ethical consequences of NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia are reviewed. (author)

  1. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  2. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  3. The hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging and the mortality of Japanese A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates aging is extremely difficult to investigate in man except at the level of mortality. Among the 82000 Japanese A-bomb survivors being followed for mortality, there were 14400 deaths from non-neoplastic diseases from October 1950 to September 1974, and this experience has been analysed for evidence of a non-specific mortality differential associated with radiation dose (kerma). Cause of death has been classified as follows: neoplastic diseases individually and in various groupings, tuberculosis, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases other than cerebrovascular, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of the digestive system, all other non-neoplastic diseases, and all non-neoplastic diseases. Although there is clear evidence of a radiation effect for many forms of cancer, mortality from other diseases contains little suggestion of a relationship to radiation dose. A superficial association between mortality from diseases of blood and blood-forming organs and radiation rests entirely on the carcinogenic effect of radiation, especially the leukaemogenic effect. Deaths from digestive diseases seem related to radiation dose but only in the 1971-74 period and among the Hiroshima survivors; the excess is small but occurred in all age groups. Thus far the mortality experience of the Japanese A-bomb survivors suggests that the life-shortening effect of whole-body human exposure to ionizing radiation derives from its carcinogenic effect, not from any acceleration of the aging process

  4. Anti-human T-lymphotropic virus type-I antibodies in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), induced by human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I), is endemic in Nagasaki, Japan. To investigate the effects of atomic-bomb radiation on development of this specific type of leukemia, 6182 individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study sample in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were examined for positive rate of HTLV-I antibody. Several lymphocyte parameters were also studied for 70 antibody-positive subjects in Nagasaki. The HTLV-I antibody-positive rate was higher in Nagasaki (6.36%) than in Hiroshima (0.79%) and significantly increased with increasing age, but no association was observed with radiation dose. Whether relationship existed between antibody titer levels and radiation dose among antibody-positive subjects was not clear. The frequency of abnormal lymphocytes tended to be higher in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects, and higher in females than in males regardless of radiation dose. The lymphocyte count was lower in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects and lower in female than in male subjects. No evidence was found to suggest that atomic-bomb radiation plays an important role in HTLV-I infection. (author)

  5. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodaira, Mieko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  6. Estimation of neutron fluence of Nagasaki atomic bomb by 152Eu activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity of 152Eu in stones and rocks around the hypocenter in Nagasaki city was counted, and influences of atomic bomb neutrons were estimated. Stones and rocks were gathered in the area within 790 m in radius from the hypocenter. As the amount of generated 152Eu depends on the existence rate of Eu in rocks and stones, the amount of Eu was determined. Stones were cut in 5 cm in thickness from the surface, and the distribution of 152Eu at 30 cm in depth of stones was also investigated. The amount of Eu contained in 26 stones was 1.06 ppm on an average, and the standard deviation was 0.48 ppm. Radioactivity of 152Eu in stones was calculated into specific radioactivity of Eu/mg. The result showed that the distribution of specific radioactivity of 152Eu in exposed stones was the maximum around the surface of stones, and it decreased according to the depth from the surface of stones. Specific radioactivity of 152Eu decreased according to the distance from the hypocenter. Relaxation length where specific radioactivity of 152Eu decreased to 1/e was 239 m, and it was consistent in the range in errors with the reported value of relaxation length where absorbed dose of neutrons of atomic bomb in Nagasaki decreased to 1/e. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  8. The children of atomic bomb survivors: A genetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this volume, many of the most important publications that appeared over the years on the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been collected. Studies on health effects reached some important conclusions. Irradiation of gonads with moderately high dosage of ionizing irradiation as received by atomic bomb survivors did not lead to any statistically recognizable increase of health hazards among the survivors offspring. Constitutional aberrations and genetic variants recognizable at the protein level were not enhanced either

  9. Physicists and the 1945 Decision to Drop the Bomb

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In 1943 fear that the German war machine might use atomic bombs was abating and among physicists another fear was taking its place - that of a postwar nuclear arms race with worldwide proliferation of nuclear weapons. Manhattan Project scientists and engineers began to discuss uses of nuclear energy in the postwar world. Niels Bohr, Leo Szilard, James A. Franck and others launched a concerted effort to lay groundwork for international control of the technology. Realizing the devastation nucle...

  10. Effect of L/D Ratio on Bomb Ricochet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goel

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive experimental work carried out, to study the effect of the length of a projectile on its ricochet behaviour has been reported. The work is pertinent for designing the bomb to be delivered by low altitude/high speed mode for destruction of runways. Scaled models have been used to conduct these studies and a relationship showing the variation of critical angle of no-ricochet with L/D ratio is evolved.

  11. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  12. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  13. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs

  14. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack? Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden, ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  15. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb. PMID:18505023

  16. Hemorrahgic diathesis of the inpatient in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the atomic bomb survivors who visited Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital for a complaint of hemorrhagic diathesis, 15 patients who were required hospitalization were chosen for an evaluation of the hemorrhagic diathesis. 11 cases of them had vascular disorder and 4 thrombocyte abnormality, and there was no case of coagulation abnormality which may cause hemorrhage. A case of purpura angiopathica recently died from encephalomalacia, and its autopsy disclosed amiloidosis. This is very interesting because amiloidosis is a disease which systematically damages the blood vessels. Case I (in the case report) which had no serious morbid change except for cerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage and had repeated episodes of extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage. Case 2 which was exposed 1.6 km apart from the epicenter at the age of 3 showed a gradual decrease of thrombocyte count from 210,000 to 40,000 during the course of 3 year, and died from cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 27. There still remain some doubt about the cause of this death. As this survey was done retrospectively, it was difficult to give an acurate diagnosis to each case. However, this result will suggest a general tendency of hemorrhagic diathesis in atomic bomb survivors. (Ueda, J.)

  17. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  18. Neutron bomb. A clean weapon which destroys only life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr. Konrad Luebbert, pastor, is the representative of the Christian peace movement. His contribution immediately originated from the recent peace movement and must be understood as a support of it. Today it is a matter of survival of total mankind. In view of further armament this is becoming more evident from day to day. In view of the neutron bomb it is exemplarily evident. Resistance must be offered to this new generation of nuclear weapons so that the development of armament is not completely getting out of control. The selection of documents is only very incomplete due to the limited space and cannot nearly describe the whole extent of the discussion, above all of the international protest movement which developed since the plans to produce the neutron bomb became known. Nevertheless, the selection gives a survey of typical expressions of views. This survey of documentary material is thought to be information and argumentation for all those who condemn the neutron bomb to be a 'perversion of human thinking' and jointly want to prevent its production and stationing. (orig./HSCH)

  19. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging. 79 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. The prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanishi, Masahiro; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Okamoto, Sukeyoshi; Kajiyama, Goro

    1992-03-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma in 28 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors was compared with that in background- and tumor size-matched non-exposed patients living in Hiroshima. A-bomb survivors consisted of 13 exposed within 2,000 m from the hypocenter, 12 who had entered the city within 3 days after A-bombing, and 3 not clarified in detail. Survival time was significantly prolonged when tumor resection or surgical internal fistula for obstructive jaundice was performed. The significant therapeutic factor was thus adjusted by using the Cox model to clarify the difference in cumulative survival rates between the exposed and non-exposed groups of pancreatic cancer patients. Median survival was 120 days in the exposed group and 186 days in the non-exposed group. The corresponding figures for 75% and 25% cumulative survival rates were 175 days and 75 days in the exposed group and 238 days and 120 days in the non-exposed group. Prognosis was worse in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. (N.K.).